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Sample records for blood neutrophil counts

  1. Association of Blood Eosinophil and Blood Neutrophil Counts with Asthma Exacerbations in the Copenhagen General Population Study

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    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated...... with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma. We recorded baseline blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and asthma exacerbations during...... with blood eosinophil counts >0.29 × 10(9)/L (highest tertile) vs individuals with blood eosinophil counts

  2. Blood neutrophil counts in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: association with sputum mycobacterial load.

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    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients.Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×10(9/L (IQR, 96-232 and median ANC was 2.6×10(9/L (IQR, 1.9-3.6. Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×10(9/L (IQR, 2.4-5.1 compared to 2.5×10(9/L (IQR, 1.8-3.4 among those who were culture negative (p7.5×10(9/L; p = 0.0005. Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ≥2.6×10(9/L and with neutrophilia.Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB.

  3. Oral neutrophil responses to acute prolonged exercise may not be representative of blood neutrophil responses.

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    Davison, Glen; Jones, Arwel Wyn

    2015-03-01

    Neutrophil numbers and function (oxidative burst) were assessed in peripheral blood and oral samples before and after prolonged exercise. Blood neutrophil count increased (∼3.5-fold, P < 0.001) and function decreased (30% ± 19% decrease, P = 0.005) postexercise. Oral neutrophil count (P = 0.392) and function (P = 0.334) were unchanged. Agreement between oral and blood neutrophil function responses to exercise was poor. These findings highlight the importance of studying neutrophils within various compartments/sample types.

  4. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

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    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (psepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low White Blood Cell Count

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    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  6. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

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    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  7. The effect of manual acupuncture on blood neutrophil counts in moderate intensity exercise

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    Ciang, C. Y.; Simadibrata, C.; Tobing, A.; Srilestari, A.

    2017-08-01

    Exercise, even though it has a beneficial effect, can cause muscle damage and trigger inflammatory responses, as evidenced by increased neutrophils in the blood. Acupuncture is a therapeutic modality that is expected to reduce acute inflammatory responses due to exercise. Thirty untrained men were divided randomly into two groups. The manual acupuncture group (n = 15) received stimulation at acupoints ST36 and SP6 bilateral by needle insertion, while the placebo group (n = 15) received insertion of needles on plaster without penetrating the skin. Therapy was done once for 30 minutes immediately after the subjects completed the exercise. Blood neutrophil counts were assessed before exercise and one hour after exercise ended. The results show there is a statistically significant difference in the number of neutrophils before and after exercise between the manual acupuncture group and the placebo group (0.08±0.91 and 0.97±0.70 p = 0.006). Acupuncture therapy effectively mitigates the acute inflammatory response triggered by exercise.

  8. Association of BPD and IVH with early neutrophil and white counts in VLBW neonates with gestational age <32 weeks

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    Palta, Mari; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between early low neutrophil count from routine blood samples, white blood count (WBC), pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes for very low birth weight infants (VLBW ≤1500g) with gestational age <32 weeks. Patients and Methods Information was abstracted on all infants admitted to level III NICUs in Wisconsin 2003-2004. 1002 (78%) had differential and corrected total white counts within 2 ½ hours of birth. Data analyses included frequency tables, binary logistic, ordinal logistc and ordinary regression. Results Low neutrophil count (<1000/μL) was strongly associated with low WBC, pregnancy complications and antenatal steroids. Low neutrophil count predicted bronchopulmonary dysplasia severity level (BPD) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.7) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) grade (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8). Conclusions Early neutrophil counts may have multiple causes interfering with their routine use as an inflammatory marker. Nonetheless, low neutrophil count has consistent independent associations with outcomes. PMID:18563166

  9. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker.

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    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (ptesticular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

  10. Quantifying oral inflammatory load: oral neutrophil counts in periodontal health and disease.

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    Landzberg, M; Doering, H; Aboodi, G M; Tenenbaum, H C; Glogauer, M

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils are the primary white blood cells that are recruited to fight the initial phases of microbial infections. While healthy norms have been determined for circulating blood neutrophil counts in order to identify patients with suspected systemic infections, the levels of oral neutrophils (oPMNs) in oral health and in the presence of periodontal diseases have not been described. It is important to address this deficiency in our knowledge as neutrophils are the primary immune cell present in the crevicular fluid and oral environment and previous work has suggested that they may be good indicators of overall oral inflammation and periodontal disease severity. The objective of this study was to measure oPMN counts obtained in a standardized oral rinse from healthy patients and from those with chronic periodontal disease in order to determine if oPMN levels have clinical relevance as markers of periodontal inflammation. A parallel goal of this investigation was to introduce the concept of 'oral inflammatory load', which constitutes the inflammatory burden experienced by the body as a consequence of oral inflammatory disease. Periodontal examinations of patients with a healthy periodontium and chronic periodontal disease were performed (n = 124). Two standardized consecutive saline rinses of 30 s each were collected before patient examination and instrumentation. Neutrophils were quantified in the rinse samples and correlated with the clinical parameters and periodontal diagnosis. Average oPMN counts were determined for healthy patients and for those with mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontal diseases. A statistically significant correlation was found between oPMN counts and deep periodontal probing, sites with bleeding on probing and overall severity of periodontal disease. oPMN counts obtained through a 30-s oral rinse are a good marker of oral inflammatory load and correlate with measures of periodontal disease severity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A

  11. Correlation between the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio and bacterial infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus

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    Kusnadi, D.; Liwang, M. N. I.; Katu, S.; Mubin, A. H.; Halim, R.

    2018-03-01

    Parameters for starting antibiotic therapy such as CRP andleukocytosis are considered non-specific. Previous studies have shown the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLCR) can serve as the basis of bacterial infection, the level of infection, and the basis of antibiotic therapy. Compared with the Procalcitonin parameter, this NLCR is rapid, an inexpensive and requires no additional sampling. To determine the correlation between The Neutrophil-LymphocyteCount Ratio to bacterial infection in HIV patients. This study was a cross-sectional observational approach to HIV subject at Wahidin Sudirohusodo and Hasanuddin University Hospital. The subjects performed routine blood, microbiology test,and blood Procalcitonin levels tests. Then performed NLCR calculations based on routine blood results. The subjects then grouped the presence or absence of bacterial infection.In 146 study subjects, there were 78 (53.4%) with bacterial infections and 68 (46.6%) without bacterial infection as controls. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher total neutrophils (84.83) compared with non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had total lymphocytes with an average of 8.51 lower than non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher NLCR values with an average of 12.80. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio can become a marker of bacterial infection in HIV patients.

  12. Cathepsin G-dependent modulation of platelet thrombus formation in vivo by blood neutrophils.

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    Nauder Faraday

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are consistently associated with arterial thrombotic morbidity in human clinical studies but the causal basis for this association is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophils modulate platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo in a cathepsin G-dependent manner. Neutrophils enhanced aggregation of human platelets in vitro in dose-dependent fashion and this effect was diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G activity and knockdown of cathepsin G expression. Tail bleeding time in the mouse was prolonged by a cathepsin G inhibitor and in cathepsin G knockout mice, and formation of neutrophil-platelet conjugates in blood that was shed from transected tails was reduced in the absence of cathepsin G. Bleeding time was highly correlated with blood neutrophil count in wildtype but not cathepsin G deficient mice. In the presence of elevated blood neutrophil counts, the anti-thrombotic effect of cathepsin G inhibition was greater than that of aspirin and additive to it when administered in combination. Both pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence prolonged the time for platelet thrombus to form in ferric chloride-injured mouse mesenteric arterioles. In a vaso-occlusive model of ischemic stroke, inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence improved cerebral blood flow, reduced histologic brain injury, and improved neurobehavioral outcome. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil cathepsin G is a physiologic modulator of platelet thrombus formation in vivo and has potential as a target for novel anti-thrombotic therapies.

  13. Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes

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    C. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

  14. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

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    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  15. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

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    Mohanned Alhussien

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM, and 8 clinically mastitis (CM groups of Karan Fries (KF cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05 decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows.

  16. Ancestry informative markers and complete blood count parameters in Brazilian blood donors

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    Gabriela E. S. Felix

    Full Text Available A complete blood count is very useful in clinical diagnoses when reference ranges are well established for the population. Complete blood counts and allele frequencies of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs were analyzed in Brazilians with the aim of characterizing the hematological values of an admixed population. Positive associations were observed between gender and neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and platelet counts. No significant differences were found for age, alcohol consumption, educational status, ethnicity, smoking in respect to the complete blood count values. In general, men had higher red blood cell values, while women had higher values for white blood cells and platelets. The study of the population was highly heterogeneous with mean proportions (± SE of African, European and Amerindian ancestry being 49.0 ± 3.0%, 44.0 ± 9.0% and 7.0 ± 9.0%, respectively. Amerindian ancestry showed limited contribution to the makeup of the population, but estimated ancestral proportions were statistically significant (r = 0.9838; P<0.001. These hematologic values are similar to Afro-Americans, another admixed population.

  17. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

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    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  18. Neutrophilic respiratory tract inflammation and peripheral blood neutrophilia after grain sorghum dust extract challenge.

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    Von Essen, S G; O'Neill, D P; McGranaghan, S; Olenchock, S A; Rennard, S I

    1995-11-01

    To determine if inhalation of grain sorghum dust in the laboratory would cause neutrophilic upper and lower respiratory tract inflammation in human volunteers, as well as systemic signs of illness. Prospective. University of Nebraska Medical Center. Thirty normal volunteers. Inhalation challenge with 20 mL of a nebulized solution of filter-sterilized grain sorghum dust extract (GSDE). One group received prednisone, 20 mg for 2 days, prior to the challenge. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after challenge, with samples collected as bronchial and alveolar fractions. Findings included visible signs of airways inflammation, quantified as the bronchitis index. The percentage of bronchial neutrophils was significantly increased in those challenged with GSDE vs the control solution, Hanks' balanced salt solution (40.3 +/- 4.5% vs 14.3 +/- 5.1%, p grain dust extract. To explain the increase in peripheral blood neutrophil counts, the capacity of the peripheral blood neutrophils to migrate in chemotaxis experiments was examined. The results demonstrate an increase in peripheral blood neutrophils and an increase in chemotactic responsiveness. Inhalation challenge with a grain dust extract causes respiratory tract inflammation and a peripheral blood neutrophilia. One reason for this may be an increase in activated peripheral blood neutrophils.

  19. Correlations between plasma noradrenaline concentrations, antioxidants, and neutrophil counts after submaximal resistance exercise in men

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    Ramel, A; Wagner, K; Elmadfa, I

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate noradrenaline concentrations, neutrophil counts, plasma antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products before and after acute resistance exercise. Methods: 17 male participants undertook a submaximal resistance exercise circuit (10 exercises; 75% of the one repetition maximum; mean (SD) exercise time, 18.6 (1.1) minutes). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after exercise and analysed for plasma antioxidants, noradrenaline, neutrophils, and lipid oxidation products. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for calculations. Results: Neutrophils, noradrenaline, fat soluble antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products increased after exercise. Noradrenaline concentrations were associated with higher antioxidant concentrations. Neutrophils were related to higher concentrations of conjugated dienes. Conclusions: Submaximal resistance exercise increases plasma antioxidants. This might reflect enhanced antioxidant defence in response to the oxidative stress of exercise, though this is not efficient for inhibiting lipid oxidation. The correlation between noradrenaline concentrations and plasma antioxidants suggests a modulating role of the stress hormone. Neutrophils are a possible source of oxidative stress after resistance exercise. PMID:15388566

  20. Signatures of reproductive events on blood counts and biomarkers of inflammation: Implications for chronic disease risk.

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    Daniel W Cramer

    Full Text Available Whether inflammation mediates how reproductive events affect chronic-disease risk is unclear. We studied inflammatory biomarkers in the context of reproductive events using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data. From 15,986 eligible women from the 1999-2011 data cycles, we accessed information on reproductive events, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP, and total homocysteine (tHCY. We calculated blood-count ratios including: platelet-lymphocyte (PLR, lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR, platelet-monocyte (PMR, and neutrophil-monocyte (NMR. Using sampling weights per NHANES guidelines, means for counts, ratios, or biomarkers by reproductive events were compared using linear regression. We performed trend tests and calculated p-values with partial sum of squares F-tests. Higher PLR and lower LMR were associated with nulliparity. In postmenopausal women, lower PMR was associated with early age at first birth and higher NMR with later age at and shorter interval since last birth. Lower PNR and higher neutrophils and tHCY were associated with early natural menopause. In all women, the neutrophil count correlated positively with CRP; but, in premenopausal women, correlated inversely with tHCY. Reproductive events leave residual signatures on blood counts and inflammatory biomarkers that could underlie their links to chronic disease risk.

  1. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria.

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    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Kroidl, Inge; Schunk, Mirjam; Alberer, Martin; Beissner, Marcus; Pritsch, Michael; Kroidl, Arne; Fröschl, Günter; Hanus, Ingrid; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2014-04-23

    Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.

  2. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited-Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

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    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Heyman, Mats; Wesenberg, Finn; Kristinsson, Jon; Vettenranta, Kim; Schrøeder, Henrik; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jensen, Katrine Lykke; Grell, Kathrine; Rosthoej, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10 9 /l. After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10 9 /l rise [1.00-1.09], P = 0.048), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC; HR = 1.7 per 10 9 /l rise [1.3-2.4], P = 0.0007), and Ery thiopurine methyltransferase activity (HR = 2.7 per IU/ml rise [1.1-6.7], P = 0.03). WBC was significantly related to ANC (Spearman correlation coefficient, r s  = 0.77; P best hematological target for dose adjustments of maintenance therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Association of Pulse Pressure with Serum TNF-α and Neutrophil Count in the Elderly

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    Eriko Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Elevated pulse pressure (PP has been reported to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in elderly patients with hypertension. Methods. Cross-sectional relationships of PP with known risk factors for type 2 diabetes and inflammatory markers were examined in 150 elderly community-dwelling women, 79 women (52.7% of whom had hypertension. Results. Systolic blood pressure (standardized β, 0.775, log tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, standardized β, 0.110, age (standardized β, 0.140, and neutrophil count (standardized β, 0.114 emerged as determinants of PP independent of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, monocyte count, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol, and adiponectin (R2 = 0.772. Conclusions. The present studies have demonstrated an independent association of higher PP with higher TNF-α, a marker of insulin resistance, and neutrophil count in community-living elderly women and suggest that insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation may in part be responsible for the association between high PP and incident type 2 diabetes found in elderly patients with hypertension.

  4. Recruitment of neutrophils across the blood-brain barrier: the role of posttraumatic hepatic ischemia

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    Mantovani Mario

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects of total hepatic ischemia, and reperfusion on the accumulation of neutrophils in the brain of rats submitted to normovolemic conditions as well as to controlled hemorrhagic shock state. METHODS: Thirty two adult male Wistar rats, were divided into four groups: the Control group, was submitted to the standard procedures for a period of 60 min of observation; Shock group, was submitted to controlled hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial blood pressure=40mmHg, 20min followed by volemic resuscitation (lactated Ringer's solution + blood, 3:1 and reperfusion for 60min; Pringle group, was submitted to total hepatic ischemia for 15min and reperfusion for 60min. The total group was submitted to controlled hemorrhagic shock for 20min followed by volemic resuscitation (lactated Ringer's solution + blood, 3:1, total hepatic ischemia for 15min and reperfusion for 60min. Measurements of serum lactate and base excess were used to characterize the hemorrhagic shock state with low tissue perfusion. The counting of neutrophils on the brain was performed after the euthanasia of animals. RESULTS: The values for the counting of neutrophils on the brain indicate that did not occur difference among studied groups (p=0.196 (Control 0.12± 0.11, Shock 0.12± 0.13, Pringle 0.02± 0.04, Total 0.14± 0.16. CONCLUSION: Hemorrhagic shock associated to total hepatic ischemia for 15 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion, did not causes significant neutrophils accumulation in the brain of rats.

  5. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

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    AL-Majali, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  6. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Effects of Exercise on Judoists’ Circulating Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Type, intensity and duration of exercises exert pivotal effects on athletes’ immune system and probably athletes’ susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections. In this study we examined the effects of one session of moderate-intensity exercise on male judoists’ circulating blood neutrophil counts (BNC and respiratory burst, and self-reported upper respiratory clinical infections 24 hours after the exercise and during the sport seasons. Methods: Ten male judoists after obtaining informed consent were included in the study. The athletes took part in a session of moderate-intensity exercise (60 minutes running on a treadmill at 60% of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were drawn at rest immediately after the exercise. Blood neutrophil count and percentage of Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA stimulated neutrophils in whole blood were assessed [as a marker of oxidative burst (OB quality]. Athletes were asked about any signs of upper respiratory infections 24 hours after the exercise and during sport seasons. Paired-t test was used for statistical analysis and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: BNC were in normal range at rest, and meaningfully increased immediately after the exercise (p<0.05. At rest, the OB activity was in normal range, and increased immediately after the exercise (not significant. During 24 hours after the exercise, athletes showed no signs of upper respiratory system infections. Also they mentioned no history of increased susceptibility of upper respiratory infections during sport seasons. Conclusion: Continuous judo exercises have no negative effects on BNC and OB activity. This finding is in accordance with the absence of self-reported upper respiratory infections in judoists during sport seasons. Significant increase in BNC after a session of exercise was a

  8. [Complete blood count reference values of donated cord blood from Korean neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Byoung Jae; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Kim, Jin Ju; Roh, Eun Youn

    2009-06-01

    In the public cord blood (CB) banks, only safe CB units with adequate cell doses are processed and stored. Complete blood count (CBC) of CB is crucial for estimating total nucleated cells (TNC) and screening suitable CB units without hematologic abnormalities. We analyzed CBC parameters of the donated CB from healthy Korean neonates to establish CBC reference values. A total of 2,129 Korean CB units, donated and processed during the period from August 2007 to December 2007, were enrolled. We measured hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, differential count of WBC, platelets and nucleated red blood cell (nRBC) count by XE-2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Japan), and estimated reference value of each parameter by using parametric (Mean+/-2SD) and/or non-parametric methods (2.5-97.5 percentile). And also, we compared the result of each parameter in relation to sex of neonates and delivery method. Because the differences of CBC values among different subgroups were not remarkable, we established the reference intervals as follows without subgroup division: Hb, 9.0-14.4 g/dL; WBC count, 5.6-18.5 x 10(3)/microL; differential count of WBC (neutrophils, 40.8-72.4%; lymphocytes, 17.2-46.7%; monocytes, 4.9-12.8%; eosinophils, 0.7-7.0%; basophils, 0.0-1.6%); platelet, 130-287 x 10(3)/microL; nRBCs, 0.0-13.1/100 WBC. We established cord blood CBC reference values of healthy Korean neonates using a large-scale CB units. The established CBC reference values from our study will be useful as basic data for CBC interpretation and assessment of transplant suitability of donated CB.

  9. The investigation of complete blood counting parameters in deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Çalışkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role of inflammation in the deep venous thrombosis (DVT process has been explained in various studies. Hence, the role of inflammatory markers in this illness has been researched previouslyin the literature. Recent years, such as parameters, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR, among complete blood count have been frequently started to use as an expression of inflammatory marker. In the current study, the relation between complete blood count parameters and DVT was investigated. Methods: 50 patients admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of acute DVT (28 female, 22 male were included in the study. The patients were diagnosed by clinical symptoms and Doppler USG. Patients with additional illness that can form an inflammatory response were excluded. 30 healthy volunteers were included as a control group. Routine complete blood counts of these patients were examined retrospectively. Routine complete blood counts and nonselective inflammatory markers, red cell distribution width (RDW, white cells (WBC, NLR, and PLR measurements were examined statistically. Results: The mean age of patients included in study was 46.2±14.2 and 53% of them were female. When the groups were examined in terms of hematological parameters, lymphocyte (2.6±0.8 and 2.1±0.7, p=0.003 and platelet (322±144 and 264±66, p=0.042 values were detected to be higher. Hemoglobin (13.2±2.0 and 14.6±1.5, p=0.002 and hematocrit (38.7±5.1 and 42.8±6.9, p<0.001 values were detected to be less while the WBC, neutrophil, NLR, RDW and PLR were similar. Regarding the two groups with and without anticoagulant therapy, in the DVT group, there were no significant differences detected in terms of age, gender, and hematological parameters. Conclusion: In this study, there were no significant differences between healthy volunteers blood count parameters of patients taken into consideration with pure DVT. There is no significant change shown.

  10. Evaluation of the performance of a point-of-care method for total and differential white blood cell count in clozapine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H N; Bogers, J P A M; Cohen, D; Njo, T; Herruer, M H

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of the HemoCue WBC DIFF, a point-of-care device for total and differential white cell count, primarily to test its suitability for the mandatory white blood cell monitoring in clozapine use. Leukocyte count and 5-part differentiation was performed by the point-of-care device and by routine laboratory method in venous EDTA-blood samples from 20 clozapine users, 20 neutropenic patients, and 20 healthy volunteers. From the volunteers, also a capillary sample was drawn. Intra-assay reproducibility and drop-to-drop variation were tested. The correlation between both methods in venous samples was r > 0.95 for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The correlation between point-of-care (capillary sample) and routine (venous sample) methods for these cells was 0.772; 0.817 and 0.798, respectively. Only for leukocyte and neutrophil counts, the intra-assay reproducibility was sufficient. The point-of-care device can be used to screen for leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Because of the relatively high measurement uncertainty and poor correlation with venous samples, we recommend to repeat the measurement with a venous sample if cell counts are in the lower reference range. In case of clozapine therapy, neutropenia can probably be excluded if high neutrophil counts are found and patients can continue their therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. Materials and Methods This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC m...

  12. Changes in neutrophil count, creatine kinases and muscle soreness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. A primary objective was to examine circulating neutrophil count after repeated bouts of downhill running. An additional aim was to determine creatine kinase (CK) levels during the initial 12 hours, after repeated DHRs. Design. Eleven healthy, untrained Caucasian males performed 2 x 60 min bouts of DHR ...

  13. Correlation of Leukocyte Count and Percentage of Segmented Neutrophils with Pathohistological Findings of Appendix in Children

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    Marko Baskovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAppendicitis is the most common indication for an emergency operation in children's age. Although none of the laboratory values has not high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of appendicitis, leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils are most commonly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils compared to the pathohistological finding of appendix in children. Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the data in the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016. The analysis was made on 211 patients. Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs was calculated. We determined the specificity and sensitivity of leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils used in the calculation of Alvorado and Pediatric Appendicitis score.ResultsThe results of the research have shown that the correlation between leukocyte count and the pathohistological findings is weak (rs = 0.29, p = 3.61*10-8, while there is no correlation between the percentage of segmented neutrophils and pathohistological findings (rs = 0.18, p = 7.08 *10-5. The sensitivity of leukocyte count is 93% and the specificity is 30%, while the sensitivity to the percentage of segmented neutrophils is 71% and the specificity is 50%. ROC analysis for leukocytes shows area under the curve of 0.648, while for segmented neutrophils of 0.574.ConclusionGiven the correlation results obtained, the clinical experience of physicians will still have one of the leading roles in diagnosing acute appendicitis in children.

  14. Variations in neutrophil count in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome who subsequently developed chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohelet, D; Arbel, E; Ballin, A; Goldberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Neutrophil counts were studied in 62 preterm infants receiving mechanical ventilation for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Exploratory analysis indicated that the severity of NRDS, as demonstrated by fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2), mean airway pressure (MAP), arterial-alveolar PO2 ratio (a/APO2) and oxygenation index (OI), was correlated with percentage change of neutrophil counts during the first 5 days of life. Further analysis demonstrated that infants with NRDS who subsequently developed chronic lung disease (CLD) (n = 21) had statistically significant differences in variation of neutrophil counts when compared with the remainder (n = 41) without CLD (-35.0% +/- 4.3 vs. -16.9% +/- 5.8, p variations in neutrophil counts during the first 5 days of life may be found in infants with NRDS who subsequently develop CLD and that these changes may have predictive value regarding the development of CLD.

  15. Predictive value of eosinophils and neutrophils on clinical effects of ICS in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartjes, Floor J; Vonk, Judith M; Faiz, Alen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is present to a variable degree and composition in patients with COPD. This study investigates associations between both eosinophils and neutrophils in blood, sputum, airway wall biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their potential use as biomarkers...... and BAL were evaluated at baseline. In addition, at baseline, 6 and 30 months, forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1 ), residual volume/total lung capacity (hyperinflation) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire were evaluated. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses at baseline showed that higher blood eosinophils were...... significantly associated with higher eosinophil counts in sputum, biopsies and BAL. However, blood neutrophils did not significantly correlate with neutrophil counts in the other compartments. Baseline eosinophils and neutrophils, in whichever compartment measured, did not predict longitudinal FEV1 changes...

  16. Establishment of reference intervals for complete blood count parameters during normal pregnancy in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiwei; Yang, Shuo; Zhang, Jie; Qiao, Rui

    2017-11-01

    To observe the changes of complete blood count (CBC) parameters during pregnancy and establish appropriate reference intervals for healthy pregnant women. Healthy pregnant women took the blood tests at all trimesters. All blood samples were processed on Sysmex XE-2100. The following CBC parameters were analyzed: red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), white blood cell count (WBC), and leukocyte differential count. Reference intervals were established using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of the distribution. Complete blood count parameters showed dynamic changes during trimesters. RBC, Hb, Hct declined at trimester 1, reaching their lowest point at trimester 2, and began to rise again at trimester 3. WBC, neutrophil count (Neut), monocyte count (MONO), RDW, and PDW went up from trimester 1 to trimester 3. On the contrary, MCHC, lymphocyte count (LYMPH), PLT, and MPV gradually descended during pregnancy. There were statistical significances in all CBC parameters between pregnant women and normal women, regardless of the trimesters (Ppregnancy) as follows: RBC 4.50 vs 3.94×10 12 /L, Hb 137 vs 120 g/L, WBC 5.71 vs 9.06×10 9 /L, LYMPH% 32.2 vs 18.0, Neut% 58.7 vs 75.0, and PLT 251 vs 202×10 9 /L. The changes of CBC parameters during pregnancy are described, and reference intervals for Beijing pregnant women are demonstrated in this study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of fractionated regional external beam radiotherapy on peripheral blood cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, B.; Jacob, S.S.; Gwede, C.; Cantor, A.; Patil, J.; Casey, L.; Zachariah, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for obtaining weekly complete blood count (CBC) values and to identify the pattern of changes in CBC during regional conventional fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of CBC data on 299 adult cancer patients who received definitive conventional radiotherapy to head and neck (n=95), chest (n=96), and pelvis (n=108) was performed. Temporal patterns and magnitude of change in white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets during radiotherapy were examined. Results: There were statistically significant declines in all counts, albeit not clinically significant. Notable differences between disease sites were found. The greatest weekly interval change in counts occurred during the first week of radiotherapy for all groups of patients. The mean WBC nadir values during treatment were 5.8 for head and neck, 6.8 for chest, and 5.4 for pelvis. The nadirs for all counts occurred toward the middle-to-end of radiotherapy. Lymphocytes were found to be more sensitive to radiotherapy than other leukocyte subcomponents. Conclusion: Our study suggests that weekly CBC monitoring is not necessary for all patients undergoing standard fractionated radiotherapy. Baseline blood counts may be used to determine an optimal schedule for monitoring CBCs in patients receiving conventional radiation alone. Reduced monitoring of CBC may result in significant financial savings

  18. Increment of absolute neutrophil count in the third trimester and increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth: Hirakata Risk Associated with Pregnancy Assessment Research (HIRAPAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harita, Nobuko; Kariya, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Endo, Ginji; Narimoto, Katsuhiko

    2012-09-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, who have growth restriction, have higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Excessive inflammatory reaction such as neutrophil activation has been observed in pregnant women whose offspring had restricted fetal growth, but the association between white blood cell (WBC) counts and SGA birth has not yet been assessed. We therefore examined the association of WBC count and its change with the risk of SGA birth. We enrolled 2356 pregnant women who had full-term singleton delivery at a private maternity hospital in Hirakata, Japan. SGA was defined as under the 10th percentile of birthweight for gestational age, baby sex, and mother's parity according to the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts renewed in 2010. Blood samples were measured in the first and third trimesters. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess associations between total and differential WBC counts and SGA birth. Women with SGA birth tended to have higher total WBC count in the third trimester compared with women who did not have SGA birth. This tendency was not observed for total WBC count in the first trimester. After adjustment for age, height, body mass index at entry, smoking habit, weekly gestational weight gain, and pregnancy-induced hypertension, higher total WBC count in the third trimester was associated with an increased risk of SGA birth. Total WBC count in the first trimester did not show any significant association with SGA birth. The ratio of total WBC count in the third trimester to that in the first trimester was associated with SGA birth; the odds ratio for 1 unit increase was 3.02 (95% CI: 1.54-5.92). Regarding differential WBC counts in the third trimester, neutrophil count but not lymphocyte count was associated positively with SGA birth. Higher total WBC and absolute neutrophil counts in the third trimester were associated with SGA birth. In addition, greater ratio of increase in total WBC counts during pregnancy

  19. CD4+ count and Nitro-Blue Tetrazolium reduction rate of neutrophil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CD4+ count and Nitro-Blue Tetrazolium reduction rate of neutrophil in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Sokoto Metropolis. U.K. Mustapha, C.C. Onyenekwe, A. Yakubu, B.R. Alkali, M.H. Yeldu, K.M. Hamid, I. Abdullahi, N.M. Bunza, M. Bello, A.B. Ibrahim ...

  20. Prevalence and clinical significance of neutropenia discovered in routine complete blood cell counts: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Tesfa, D.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutropenia, defined as an absolute blood neutrophil count (ANC) neutropenia detected in a routine complete blood cell count is poorly understood. METHODS: Using a primary care resource, comprising...... more than 370 000 individuals, we assessed the association with a number of previously recognized conditions as well as all-cause mortality in the 4 years following the identification of neutropenia. By matching laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers, risk estimates were assessed....... RESULTS: Neutropenia was observed in approximately 1% of all individuals and was associated dose dependently with viral infections, haematological malignancies (but not autoimmune disorders or solid cancers) and mortality. Neutropenia was particularly associated with HIV, acute leukaemias...

  1. Neutrophil to lymphocyte with monocyte to lymphocyte ratio and white blood cell count in prediction of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Thanh Phan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in both sexes, while it is very difficult for screenings and early detection. Aims This study aims to clarify the role of systematic inflammation markers, including white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEU, monocyte (MONO, platelet (PLT, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR in prediction of lung cancer. Methods A case-control study was conducted on 1,315 primary lung cancer patients and 1,315 healthy adults with matched age and gender at Cho Ray hospital. NLR, MLR and PLR were calculated by using neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count which were recalled from laboratory database. With 600 cases in the derivation set, the logistic regression with univariate analysis was used to identify the impacted marker, then developing the optimal prediction model for lung cancer by logistic regression with multivariate method. The diagnostic values of optimal model consisting of sensitivity (Sen, specificity (Spe, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the area under the ROC curve (AUC value were extracted and verified on all data, in validation set. Results The median values of WBC, NEU, MONO, PLT, NLR, MLR and PLR in lung cancer were not significantly difference between histological subtypes and clinical stages (p > 0.05, but higher than the values in control group (p < 0.01. Multivariates analysis shows that NLR, MLR and WBC were three parameters that have the significant impact of the optimal prediction model (p < 0.01. The AUC value, sensitivity and specificity of the optimal model for lung cancer detection were 0.881, 73.5 per cent (95 per cent CI:70.3–76.6 and 87.7 per cent (95 per centCI:85.2–89.9, respectively. Whereas, the PPV and NPV values of prediction model were 85.7 per cent (95 per cent CI:82.8–88.2 and 76.8 (95 per centCI:73.9–79.5, respectively. Among three

  2. The Relationship Between the Gensini Score and Complete Blood Count Parameters in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Raşit Sayın

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the extend andseverity of coronary artery disease (CAD determined by the Gensini score and complete bloodcount parameters (white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelet, mean platelet volume, lymphocyte,neutrophil.Patients and Methods: Ninety patients with CAD underwent coronary angiography (40 females,mean age 61 ± 1.2 years were included in this study. Patients with acute coronary syndrome andprior cardiovascular disease excluded from the study. The association between the extent andseverity of CAD, which were assessed by the Gensini score, and complete blood count parameterswas analyzed by a correlation analysis.Results: Coronary angiography revealed, 6 (6.7% patients had three, 16 (17.8% patients hadtwo, and 24 (26.7% patients had single-vessel disease; 44 (48.9% patients had non-criticalstenosis. The mean Gensini score was 19.1 ± 2.1. We found a relationship between white bloodcell and neutrophil counts and the Gensini score. There was no relationship between Gensiniscore and the mean platelet volume and other parameters.Conclusion: The present study supports the hypothesis that inflammation is one of the maincomponent in the pathogenesis of CAD.

  3. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC models were compared using: concordance index (CI), bias-corrected concordance index (BCCI), calibration plots, the Grønnesby and Borgan test, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), generalized R 2 , Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI), and continuous Net Reclassification Index (cNRI) for individual risk factors and the three risk groups. Three hundred and twenty-one patients were eligible for analyses. The modified-IMDC model with NLR value of 3.6 and PLR value of 157 was selected for comparison with the IMDC model. Both models were well calibrated. All other measures favoured the modified-IMDC model over the IMDC model (CI, 0.706 vs. 0.677; BCCI, 0.699 vs. 0.671; BIC, 2,176.2 vs. 2,190.7; generalized R 2 , 0.238 vs. 0.202; IDI, 0.044; cNRI, 0.279 for individual risk factors; and CI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BCCI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BIC, 2,183.2 vs. 2,198.1; generalized R 2 , 0.163 vs. 0.123; IDI, 0.045; cNRI, 0.165 for the three risk groups). Incorporation of NLR and PLR in place of neutrophil count and platelet count improved prognostic accuracy of the IMDC model. These findings require external validation before introducing into clinical practice.

  4. Evaluation of blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width as inflammatory markers in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktürk, Semra; Büyükavcı, Raikan

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by chronic widespread pain and systemic symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are not yet fully understood. Blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammatory response. Platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are the determinants of platelet activation and studied as markers in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate levels of NLR,PDW and MPV in patients with fibromyalgia. A total of 197 FMS patients and 53 healthy controls are included in the study. Demographic characteristics, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume levels were recorded. In the patient group, the blood NLR and MPV were significantly higher and the PDW was significantly lower compared to the control group. In the roc curve analysis, blood PDW ≥had 90.4% sensitivity and 90% specificity in predicting fibromyalgia. The results of this study suggest NLR and PDW as promising inflammatory markers indicating fibromyalgia and may be beneficial in facilitating the diagnosis of FMS patients.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and the peripheral blood white cell count.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, A C

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examined if the white cell count (WCC) is increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and if so, is it due to PCOS or to the associated obesity? Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 113 women studied, 36 had PCOS and 77 did not. The mean WCC was higher in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS group (8.9 x 10(9)\\/l vs 7.4 x 10(9)\\/l p = 0.002). This increase was due to a higher neutrophil count (5.6 x 10(9)\\/l vs 4.3 x 10(9)\\/l; p = 0.003). There was a leucocytosis (WCC >11 x 10(9)\\/l) present in 19% of the PCOS group compared with 1% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). The neutrophil count was abnormally high (>7.7 x 10(9)\\/l) in 14% of the PCOS group compared with 4% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). On regression analysis, however, the only independent variable which explained both the increased WCC and the increased neutrophil count was PCOS. We found that PCOS is associated with an increased WCC due to increased neutrophils, which supports the evidence that PCOS is associated with low-grade inflammation. The increase appears to be due to the underlying PCOS, and not to the increased adiposity associated with PCOS.

  6. Validity of total leucocytes count and neutrophil count (differential leucocytes) in diagnosing suspected acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.W.; Abid, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Total Leucocytes Count (TLC) with Neutrophil count; Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC) in diagnosing cases of suspected acute appendicitis. Study design: Validation study. Place and duration of the study: Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi, from April 2008 to October 2008. Method: A total of 100 patients of Pain right iliac fossae who underwent appendicectomy were included. Detailed history of all the patients was taken for pain in right lower abdomen, its severity, its nature, relieving or provoking factors. Clinical examination was done in detail. Total and Differential Leucocytes Count was done. Every patient's appendix was examined grossly after appendicectomy for evidence of appendicitis. Diagnostic measures of TLC and DLC were calculated by standard formulas. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of TLC is 86.9% and 81.25% respectively and that of DLC is 82% and 68.75% respectively. Accuracy was 86% for TLC and 80% for DLC. Conclusion: TLC is more sensitive, specific and accurate test as compared to DLC and it should be used as diagnostic aid for suspected acute appendicitis cases. (author)

  7. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  8. Neutrophils are not less sensitive than other blood leukocytes to the genomic effects of glucocorticoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Hirsch

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are generally considered less responsive to glucocorticoids compared to other inflammatory cells. The reported increase in human neutrophil survival mediated by these drugs partly supports this assertion. However, it was recently shown that dexamethasone exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in equine peripheral blood neutrophils. Few comparative studies of glucocorticoid effects in neutrophils and other leukocytes have been reported and a relative insensitivity of neutrophils to these drugs could not be ruled out.We assessed glucocorticoid-responsiveness in equine and human peripheral blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes.Blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes were isolated from 6 healthy horses and 4 human healthy subjects. Cells were incubated for 5 h with or without LPS (100 ng/mL alone or combined with hydrocortisone, prednisolone or dexamethasone (10(-8 M and 10(-6 M. IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, glutamine synthetase and GR-α mRNA expression was quantified by qPCR. Equine neutrophils were also incubated for 20 h with or without the three glucocorticoids and cell survival was assessed by flow cytometry and light microscopy on cytospin preparations.We found that glucocorticoids down-regulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mRNA expression in both cell populations and species. These drugs also significantly increased glutamine synthetase gene expression in both equine cell populations. The magnitude of glucocorticoid response between cell populations was generally similar in both species. We also showed that dexamethasone had a comparable inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression in both human and equine neutrophils. As reported in other species, glucocorticoids significantly increase the survival in equine neutrophils.Glucocorticoids exert genomic effects of similar magnitude on neutrophils and on other blood leukocytes. We speculate that the poor response to glucocorticoids observed in some

  9. Neutrophils Are Not Less Sensitive Than Other Blood Leukocytes to the Genomic Effects of Glucocorticoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gaelle; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Beauchamp, Guy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are generally considered less responsive to glucocorticoids compared to other inflammatory cells. The reported increase in human neutrophil survival mediated by these drugs partly supports this assertion. However, it was recently shown that dexamethasone exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in equine peripheral blood neutrophils. Few comparative studies of glucocorticoid effects in neutrophils and other leukocytes have been reported and a relative insensitivity of neutrophils to these drugs could not be ruled out. Objective We assessed glucocorticoid-responsiveness in equine and human peripheral blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes. Methods Blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes were isolated from 6 healthy horses and 4 human healthy subjects. Cells were incubated for 5 h with or without LPS (100 ng/mL) alone or combined with hydrocortisone, prednisolone or dexamethasone (10−8 M and 10−6 M). IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, glutamine synthetase and GR-α mRNA expression was quantified by qPCR. Equine neutrophils were also incubated for 20 h with or without the three glucocorticoids and cell survival was assessed by flow cytometry and light microscopy on cytospin preparations. Results We found that glucocorticoids down-regulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mRNA expression in both cell populations and species. These drugs also significantly increased glutamine synthetase gene expression in both equine cell populations. The magnitude of glucocorticoid response between cell populations was generally similar in both species. We also showed that dexamethasone had a comparable inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression in both human and equine neutrophils. As reported in other species, glucocorticoids significantly increase the survival in equine neutrophils. Conclusions Glucocorticoids exert genomic effects of similar magnitude on neutrophils and on other blood leukocytes. We speculate that the poor response to

  10. Clinical symptoms and neutropenia: the balance of neutrophil development, functional activity, and cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2002-01-01

    Neutrophilic granulocytes form the major type of leukocytes with counts ranging from about 1500-5000 cells/ micro l of blood under normal conditions. Neutrophils protect our body against bacterial and fungal infections. For this purpose, these cells are equipped with a machinery to sense the site of

  11. Relationship of white blood cell counts, haemoglobin and ESR with IHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.; Shahzad Tawwab, S.; Abbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    To find any association of white blood cells, haemoglobin and ESR with ischemic heart disease in high risk native population. Methodology: The study included 93 male patients with Ischemic heart disease, between 40 and 60 years of age; 96 age and gender matched subjects. All study participants were non-diabetics. Complete blood cells count, haemoglobin and ESR levels were compared between the patient and control groups. Results: Total leukocyte counts along with neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control population (p<0.001) and lymphocytes were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Haemoglobin levels were significantly lower (p<0.001) and ESR was higher (p=0.030) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Although, our findings of the study variables extend previous reports, the prevalence and prognostic importance of theses variables in IHD should be assessed in future experimental studies. These parameters could be important in public health because they are routinely measured by clinicians and may be helpful to predict the risk of future and secondary ischemic events in a high risk population. (author)

  12. Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, W.F. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Ossetrova, N.I.; Manglapus, G.L.; Salter, C.A.; Levine, I.H.; Jackson, W.E.; Grace, M.B.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Sandgren, D.J.; Ledney, G.D. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Effective medical management of suspected radiation exposure incidents requires the recording of dynamic medical data (clinical signs and symptoms), biological assessments of radiation exposure, and physical dosimetry in order to provide diagnostic information to the treating physician and dose assessment for personnel radiation protection records. The need to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of suitable biomarkers that can provide early diagnostic information after exposure. We investigated the utility of serum amylase and hematological blood-cell count biomarkers to provide early assessment of severe radiation exposures in a non-human primate model (i.e., rhesus macaques; n=8) exposed to whole-body radiation of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays (6.5 Gy, 40cGymin{sup -1}). Serum amylase activity was significantly elevated (12.3{+-}3.27- and 2.6{+-}0.058-fold of day zero samples) at 1 and 2-days, respectively, after radiation. Lymphocyte cell counts decreased ({<=}15% of day zero samples) 1 and 2 days after radiation exposure. Neutrophil cell counts increased at day one by 1.9({+-}0.38)-fold compared with levels before irradiation. The ratios of neutrophil to lymphocyte cell counts increased by 13({+-}2.66)- and 4.23({+-}0.95)-fold at 1 and 2 days, respectively, after irradiation. These results demonstrate that increases in serum amylase activity along with decreases of lymphocyte counts, increases in neutrophil cell counts, and increases in the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts 1 day after irradiation can provide enhanced early triage discrimination of individuals with severe radiation exposure and injury. Use of the biodosimetry assessment tool (BAT) application is encouraged to permit dynamic recording of medical data in the management of a suspected radiological casualty.

  13. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-12-22

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute lung inflammation, we demonstrated that intravenously (iv) infused NPs made from denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA) were specifically internalized by activated neutrophils, and subsequently, the neutrophils containing NPs migrated across blood vessels into inflammatory tissues. When neutrophils were depleted using anti-Gr-1 in a mouse, the transport of albumin NPs across blood vessel walls was robustly abolished. Furthermore, it was found that albumin nanoparticle internalization did not affect neutrophil mobility and functions. Administration of drug-loaded albumin NPs markedly mitigated the lung inflammation induced by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results demonstrate the use of an albumin nanoparticle platform for in situ targeting of activated neutrophils for delivery of therapeutics across the blood vessel barriers into diseased sites. This study demonstrates our ability to hijack neutrophils to deliver nanoparticles to targeted diseased sites.

  14. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  15. Effect of number of cigarettes smoked per day on red blood cell, lecocyte and platelet count in adult Indian male smokers – A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Anil Sherke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cigarette smoking are fatal. Present study was done to compare cell counts of blood in males smoking different number of cigarettes per day and non smokers of Hyderabad city. 150 consenting subjects of which 30 controls (non-smokers and 120 cases (smokers were studied. Smokers were divided into four groups based on number of cigarettes smoked per day. Blood samples processed using Hematology analyser (ABX Micros60®, HORIBA, Kyoto, Japan. The smokers had significantly different red blood cell counts (p<0.0001, white blood cells counts (p<0.0001 including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. This effect was significant irrespective of the number of cigarettes. There was no significant change in the percentage of basophils and platelet counts. Conclusion: Our findings showed that cigarette smoking has a significant effect on hematological cell counts and these counts changed significantly with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  16. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Cutaneous Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahalı, Anıl Gulsel; Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide

    2017-03-01

    Vasculitis represents a specific pattern of inflammation of the blood vessel wall that can occur in any organ system of the body. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are currently used as markers of inflammation in several diseases. This study analyzed C-reactive protein level (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell (WBC), NLR, and RDW in patients who had cutaneous vasculitis, or cutaneous vasculitis with systemic involvement, and in healthy controls. A total of 85 individuals were included in our study: 45 with vasculitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients who had complete blood count (CBC) analysis, CRP, and ESR at the time of skin biopsy were included in the study. NLR was calculated from these parameters. NLR, CRP, ESR, and WBC were significantly higher in patients with vasculitis than in healthy controls (p≤0.05), but RDW did not significantly differ between the two groups. This study suggests that blood NLR may be used for predicting vasculitis, especially cutaneous vasculitis with systemic involvement. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  17. The effect of smoking on neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet ındices: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgar, Y K; Cakar, S; Tulgar, S; Dalkilic, O; Cakiroglu, B; Uyanik, B S

    2016-07-01

    Smoking commonly leads to death. Although the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet indices have been shown to be important for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity of some diseases, the smoking status of patients in these studies has not been well defined. In this study, we compared ratios derived from complete blood count and platelet indices to smoking status and length in smokers and non-smokers. The data of healthy males and females aged between 18-60 years who presented to our institute for a routine check-up were collected, and subjects were divided in two groups - smokers and non-smokers. The presence of medical history or laboratory results which could affect inflammatory response, formed our exclusion criteria. All complete blood count results were noted and persons' smoking habits were calculated as pack/years. White blood cell, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil counts; mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers (psmokers were grouped according to smoking habits; positive linear correlations were detected between pack/year and Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and also pack/year and plateletcrit in smokers (paffected and platelet distribution width is increased in smokers. If smokers are not excluded from studies evaluating neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width, the relationship between smoking status as well as pack/year must be determined and reported.

  18. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  19. A Novel Automated Slide-Based Technology for Visualization, Counting, and Characterization of the Formed Elements of Blood: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, James W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Zahniser, David J

    2017-08-01

    - A novel automated slide-based approach to the complete blood count and white blood cell differential count is introduced. - To present proof of concept for an image-based approach to complete blood count, based on a new slide preparation technique. A preliminary data comparison with the current flow-based technology is shown. - A prototype instrument uses a proprietary method and technology to deposit a precise volume of undiluted peripheral whole blood in a monolayer onto a glass microscope slide so that every cell can be distinguished, counted, and imaged. The slide is stained, and then multispectral image analysis is used to measure the complete blood count parameters. Images from a 600-cell white blood cell differential count, as well as 5000 red blood cells and a variable number of platelets, that are present in 600 high-power fields are made available for a technologist to view on a computer screen. An initial comparison of the basic complete blood count parameters was performed, comparing 1857 specimens on both the new instrument and a flow-based hematology analyzer. - Excellent correlations were obtained between the prototype instrument and a flow-based system. The primary parameters of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts resulted in correlation coefficients (r) of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Other indices included hemoglobin (r = 0.99), hematocrit (r = 0.99), mean cellular volume (r = 0.90), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r = 0.97), and mean platelet volume (r = 0.87). For the automated white blood cell differential counts, r values were calculated for neutrophils (r = 0.98), lymphocytes (r = 0.97), monocytes (r = 0.76), eosinophils (r = 0.96), and basophils (r = 0.63). - Quantitative results for components of the complete blood count and automated white blood cell differential count can be developed by image analysis of a monolayer preparation of a known volume of peripheral blood.

  20. Blood Count Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish WBC count (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Blood Count Tests ... WBC count Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Laboratory Tests National Institutes of ...

  1. [Full blood count reference values in children of 8 to 12 years old residing at 2,760 m above sea level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando García-Miranda, L; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-04-01

    To determine reference values for full blood count parameters in a population of children 8 to 12 years old, living at an altitude of 2760 m above sea level. Our sample consisted of 102 individuals on whom a full blood count was performed. The parameters included: total number of red blood cells, platelets, white cells, and a differential count (millions/μl and %) of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Additionally, we obtained values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin and red blood cell distribution width. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric test, to divide the sample in quartiles and obtain the lower and upper limits for our intervals. Moreover, the values for the intervals obtained from this analysis were compared to intervals obtained estimating+- 2 standard deviations above and below from our mean values. Our results showed significant differences compared to normal interval values reported for the adult Mexican population in most of the parameters studied. The full blood count is an important laboratory test used routinely for the initial assessment of a patient. Values of full blood counts in healthy individuals vary according to gender, age and geographic location; therefore, each population should have its own reference values. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutrophils, a candidate biomarker and target for radiation therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernberg, Antoine; Blanchard, Pierre; Chargari, Cyrus; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant blood-circulating white blood cells, continuously generated in the bone marrow. Growing evidence suggests they regulate the innate and adaptive immune system during tumor evolution. This review will first summarize the recent findings on neutrophils as a key player in cancer evolution, then as a potential biomarker, and finally as therapeutic targets, with respective focuses on the interplay with radiation therapy. A complex interplay: Neutrophils have been associated with tumor progression through multiple pathways. Ionizing radiation has cytotoxic effects on cancer cells, but the sensitivity to radiation therapy in vivo differ from isolated cancer cells in vitro, partially due to the tumor microenvironment. Different microenvironmental states, whether baseline or induced, can modulate or even attenuate the effects of radiation, with consequences for therapeutic efficacy. Inflammatory biomarkers: Inflammation-based scores have been widely studied as prognostic biomarkers in cancer patients. We have performed a large retrospective cohort of patients undergoing radiation therapy (1233 patients), with robust relationship between baseline blood neutrophil count and 3-year's patient's overall survival in patients with different cancer histologies. (Pearson's correlation test: p = .001, r = -.93). Therapeutic approaches: Neutrophil-targeting agents are being developed for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Neutrophils either can exert antitumoral (N1 phenotype) or protumoral (N2 phenotype) activity, depending on the Tumor Micro Environment. Tumor associated N2 neutrophils are characterized by high expression of CXCR4, VEGF, and gelatinase B/MMP9. TGF-β within the tumor microenvironment induces a population of TAN with a protumor N2 phenotype. TGF-β blockade slows tumor growth through activation of CD8 + T cells, macrophages, and tumor associated neutrophils with an antitumor N1 phenotype. This supports

  3. Effects of a single dose of enrofloxacin on body temperature and tracheobronchial neutrophil count in healthy Thoroughbreds premedicated with interferon-α and undergoing long-distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeru; Hobo, Seiji; Endo, Yoshiro; Narita, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Koji

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate effects of a single dose of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV) on body temperature and tracheobronchial neutrophil count in healthy Thoroughbreds premedicated with interferon-α and undergoing long-distance transportation. 32 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses received interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, q 24 h) as an immunologic stimulant for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; enrofloxacin group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (50 mL, IV, once; control group) ≤ 1 hour before being transported 1,210 km via commercial vans (duration, approx 26 hours). Before and after transportation, clinical examination, measurement of temperature per rectum, and hematologic analysis were performed for all horses; a tracheobronchial aspirate was collected for neutrophil quantification in 12 horses (6/group). Horses received antimicrobial treatment after transportation if deemed necessary by the attending clinician. No adverse effects were associated with treatment. After transportation, WBC count and serum amyloid A concentration in peripheral blood samples and neutrophil counts in tracheobronchial aspirates were significantly lower in horses of the enrofloxacin group than in untreated control horses. Fever (rectal temperature, ≥ 38.5°C) after transportation was detected in 3 of 16 enrofloxacin group horses and 9 of 16 control horses; additional antimicrobial treatment was required in 2 horses in the enrofloxacin group and 7 horses in the control group. In horses premedicated with interferon-α, enrofloxacin appeared to provide better protection against fever and lower respiratory tract inflammation than did saline solution.

  4. Neutrophils as a prognostic factor in the systemic treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jon Røikjær; Dahl Steffensen, Karina

    Background and Aims: The role of the immune system regarding development and treatment of cancer has a very high interest in modern cancer research. Research in ovarian cancer immunology is sparse compared to other tumour types. Neutrophils have been shown to possess both tumor promoting and tumor...... prognostic marker in multivariate analysis comparing low vs high baseline neutrophils (HR: 1.97) ( 95% CI: 1.18-3.30)(P=0.009). Other independent prognostic markers were FIGO stage, residual tumour and performance status. Conclusions: Baseline neutrophil blood count was found to be an independent prognostic...

  5. Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Suciu, Stefan; Punt, Cornelis J A

    2007-01-01

    : A total of 363 patients were randomly assigned and baseline blood neutrophil and leukocyte counts were available from 316 and 350 patients, respectively. A high neutrophil count (> 7.5 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor for short overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P...... = 0.02), and a high leukocyte count (> 10 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor of both short overall survival (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.0005) and short progression-free survival (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: A high pretreatment count of neutrophils in blood...

  6. Depression of efficiency of neutrophils for Candida albicans phagocytosis in personnel working in radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The neutrophil functions, chemotaxis (direct and random migration), phagocytosis using Candida albicans (percent, index), phagocytosis by NBT (percent, score) and adherence were studied on 55 persons working in radiation field (group I) and 40 persons as control (group II). The effect of radiation on blood picture of persons working in this field with special references to leucocytic counts and neutrophil functions was studied. White and red cells counts were 6.275 +- 1.723 and 5.475 +- 1.039 (group I) and 6.440 +- 1.556, 4.704 +- 0.734 for group II, respectively with no significant difference, while in neutrophil function there was a statistically significant difference in all functions between two groups (P < 0.01). This indicates the importance of neutrophil functions in following up persons working in radiation field

  7. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    in blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm...... neutrophil and monocyte TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated blood cytokine responses were low relative to adults. ORA pigs showed enhanced blood neutrophil maturation with reduced cell size and CD172a expression. Only ORA pigs, but not SYS pigs, were protected from a high density of gut Gram-positive bacteria......, high gut permeability, Gram-positive bacteremia and NEC. Neonatal oral antibiotics may benefit mucosal and systemic immunity via delayed gut colonization and enhanced blood neutrophil maturation just after preterm birth....

  8. A case of severe sepsis presenting marked decrease of neutrophils and interesting findings on dynamic CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Isamu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Hayashi, Hironori; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Fushida, Sachio; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2015-05-28

    In a patient with severe sepsis, we sometimes observe immediate decrease of the counts of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, which is known as an indicator for poor prognosis. We observed marked decrease of white blood cells and neutrophils on blood examination and interesting findings on dynamic CT. Here, we present the case of a patient with severe postoperative sepsis occurring after major abdominal surgery and we discuss the mechanism of such clinical presentations. A 60-year-old man received pancreatoduodenectomy with colectomy for pancreatic cancer. He developed a high fever on postoperative day 3. We observed marked decrease of WBCs and neutrophils on blood examination. We also observed slight swelling of the liver, inhomogeneous enhancement of liver parenchyma in arterial phase, and periportal low density in the Glisson capsule in portal phase, without any findings indicating infectious complications on dynamic CT. WBCs and neutrophils increased above normal range in just 6 hours. Blood culture examination performed while the patient had a high fever was positive for Aeromonas hydrophila. After receiving intensive care, he promptly recovered from severe sepsis. The CT findings disappeared on second dynamic CT examination performed 3 days after the first examination. We treated a patient with severe sepsis after major abdominal surgery who presented very rapid change of the counts of WBCs and neutrophils and interesting CT findings in the liver. We rescued him from a critical situation by prompt and intensive treatment. Research is needed to accumulate and analyze data from more patients who present a similar clinical course to better understand their pathophysiological conditions.

  9. Development of a Prognostic Score Using the Complete Blood Cell Count for Survival Prediction in Unselected Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chongliang, Fang; Yuzhong, Li; Qian, Shi; Xiliang, Liu; Hui, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to develop a new prognostic scoring system for critically ill patients using the simple complete blood cell count (CBC). Methods. CBC measurements in samples from 306 patients in an intensive care unit were conducted with automated analyzers, including levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and platelets. The time of sampling and the time of death were recorded. Z values were calculated according to the measured values, reference...

  10. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  11. Obesity is associated with more activated neutrophils in African American male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Su, S; Wang, X; Barnes, V; De Miguel, C; Ownby, D; Pollock, J; Snieder, H; Chen, W; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence suggesting the role of peripheral blood leukocytes in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. However, few studies have taken a genome-wide approach to investigating gene expression profiles in peripheral leukocytes between obese and lean individuals with the consideration of obesity-related shifts in leukocyte types. We conducted this study in 95 African Americans (AAs) of both genders (age 14-20 years, 46 lean and 49 obese). Complete blood count with differential test (CBC) was performed in whole blood. Genome-wide gene expression analysis was obtained using the Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Beadchip with RNA extracted from peripheral leukocytes. Out of the 95 participants, 64 had neutrophils stored. The validation study was based on real-time PCR with RNA extracted from purified neutrophils. CBC test suggested that, in males, obesity was associated with increased neutrophil percentage (P=0.03). Genome-wide gene expression analysis showed that, in males, the majority of the most differentially expressed genes were related to neutrophil activation. Validation of the gene expression levels of ELANE (neutrophil elastase) and MPO (myeloperoxidase) in purified neutrophils demonstrated that the expression of these two genes--important biomarkers of neutrophils activation--were significantly elevated in obese males (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). The identification of increased neutrophil percentage and activation in obese AA males suggests that neutrophils have an essential role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease. Further functional and mechanistic studies on neutrophils may contribute to the development of novel intervention strategies reducing the burden associated with obesity-related health problems.

  12. Radiation-induced muscositis and neutrophil granulocytes in oral mucosa; Strahleninduzierte Mukositis und neutrophile Granulozyten in der Mundschleimhaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidberger, H.; Rave-Fraenk, M.; Kim, S.; Hille, A.; Pradier, O.; Hess, C.F. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Univ. Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Background: Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can be related to a decrease in oral neutrophils. We tested the relationship between radiation-induced mucositis and oral neutrophil counts. Patients and Methods: Oral neutrophil counts were obtained for ten patients with head and neck cancer who received radiotherapy of the pharynx and oral cavity. Four patients received additional chemotherapy (5-FU, Mitomycin). Counts were obtained before and during treatment; four healthy volunteers were included in the study as well. For evaluation, a quantitative mouth rinse assay, including neutrophil-staining with acridin-orange, was applied. Results: We observed large inter-individual variations with respect to neutrophil counts for patients and control persons (Table 1). During treatment (irradiation or chemoirradiation), large intra-individual variations were seen additionally (Figure 1). We found a correlation between neutrophil counts and clinical reaction grade. Neutrophil counts increased with increasing mucositis (Figure 2). This increase was more pronounced for patients treated with chemoirradiation compared to radiation alone. Treatment breaks at weekends had no clear influence on neutrophil counts. Conclusions: We observed a weak correlation between neutrophil counts and clinical reaction grade. However, the variations in neutrophil counts are too large to utilize this parameter as a surrogate for clinical mucositis grading. The assumption that a decrease in oral neutrophils is associated with radiation-induced mucositis was clearly negated. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die chemotherapieinduzierte Mukositis kann mit einer Verarmung der Mundschleimhaut an neutrophilen Granulozyten vergesellschaftet sein. Wir ueberprueften den Zusammenhang zwischen der radiogenen Mukositis und der Anzahl neutrophiler Granulozyten. Patienten und Methoden: Bei zehn Patienten mit Tumoren der Kopf-Hals-Region, die sich einer Strahlentherapie unterzogen, wurde die Anzahl enoraler neutrophiler

  13. Differential Effect of Viable Versus Necrotic Neutrophils on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Cytokine Induction in Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Lowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils exert both positive and negative influences on the host response to tuberculosis, but the mechanisms by which these differential effects are mediated are unknown. We studied the impact of live and dead neutrophils on the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a whole blood bioluminescence-based assay, and assayed supernatant cytokine concentrations using Luminex™ technology and ELISA. CD15+ granulocyte depletion from blood prior to infection with M. tuberculosis-lux impaired control of mycobacteria by 96 h, with a greater effect than depletion of CD4+, CD8+, or CD14+ cells (p < 0.001. Augmentation of blood with viable granulocytes significantly improved control of mycobacteria by 96 h (p = 0.001, but augmentation with necrotic granulocytes had the opposite effect (p = 0.01. Both augmentations decreased supernatant concentrations of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL-12 p40/p70, but necrotic granulocyte augmentation also increased concentrations of IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2. Necrotic neutrophil augmentation reduced phagocytosis of FITC-labeled M. bovis BCG by all phagocytes, whereas viable neutrophil augmentation specifically reduced early uptake by CD14+ cells. The immunosuppressive effect of dead neutrophils required necrotic debris rather than supernatant. We conclude that viable neutrophils enhance control of M. tuberculosis in blood, but necrotic neutrophils have the opposite effect—the latter associated with induction of IL-10, growth factors, and chemoattractants. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which necrotic neutrophils may exert detrimental effects on the host response in active tuberculosis.

  14. General versus regional anaesthesia for cataract surgery: effects on neutrophil apoptosis and the postoperative pro-inflammatory state.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goto, Y

    2012-02-03

    At clinically relevant concentrations, volatile anaesthetic agents influence neutrophil function. Our hypothesis was that sevoflurane would inhibit neutrophil apoptosis and consequently influence the postoperative pro-inflammatory state. In order to identify selectively the effect of the anaesthetic agent sevoflurane, we studied patients undergoing minimally stimulating (cataract) surgery randomly allocated to receive either sevoflurane (n = 11) or local anaesthesia (n = 12). Venous blood samples were taken immediately prior to anaesthesia and at 1, 8 and 24 h thereafter. The rate of neutrophil apoptosis, plasma concentration of cytokines and differential white cell count were measured. The rates of neutrophil apoptosis and plasma concentrations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-8 at each time point were similar in the two groups. IL-6 concentrations increased significantly and to a similar extent compared to preanaesthetic levels at 8 and 24 h. This study demonstrates that sevoflurane does not influence the rate of neutrophil apoptosis, cytokine concentrations and neutrophil count following cataract surgery.

  15. Down-regulated resistin level in consequence of decreased neutrophil counts in untreated Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Qi, Yicheng; Huang, Fengjiao; Chen, Xinxin; Zhou, Yulin; Ye, Lei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Shu

    2016-11-29

    Resistin, belongs to cysteine-rich secretory protein, is mainly produced by circulating leukocytes, such as neutrophils monocytes and macrophages in humans. To date, few but controversial studies have reported about resistin concentrations in hyperthyroid patients, especially in Graves' disease (GD). We undertaked a controlled, prospective study to explore the serum resistin concentration in GD patients before and after -MMI treatment. In addition, we also investigated the main influencing factor on serum resistin level and discuessed the potential role of serum resistin plays in GD patients. 39 untreated GD (uGD) patients, including 8 males and 31 females, were enrolled in our investigation. All of these patients were prescribed with MMI treatment, in addition to 25 healthy controls. Anthropometric parameters and hormone assessment were measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum resistin concentration in different stages of GD patients. Furthermore, neutrophil cell line NB4 with or without T3 treatment to detect the effect of thyroid hormones on resistin expression. The serum resistin level and neutrophil counts in untreated GD patients were significantly declined. And all of these parameters were recovered to normal after MMI treatment in ethyroid GD (eGD) and TRAb-negative conversion (nGD) patients. Resistin concentration exhibited a negative correlation with FT3 and FT4, but a positive correlation with absolute number of neutrophiles in uGD patients, whereas did not correlate with thyroid autoimmune antibodies and BMI. Neutrophile cell line, NB4, produced decreased expression of resistin when stimulated with T3. Our study showed a decrease of serum resistin level in GD patients and we suggested that the serum resistin might primarily secreted from circulating neutrophils and down-regulated by excessive thyroid hormones in GD patients.

  16. Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and cytokine activation of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstock, Johanne M; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Annouck; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Jean, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses. PROCEDURES Circulating blood neutrophils were isolated from horses with severe equine asthma and control horses. Phagocytosis was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils was assessed by use of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus as targets, whereas the cytokine mRNA response was assessed by use of a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS Circulating blood neutrophils from horses with severe equine asthma had significantly lower bactericidal activity toward S zooepidemicus but not toward S equi, compared with results for control horses. Phagocytosis and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCAL RELEVANCE Impairment of bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma could contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

  17. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from

  18. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  19. An algorithm for applying flagged Sysmex XE-2100 absolute neutrophil counts in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Saelsen, Lone; Abildstrøm, Steen Z

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Even though most differential leukocyte counts are performed by automated hematology platforms, turn-around time is often prolonged as flagging of test results trigger additional confirmatory manual procedures. However, frequently only the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is needed. We...... therefore examined if an algorithm could be developed to identify samples in which the automated ANC is valid despite flagged test results. METHODS: During a 3-wk period, a training set consisting of 1448 consecutive flagged test-results from the Sysmex XE-2100 system and associated manual differential...... counts was collected. The training set was used to determine which alarms were associated with valid ANCs. The algorithm was then tested on a new set of 1371 test results collected during a later 3-wk period. RESULTS: Analysis of the training set data revealed that the ANC from test results flagged...

  20. Platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A study was performed in adults with acute appendicitis and matched controls to assess the utility of the platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a complete blood count test of 155 adult patients (72 men and 83 women) with ...

  1. Nebivolol Attenuates Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio: A Marker of Subclinical Inflammation in Hypertensive Patients

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    Mazhar Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High value of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR is a strong independent predictor and biomarker of ongoing vascular inflammation in various cardiovascular disorders. Objective. The main focus of the study is to investigate the effect of nebivolol on NLR in mild to moderate hypertensive patients in comparison with metoprolol. In addition, BMI, blood pressure, TLC count, blood sugar, and lipid profile were also assayed before and after treatment. Materials and Methods. In this 12-week prospective double-blinded randomized study, 120 patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomly divided into two groups to prescribed daily dose of tab nebivolol 5–10 mg and metoprolol 50–100 mg, respectively, for 12 weeks. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results. A total of 100 patients completed the study. Both drugs lowered blood pressure significantly, nebivolol 20.5/10.5 and metoprolol 22.5/11.2 (p<0.001 from baseline. Regarding inflammation, nebivolol reduced total leukocyte count (p=0.005 and neutrophil count (p=0.003 and increased lymphocyte count (p=0.004 as compared to metoprolol. Similarly, nebivolol but not metoprolol significantly reduced NLR ratio (p=0.07. Nebivolol improved lipid profile and blood sugar compared to metoprolol, but values were nonsignificant. Conclusion. Nebivolol has a strong impact on reducing NLR, a marker of subclinical inflammation in hypertensive patients. Moreover NLR can be used as a disease and drug monitoring tool in these patients.

  2. Elevated neutrophil and monocyte counts in peripheral blood are associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: a prognostic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H; Bastholt, L; Geertsen, P

    2005-01-01

    factors in univariate analyses. Subsequently, a multivariate Cox's regression analysis identified elevated LDH (Pperformance status of 2 (P=0.008, hazard ratio 1.6) as independent prognostic factors for poor survival...... of several phase II protocols and the majority received treatment with intermediate dose subcutaneous IL-2 and interferon-alpha. Neutrophil and monocyte counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), number of metastatic sites, location of metastases and performance status were all statistically significant prognostic...... survival of 12.6 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4-13.8), 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.8-7.2) and 3.4 months (95% CI, 1.2-5.6), respectively. The low-risk group encompassed the majority of long-term survivors, whereas the patients in the high-risk group with a very poor prognosis should probably...

  3. PARTICIPATION OF TLR4 IN ENGULFMENT OF ESCHERICHIA COLI BY HUMAN BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN PRESENCE OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zubova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. TLR4 is a key player in signaling system of host cells. Possible role of TLR4 is actively discussed, e.g. its significance for phagocytosis. A capacity of neutrophils to engulf FITC-labeled E. coli bacteria upon activation with LPS of different origin was studied in presence of anti-TLR4 Mab’s (HTA125 clone. It was shown that, in whole blood, TLR4 does not play any essential role in engulfment of bacteria by the neutrophils. Phagocytic activity of neutrophils in blood increases increased after their priming with E. coli endotoxins. LPS from Rb. сapsulatus did not affect phagocytosis. In presence of endotoxins, the degree of TLR4 involvement in neutrophil phagocytosis depends on LPS structure.

  4. In whole blood, LPS, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF increase monocyte uptake of {sup 99m}technetium stannous colloid but do not affect neutrophil uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, Stuart C. [Townsville Nuclear Medicine, Mater Hospital, Pimlico, Queensland 4812 (Australia) and School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart.ramsay1@jcu.edu.au; Maggs, Jacqueline [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4814 (Australia); Powell, Kellie [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Barnes, Jodie [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Ketheesan, Natkunam [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia)

    2006-07-15

    Introduction: {sup 99m}Technetium stannous colloid (TcSnC) is used in white cell scanning. It labels neutrophils and monocytes via phagocytosis, with uptake mediated by the phagocytic receptor CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils. Uptake of TcSnC is altered by gram-negative infection, possibly due to the endotoxin component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or to cytokines released during infection (e.g., TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma). Endotoxemia and increased TNF-alpha levels also occur in inflammatory bowel disease. Another potential confounder in cell labeling is that sepsis patients may be treated with GM-CSF and G-CSF, which alter phagocytic cell function. This study aimed to determine how these factors affect TcSnC cellular uptake. Methods: Whole blood from six healthy volunteers was incubated with LPS, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or G-CSF. Samples were then mixed with TcSnC. Blood was separated across density gradients and imaged using a gamma camera. Three radioactive count peaks were observed in each tube: free plasma activity, mononuclear cell uptake and neutrophil uptake. Results: Compared with controls, significant increases in mononuclear cell uptake were induced by LPS, TNF-alpha and GM-CSF stimulation. It was incidentally noted that exogenous estrogens appear to affect TcSnC labeling and may influence the neutrophil response to stimulation. Neutrophil uptake and plasma activity were not significantly affected. IFN-gamma and G-CSF had no significant effect. Conclusions: In whole blood, the effect of LPS on TcSnC monocyte uptake is different to its effect on neutrophils, consistent with previously reported differences in CD11b/CD18 expression. TNF-alpha response parallels LPS response. GM-CSF also increases TcSnC uptake by monocytes. These effects should be considered when using TcSnC for imaging purposes, as they will tend to increase monocyte labeling. Estrogens may also affect TcSnC labeling. Responses to IFN-gamma and G-CSF are consistent with previously reported effects

  5. Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumpei Tanisawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O2 max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (HCHO trial, 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (LCHO trial, or placebo (PLA trial during the 2 h recovery phase in random order. Circulating glucose, insulin, and cytokine levels, blood cell counts, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 1 h after exercise were higher in the HCHO trial than in the LCHO and PLA trials. Although there were significant main effects of time on several variables, including neutrophil count, cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, significant time × trial interactions were not observed for any variables. These results suggest that CHO ingestion after endurance exercise does not enhance exercise-induced increase in circulating neutrophil and cytokine levels and markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, regardless of the amount of CHO ingested.

  6. Increase in white cell and neutrophil counts during the first eighteen weeks of treatment with clozapine in patients admitted to a long-term psychiatric care inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capllonch, Adrián; de Pablo, Silvia; de la Torre, Alberto; Morales, Ignacio

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic drug that has shown to be more effective than other antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia, but its use is limited due to its side effects, particularly by the risk of causing agranulocytosis. A study was made on the variations in white cell and neutrophil counts in patients treated with clozapine in a Long-term Psychiatric Unit. A retrospective observational study was conducted with a sample of women of our long-term psychiatric care unit who had been treated with clozapine. A study was made on the variations in white cell and neutrophil counts during the first 18 weeks of treatment, as well as the onset of leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, and the influence of concomitant drugs. The study included 55 patients on treatment with clozapine. The incidence rate of neutropenia was 1.82% (95% CI; 0.05-10.13). The incidence rate of leukopenia and agranulocytosis was 0%. An increase in white cell and neutrophil counts from baseline to week 3-4 was observed. Only small variations were observed after this time, but the counts remained higher than the initial values. These changes were statistically significant in the white cell count: One-way repeated ANOVA with Greenhouse-Geisser correction F (11.47, 37) = 2.114 (P= .011); and in neutrophils: One-way repeated ANOVA with Greenhouse-Geisser correction F (10.3, 37)=3.312 (P=.0002), and MANOVA F (18, 37)=2.693 (P=.005), ŋ 2 P =0.567. The influence of concomitant drugs (lithium, valproic and biperiden) was not significant on the overall increase found in white cells or neutrophils (MANOVA). Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Can Serum Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Be a Predictive Biomarker to Help Differentiate Active Chronic Otitis Media From Inactive Chronic Otitis Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansuker, Hasan Deniz; Eroğlu, Sinan; Yenigün, Alper; Taşkin, Ümit; Oktay, Mehmet Faruk

    2017-05-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate whether serum neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might be used as a predictive biomarker to help differentiate active from inactive chronic otitis media (COM). Two hundred fifty-nine patients having inactive COM received tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy and were identified as Group 1. On the other hand, 254 patients having active COM received tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy and were identified as Group 2. Routine hemogram tests were performed preoperatively for both the groups. By performing a chart review, white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, and mean platelet volume values were compared between the groups in an age-matched and sex-matched manner. A total of 513 COM patients with age range of 7 to 65 years were included in the study. Two hundred seventy-five patients (53.6%) were male, 238 were (46.4%) female. Preoperatively both serum neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in Group 2 (P = 0.015 and P = 0.004, respectively). However, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios between the groups were not significantly different (P = 0.511). No statistically significant differences were identified from preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios between patients having active COM and inactive COM. Level NA.

  8. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  9. Decline of blood leukocyte counts 1947-59, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ueda, Shoichi; Blaisdell, R K

    1963-03-03

    Earlier reports of progressive decline in leukocyte counts in Hiroshima from about 1948 to 1954 have been confirmed. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Nagasaki. Analysis indicates that this decline in white cell count with time is not related to exposure to the 1945 atomic bombs, to sex, to age, to commonly diagnosed diseases, or to the disproportionate influence of a subgroup. The principal white cells affected were neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. The precise etiologic factors accounting for the decline, and the biological significance of the present lower range of leukocyte values in Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain to be determined. 16 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Marker in Patients with Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Polat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION is the most common acute optic neuropathy in patients over the age of 50 and is the second most common cause of permanent optic nerve-related visual loss in adults after glaucoma. Although the precise cause of NAION remains elusive, the etiology of NAION is believed to be multifactorial. Aims: To evaluate the utility of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR as a simple and readily available prognostic factor for clinical disease activity in patients with NAION. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Forty-five patients with the diagnosis of NAION and 50 age- and sex-matched controls with/without any systemic or ocular diseases except cataract were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Demographic characteristics and laboratory findings including complete blood count of all patients and control subjects were obtained from the electronic medical record. The neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were recorded and the NLR was calculated. Results: White blood cell, neutrophil, NLR and platelet values of the NAION patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.004, p=0.037, respectively. Initial NLR values were negatively correlated with initial and the third month best corrected visual acuity levels in the study group. The optimum NLR cut-off point for NAION was 1.94. Conclusion: NLR could be considered as a new inflammatory marker for assessment of the severity of inflammation in NAION patients with its quick, cheap, easily measurable property with routine complete blood count analysis.

  11. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  12. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, Arthur; Burch, Micah; Krause, John R

    2018-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a sustained peripheral blood neutrophilia, absence of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein, bone marrow hypercellularity with less than 5% myeloblasts and normal neutrophil maturation, and no dysplasia. This leukemia has been associated with mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) that may activate this receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are the hallmark of chronic neutrophilic leukemia. We present a case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia and discuss the criteria for diagnosis and the significance of mutations found in this leukemia.

  13. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  14. Quantification of deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes on vascular grafts in dogs with 111In-labeled granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Solis, E.; Mackey, S.T.; Socher, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Wu, F.P.; Kaye, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    A new radioisotopic technique has been developed for quantification of deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes on vascular grafts. Nine healthy mongrel dogs underwent bilateral femoral artery resection and reconstruction with grafts of the femoral vein and Gore-Tex. Pure granulocytes that had been separated from whole blood by centrifugal elutriation were labeled with 111 In-tropolone in plasma. The granulocyte harvesting efficiency was 25 +/- 12%, and the labeling efficiency was 87 +/- 7%. Three hours after injection of labeled granulocytes and 2 hours after reperfusion, the grafts were harvested and cut into several segments for study of areas of anastomoses and midsections. On the basis of the radioactivity in the blood and in anastomotic and graft sections, the area of graft sections, and the neutrophilic granulocyte and differential leukocyte counts, the number of neutrophilic granulocytes adherent to a unit area and the total number of neutrophilic granulocytes on graft sections were calculated. These quantifications of the deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes indicated that the midsections of Gore-Tex grafts retained more neutrophilic granulocytes than did the midsections of vein grafts. Although the anastomotic areas retained more neutrophilic granulocytes than did the midsections of vein grafts, the opposite finding prevailed for the Gore-Tex grafts. A major fraction of neutrophilic granulocytes on Gore-Tex grafts was incorporated into the thrombus. Semiquantitative information obtained by scintigraphy of the deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes on vascular grafts also confirmed this observation

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cell surface receptors and cell activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS activates neutrophils and monocytes, inducing a wide array of biological activities. LPS rough (R and smooth (S forms signal through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but differ in their requirement for CD14. Since the R-form LPS can interact with TLR4 independent of CD14 and the differential expression of CD14 on neutrophils and monocytes, we used the S-form LPS from Salmonella abortus equi and the R-form LPS from Salmonella minnesota mutants to evaluate LPS-induced activation of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood from healthy volunteers. Expression of cell surface receptors and reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO generation were measured by flow cytometry in whole blood monocytes and neutrophils. The oxidative burst was quantified by measuring the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and the NO production was quantified by measuring the oxidation of 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate. A small increase of TLR4 expression by monocytes was observed after 6 h of LPS stimulation. Monocyte CD14 modulation by LPS was biphasic, with an initial 30% increase followed by a 40% decrease in expression after 6 h of incubation. Expression of CD11b was rapidly up-regulated, doubling after 5 min on monocytes, while down-regulation of CXCR2 was observed on neutrophils, reaching a 50% reduction after 6 h. LPS induced low production of ROS and NO. This study shows a complex LPS-induced cell surface receptor modulation on human monocytes and neutrophils, with up- and down-regulation depending on the receptor. R- and S-form LPS activate human neutrophils similarly, despite the low CD14 expression, if the stimulation occurs in whole blood.

  16. Influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio (NLR on poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR to the poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during the stay in hospital. Method: A total of 133 cases elderly patients with AECOPD admitted in our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014 were selected, and divided them into death group (31 cases and survival group (102 cases according to in-hospital death occurrence; To compare the on admission general clinical data, therapy method, lung function, blood routine examination [white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR], C-reactive protein (CRP, blood gas analysis and blood biochemical indexes in both groups, and drew ROC curve for a analysis of the clinical value of NLR in the prediction of death. Results: Among 133 cases of elderly AECOPD patients: the proportion of combined pulmonary heart disease and mechanical ventilation in death group was higher than that in survival group, PaCO2, WBC count, neutrophil count, NLR, CRP level in death group was higher, but lymphocyte count, serum albumin(ALB in death group was lower; multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR presented independent positive correlation with the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients; ROC curve analysis showed that the ROCAUC of NLR to the inhospital death in elderly AECOPD patients was 0.787, the best diagnostic node value was 7.3, sensitivity and specificity were 77.4% and 74.5% respectively; bounded by NLR(7.3, divided patients into NLR≥7.3 group and NLR<7.3 group, hospital stays, CRP level and mortality in NLR≥7.3 group were higher than that in NLR<7.3 group. Conclusion: NLR was the high risk factor of the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients, early detection of NLR level had a certain difference to the evaluation for short-term prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients and guide treatment.

  17. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10 9 L -1 ), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  18. [Immunologic indexes, enzyme status of lymphocytes and functional activity of blood neutrophils in children with infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtasova, L M; Tolstikova, A E; Savchenko, A A

    2013-01-01

    Explore the immunological parameters, levels of activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases lymphocytes, interferon status parameters, phagocytic activity and chemiluminescence response of neutrophils in the blood of children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. 65 children at the age of 4-6 years old with infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV in acute phase were observed. Such indexes as cell-mediated, humoral and interferon immunity, NAD(P)-depended dehydrogenases activity in blood lymphocyte, phagocytes activity, levels of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence ofperipheral blood neutrophils were studied. Children with EVB-infection have immunophenotype spectrum changes and changes of enzymes status of blood lymphocytes against the increasing in leucocytes and the useful increasing in lymphocytes. The useful increasing in IgA, IgM, IgG contenting in serum blood were found. The decreasing of spontaneous production of IFN alpha and the decreasing of induced production of IFNalpha, IFNgamma were determined. The breach of phagocytes activity and chemiluminescent response of blood neutrophils were found. The children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, there are changes in the immune status, changes the activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases in blood lymphocytes, marked changes in functional and metabolic state of peripheral blood neutrophils.

  19. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  20. Evaluation of genome-wide expression profiles of blood and sputum neutrophils in cystic fibrosis patients before and after antibiotic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Conese

    Full Text Available In seeking more specific biomarkers of the cystic fibrosis (CF lung inflammatory disease that would be sensitive to antibiotic therapy, we sought to evaluate the gene expression profiles of neutrophils in CF patients before treatment in comparison with non-CF healthy individuals and after antibiotic treatment. Genes involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation, i.e. chemotaxis, respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule exocytosis, were the targets of this study. Microarray analysis was carried out in blood and airway neutrophils from CF patients and in control subjects. A fold change (log threshold of 1.4 and a cut-off of p<0.05 were utilized to identify significant genes. Community networks and principal component analysis were used to distinguish the groups of controls, pre- and post-therapy patients. Control subjects and CF patients before therapy were readily separated, whereas a clear distinction between patients before and after antibiotic therapy was not possible. Blood neutrophils before therapy presented 269 genes down-regulated and 56 up-regulated as compared with control subjects. Comparison between the same patients before and after therapy showed instead 44 genes down-regulated and 72 up-regulated. Three genes appeared to be sensitive to therapy and returned to "healthy" condition: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1, and β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1. The up-regulation of these genes after therapy were confirmed by real time PCR. In airway neutrophils, 1029 genes were differentially expressed post- vs pre-therapy. Of these, 30 genes were up-regulated and 75 down-regulated following antibiotic treatment. However, biological plausibility determined that only down-regulated genes belonged to the gene classes studied for blood neutrophils. Finally, it was observed that commonly expressed genes showed a greater variability in airway neutrophils than that found in blood neutrophils

  1. Evaluation of genome-wide expression profiles of blood and sputum neutrophils in cystic fibrosis patients before and after antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conese, Massimo; Castellani, Stefano; Lepore, Silvia; Palumbo, Orazio; Manca, Antonio; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Copetti, Massimiliano; Di Gioia, Sante; Casavola, Valeria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Diana, Anna; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Gallo, Crescenzio; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Carella, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In seeking more specific biomarkers of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung inflammatory disease that would be sensitive to antibiotic therapy, we sought to evaluate the gene expression profiles of neutrophils in CF patients before treatment in comparison with non-CF healthy individuals and after antibiotic treatment. Genes involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation, i.e. chemotaxis, respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule exocytosis, were the targets of this study. Microarray analysis was carried out in blood and airway neutrophils from CF patients and in control subjects. A fold change (log) threshold of 1.4 and a cut-off of p<0.05 were utilized to identify significant genes. Community networks and principal component analysis were used to distinguish the groups of controls, pre- and post-therapy patients. Control subjects and CF patients before therapy were readily separated, whereas a clear distinction between patients before and after antibiotic therapy was not possible. Blood neutrophils before therapy presented 269 genes down-regulated and 56 up-regulated as compared with control subjects. Comparison between the same patients before and after therapy showed instead 44 genes down-regulated and 72 up-regulated. Three genes appeared to be sensitive to therapy and returned to "healthy" condition: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1), hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), and β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). The up-regulation of these genes after therapy were confirmed by real time PCR. In airway neutrophils, 1029 genes were differentially expressed post- vs pre-therapy. Of these, 30 genes were up-regulated and 75 down-regulated following antibiotic treatment. However, biological plausibility determined that only down-regulated genes belonged to the gene classes studied for blood neutrophils. Finally, it was observed that commonly expressed genes showed a greater variability in airway neutrophils than that found in blood neutrophils, both before and

  2. Limb Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting NADPH Oxidase Activation and MyD88-TRAF6-P38MAP-Kinase Pathway of Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangling Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Limb remote ischemic postconditioning (LRIP has been confirmed to reduce the ischemia-reperfusion injury but its mechanisms are still not clear. This study clarified the mechanism of LRIP based on the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase and Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-Tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6-P38 pathway of neutrophils. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model was used in this study. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was carried out by MCAO 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. LRIP operation was performed to the left femoral artery at 0, 1 or 3 h after reperfusion. Behavioral testing, including postural reflex test, vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing test and tail hang test, showed that LRIP operated at 0 h of reperfusion could significantly ameliorate these behavioral scores. Pathological examinations, infarct size, Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity showed that LRIP operated at 0 h of reperfusion could significantly ameliorate the pathological scores, reduce the infarct size and MPO activity in the brain and increase the MPO activity in the left leg. By using Neutrophil counting, immunofluorescence and real-time PCR techniques, we found that LRIP operated at 0 h of reperfusion could reduce neutrophil counts in the peripheral blood and downregulate the activation of neutrophil in the peripheral blood and rat brain. Western blots revealed that MyD88, TRAF6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK in neutrophils and the phosphorylation of p47phox (Ser 304 and Ser 345 in neutrophil could be downregulated by LRIP. Our study suggests that LRIP inhibits the number and activation of neutrophils in the rat brain and peripheral blood linked to down-regulating the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils by MyD88/TRAF6/p38-MAPK pathway.

  3. Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids induce the respiratory burst of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood

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    Osthaus Wilhelm A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly recognized that infectious complications in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN may be caused by altered immune responses. Neutrophils and monocytes are the first line of defence against bacterial and fungal infection through superoxide anion production during the respiratory burst. To characterize the impact of three different types of lipid solutions that are applied as part of TPN formulations, we investigated the unstimulated respiratory burst activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood. Methods Whole blood samples were incubated with LCT (Intralipid®, LCT/MCT (Lipofundin® and LCT-MUFA (ClinOleic® in three concentrations (0.06, 0.3 and 0.6 mg ml-1 for time periods up to one hour. Hydrogen peroxide production during the respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Results LCT and LCT-MUFA induced a hydrogen peroxide production in neutrophils and monocytes without presence of a physiological stimulus in contrast to LCT/MCT. Conclusion We concluded that parenteral nutrition containing unsaturated oleic (C18:1 and linoleic (C18:2 acid can induce respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes, resulting in an elevated risk of tissue damage by the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species. Contradictory observations reported in previous studies may in part be the result of different methods used to determine hydrogen peroxide production.

  4. СHANGES IN PARAMETERS OF LUMINOL-DEPENDENT AND LUCIGENIN-DEPENDENT CHEMILUMINESCENCE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WITH BLADDER CANCER IN THE DISEASE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with parameters of luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with bladder cancer (BC prior to surgical treatment. We examined sixty patients (45 to 55 years old with advanced bladder cancer (TNM prior to the operation, and forty-six patients at 10 days after surgical treatment. A control group consisted of 56 healthy donors. Luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of blood neutrophils was assessed according to De Sole et al. (1983. Chemiluminescence assays of peripheral blood neutrophils from the patients with bladder cancer revealed changes in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, both for initial stage of oxidation reaction, and total level of active oxygen radicals. We have found disturbed values of primary-to-secondary ROS ratio in the cells. In the patients with bladder cancer, some changes in oxidative metabolism of the blood neutrophils have been registered. These alterations may play an important role in promotion of potential effector cell functions, thus, probably, affecting the whole-scale development of a cytopathic effect exerted by neutrophilic granulocytes. 

  5. The Relationship Between 14C Urea Breath Test Results and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte and Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratios

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    Ertan Şahin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR are used as inflammatory markers in several diseases. However, there are little data regarding the diagnostic ability of NLR and PLR in Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to assess the association between the 14C urea breath test (14C-UBT results and NLR and PLR in H. pylori diagnosis. Methods: Results of 89 patients were retrospectively analysed in this study. According to the 14C-UBT results, patients were divided into two groups: H. pylori (+ and H. pylori (- (control group. Haematological parameters, including hemoglobine, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, NLR, platelet count, and PLR were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean total WBC count, neutrophil count, NLR and PLR in H. pylori (+ patients were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.001 for all these parameters. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off value for NLR and PLR for the presence of H. pylori was calculated as ≥2.39 [sensitivity: 67.3%, specificity: 79.4%, area under the curve (AUC: 0.747 (0.637-0.856, p<0.0001] and ≥133.3 [sensitivity: 61.8%, specificity: 55.9%, AUC: 0.572 (0.447-0.697, p<0.05], respectively. Conclusion: The present study shows that NLR and PLR are associated with H. pylori positivity based on 14C-UBT, and they can be used as an additional biomarker for supporting the 14C-UBT results.

  6. Association between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulation

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    Mustafa Oylumlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate relation between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral flow.Material and methods: Eighty-two patients admittedDicle University Medical Faculty Hospital Cardiology Departmentwith diagnosis of coronary artery disease anddetected significant stenosis or occlusion at least one ofthe coronary arteries, were included to study. Age, sex,presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, acute/stable coronary disease, body mass index, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, white blood count, Rentrop scores andnumber of diseased vessel were recorded.Results: Well-developed coronary collateral circulationwas found in 33 of the patients. Forty-nine patients hadpoor coronary collateral circulation. Mean age, sex, bodymass index, presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertensionwere similar in two groups. Mean neutrophil/lymphocyteratio was lower in well-developed coronary collateralcirculation group than poor coronary collateral circulationgroup, but there was no significant differences (2.78 vs2.89, p=0.12.Conclusions: There was no association between neutron/hil lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulationaccording to our data. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1:29-32

  7. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  8. Congenital and nosocomial sepsis in infants born in a regional perinatal unit: cause, outcome, and white blood cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, A; Vearncombe, M

    1987-02-01

    The incidence, cause, and outcome of sepsis and the white blood cell response were studied in 6315 infants born in a regional perinatal unit. The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 6.5 per 1000 live births. Congenital sepsis (12 cases) was overwhelming, with associated maternal infection (92%), neutropenia (75%), and high rate of mortality (50%). The most common organism was Escherichia coli (58%). Gestational age and birth weight were similar in survivors and nonsurvivors. There was a strong correlation between total white blood cell count and both mature and immature neutrophil counts in survivors but this correlation decreased substantially in neonates that died. Analysis of variance indicated that the means for polymorphonuclear leukocyte and immature neutrophil counts were significantly higher in survivors. Nosocomial sepsis (38 cases) occurred in premature low birth weight infants receiving invasive, intensive care. The most common organism was Staphylococcus epidermidis (76%). Total white blood cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, and immature neutrophil counts rose significantly in response to sepsis. None died. Prevention of congenital sepsis requires methods to detect early maternal-fetal infection. Providing granulocytes to neutropenic neonates with congenital sepsis might improve outcome.

  9. Tamoxifen induces apoptotic neutrophil efferocytosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, C; Morales, N; Uberti, B; Henriquez, C; Sarmiento, J; Ortloff, A; Folch, H; Moran, G

    2018-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils are important cellular components in the process of acute inflammation and its subsequent resolution, and evidence increasingly suggests that they play important functions during the resolution of chronic, adaptive inflammatory processes. Exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans, and equine asthma (also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Tamoxifen (TX) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival. Previous studies showed that TX treatment in horses with induced acute pulmonary inflammation promoted early apoptosis of blood and BALF neutrophils, reduction of BALF neutrophils, and improvement in animals' clinical status. The aim of this study was to describe if TX induces in vitro efferocytosis of neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Efferocytosis assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) detection and translocation phosphatidylserine (PS) were performed on neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood samples from five healthy horses. In in vitro samples from heathy horses, TX treatment increases the phenomenon of efferocytosis of peripheral neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Similar increases in supernatant MPO concentration and PS translocation were observed in TX-treated neutrophils, compared to control cells. In conclusion, these results confirm that tamoxifen has a direct effect on equine peripheral blood neutrophils, through stimulation of the engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages.

  10. G-CSF maintains controlled neutrophil mobilization during acute inflammation by negatively regulating CXCR2 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrami, Besnik; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yu C.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokine-induced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow to circulation is a critical event in acute inflammation, but how it is accurately controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that CXCR2 ligands are responsible for rapid neutrophil mobilization during early-stage acute inflammation. Nevertheless, although serum CXCR2 ligand concentrations increased during inflammation, neutrophil mobilization slowed after an initial acute fast phase, suggesting a suppression of neutrophil response to CXCR2 ligands after the acute phase. We demonstrate that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), usually considered a prototypical neutrophil-mobilizing cytokine, was expressed later in the acute inflammatory response and unexpectedly impeded CXCR2-induced neutrophil mobilization by negatively regulating CXCR2-mediated intracellular signaling. Blocking G-CSF in vivo paradoxically elevated peripheral blood neutrophil counts in mice injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli and sequestered large numbers of neutrophils in the lungs, leading to sterile pulmonary inflammation. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model, the homeostatic imbalance caused by G-CSF blockade enhanced neutrophil accumulation, edema, and inflammation in the lungs and ultimately led to significant lung damage. Thus, physiologically produced G-CSF not only acts as a neutrophil mobilizer at the relatively late stage of acute inflammation, but also prevents exaggerated neutrophil mobilization and the associated inflammation-induced tissue damage during early-phase infection and inflammation. PMID:27551153

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios in Detecting Occult Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas in Benign Multinodular Goitres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR ratios in detecting occult papillary thyroid microcarcinomas in benign, multinodular goitres. Methods. 397 total thyroidectomy patients were identified from the institutional thyroid surgery database between 2007 and 2016 (94 males, 303 females, mean age 53 ± 14.5 years. NLR and PLR were calculated as the absolute neutrophil and absolute platelet counts divided by the absolute lymphocyte count, respectively, based on the preoperative complete blood cell count. Results. NLR was significantly higher in carcinomas and microcarcinomas compared to benign pathology (p=0.026, whereas a direct association could not be established for PLR. Both NLR and PLR scored low in all parameters of diagnostic accuracy, with overall accuracy ranging between 45 and 50%. Conclusions. As surrogate indices of the systemic inflammatory response, NLR and PLR are inexpensive and universally available from routine blood tests. Although we found higher NLR values in cases of malignancy, NLR and PLR cannot effectively predict the presence of occult papillary microcarcinomas in otherwise benign, multinodular goitres.

  12. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  13. Mean Platelet Volume and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

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    Derya Koçer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne zoonotic infection caused by Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and mean platelet volume (MPV which are simple markers of subclinical inflammation and CCHF. We also investigated the relationship of these markers with coagulation parameters.Methods: Thirty-one suspected CCHF patients, who submitted to Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between 2009 and 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. Among thirty-one patients, nineteen were laboratory confirmed CCHF patients diagnosed by RT-PCR or CCHFV-specific IgM positivity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinin phosphokinase (CK, coagulation parameters, white blood cell counts (WBCs, and platelet counts of patient group were compared with twenty-five healthy individuals.Results: MPV, AST, ALT, LDH, CK and coagulation parameters were significantly higher in patients with CCHF than the controls, whereas WBCs, neutrophil, lymphocyte, hemoglobin, platelet counts and NLR were significantly lower (p<0.05. We found no significant correlation between MPV, NLR and coagulation parameters.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that MPV and NLR may be beneficial markers in the diagnosis of CCHF. But these parameters should not be considered stand-alone tests for this use owing to nonspecificity with other diseases.

  14. Investigation of venous blood cells parameters among 1180 healthy people in Tianjin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Liping; Hao Jianxiu; Li Jin; Xing Zhiwei; Zhao Xinran; Jiang Bo; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reference values of 18 parameters of venous blood cells among healthy adults in Tianjin area. Methods: The values of 18 parameters of venous blood from 1180 healthy adults in Tianjin area were measured by Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer and the results were analyzed. Results: The statistical analysis of the test reveals that significant differences exist in most parameters of venous blood cells according to the gender and age of people. Except the parameters of mean corpuscular volume, lymphocytes percentage, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width,there were significant differences in the remaining parameters between the males group and the females group. Except the parameters of white blood count,platelet count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, neutrophil percentage,absolute neutrophil count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, there were significant differences in the remaining parameters between the old male group and the adult male group. Except the parameters of white blood count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, there was no significant difference in the remaining parameters between the old female group and the adult female group. Conclusions: There are some differences between the findings and the reference range provided by the National Guide to Clinical laboratory Procedure. Therefore, it is necessary for laboratory to establish the reference values of venous blood cells according to concrete conditions. (authors)

  15. Differential effector responses by circulating/blood and tissue/peritoneal neutrophils following burn combined with Enterococcus faecalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Siddiqui, Erum; Ali, Ashraf; Azim, Anser C; Al-Ghoul, Walid M

    2012-03-01

    Recently we found that superimposition of Enterococcus faecalis infection on burn injury caused an eruption of host mortality not seen with either individual challenge. We hypothesized that the Enterococcus bacteria, and/or factors related to these organisms, aggravate burn-induced modulations in host defense by neutrophils. Our study focuses on alterations in neutrophils' oxidative, proteolytic, and adhesive functions and transendothelial migration of neutrophils in burn rats inoculated with E. faecalis. Rats were subjected to burn (30% total body surface area) and then intra-abdominally inoculated with E. faecalis (10(4)CFU kg(-1) b.w). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were harvested from circulating/blood and tissue/peritoneal cavity at day-2 post injury. Extracellular release of O(-)(2) anion production was determined by luminometry, and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species was measured by digital imaging technique. Fluoroscan analysis and confocal microscopy determined intracellular elastase production. The expression of adhesion molecule CD11b/CD18 was performed by flow cytometry. Calcein AM-labeled PMNs were co-cultured with TNF-α-stimulated rat lung microvascular endothelial cells, and their ability to adhere was assessed by fluorometry and digital imaging and finally, chemotaxis was measured by neutrophil transmigration assays. The results showed differential effector responses by circulatory and/or tissue PMNs. Tissue/peritoneal PMNs produced more O(-)(2), less intracellular elastase, and increased expression of CD11b/CD18 accompanied with increased adhesivity of MIP-2-stimulated PMNs to endothelial cells as compared to circulatory/blood PMNs. This differential effect was more pronounced following burn plus E. faecalis infection, indicating that the combined injury changed neutrophil functions. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  17. Oral JS-38, a metabolite from Xenorhabdus sp., has both anti-tumor activity and the ability to elevate peripheral neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Yu; Xiao, Lin; Chen, Geng-Hui; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Xiong, Wei-Xia; Li, Fei; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Ling; Deng, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Hai-Yan; Liu, Quan-Hai; Yin, Ming

    2014-10-01

    JS-38 (mitothiolore), a synthetic version of a metabolite isolated from Xenorhabdus sp., was evaluated for its anti-tumor and white blood cell (WBC) elevating activities. These anti-proliferative activities were assessed in vitro using a panel of ten cell lines. The anti-tumor activities were tested in vivo using B16 allograft mouse models and xenograft models of A549 human lung carcinoma and QGY human hepatoma in nude mice. The anti-tumor interactions of JS-38 and cyclophosphamide (CTX) or 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) were studied in a S180 sarcoma model in ICR mice. Specific stimulatory effects were determined on peripheral neutrophils in normal and CTX- and 5-Fu-induced neutropenic mice. The IC50 values ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 μmol·L(-1). JS-38 (1 μmol·L(-1)) caused an increase in A549 tumor cell apoptosis. Multi-daily gavage of JS-38 (15, 30, and 60 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) inhibited in vivo tumor progression without a significant effect on body weight. JS-38 additively enhanced the in vivo anti-tumor effects of CTX or 5-Fu. JS-38 increased peripheral neutrophil counts and neutrophil rates in normal BALB/c mice almost as effectively as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). In mice with neutropenia induced by CTX or 5-Fu, JS-38 rapidly restored neutrophil counts. These results suggest that JS-38 has anti-tumor activity, and also has the ability to increase peripheral blood neutrophils. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomaterial associated impairment of local neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S S; Basford, R E; Kormos, R L; Hardesty, R L; Simmons, R L; Mora, E M; Cardona, M; Griffith, B L

    1990-01-01

    The effect of biomaterials on neutrophil function was studied in vitro to determine if these materials activated neutrophils and to determine the subsequent response of these neutrophils to further stimulation. Two biomaterials--polyurethane, a commonly used substance, and Velcro pile (used in the Jarvik 7 heart)--were evaluated. Two control substances, polyethylene and serum-coated polystyrene, were used for comparison. Neutrophil superoxide release was measured following incubation with these materials for 10, 30, and 120 min in the absence of additional stimulation and after stimulation with formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The authors observed that the incubation of neutrophils on both polyurethane and Velcro resulted in substantially increased superoxide release that was greater after the 10 min than after the 30 or 120 min association. These activated neutrophils exhibited a poor additional response to fMLP but responded well to PMA. The effect of implantation of the Novacor left ventricular assist device on peripheral blood neutrophil function was also evaluated. The peripheral blood neutrophils exhibited normal superoxide release and chemotaxis. These studies suggest that biomaterials may have a profound local effect on neutrophils, which may predispose the patient to periprosthetic infection, but that the reactivity of circulating neutrophils is unimpaired.

  19. Neutrophils Compromise Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that neutrophils and their secreted factors mediate breakdown of the integrity of the outer blood-retina-barrier by degrading the apical tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The effect of activated neutrophils or neutrophil cell lysate on apparent permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants was evaluated by measuring [H] mannitol flux in a modified Ussing chamber. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 in murine peritoneal neutrophils, and the effects of neutrophils on RPE tight-junction protein expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and western blot. Our results revealed that basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophils decreased occludin and ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours and increased the permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants by >3-fold (P<.05. Similarly, basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophil lysate decreased ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours (P<.05 and increased permeability of explants by 75%. Further, we found that neutrophils prominently express MMP-9 and that incubation of explants with neutrophils in the presence of anti-MMP-9 antibody inhibited the increase in permeability. These data suggest that neutrophil-derived MMP-9 may play an important role in disrupting the integrity of the outer blood-retina barrier.

  20. The counting of native blood cells by digital microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbin, S. O.; Doubrovski, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.; Tsareva, O. E.

    2017-03-01

    An algorithm for photographic images processing of blood samples in its native state was developed to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cells' samples. Special "photo templates" were suggested to use in order to identify red blood cells. The effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was found by authors, was used to increase the accuracy of this type of cells counting. Finally to raise the resolution of platelets from leukocytes the areas of their photo images were used, but not their sizes. It is shown that the accuracy of cells counting for native blood samples may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies for smears. At the same time the proposed native blood analysis simplifies greatly the procedure of sample preparation in comparison to smear, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratio to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  1. Peak-counts blood flow model-errors and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Ekas, R.D.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions

  2. Quantitative proteomics reveals differential biological processes in healthy neonatal cord neutrophils and adult neutrophils

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Huoming; Guo, Tiannan; Li, Wenying; Li, Huiyu; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal neutrophils are characterized by the immaturity of bactericidal mechanisms that contributes largely to neonatal mortality. However, underlying molecular mechanism associated with the immaturity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analysis on neonatal neutrophils derived from human cord blood and adult peripheral neutrophils. A total of 1332 proteins were identified and quantified, and 127 proteins were characterized as differentially expressed between adult and cord neutrophils. The differentially expressed proteins are mapped in KEGG pathways into five clusters and indicated impaired functions of neonatal neutrophils in proteasome, lysosome, phagosome, and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In particular, many proteins associated with NETosis, a critical mechanism for antimicrobial process and auto-clearance, were also found to be downregulated in cord neutrophils. This study represents a first comparative proteome profiling of neonatal and adult neutrophils, and provides a global view of differentially expressed proteome for enhancing our understanding of their various functional difference. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quantitative proteomics reveals differential biological processes in healthy neonatal cord neutrophils and adult neutrophils

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiang

    2014-06-11

    Neonatal neutrophils are characterized by the immaturity of bactericidal mechanisms that contributes largely to neonatal mortality. However, underlying molecular mechanism associated with the immaturity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analysis on neonatal neutrophils derived from human cord blood and adult peripheral neutrophils. A total of 1332 proteins were identified and quantified, and 127 proteins were characterized as differentially expressed between adult and cord neutrophils. The differentially expressed proteins are mapped in KEGG pathways into five clusters and indicated impaired functions of neonatal neutrophils in proteasome, lysosome, phagosome, and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In particular, many proteins associated with NETosis, a critical mechanism for antimicrobial process and auto-clearance, were also found to be downregulated in cord neutrophils. This study represents a first comparative proteome profiling of neonatal and adult neutrophils, and provides a global view of differentially expressed proteome for enhancing our understanding of their various functional difference. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Survival of Peripheral Blood Neutrophil Following Treatment with Soluble Factors from Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamounnavard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory properties and own extensive potentials to proliferate and differentiate into different cell lineages. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of supernatant of rat MSCs on the neutrophils viability. Methods: MSCs was isolated from femoral and tibial bone marrow of rat (6-8 weeks and was cultured in DMEM. After maturation of MSCs, its supernatant was incubated with neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood of rat at 37 ° C for 1 h. Neutrophil survival was measured at 6 and 24 h incubation with supernatant of MSCs by flow cytometric analysis using An/PI. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P˂0.05. Results: 6-hour incubation of neutrophils with supernatant of MSCs significantly increased the healthy cells percentage and significantly decreased the amount of necrosis (P˂0.05, but no significant decrease was observed in regard with apoptosis compared to the controls (P˃0.05. The 24-hour incubation of neutrophils with cell supernatant significantly increased the percentage of healthy cells and apoptosis was significantly reduced compared to the control group (P˂0.05. Moreover, a reduction in cell necrosis was not significant in the treated groups compared to the control (P˃0.05. Conclusions: In addition to the clinical importance of MSCs, their biological aspects are of great potential for cell therapy, such as self-renewal, proliferation and immune modulatory effects.

  5. Impact of valproates on haemostasis and blood cell count in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igrutinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is a highly prevalent disease affecting 0.5-1.5% of the world's population. One of the most frequently used antiepileptics are valproates. These medicines show a negative impact on haemostasis and peripheral blood count. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine the negative impact of valproates on haemostasis and peripheral blood count in children and to analyse whether these disturbances were dependent on the dosage of valproates and drug level in blood. METHOD A two-year research was conducted. The research included: 35 children using valproates, 12 children using the therapy of both valproates and carbamazepine and 30 healthy children. Complete peripheral blood count, screening tests of haemostasis (bleeding time, prothrombin time, prothrombin ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and capacity of thrombocyte aggregation research were done in all the children. RESULTS We found significantly more common frequency of leukopenia and neutropenia in children using valproates in comparison with the healthy children group. We also found the more common frequency of eosinophilia in comparison with healthy children. The children with the valproate therapy have lower approximate values of the number of platelets, fibrinogen and platelet aggregation in comparison with healthy children, but they have a higher approximate value of bleeding time and prothrombin time. These disturbances are in correlation with the dosage and the level of the medicine in blood. CONCLUSION Valproates have a negative effect on certain blood count parameters and haemostasis in children. Drug dosage and blood drug level are correlated with their negative impact on haemostasis parameters.

  6. Complete blood count reference values of cord blood in Taiwan and the influence of gender and delivery route on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Wang, Tso-Fu; Lin, Teng-Yi; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Shu-Huey

    2011-06-01

    Cord blood banking has become more popular in recent years. Checking cord blood complete blood count (CBC) and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts (DCs) is essential before cryopreserving the cord blood units. Therefore, establishing the normal reference values of cord blood CBC and WBC DC is important in clinical practice and research. To obtain a large-scale population-based normal CBC and WBC DC reference values of healthy neonates' cord blood from a public cord blood bank and to investigate the influence of the gender and delivery route. From September 2001 to November 2006, the cord blood of healthy Taiwanese neonates with gestational age 36 weeks and more were collected by Tzu Chi Cord Blood Bank with written informed consents. All cord blood samples were analyzed by Sysmex XE2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) to obtain the CBC. The WBC DC was calculated by manual method. We used Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test for investigating the influences of gender and delivery route on the CBC and WBC DC reference values. The results were presented by mean±standard deviation or 2.5-97.5th percentiles. In the study period, totally 5602 cord blood samples were collected eligibly for analysis. The cord blood CBC and WBC DC normal reference values were calculated. The female neonates had significantly higher mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, and WBC count, but lower red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, and mean corpuscular Hb concentration values (pTaiwan. Gender and delivery routes were important confounding factors that influenced the cord blood CBC and WBC DC values. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Neutrophil-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutic Nanoparticles across Blood Vessel Barrier for Treatment of Inflammation and Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Dafeng; Gao, Jin; Wang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells form a monolayer in lumen of blood vessels presenting a great barrier for delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) into extravascular tissues where most diseases occur, such as inflammation disorders and infection. Here, we report a strategy for delivering therapeutic NPs across this blood vessel barrier by nanoparticle in situ hitchhiking activated neutrophils. Using intravital microscopy of TNF-α-induced inflammation of mouse cremaster venules and a mouse model of acute...

  8. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  9. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios: are they useful for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargın MA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Akif Sargın, Murat Yassa, Bilge Dogan Taymur, Ayhan Celik, Emrah Ergun, Niyazi Tug Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR could be utilized to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.Subjects and methods: NLR and PLR were assessed by retrospective analysis of 762 healthy and pregnant women with GDM. The patients were stratified into four groups, as follows: GDM (n=144, impaired glucose tolerance (n=76, only screen positive (n=238, and control (n=304.Results: The leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the control group (P=0.001; P<0.01. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to the NLR and PLR (P>0.05.Conclusion: We do not recommend that blood NLR and PLR can be used to screen for GDM. However, increase in the leukocyte count is an important marker for GDM as it provides evidence of subclinical inflammation. Keywords: inflammation, lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, pregnancy

  10. Semi-Automatic Rating Method for Neutrophil Alkaline Phosphatase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kanae; Hashi, Kotomi; Goto, Misaki; Nishi, Kiyotaka; Maeda, Rie; Kono, Keigo; Yamamoto, Mai; Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Miwa, Keiko; Mikami, Taisei; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) score is a valuable test for the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but it has still manually rated. Therefore, we developed a semi-automatic rating method using Photoshop ® and Image-J, called NAP-PS-IJ. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase staining was conducted with Tomonaga's method to films of peripheral blood taken from three healthy volunteers. At least 30 neutrophils with NAP scores from 0 to 5+ were observed and taken their images. From which the outer part of neutrophil was removed away with Image-J. These were binarized with two different procedures (P1 and P2) using Photoshop ® . NAP-positive area (NAP-PA) and granule (NAP-PGC) were measured and counted with Image-J. The NAP-PA in images binarized with P1 significantly (P < 0.05) differed between images with NAP scores from 0 to 3+ (group 1) and those from 4+ to 5+ (group 2). The original images in group 1 were binarized with P2. NAP-PGC of them significantly (P < 0.05) differed among all four NAP score groups. The mean NAP-PGC with NAP-PS-IJ indicated a good correlation (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) to results by human examiners. The sensitivity and specificity of NAP-PS-IJ were 60% and 92%, which might be considered as a prototypic method for the full-automatic rating NAP score. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quantification of neutrophil migration into the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruparelia, Prina; Summers, Charlotte; Chilvers, Edwin R [University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Szczepura, Katherine R [University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Solanki, Chandra K; Balan, Kottekkattu [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Newbold, Paul [AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Bilton, Diana [Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cystic Fibrosis and Lung Defence Unit, Papworth Everard (United Kingdom); Peters, A M [University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    To quantify neutrophil migration into the lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). Neutrophil loss via airways was assessed by dedicated whole-body counting 45 min, 24 h and 2, 4, 7 and 10 days after injection of very small activities of {sup 111}In-labelled neutrophils in 12 healthy nonsmokers, 5 healthy smokers, 16 patients with COPD (of whom 7 were ex-smokers) and 10 patients with bronchiectasis. Lung accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled neutrophils was assessed by sequential SPECT and Patlak analysis in six COPD patients and three healthy nonsmoking subjects. Whole body {sup 111}In counts, expressed as percentages of 24 h counts, decreased in all subjects. Losses at 7 days (mean {+-} SD) were similar in healthy nonsmoking subjects (5.5 {+-} 1.5%), smoking subjects (6.5 {+-} 4.4%) and ex-smoking COPD patients (5.8 {+-} 1.5%). In contrast, currently smoking COPD patients showed higher losses (8.0 {+-} 3.0%) than healthy nonsmokers (p = 0.03). Two bronchiectatic patients lost 25% and 26%, indicating active disease; mean loss in the remaining eight was 6.9 {+-} 2.5%. The rate of accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-neutrophils in the lungs, determined by sequential SPECT, was increased in COPD patients (0.030-0.073 min{sup -1}) compared with healthy nonsmokers (0-0.002 min{sup -1}; p = 0.02). In patients with COPD, sequential SPECT showed increased lung accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled neutrophils, while whole-body counting demonstrated subsequent higher losses of {sup 111}In-labelled neutrophils in patients who continued to smoke. Sequential SPECT as a means of quantifying neutrophil migration deserves further evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Quantification of neutrophil migration into the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruparelia, Prina; Summers, Charlotte; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Szczepura, Katherine R.; Solanki, Chandra K.; Balan, Kottekkattu; Newbold, Paul; Bilton, Diana; Peters, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify neutrophil migration into the lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). Neutrophil loss via airways was assessed by dedicated whole-body counting 45 min, 24 h and 2, 4, 7 and 10 days after injection of very small activities of 111 In-labelled neutrophils in 12 healthy nonsmokers, 5 healthy smokers, 16 patients with COPD (of whom 7 were ex-smokers) and 10 patients with bronchiectasis. Lung accumulation of 99m Tc-labelled neutrophils was assessed by sequential SPECT and Patlak analysis in six COPD patients and three healthy nonsmoking subjects. Whole body 111 In counts, expressed as percentages of 24 h counts, decreased in all subjects. Losses at 7 days (mean ± SD) were similar in healthy nonsmoking subjects (5.5 ± 1.5%), smoking subjects (6.5 ± 4.4%) and ex-smoking COPD patients (5.8 ± 1.5%). In contrast, currently smoking COPD patients showed higher losses (8.0 ± 3.0%) than healthy nonsmokers (p = 0.03). Two bronchiectatic patients lost 25% and 26%, indicating active disease; mean loss in the remaining eight was 6.9 ± 2.5%. The rate of accumulation of 99m Tc-neutrophils in the lungs, determined by sequential SPECT, was increased in COPD patients (0.030-0.073 min -1 ) compared with healthy nonsmokers (0-0.002 min -1 ; p = 0.02). In patients with COPD, sequential SPECT showed increased lung accumulation of 99m Tc-labelled neutrophils, while whole-body counting demonstrated subsequent higher losses of 111 In-labelled neutrophils in patients who continued to smoke. Sequential SPECT as a means of quantifying neutrophil migration deserves further evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Expression of IL-17A concentration and effector functions of peripheral blood neutrophils in food allergy hypersensitivity patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Pałgan, Krzysztof; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Kuźmiński, Andrzej; Przybyszewski, Michał; Socha, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    Lymphocytes Th17 and other types of immune system cells produce IL17. By induction of cytokines and chemokines, the IL17 cytokine is involved in mechanisms of allergic reaction with participation of neutrophil granulocytes. It affects activation, recruitment, and migration of neutrophils to the tissues, regulating inflammatory reaction intensity. Excited neutrophils secrete inter alia elastase and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--significant mediators of inflammation process responsible for tissues damage.The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum interleukin 17A, serum neutrophil elastase, and ROS production by neutrophils in patients with food allergy.The study included 30 patients with food allergy diagnosed based on interview, clinical symptoms, positive SPT, placebo controlled double-blind oral provocation trial, and the presence of asIgE in blood serum against selected food allergens using fluoro-immuno-enzymatic method FEIA UNICap 100. The control group consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of IL17A were determined in all patients using ELISA method with eBioscience kits, and elastase using BenderMed Systems kits. Chemiluminescence of non-stimulated neutrophils was evaluated using luminol-dependent kinetic method for 40 min on Luminoskan (Labsystems luminometer).The results of serum IL-17A concentrations and the values of chemiluminescence obtained by non-activated neutrophils, as well as elastase concentrations, were higher in patients with food allergic hypersensitivity compared to healthy volunteers.This study demonstrates a significance of IL-17A and activated neutrophil granulocytes in the course of diseases with food allergic hypersensitivity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. White blood cell subtypes and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weiwei; Niu, Yixin; Li, Xiaoyong; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that total white blood cell is associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. The present study is to investigate the relationship of white blood cell subsets with incidence of type 2 diabetes at baseline and 3year follow-up. We chose individuals without diabetes history as our study population; 8991 individuals were included at baseline. All of the participants underwent a 75-g OGTT at baseline. White blood cell count including all the subsets were measured along with all the other laboratory indices. The participants who were not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes according to the WHO 1999 diagnostic criteria underwent another 75-g OGTT at 3year follow-up. The total WBC count, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly increased in subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus compared to non-DM subjects at baseline (all ptype 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Haematological and biochemical characteristics of the splenic effluent blood in schistosomal patients undergoing splenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess hematological and biochemical features of splenic effluent blood and their influence on the rise of hematological values after splenectomy. METHODS: we studied 20 patients undergoing surgical treatment for schistosomatic portal hypertension. We collected blood samples for CBC, coagulation, bilirubin and albumin in the splenic vein (perioperative and peripheral blood (immediately pre and postoperative periods. RESULTS: the splenic blood showed higher values of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, as well as reduction of laboratory coagulation parameters in relation to peripheral blood collected preoperatively. In the postoperative peripheral blood there was an increase in the overall leukocytes and in their neutrophil component, and decreased levels of basophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes. The other postoperative variables of complete blood count and coagulation tests were not different compared with the splenic blood. The albumin values were lower postoperatively when compared to preoperative and splenic blood. There were higher values of direct bilirubin in the postoperative period when compared with the preoperative and splenic blood. Postoperative indirect bilirubin was lower compared to its value in the splenic blood. CONCLUSION: hematological and biochemical values of splenic effluent blood are higher than those found in peripheral blood in the presence of schistosomal splenomegaly. However, the splenic blood effluent is not sufficient to raise the blood levels found after splenectomy.

  16. Effects of Septrin Administration on Blood Cells Parameters in Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased (p<0.05), especially after 7-10 days of septrin administration, compared to the control values. On the other hand, the reticulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and prothrombin time ...

  17. Decreased activity of neutrophils in the presence of diferuloylmethane (curcumin) involves protein kinase C inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancinová, Viera; Perecko, Tomás; Nosál, Radomír; Kostálová, Daniela; Bauerová, Katarína; Drábiková, Katarína

    2009-06-10

    Diferuloylmethane (curcumin) has been shown to act beneficially in arthritis, particularly through downregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and collagenase as well as through the modulated activities of T lymphocytes and macrophages. In this study its impact on activated neutrophils was investigated both in vitro and in experimental arthritis. Formation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils was recorded on the basis of luminol- or isoluminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Phosphorylation of neutrophil protein kinases C alpha and beta II was assessed by Western blotting, using phosphospecific antibodies. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in Lewis rats by heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum. Diferuloylmethane or methotrexate was administered over a period of 28 days after arthritis induction. Under in vitro conditions, diferuloylmethane (1-100 microM) reduced dose-dependently oxidant formation both at extra- and intracellular level and it effectively reduced protein kinase C activation. Adjuvant arthritis was accompanied by an increased number of neutrophils in blood and by a more pronounced spontaneous as well as PMA (phorbol myristate acetate) stimulated chemiluminescence. Whereas the arthritis-related alterations in neutrophil count and in spontaneous chemiluminescence were not modified by diferuloylmethane, the increased reactivity of neutrophils to PMA was less evident in diferuloylmethane-treated animals. The effects of diferuloylmethane were comparable with those of methotrexate. Diferuloylmethane was found to be a potent inhibitor of neutrophil functions both in vitro and in experimental arthritis. As neutrophils are considered to be cells with the greatest capacity to inflict damage within diseased joints, the observed effects could represent a further mechanism involved in the antirheumatic activity of diferuloylmethane.

  18. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using one-point arterial blood sampling and microsphere model with 123I-IMP. Correction of one-point arterial sampling count by whole brain count ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Kenichi; Masuda, Yasuhiko; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    The experimental subjects were 189 patients with cerebrovascular disorders. 123 I-IMP, 222 MBq, was administered by intravenous infusion. Continuous arterial blood sampling was carried out for 5 minutes, and arterial blood was also sampled once at 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP administration. Then the whole blood count of the one-point arterial sampling was compared with the octanol-extracted count of the continuous arterial sampling. A positive correlation was found between the two values. The ratio of the continuous sampling octanol-extracted count (OC) to the one-point sampling whole blood count (TC5) was compared with the whole brain count ratio (5:29 ratio, Cn) using 1-minute planar SPECT images, centering on 5 and 29 minutes after 123 I-IMP administration. Correlation was found between the two values. The following relationship was shown from the correlation equation. OC/TC5=0.390969 x Cn-0.08924. Based on this correlation equation, we calculated the theoretical continuous arterial sampling octanol-extracted count (COC). COC=TC5 x (0.390969 x Cn-0.08924). There was good correlation between the value calculated with this equation and the actually measured value. The coefficient improved to r=0.94 from the r=0.87 obtained before using the 5:29 ratio for correction. For 23 of these 189 cases, another one-point arterial sampling was carried out at 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 minutes after the administration of 123 I-IMP. The correlation coefficient was also improved for these other point samplings when this correction method using the 5:29 ratio was applied. It was concluded that it is possible to obtain highly accurate input functions, i.e., calculated continuous arterial sampling octanol-extracted counts, using one-point arterial sampling whole blood counts by performing correction using the 5:29 ratio. (K.H.)

  19. A comparison of the neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte and monocyte-lymphocyte ratios in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients - a retrospective file review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdin, Selçuk; Sarisoy, Gökhan; Böke, Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have recently been used as indicators of inflammation. Higher MLR and PLR values have been determined in the euthymic and manic periods in patients with bipolar disorder compared to a control group. High NLR values were determined in the only study investigating this ratio in schizophrenia patients. The purpose of this study was to compare NLR, PLR and MLR values and complete blood count elements in patients receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenic psychotic episode and bipolar disorder manic episode. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria among subjects receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenia-psychotic episode and bipolar affective disorder-manic episode at the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Psychiatry Department, Turkey, in 2012-2016 were included in our study. A total of 157 healthy donors were included as a control group. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet and monocyte numbers were noted retrospectively from complete blood counts at time of admission, and NLR, PLR and MLR were calculated from these. NLR, PLR and MLR values and platelet numbers in this study were higher and lymphocyte numbers were lower in bipolar disorder patients compared to the controls. Elevation in NLR, MLR and PLR values and neutrophil numbers and lower lymphocyte numbers were determined in schizophrenia patients compared to the controls. Higher NLR and MLR values were found in schizophrenia patients compared to bipolar disorder. Findings of our study supported the inflammation hypothesis for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  20. Comparison of Neutrophil Apoptosis by the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exotoxins between Healthy Individuals and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khazaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be colonized in different human tissues and result in some infections potentially. Thus, considering that these bacteria are resistance to most of the current antibiotics, an examination on pathogenesis mechanisms of such bacteria can be effective in controlling the infections developed by it.Materials and Methods: In this project, among 40 blood samples (20 healthy persons, 20 infants, an amount of 5 ml (2 ml in the infants heparinized blood was collected form each and then neutrophils were isolated by a standard method and were counted by neubauer lam. After culturing Pseudomonas bacteria in broth medium, some tubes with densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 McFarland were prepared and the bacteria were isolated by centrifuge method with 3000rpm for 10 minutes and then its exotoxin were exposed to neutrophils of the groups under study. The effect of time and the bacteria count on the amount of the secreted toxin and in adjacency to neutrophils was measured.Results: There were 11 men and 9 women in the health group and the infants group consisted of 12 boys and 8 girls. Death cell percentage of neutrophils was 100% in the health group and 8.90% in the infants group. Percentage of bacterial growth in the medium 1 and 2 McFarland was zero; in the medium 3 McFarland, it was 12.5% in the healthy group and 1% in the infants group (p<0.10. The average rate of cell death in the minute 15th was different in two groups (68.5% in health group vs. 92.5% in the infants (p<0.0005. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of Pseudomonas bacteria on the development of early cell death in the infants very well. As it was shown, this effect is time-dependent and this cell death (apoptosis is occurred in the infants earlier than health people.

  1. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will fabricate and test microfluidic designs for a micro-electromechanical system based complete blood count (CBC) analysis in separate modules and integrate them...

  2. Prediction of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma by Using Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgonul, Cem; Sertoglu, Erdim; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Ozge, Gokhan; Gokce, Gokcen

    2016-12-01

    To assess the levels of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and to compare the NLR and PLR results of patients with PEX, PEX glaucoma (PXG), and healthy controls. In total, 34 patients with PEX, 29 patients with PXG, and 42 healthy subjects were enrolled in this retrospective study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and complete blood count measurements were performed of all subjects. Complete blood counts were performed within 2 h of blood collection. There was a significant difference in NLR between PEX and control groups (p = 0.012) and PXG and control groups (p = 0.003). Also, a significant difference was found in PLR values between control and PXG groups (p = 0.024). Our study for the first time provides evidence that PLR and NLR may be useful for predicting the prognosis of PEX patients and progression to PXG.

  3. Spontaneous neutrophil migration patterns during sepsis after major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline N; Moore, Molly; Dimisko, Laurie; Alexander, Andrew; Ibrahim, Amir; Hassell, Bryan A; Warren, H Shaw; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fagan, Shawn P; Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Finely tuned to respond quickly to infections, neutrophils have amazing abilities to migrate fast and efficiently towards sites of infection and inflammation. Although neutrophils ability to migrate is perturbed in patients after major burns, no correlations have yet been demonstrated between altered migration and higher rate of infections and sepsis in these patients when compared to healthy individuals. To probe if such correlations exist, we designed microfluidic devices to quantify the neutrophil migration phenotype with high precision. Inside these devices, moving neutrophils are confined in channels smaller than the neutrophils and forced to make directional decisions at bifurcations and around posts. We employed these devices to quantify neutrophil migration across 18 independent parameters in 74 blood samples from 13 patients with major burns and 3 healthy subjects. Blinded, retrospective analysis of clinical data and neutrophil migration parameters revealed that neutrophils isolated from blood samples collected during sepsis migrate spontaneously inside the microfluidic channels. The spontaneous neutrophil migration is a unique phenotype, typical for patients with major burns during sepsis and often observed one or two days before the diagnosis of sepsis is confirmed. The spontaneous neutrophil migration phenotype is rare in patients with major burns in the absence of sepsis, and is not encountered in healthy individuals. Our findings warrant further studies of neutrophils and their utility for early diagnosing and monitoring sepsis in patients after major burns.

  4. Computer-assisted image analysis assay of human neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a computer-based image analysis system to measure in-filter migration of human neutrophils in the Boyden chamber. This method is compared with the conventional manual counting techniques. Neutrophils from healthy individuals and from patients with reduced chemotactic activity were....... Another advantage of the assay is that it can be used to show the migration pattern of different populations of neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients....

  5. Nucleated red blood cells count in pregnancies with idiopathic intra-uterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Davari-Tanha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR. To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR.Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups.NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001. pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference.Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention.

  6. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RMD proposes to develop a MEMS based complete blood count (CBC) instrument that can be used aboard a spacecraft. We will produce a microfluidic scale combination...

  7. Diagnostic value of inflammatory markers (complete blood count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers [complete blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),. C-reactive protein (CRP)] for the differentiation of acute appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children. Patients and methods In this prospective ...

  8. Diagnostic value of inflammatory markers (complete blood count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers [complete blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP)] for the differentiation of acute appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children. Patients and methods In this prospective ...

  9. Failure of rabbit neutrophils to secrete endogenous pyrogen when stimulated with staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D F; Murphy, P A; Windle, B E

    1980-06-01

    Cells obtained from acute peritoneal exudates in rabbits were separated into neutrophil and mononuclear populations by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients. When these populations were separately incubated in tissue culture medium in the presence of opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis, endogenous pyrogen was secreted only by the adherent cells of the mononuclear population. Pyrogen production by neutrophils could not have amounted to as much as 1% of the pyrogen produced by macrophages. When mononuclear cells were added back to purified neutrophils, no pyrogen was produced that could not be accounted for by the number of macrophages added. Rabbit blood cells were similarly fractionated on colloidal silica gradients. Again, endogenous pyrogen was made only by the adherent mononuclear population. The neutrophils isolated on these gradients appeared to be morphologically normal and were 85% viable as judged by dye exclusion. They showed normal random motility. Both blood and exudate neutrophils responded chemotactically to N-formyl Met-Leu-Phe, and blood neutrophils responded chemotactically to zymosan-activated serum. Both kinds of neutrophils phagocytosed zymosan particles and both killed opsonized S. epidermidis in a roller tube system. Both blood and exudate neutrophils showed normal superoxide production when stimulated with opsonized zymosan particles. This evidence suggests that macrophages are the only source of endogenous pyrogens, and that pyrogens secreted by cell populations that are rich in neutrophils are to be attributed to the monocytes or macrophages that they contain.

  10. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  11. Prognostic Impact of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet Count, CRP, and Albumin Levels in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaç, Mehmet; Uysal, Mükremin; Karaağaç, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Levent; Er, Zehra; Güler, Tunç; Börüban, Melih Cem; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a lethal disease and fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab (bev) is a standard approach. Hence, there is a strong need for identifying new prognostic factors to show the efficacy of FOLFIRI-bev. This is a retrospective study including patients (n = 90) with mCRC from two centers in Turkey. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet count, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before FOLFIRI-bev therapy. The efficacy of these factors on progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis. And the cutoff value of N/L ratio was analyzed with ROC analysis. The median age was 56 years (range 21-80). Forty-seven percent of patients with N/L ratio >2.5 showed progressive disease versus 43 % in patients with N/L ratio ratio >2.5 versus 13.5 months for the patients with N/L ratio analysis, high baseline neutrophil count, LDH, N/L ratio, and CRP were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, CRP was confirmed to be a better independent prognostic factor. CRP variable was divided into above the upper limit of normal (ULN) and normal value. The median PFSs of the patients with normal and above ULN were 11.3 versus 5.8 months, respectively (p = 0.022). CRP and N/L ratio are potential predictors for advanced mCRC treated with FOLFIRI-bev.

  12. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is a predictive factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-10-01

    The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated and compared. This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. The COP-NLR was calculated as follows: patients with elevated platelet count (> 300 × 10(9)/l) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (> 3) were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  13. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  14. Increased lung neutrophil apoptosis and inflammation resolution in nonresponding pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, I; Lorenzo, M J; Sarria, B; Cases, E; Morcillo, E; Perpiñá, M; Molina, J M; Menéndez, R

    2011-11-01

    Neutrophil activation state and its relationship with an inflammatory environment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain insufficiently elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the neutrophil apoptosis and cytokine pattern in CAP patients after 72 h of treatment, and their impact on infection resolution. Apoptosis of blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils was measured in nonresponding CAP (NCAP), in responding CAP (blood only) and in patients without infection (control). Pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were measured. Main outcomes were clinical stability and days of hospitalisation. Basal neutrophil apoptosis was higher in the BAL and blood of NCAP, whereas spontaneous apoptosis (after 24 h culture) was lower. Cytokines in NCAP were higher than in responding CAP and control: IL-6 was increased in BAL and blood, IL-8 in BAL and IL-10 in blood. An increased basal apoptosis (≥20%) in BAL of NCAP was associated with lower systemic IL-10 (p<0.01), earlier clinical stability (p=0.05) and shorter hospital stay (p=0.02). A significant correlation was found for systemic IL-6 and IL-10 with days to reach stability and length of stay. After 72 h of treatment, an increased basal alveolar neutrophil apoptosis might contribute to downregulation of inflammation and to faster clinical stability.

  15. The relation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume with the presence and severity of Behçet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Alan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's syndrome (BS is associated with chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Although there have been extensive investigations on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and mean platelet volume (MPV in many diseases, their roles in BS is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate NLR, PLR, and MPV levels in BS patients and explore their clinical significance. The study included 254 patients with BS and 173 healthy individuals. Age, sex, age of onset, duration of disease, smoking, Behçet activity score, total white blood counts, neutrophil, platelet, and T lymphocyte counts of the patients were recorded. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, platelet, NLR, and PLR were significantly higher in patients with BS when compared with healthy controls (all p  0.05. In the BS group, PLR and MPV were significantly different among the three severity groups (p = 0.037 and p = 0.016, respectively. We showed that any laboratory markers were not associated with joint, eye, central nervous system, large vessel, or gastrointestinal involvement in BS. NLR was shown to be an independent factor for BS by multivariate analysis. We suggest that NLR can be considered to be a diagnostic criterion of BS given the support of the findings from larger prospective studies.

  16. Neutrophil depletion reduces edema formation and tissue loss following traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenne Ellinor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain edema as a result of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major clinical concern. Neutrophils are known to cause increased vascular permeability leading to edema formation in peripheral tissue, but their role in the pathology following TBI remains unclear. Methods In this study we used controlled cortical impact (CCI as a model for TBI and investigated the role of neutrophils in the response to injury. The outcome of mice that were depleted of neutrophils using an anti-Gr-1 antibody was compared to that in mice with intact neutrophil count. The effect of neutrophil depletion on blood-brain barrier function was assessed by Evan's blue dye extravasation, and analysis of brain water content was used as a measurement of brain edema formation (24 and 48 hours after CCI. Lesion volume was measured 7 and 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell death, using a marker for cleaved caspase-3 at 24 hours after injury, and microglial/macrophage activation 7 days after CCI. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. Results Neutrophil depletion did not significantly affect Evan's blue extravasation at any time-point after CCI. However, neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited a decreased water content both at 24 and 48 hours after CCI indicating reduced edema formation. Furthermore, brain tissue loss was attenuated in neutropenic mice at 7 and 14 days after injury. Additionally, these mice had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia/macrophages 7 days after CCI, and of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells 24 h after injury. Conclusion Our results suggest that neutrophils are involved in the edema formation, but not the extravasation of large proteins, as well as contributing to cell death and tissue loss following TBI in mice.

  17. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT. However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR. Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications.

  18. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Neutrophils hg19 Unclassified Blood Neutrophils SRX956546,SRX95655...2,SRX956549 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Neutrophils.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Neutrophils hg19 Unclassified Blood Neutrophils SRX956546,SRX95655...2,SRX956549 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Neutrophils.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Neutrophils hg19 Unclassified Blood Neutrophils SRX956552,SRX95654...9,SRX956546 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Neutrophils.bed ...

  1. Profile of peripheral blood neutrophil cytokines in diabetes type 1 pregnant women and its correlation with selected parameters in the newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena; Głowacka, Ewa; Grodzicka, Alicja; Sobczak, Małgorzata; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Wilczyński, Jan

    2010-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 alter as pregnancy progresses, implying continuous immune regulation associated with the maintenance of pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the peripheral blood neutrophil-derived production of these cytokines in the course of pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes. of study These parameters were measured in samples from healthy non-pregnant (C), diabetic non-pregnant (D), healthy pregnant (P) and pregnant diabetic (PD) women. Neutrophil-derived secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-12 increased along with progression of pregnancy in PD and P groups. The concentration of IL-10 from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neutrophils increased during the course of uncomplicated pregnancy but decreased in diabetic pregnancy. Concentration of IL-8 decreased with the advancing gestational age in P and PD groups. LPS-stimulated neutrophil-derived IL-6 concentration increased only in PD patients. Our results show that diabetes creates pro-inflammatory environment thus potentially influencing the outcome of pregnancy. We conclude that neutrophil-derived cytokine production could contribute to the complications seen in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

  2. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  3. Effect of sevoflurane on human neutrophil apoptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents and acute in vitro exposure of neutrophils to isoflurane have been shown to inhibit the rate of apoptosis of human neutrophils. It is possible that inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis arises through delaying mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. We assessed mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in unexposed neutrophils and neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo. METHODS: A total of 20 mL venous blood was withdrawn pre- and postinduction of anaesthesia, the neutrophils isolated and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Mitochondrial depolarization was measured using the dual emission styryl dye JC-1. RESULTS: Apoptosis was significantly inhibited in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo at 24 (exposed: 38 (12)% versus control: 28 (11)%, P = 0.001), but not at 1 or 12 h, in culture. Mitochondrial depolarization was not delayed in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane. CONCLUSIONS: The most important findings are that sevoflurane inhibits neutrophil apoptosis in vivo and that inhibition is not mediated primarily by an effect on mitochondrial depolarization.

  4. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kartini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. Methods An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. Results Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. Conclusion The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  5. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. METHODS An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. RESULTS Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. CONCLUSION The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  6. Changes in Neutrophil Functions in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Victoria; Pierson, Duane L.

    2002-01-01

    Neutrophil functions (phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation) and expression of surface markers involved in these functions were studied in 25 astronauts before and after 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch (preflight or L-10), immediately after landing (landing or R+0), and again at 3 days after landing (postflight or R+3). Blood samples were also collected from 9 healthy low-stressed subjects at 3 time points simulating a 10-day shuttle mission. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85 percent when compared to the preflight numbers. Neutrophil functions were studied in whole blood using flow cytometric methods. Phagocytosis of E.coli-FITC and oxidative burst capacity of the neutrophils following the 9 to 11 day missions were lower at all three sampling points than the mean values for control subjects. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacity of the astronauts was decreased even 10-days before space flight. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions. In contrast, following the short-duration (5-days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 was measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst and phagocytosis. We can conclude from this study that the stresses associated with space flight can alter the important functions of neutrophils.

  7. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. Application of gelatin zymography for evaluating low levels of contaminating neutrophils in red blood cell samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Ciana, Annarita; Balduini, Cesare; Risso, Angela; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2011-02-15

    Supposedly "homogeneous" red blood cell (RBC) samples are commonly obtained by "washing" whole blood free of plasma, platelets, and white cells with physiological solutions, a procedure that does not result, however, in sufficient removal of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), leading to possible artifactual results. Pure RBC samples can be obtained only by leukodepletion procedures. Proposed here is a version of gelatin zymography adapted to detect matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), selectively expressed by PMNs, in heterogeneous mixtures of RBCs and PMNs that can reveal contamination at levels as low as 1 PMN/10⁶ RBCs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Uribe-Querol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  13. Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and ...

  14. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. The complex interplay between neutrophils and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Andrea; Beaudry, Paul; Mahoney, Douglas J

    2018-03-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell, and are an essential component of the innate immune system. They characteristically arrive rapidly at sites of infection and injury, and release a variety of cytokines and toxic molecules to eliminate pathogens and elicit an acute inflammatory response. Research into the function of neutrophils in cancer suggest they have divergent roles. Indeed, while most studies have found neutrophils to be associated with cancer progression, others have also documented anticancer effects. In this review, we describe the investigations into neutrophil populations that have been implicated in promoting tumor growth and metastasis as well those demonstrating antitumor functions. The collective research suggests a complex role for neutrophils in cancer biology, which raises the prospect of their targeting for the treatment of cancer.

  1. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2  = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abd Nikfarjam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and myeloperoxidase (MPO. These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM, after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001. Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect

  3. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A; Schneider, David A; White, Stephen N; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Davis, William C

    2016-06-01

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspecies comparative immune system analyses. This study describes cross-reactive mAbs that recognize leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDMs) and major histocompatibility complex antigens on DS and BHS leukocytes. Characterization of multichannel eosinophil autofluorescence in this study permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for evaluating LDMs, specifically on neutrophils, by single-label FC. Evaluation of relative abundances of LDMs by flow cytometry revealed greater CD11a, CD11b, CD18 (β2 integrins) and CD 172a (SIRPα) on DS neutrophils and greater CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) on BHS neutrophils. Greater CD25 (IL-2) was identified on BHS lymphocytes following Concavalin A stimulation. While DS and BHS have similar total peripheral blood leukocyte counts, BHS have proportionately more neutrophils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  5. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  6. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section 864.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual...

  7. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as disease actvity marker in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, A K; Pihl-Jensen, G; Frederiksen, J L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been identified as a disease activity marker in several diseases. We aim to evaluate the significance of the NLR in the different subtypes of MS......, optic neuritis (ON) and in relation to disease activity and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). METHODS: We included 378 patients and 813 healthy controls (HC) from The Nordic Reference Interval Project 2000 (NORIP). Complete blood count, demographic and clinical data from patients were evaluated...... between NLR and time of blood sampling. Logistic regression models were constructed for EDSS ≥ 4.0 as outcome. RESULTS: The NLR was significantly higher (p higher NLR (p

  8. Predictive Value of Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts in Cord and Peripheral Blood of Asphyxiated Term Neonates in the First Week of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bahman Bijari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC circulating in the blood of neonates can be associated with relative hypoxia and adverse outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the NRBC count during the first week of life in neonates diagnosed with asphyxia as compared to healthy neonates and to determine the short-term morbidity and mortality for the affected babies. Methods: The cross-sectional study compared 15 healthy neonates with 15 neonates diagnosed with asphyxia confirmed by pH of cord blood or Apgar scores. The nucleated red blood cell (NRBC counts were calculated right after birth, and on days 3 and 7, and the hematological parameters of umbilical cord blood were also evaluated. The infants were followed for mortality and associated morbidity. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test, analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The initial NRBC counts were significantly higher in the asphyxiated group than in the control group and the difference remained significant through the end of first week. All of the umbilical cord blood parameters were significantly lower in the study group and were negatively correlated with the NRBC count. At birth, higher NRBC count correlated with higher mortality. conclution: Results show that NRBC count is a useful predictive factor for neonatal asphyxia through the end of the first week of life, although a larger study population and a longer follow up period seems to be necessary.

  9. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  11. Repair of changes in peripheral blood count of rats after chronic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovsky, O; Praslicka, M; Chlebovska, K [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1980-01-01

    Changes are described in the peripheral blood count of rats irradiated during 120 days with doses of 95.7, 191.4, 258.4, 344.5 and 507.2 mGy/day; during 15 days with a dose of 1004.8 mGy and examined till the 180th day after termination of irradiation. The course of repair can be divided into two phases, namely: phase 1 till the 40th day after termination of irradiation when leukocyte and platelet counts reach approximately 50% of control values; this phase lasts until the 100th day after cessation of irradiation; phase 2 from the 100th till the 180th day when these peripheral blood element counts attain the level of control values. Thus in the stated conditions of irradiation, 150 to 180 days are required for radiation damage to the hemopoietic system to repair.

  12. Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. ... It, therefore, is imperative to put measures in place to counteract the drop in any of these parameters, with season, if productivity of the indigenous goats is to be maintained. Further studies are required to determine the ...

  13. Microfluidic cartridges for automated, point-of-care blood cell counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Suzanne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disposable, low-cost microfluidic cartridges for automated blood cell counting applications are presented in this article. The need for point-of-care medical diagnostic tools is evident, particularly in low-resource and rural settings, and a full...

  14. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  15. The effect of Ramadan fasting on tuberculin skin test and leukocyte count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nasiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Annually, many Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan worldwide. This practice has different favorable medical and physiological effects, such as improved serum lipid profile and blood glucose level due to changes in diet and sleep patterns. It has also been hypothesized that Ramadan fasting may affect the immune system. As reported, Ramadan fasting can influence the immunoglobulin and cytokine levels. Accordingly, tuberculin skin test or purified protein derivative (PPD test, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity of cellular immune response, may also be affected by Ramadan fasting. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the alteration of PPD test during and after Ramadan. Materials & Methods: A total of 42 males (seminary students who fasted during Ramadan in 2006 were included in the study; however, only 28 cases completed the study. For data collection, the participants underwent blood and tuberculin tests at the fourth week of Ramadan and three months after this month. The white blood cell (WBC count and the tuberculin induration were recorded and compared between the two intervals to evaluate the changes. Results: According to the results of the study, the mean age of the participants was 19.21±3.83 years. Furthermore, the mean tuberculin induration was 9.3±5.4 mm (size range: 2-22 mm on the fourth week of Ramadan, which increased to 9.79±6.8 mm (size range: 3-35 mm three months after this month (P=0.501. The mean count of WBC decreased insignificantly from 5907±1879 mcL to 5601±1362 mcL after Ramadan (P=0.334. Additionally, the mean lymphocytes count decreased significantly from 2292±520/mcL to 2023±486/mcL after this month (P=0.003. Likewise, the lymphocyte (P=0.014 and mean neutrophil percentage also reduced significantly (P0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, Ramadan fasting induce some changes in the immune status, including lymphocyte and neutrophil

  16. Inhibition of FMLP-stimulated neutrophil chemiluminescence by blood platelets increased in the presence of the serotonin-liberating drug chloroquine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančinová, V.; Drábiková, K.; Nosáľ, R.; Petríková, M.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Danihelová, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 109, 5-6 (2003), s. 293-298 ISSN 0049-3848 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 198 Grant - others:VEGA MŠ SR(SK) 2/1012/21 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : blood platelets * neutrophils * chloroquine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2003

  17. Neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, modulates acid-induced lung and systemic injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; Kudoh, I; Hattori, S; Yamada, H; Ohara, M; Wiener-Kronish, J; Okumura, F

    1997-09-01

    Acid instillation leads to direct lung and to secondary systemic organ injury, probably via activated macrophages and neutrophils. This study investigated the effects of neutrophil elastase on organ injury after unilateral lung acid instillation by administrating a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, before acid instillation. Three groups of anesthetized rabbits (n = 12 in each group) underwent tracheostomies, and instillations were made into their right lower lobe airspaces with either phosphate buffered saline (pH, 7.4; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 12) or HCl (pH, 1.25; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 24). In half of the acid-instilled rabbits, ONO-5046, 10 mg/kg, was given intravenously 15 min before the HCl instillation, and then 10 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) of the drug was continuously infused throughout the experiment. The other groups of animals received the vehicle intravenously. Anesthesia and mechanical ventilation was continued for 8 h, whereas arterial blood gases were sampled intermittently. Eight hours after saline or acid instillation, the animals were killed, and their lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, and small intestines were harvested. Wet-to-dry weight ratios (W/ D) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assays of these organs were done, and elastase assays on the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) obtained from each lung also were performed. Pretreatment with ONO-5046 attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. Significant decreases in W/D of the noninstilled lungs and of the small intestine and normalization of the oxygenation of the experimental animals occurred. The ONO-5046 pretreatment did not affect the neutrophil sequestration in the lungs or in the other organs as determined by neutrophil counts in BALF and by the MPO assays. A neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, administered immediately before acid instillation attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. The drug blocked neutrophil elastase but

  18. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  19. Immature Reticulocyte Fraction and Absolute Neutrophil Count as Predictor of Hemopoietic Recovery in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Remission Induction Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan E. Rauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF, a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 2.5 to 3 mL of EDTA blood of 45 ALL patients undergoing the remission induction phase of their treatment was sampled and analyzed with a Sysmex XE-5000 on day 1 and every second day thereafter until the day of recovery. ANC of >0.5x109/L on the day corresponding to the first of the three consecutive counts was considered as the day of ANC recovery. IRF recovery was an IRF in excess of 5%. Results: The mean age of the patients was 12.04±5.30 years; 25 patients (55.6% were male and 20 patients (44.4% were female. On day 1 of induction remission, the mean IRF value was 9.68±1.41, while the mean ANC value was 0.077±0.061. Mean recovery day for IRF was 11.84±7.44 and mean recovery day for ANC was 17.67±8.77 (twotailed p-value <0.0001 with 95% confidence interval. By day 28, out of 45 patients 36 (80% showed ANC recovery, while 41 (91% showed IRF recovery. The remaining patients who had not shown recovery by day 28 were further followed up and all of them showed recovery of both parameters by day 39. Conclusion: This study concluded that postinduction bone marrow hemopoietic recovery was earlier by IRF than ANC in children with ALL on chemotherapy

  20. Tissue-transglutaminase contributes to neutrophil granulocyte differentiation and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Zoltán; Csomós, Krisztián; Vámosi, György; Szántó, Attila; Lanotte, Michel; Fésüs, László

    2006-09-15

    Promyelocytic NB4 leukemia cells undergo differentiation to granulocytes following retinoic acid treatment. Here we report that tissue transglutaminase (TG2), a protein cross-linking enzyme, was induced, then partially translocated into the nucleus, and became strongly associated with the chromatin during the differentiation process. The transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-link content of both the cytosolic and the nuclear protein fractions increased while NB4 cells underwent cellular maturation. Inhibition of cross-linking activity of TG2 by monodansylcadaverin in these cells led to diminished nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) positivity, production of less superoxide anion, and decreased expression of GP91PHOX, the membrane-associated subunit of NADPH oxidase. Neutrophils isolated from TG2(-/-) mice showed diminished NBT reduction capacity, reduced superoxide anion formation, and down-regulation of the gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, compared with wild-type cells. It was also observed that TG2(-/-) mice exhibited increased neutrophil phagocytic activity, but had attenuated neutrophil chemotaxis and impaired neutrophil extravasation with higher neutrophil counts in their circulation during yeast extract-induced peritonitis. These results clearly suggest that TG2 may modulate the expression of genes related to neutrophil functions and is involved in several intracellular and extracellular functions of extravasating neutrophil.

  1. Cells identification and counting in blood native state on the basis of digital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubrovski V.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to develop an algorithm for the processing of photo images of native blood samples to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cell samples. Materials and Methods. The objects of investigation were the samples of the whole donated blood, diluted 400 times by saline. Special "photo templates", the effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was detect by authors, and the resolution of platelets from leukocytes by the areas of their photo images were suggested for identification of the cells. Results. 80 photo images of native blood solutions were selected for computer processing, while the total number of cells counted was: erythrocytes — 4184, platelets — 292 and leukocytes — 84, total — 4560 blood cells. Comparison of the results achieved with ones obtained by "manual" account or by the device for formed elements counting Sysmex XT-400i gives satisfactory results. Conclusion. It is shown that the accuracy of counting of the native blood cells may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies by means of smears. At the same time the proposed analysis of native blood simplifies greatly the samples preparation in comparison to smears, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratios to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  2. The effect of gamma ray on total leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils on blood samples of smokers compared to non-smoker donors

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    Baydaa Taher Sih

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: By increases the doses of γ-ray, the declining in the values of WBCs, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the smokers blood is greater than of nonsmokers and this confirms that these cells are more fragile, weak, and less tolerant to external stimuli.

  3. Early Colorectal Cancer Detected by Machine Learning Model Using Gender, Age, and Complete Blood Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Goshen, Ran; Choman, Eran; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Kinar, Yaron; Liles, Elizabeth G; Rust, Kristal C

    2017-10-01

    Machine learning tools identify patients with blood counts indicating greater likelihood of colorectal cancer and warranting colonoscopy referral. To validate a machine learning colorectal cancer detection model on a US community-based insured adult population. Eligible colorectal cancer cases (439 females, 461 males) with complete blood counts before diagnosis were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region's Tumor Registry. Control patients (n = 9108) were randomly selected from KPNW's population who had no cancers, received at ≥1 blood count, had continuous enrollment from 180 days prior to the blood count through 24 months after the count, and were aged 40-89. For each control, one blood count was randomly selected as the pseudo-colorectal cancer diagnosis date for matching to cases, and assigned a "calendar year" based on the count date. For each calendar year, 18 controls were randomly selected to match the general enrollment's 10-year age groups and lengths of continuous enrollment. Prediction performance was evaluated by area under the curve, specificity, and odds ratios. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for detecting colorectal cancer was 0.80 ± 0.01. At 99% specificity, the odds ratio for association of a high-risk detection score with colorectal cancer was 34.7 (95% CI 28.9-40.4). The detection model had the highest accuracy in identifying right-sided colorectal cancers. ColonFlag ® identifies individuals with tenfold higher risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer at curable stages (0/I/II), flags colorectal tumors 180-360 days prior to usual clinical diagnosis, and is more accurate at identifying right-sided (compared to left-sided) colorectal cancers.

  4. Circulating neutrophil transcriptome may reveal intracranial aneurysm signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutino, Vincent M.; Poppenberg, Kerry E.; Jiang, Kaiyu; Jarvis, James N.; Sun, Yijun; Sonig, Ashish; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Levy, Elad I.; Kolega, John

    2018-01-01

    Background Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are typically asymptomatic and undetected except for incidental discovery on imaging. Blood-based diagnostic biomarkers could lead to improvements in IA management. This exploratory study examined circulating neutrophils to determine whether they carry RNA expression signatures of IAs. Methods Blood samples were collected from patients receiving cerebral angiography. Eleven samples were collected from patients with IAs and 11 from patients without IAs as controls. Samples from the two groups were paired based on demographics and comorbidities. RNA was extracted from isolated neutrophils and subjected to next-generation RNA sequencing to obtain differential expressions for identification of an IA-associated signature. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene set enrichment analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, were used to investigate the biological function of all differentially expressed transcripts. Results Transcriptome profiling identified 258 differentially expressed transcripts in patients with and without IAs. Expression differences were consistent with peripheral neutrophil activation. An IA-associated RNA expression signature was identified in 82 transcripts (pIAs on hierarchical clustering. Furthermore, in an independent, unpaired, replication cohort of patients with IAs (n = 5) and controls (n = 5), the 82 transcripts separated 9 of 10 patients into their respective groups. Conclusion Preliminary findings show that RNA expression from circulating neutrophils carries an IA-associated signature. These findings highlight a potential to use predictive biomarkers from peripheral blood samples to identify patients with IAs. PMID:29342213

  5. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, calprotectin and YKL-40 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Klitgaard; Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Mygind, Lone Hagens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive decline in pulmonary function. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), YKL-40 and calprotectin are biomarkers of inflammation and predict mortality in patients with different inflammatory...... diseases. We aimed to investigate the correlation between levels of these three biomarkers and neutrophil granulocyte and lymphocyte count in patients with moderate to very severe COPD stratified by use of systemic glucocorticoids. Furthermore, we studied the ability of these biomarkers to predict all......- and multivariate Cox regression analyses with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Plasma calprotectin was positively correlated with neutrophil granulocyte count and NLR. No significant association was found between plasma YKL-40 and the cellular biomarkers, irrespective...

  6. The Effect of Cellphone Radiation on Hematological Blood Cell Factors In BALB/C Mice

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    Fatemeh Zakieh Tohidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The continuous and rapid growth of telecommunication industries, along with the common application of cell phones, hasraised debates on the associated risks for humanhealth due to exposure to radiofrequency fields, caused bycell phonesorother sources, and industrial and medical applications. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of cell phone radiation on BALB/c mice blood factors. Materials and Methods In this study, 48 BALB/c mice were divided into six groups, each consisting of eight animals. Fourexposure groups were exposed to radiation waves twice a day for 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h, respectivelyover one month. On the other hand,one exposure group wasexposed to 900 and 1800 MHz radiations (2 Wfor 4 h once a day. Afterwards, the blood samples were taken from the heart, and blood factors including white blood cell count, red blood cell count, platelet count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, MCH, MCHC,neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count weremeasured and analyzed by SPSS version 15. Results Based on the findings, MCHC in the exposure groupreceiving 0.5 h of radiation and MCH in the exposure groupsreceiving 0.5, 2, and 4 h of radiationwere significantlydifferentfromthe control group (P

  7. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in Relation to Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borné, Yan; Smith, J Gustav; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of leukocytes in blood have been associated with diabetes mellitus. This prospective study aimed to explore whether total and differential leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of diabetes. A missense variant R262W in the SH2B3 (SH2B adaptor protein 3) gene, coding for a protein that negatively regulates hematopoietic cell proliferation, was also studied in relation to incidence of diabetes. Leukocyte count and its subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and mixed cells) were analyzed in 26,667 men and women, 45-73 years old, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Information about the R262W polymorphism (rs3184504) in SH2B3 was genotyped in 24,489 subjects. Incidence of diabetes was studied during a mean follow-up of 14 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine incidence of diabetes by total and differential leukocyte counts. Mendelian randomization analysis using R262W as an instrumental variable was performed with two-stage least squares regression. A total of 2,946 subjects developed diabetes during the follow-up period. After taking several possible confounders into account, concentrations of total leukocyte count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were all significantly associated with incidence of diabetes. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; quartile 4 vs quartile 1) were 1.37 (1.22-1.53) for total leukocytes, 1.33 (1.19-1.49) for neutrophils and 1.29 (1.15-1.44) for lymphocytes. The R262W polymorphism was strongly associated with leukocytes (0.11x109 cells/l per T allele, p = 1.14 x10-12), lymphocytes (p = 4.3 x10-16), neutrophils (p = 8.0 x10-6) and mixed cells (p = 3.0 x10-6). However, there was no significant association between R262W and fasting glucose, HbA1c or incidence of diabetes. Concentrations of total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes are associated with incidence of diabetes. However, the lack of association with the R262W polymorphism suggests that the associations

  8. The impact of preapheresis white blood cell count on autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection efficiency and HSC infusion side effect rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Araci M; Kondo, Andrea T; Yokoyama, Ana Paula H; Lira, Sanny M C; Bub, Carolina B; Souza, Aline M; Cipolletta, Andrea N F; Alvarez, Kelen C; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kutner, Jose M; Chiattone, Carlos S

    2018-01-19

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) collection efficiency (CE) is reportedly affected by the patient's blood properties; however, studies to identify factors correlated with CE have shown inconsistent results. Additionally, variables such as stem cell graft granulocyte content and patient age, sex, and underlying disease, may be associated with hematopietic stem cell (HSC) infusion-related adverse reactions. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of preleukapheresis PB granulocyte count and PBSC harvest variables with CD34 + collection yield and efficiency, and thawed HSC infusion side effect occurrence. We evaluated data from 361 patients who had undergone autologous PBSC transplant. Large volume leukapheresis was the method for PBSC collection. Complete Blood Count and CD34 + cell enumeration were performed in the preapheresis PB and the apheresis product sample. The PBSC grafts were submitted to non-controlled rate freezing after addition of 5% DMSO plus 6% hidroxyethylstarch as a cryoprotectant solution. The cryopreserved graft was thawed in a 37°C water bath and then infused without further manipulation. The CD34 + yield was associated with preapheresis PB CD34 + count and immature granulocyte count. The PBSC CE was negatively correlated with preapheresis white blood cell (WBC), immature granulocyte and granulocyte count. The leukapheresis product total nucleated cell (TNC) and granulocyte content was correlated with the thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. This study has shown that preapheresis PB WBC and granulocyte counts were associated with leukapheresis CE. Additionally, the leukapheresis product TNC and granulocyte content was correlated with thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of an experimental model of neutrophilic pulmonary response induction in mice

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    Leonardo Araújo Pinto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several lung diseases are characterized by a predominantly neutrophilic inflammation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of action of some drugs on the airway inflammation of such diseases may bring advances to the treatment. OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to induce pulmonary neutrophilic response in mice, without active infection. METHODS: Eight adult Swiss mice were used. The study group (n = 4 received an intranasal challenge with 1 x 10(12 CFU/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psa, frozen to death. The control group (n = 4 received an intranasal challenge with saline solution. Two days after the intranasal challenge, a bron­choalveolar lavage (BAL was performed with total cell and differential cellularity counts. RESULTS: The total cell count was significantly higher in the group with Psa, as compared to the control group (median of 1.17 x 10(6 and 0.08 x 10(6, respectively, p = 0.029. In addition to this, an absolute predominance of neutrophils was found in the differential cellularity of the mice that had received the Psa challenge. CONCLUSIONS: The model of inducing a neutrophilic pulmonary disease using frost-dead bacteria was successfully developed. This neutrophilic inflammatory response induction model in Swiss mice lungs may be an important tool for testing the anti-inflammatory effect of some antimicrobial drugs on the inflammation of the lower airways.

  10. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  11. Impairment of Several Immune Functions and Redox State in Blood Cells of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Relevant Role of Neutrophils in Oxidative Stress

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    Carmen Vida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since aging is considered the most risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, the age-related impairment of the immune system (immunosenescence, based on a chronic oxidative-inflammatory stress situation, could play a key role in the development and progression of AD. Although AD is accompanied by systemic disturbance, reflecting the damage in the brain, the changes in immune response and redox-state in different types of blood cells in AD patients have been scarcely studied. The aim was to analyze the variations in several immune functions and oxidative-inflammatory stress and damage parameters in both isolated peripheral neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells, as well as in whole blood cells, from patients diagnosed with mild (mAD and severe AD, and of age-matched controls (elderly healthy subjects as well as of adult controls. The cognitive decline of all subjects was determined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test (mAD stage was established at 20 ≤ MMSE ≤ 23 score; AD stage at <18 MMSE; elderly subjects >27 MMSE. The results showed an impairment of the immune functions of human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells of mAD and AD patients in relation to healthy elderly subjects, who showed the typical immunosenescence in comparison with the adult individuals. However, several alterations were only observed in severe AD patients (lower chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide lymphoproliferation, and interleukin (IL-10 release; higher basal proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α release, and IL-10/TNF-α ratio, others only in mAD subjects (higher adherence, meanwhile others appeared in both mAD and AD patients (lower phytohemaglutinin lymphoproliferation and higher IL-6 release. This impairment of immune functions could be mediated by: (1 the higher oxidative stress and damage also observed in blood cells from mAD and AD patients and in isolated neutrophils [lower glutathione (GSH levels, high oxidized

  12. Functional characterization of mitochondria in neutrophils: a role restricted to apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maianski, N. A.; Geissler, J.; Srinivasula, S. M.; Alnemri, E. S.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondria are known to combine life-supporting functions with participation in apoptosis by controlling caspase activity. Here, we report that in human blood neutrophils the mitochondria are different, because they preserve mainly death-mediating abilities. Neutrophil mitochondria hardly

  13. Association of the Preoperative Neutrophil-to-ymphocyte Count Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Count Ratio with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

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    Sang Mi Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral inflammatory biomarkers, especially a high preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte count ratio (PLR, are known to be indicator of poor prognosis in several cancers. However, very few studies have evaluated the significance of the NLR and PLR in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC. We evaluated the association of the preoperative NLR and PLR with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with PTC.MethodsThis study included 1,066 female patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for PTC. Patients were stratified into 4 quartiles by preoperative NLR and PLR. And the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained value of tertile as follows: patients with both an elevated PLR and an elevated NLR were allocated a score of 2, and patients showing one or neither were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively.ResultsThe preoperative NLR and PLR were significantly lower in patients aged ≥45 years and in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The PLR was significantly higher in patients with tumor size >1 cm (P=0.021.When the patients were categorized into the aforementioned four groups, the group with the higher preoperative PLR was found to have a significantly increased incidence of lateral lymph node metastasis (LNM (P=0.018. However, there are no significant association between the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR and prognostic factors in PTC patients.ConclusionThese results suggest that a preoperative high PLR were significant associated with lateral LNM in female patients with PTC.

  14. Streptococcus sanguinis induces neutrophil cell death by production of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Ryuichi; Nakata, Masanobu; Okahashi, Nobuo; Li, Yixuan; Wada, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Hayashi, Mikako; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S. sanguinis is detrimental to its survival in blood. When S. sanguinis strains were exposed to isolated neutrophils, the bacterial survival rate was significantly decreased by spxB deletion. Furthermore, human neutrophils exposed to the S. sanguinis wild-type strain, in contrast to those exposed to an spxB mutant strain, underwent cell death with chromatin de-condensation and release of web-like extracellular DNA, reflecting induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Since reactive oxygen species-mediated NET induction requires citrullination of arginine residues in histone proteins and subsequent chromatin de-condensation, we examined citrullination levels of histone in infected neutrophils. It is important to note that the citrullinated histone H3 was readily detected in neutrophils infected with the wild-type strain, as compared to infection with the spxB mutant strain. Moreover, decomposition of streptococcal H2O2 with catalase reduced NET induction. These results suggest that H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis provokes cell death of neutrophils and NET formation, thus potentially affecting bacterial survival in the bloodstream.

  15. Streptococcus sanguinis induces neutrophil cell death by production of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Sumioka

    Full Text Available Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S. sanguinis is detrimental to its survival in blood. When S. sanguinis strains were exposed to isolated neutrophils, the bacterial survival rate was significantly decreased by spxB deletion. Furthermore, human neutrophils exposed to the S. sanguinis wild-type strain, in contrast to those exposed to an spxB mutant strain, underwent cell death with chromatin de-condensation and release of web-like extracellular DNA, reflecting induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. Since reactive oxygen species-mediated NET induction requires citrullination of arginine residues in histone proteins and subsequent chromatin de-condensation, we examined citrullination levels of histone in infected neutrophils. It is important to note that the citrullinated histone H3 was readily detected in neutrophils infected with the wild-type strain, as compared to infection with the spxB mutant strain. Moreover, decomposition of streptococcal H2O2 with catalase reduced NET induction. These results suggest that H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis provokes cell death of neutrophils and NET formation, thus potentially affecting bacterial survival in the bloodstream.

  16. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

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    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  17. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Sharpe, Matthew R. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); McGill, Mitchell R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  18. The effect of cigarette smoking on neutrophil kinetics in human lungs [see comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNee, W.; Wiggs, B.; Belzberg, A.S.; Hogg, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Neutrophils may play a part in the pathogenesis of the centrilobular emphysema associated with cigarette smoking. The capillary bed of the lungs concentrates neutrophils approximately 100-fold with respect to erythrocytes, producing a large pool of marginated cells. We examined the effect of cigarette smoking on the kinetics of this pool of cells, using 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes to measure regional blood velocity and 111In-labeled neutrophils to measure the removal of neutrophils during the first passage through the pulmonary circulation, their subsequent washout from the lungs, and the effect of local blood velocity on the number of neutrophils retained in each lung region. We observed no difference in these measurements between subjects who had never smoked (n = 6) and smokers who did not smoke during the study (n = 12). However, subjects who did smoke during the study (n = 12) had a significantly slower rate of washout of radiolabeled neutrophils from the lung (0.08 +/- 0.04 of the total per minute, as compared with 0.13 +/- 0.06 in smokers who did not smoke during the experiment and 0.14 +/- 0.08 in non-smokers) (P = 0.02). We also observed an increase in the regional retention of labeled neutrophils with respect to blood velocity in 5 of the 12 subjects who smoked during the study, but in none of the other subjects. We conclude that the presence of cigarette smoke in the lungs of some subjects increases the local concentration of neutrophils, and suggest that the lesions that characterize emphysema may be a result of the destruction of lung tissue by neutrophils that remain within pulmonary microvessels

  19. Long-term health effects of thorium compounds on exposed workers: the complete blood count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conibear, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred seventy-three men exposed to thorium and other rare earths between 1940 and 1973 at a plant which refined monazite sand were studied at Argonne National Laboratory from 1976 to 1980. In vivo measurements of body burden were made by counting gamma rays emitted by daughter products of retained thorium and by measuring exhaled thoron. Health status was ascertained through questionnaire, physical examination, and clinical laboratory tests. Measured body burden was found to be higher in those with a history of longer exposure. All parameters of the complete blood count were examined for evidence of an effect due to thorium. Comparisons of high and low body burden groups showed that only age and cigarette smoking had an effect on complete blood count parameters

  20. Circulating neutrophil transcriptome may reveal intracranial aneurysm signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Tutino

    Full Text Available Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs are typically asymptomatic and undetected except for incidental discovery on imaging. Blood-based diagnostic biomarkers could lead to improvements in IA management. This exploratory study examined circulating neutrophils to determine whether they carry RNA expression signatures of IAs.Blood samples were collected from patients receiving cerebral angiography. Eleven samples were collected from patients with IAs and 11 from patients without IAs as controls. Samples from the two groups were paired based on demographics and comorbidities. RNA was extracted from isolated neutrophils and subjected to next-generation RNA sequencing to obtain differential expressions for identification of an IA-associated signature. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene set enrichment analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, were used to investigate the biological function of all differentially expressed transcripts.Transcriptome profiling identified 258 differentially expressed transcripts in patients with and without IAs. Expression differences were consistent with peripheral neutrophil activation. An IA-associated RNA expression signature was identified in 82 transcripts (p<0.05, fold-change ≥2. This signature was able to separate patients with and without IAs on hierarchical clustering. Furthermore, in an independent, unpaired, replication cohort of patients with IAs (n = 5 and controls (n = 5, the 82 transcripts separated 9 of 10 patients into their respective groups.Preliminary findings show that RNA expression from circulating neutrophils carries an IA-associated signature. These findings highlight a potential to use predictive biomarkers from peripheral blood samples to identify patients with IAs.

  1. NITRIC OXIDE ACTIVITY OF NEUTROPHIL IN BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OF THE CHILDREN WITH BACTERIAL AND VIRAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Molochniy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of nitric oxide activity of neutrophil leucocytic and freeradical processes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the children with bacterial and viral meningitison the acute period diseases. The peculiarities or activity of freeradical processes and nitric oxide of cerebrospinal fluid with bacterial meningitis in acute period diseases and activities of studies of ferments with the health children. 

  2. Association of peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts with obesity-related complications in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Aya; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Orito, Chieko; Kawahara, Yukako; Takasaki, Hiroyo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hashino, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be associated with elevated leukocytes in adults and children. This study assessed the associations between peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts and obesity-related complications in young adults. 12 obese (median age 21.5 (range 19-28) years, median BMI 35.7 (range 32.0-44.9) kg/m(2)) and 11 normal (median age 23 (range 18-27) years, median BMI 19.5 (range 18.1-21.7) kg/m(2)) adults were enrolled. Complete blood count and serum levels of liver enzymes, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Fat mass was calculated using a bioimpedance analysis device, and ultrasonography was performed to measure fat thickness and to detect fatty change of the liver. Total leukocyte and monocyte counts were significantly increased in obese young adults. Total leukocyte count was associated with liver enzyme levels, insulin resistance as well as visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness. Neutrophil count was associated with insulin resistance. Lymphocyte count was associated with serum liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Monocyte count was associated with serum liver enzyme, insulin resistance, visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, body fat mass, and percentage body fat. The results of this study suggest that chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in young adults. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Somatic cell count and milk neutrophil viability of dairy heifers with specific CXCR1 genotypes following experimental intramammary infection with Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Joren; Piccart, Kristine; Piepers, Sofie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; De Visscher, Anneleen; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-06-01

    Previous observational studies suggest an association between polymorphism c.980A>G in the CXCR1 gene, encoding the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1, and the innate immunity and infection status of the mammary gland. Mammary glands of eight Holstein heifers were experimentally infected with a Staphylococcus chromogenes isolate originating from a chronic intramammary infection (IMI) to study differences between CXCR1 genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG. Quarters from heifers with genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG developed subclinical mastitis but showed differences in the early response at 6-18 h post challenge. Bacterial count at 18 h post challenge tended to be higher in quarters from c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Somatic cell count (SCC) was higher at 6 h post challenge and tended to be higher at 9 h post challenge in c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Milk production decreased similarly. Milk neutrophils of c.980AG heifers showed more apoptosis at 9 h post challenge and tended to show more necrosis at 6, 9 and 12 h post challenge than c.980GG heifers. Differences were less pronounced in the later stage (>18 h) of infection. The results demonstrate that CXCR1 polymorphism can influence SCC and milk neutrophil viability following experimental IMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective inhibition of extracellular oxidants liberated from human neutrophils--A new mechanism potentially involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroxychloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančinová, Viera; Pažoureková, Silvia; Lucová, Marianna; Perečko, Tomáš; Mihalová, Danica; Bauerová, Katarína; Nosáľ, Radomír; Drábiková, Katarína

    2015-09-01

    Hydroxychloroquine is used in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis or lupus erythematosus. Although these diseases are often accompanied by activation of neutrophils, there are still few data relating to the impact of hydroxychloroquine on these cells. We investigated the effect of orally administered hydroxychloroquine on neutrophil oxidative burst in rats with adjuvant arthritis. In human neutrophils, extra- and intracellular formation of oxidants, mobilisation of intracellular calcium and the phosphorylation of proteins regulating NADPH oxidase assembly were analysed. Administration of hydroxychloroquine decreased the concentration of oxidants in blood of arthritic rats. The inhibition was comparable with the reference drug methotrexate, yet it was not accompanied by a reduction in neutrophil count. When both drugs were co-applied, the effect became more pronounced. In isolated human neutrophils, treatment with hydroxychloroquine resulted in reduced mobilisation of intracellular calcium, diminished concentration of external oxidants and in decreased phosphorylation of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C isoforms PKCα and PKCβII, which regulate activation of NADPH oxidase on plasma membrane. On the other hand, no reduction was observed in intracellular oxidants or in the phosphorylation of p40(phox) and PKCδ, two proteins directing the oxidase assembly to intracellular membranes. Hydroxychloroquine reduced neutrophil-derived oxidants potentially involved in tissue damage and protected those capable to suppress inflammation. The observed effects may represent a new mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of this drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive and automatic red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Zhou, Mei; Qiu, Song; Sun, Li; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cell counting, as a routine examination, plays an important role in medical diagnoses. Although automated hematology analyzers are widely used, manual microscopic examination by a hematologist or pathologist is still unavoidable, which is time-consuming and error-prone. This paper proposes a full-automatic red blood cell counting method which is based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging of blood smears and combines spatial and spectral information to achieve high precision. The acquired hyperspectral image data of the blood smear in the visible and near-infrared spectral range are firstly preprocessed, and then a quadratic blind linear unmixing algorithm is used to get endmember abundance images. Based on mathematical morphological operation and an adaptive Otsu’s method, a binaryzation process is performed on the abundance images. Finally, the connected component labeling algorithm with magnification-based parameter setting is applied to automatically select the binary images of red blood cell cytoplasm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can perform well and has potential for clinical applications.

  6. Serum progranulin as an indicator of neutrophilic airway inflammation and asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Hong, Gyong Hwa; Park, Sunjoo; Shin, Bomi; Yoon, Sun-Young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook

    2016-12-01

    Progranulin, a protein secreted from the airway epithelium, is known to attenuate the downstream cascade of neutrophilic inflammation in particular. We hypothesized that progranulin may have a role in inflammatory regulation in asthma. To investigate the association between serum progranulin levels and various clinical features in patients with asthma. Serum samples and clinical data of 475 patients with asthma and 35 healthy controls at a tertiary referral hospital and its affiliated health promotion center were collected. Serum progranulin levels were compared between patients with asthma and healthy controls and then were compared within the patients with asthma in terms of pulmonary function and measures of inflammatory status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of asthma. Serum progranulin levels were significantly lower in the asthma group than in healthy group and were positively correlated with prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second predicted within patients with asthma. We found a negative correlation between serum progranulin levels and blood neutrophil counts. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher serum progranulin levels were associated with a lower risk of severe asthma (odds ratio, 0.888; 95% confidence interval, 0.846-0.932; P progranulin remains unknown, we suggest that serum progranulin may be an indicator of severe asthma with airflow limitation. Future studies with comprehensive airway sampling strategies are warranted to clarify its role, particularly in neutrophilic asthma. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of vascular inflammation by nanoparticle targeting of adherent neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjia; Li, Jing; Cho, Jaehyung; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and ischaemic tissue injury are caused by the adhesion of a type of white blood cell--polymorphonuclear neutrophils--to the lining of the circulatory system or vascular endothelium and unchecked neutrophil transmigration. Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of activated neutrophils on vascular endothelial cells at the site of injury may be a useful means of directly inactivating neutrophil transmigration and hence mitigating vascular inflammation. Here, we report a method employing drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles, which efficiently deliver drugs into neutrophils adherent to the surface of the inflamed endothelium. Using intravital microscopy of tumour necrosis factor-α-challenged mouse cremaster post-capillary venules, we demonstrate that fluorescently tagged albumin nanoparticles are largely internalized by neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium via cell surface Fcɣ receptors. Administration of albumin nanoparticles loaded with the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, which blocks `outside-in' β2 integrin signalling in leukocytes, detached the adherent neutrophils and elicited their release into the circulation. Thus, internalization of drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles into neutrophils inactivates the pro-inflammatory function of activated neutrophils, thereby offering a promising approach for treating inflammatory diseases resulting from inappropriate neutrophil sequestration and activation.

  8. The influence of blood glucose on neutrophil function in individuals without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuriko; Takahashi, Ippei; Iwane, Kaori; Okubo, Noriyuki; Nishimura, Miya; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Wada, Naoko; Miwa, Takashi; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the association of neutrophil function with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in a Japanese general population. Participants were 809 males and females who were over 20 years old living in the Iwaki region in Aomori Prefecture located in northern Japan. Lifestyle parameters (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise habits), HbA1c and neutrophil function such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability and phagocytic activity (PA) were measured. ROS production capability was measured before and after phagocytic stimulus to obtain basal ROS production and stimulated ROS production. Level of HbA1c had a positive correlation with basal ROS production (p=0.053), a negative correlation with stimulated ROS production (p=0.072) and PA (p=0.059) only in post-menopausal groups, and not in pre-menopausal groups. However, there were no correlations between levels of HbA1c and neutrophil functions in male. In conclusion, in the present study, despite the presence of diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia was found to cause an increase in daily basal ROS production of neutrophils, and increased susceptibility to infection caused by reduced neutrophilic reaction in females in their menopause. Therefore, from the oxidative point of view, strict glycemic control is necessary to prevent post-menopausal females from developing diabetic complications in spite of the presence of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Biochemical changes in neutrophils of cervical cancer patients treated with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Vijayalakshmi; Gunalan, Gayathri; Haridas, Sumathy; Thangamani, Vanitha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most common malignancy of the female genital tract in India. The highest incidence occurs at Chennai. This study was conducted on 30 women with biopsy-proved squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix of stage IIb. The neutrophil count increased significantly in cancer patients compared to control subjects. Total protein, glycogen and total lipid increased in neutrophils of cervical cancer patients. The level of cholestrol, triglycerides and fatty acids increased significantly in neutrophils of such patients compared to control subjects. The activity of alkaline phosphatase increased significantly in cervical cancer patients. Upon treatment with cobalt-60, these changes were brought to near-normal levels. This study highlights the impairment in the neutrophil function in cervical cancer patients, which may lead to reduced immune status. (author)

  10. [Effect of intravenous treatment with OK-432 on the bone marrow in patients with lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M; Ishikawa, M; Toki, H

    1984-03-01

    We studied effects of OK-432 on the bone marrow and peripheral blood cells of lung cancer patients. The nuclear cell count of bone marrow increased in 5 to 7 patients upon intravenous treatment with OK-432 compared with 3 of 6 patients who were intramuscularly treated with OK-432. Serial neutrophil counts of bone marrow increased in all 7 patients treated intravenously compared with 3 of 6 patients treated intramuscularly. The mean nuclear cell count or the serial neutrophil count of bone marrow in intravenously treated patients was significantly higher than the pretreatment values (p less than 0.001). In the peripheral blood picture, the difference in white blood cells or neutrophils before and after intravenous treatment was also statistically significant (p less than 0.01). There was no change in the erythrocytic series count of bone marrow and the hemoglobin count. Our results support the superiority of intravenous OK-432 treatment over intramuscular treatment in the growth-accelerating effect on bone marrow cells, especially regarding the neutrophil series.

  11. The relationship between periodontal status and peripheral levels of neutrophils in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden

    2003-03-01

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.

  12. Association between red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbanraja, S. N.; Siregar, D. I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell indices, hemoglobin, and hematocrit reflect rapidity of HIV disease progression. This study aims to determine red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women. This study was a cross sectional study conducted at AIDS outpatient clinic at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan Indonesia. All seropositive reproductive women within antiretroviral therapy consented for blood count and CD4 examination. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. In subjects with CD4≤350 mm3, mean hemoglobin was 10.95 ± 2.01, hematocrit was 31.83 ± 5.04%, MCV was 84.17 ± 11.41, MCH was 25.98 ± 2.65, and MCHC was 32.18 ± 2.17. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCH value was significantly lower in subjects with CD4 ≤350 mm3 (p=0.014; p=0.001; p=0.01; respectively). Lower Hb, Ht, and MCH associated with thelower CD4 count.

  13. Differential Use of Human Neutrophil Fcγ Receptors for Inducing Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Omar Rafael; Mora, Nancy; Cortes-Vieyra, Ricarda; Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. PMN migrate from the circulation to sites of infection, where they are responsible for antimicrobial functions. PMN use phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to kill microbes. NETs are fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil-granule proteins. Several pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and also some pharmacological stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) are efficient inducers of NETs. Antigen-antibody complexes are also capable of inducing NET formation. However the particular Fcγ receptor involved in triggering this function is a matter of controversy. In order to provide some insight into what Fcγ receptor is responsible for NET formation, each of the two human Fcγ receptors was stimulated individually by specific monoclonal antibodies and NET formation was evaluated. FcγRIIa cross-linking did not promote NET formation. Cross-linking other receptors such as integrins also did not promote NET formation. In contrast FcγRIIIb cross-linking induced NET formation similarly to PMA stimulation. NET formation was dependent on NADPH-oxidase, PKC, and ERK activation. These data show that cross-linking FcγRIIIb is responsible for NET formation by the human neutrophil.

  14. Differential Use of Human Neutrophil Fcγ Receptors for Inducing Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rafael Alemán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils (PMN are the most abundant leukocytes in the blood. PMN migrate from the circulation to sites of infection, where they are responsible for antimicrobial functions. PMN use phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs to kill microbes. NETs are fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil-granule proteins. Several pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and also some pharmacological stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA are efficient inducers of NETs. Antigen-antibody complexes are also capable of inducing NET formation. However the particular Fcγ receptor involved in triggering this function is a matter of controversy. In order to provide some insight into what Fcγ receptor is responsible for NET formation, each of the two human Fcγ receptors was stimulated individually by specific monoclonal antibodies and NET formation was evaluated. FcγRIIa cross-linking did not promote NET formation. Cross-linking other receptors such as integrins also did not promote NET formation. In contrast FcγRIIIb cross-linking induced NET formation similarly to PMA stimulation. NET formation was dependent on NADPH-oxidase, PKC, and ERK activation. These data show that cross-linking FcγRIIIb is responsible for NET formation by the human neutrophil.

  15. Semiautomated Segmentation and Measurement of Cytoplasmic Vacuoles in a Neutrophil With General-Purpose Image Analysis Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Maki; Yamada, Misaki; Fukui, Sayaka; Fujimoto, Nao; Yoshida, Shigeru; Kaga, Sanae; Obata, Keiko; Jin, Shigeki; Miwa, Keiko; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2016-11-01

    Morphological observation of blood or marrow film is still described nonquantitatively. We developed a semiautomatic method for segmenting vacuoles from the cytoplasm using Photoshop (PS) and Image-J (IJ), called PS-IJ, and measured the relative entire cell area (rECA) and relative areas of vacuoles (rAV) in the cytoplasm of neutrophil with PS-IJ. Whole-blood samples were stored at 4°C with ethylenediaminetetraacetate and in two different preserving manners (P1 and P2). Color-tone intensity levels of neutrophil images were semiautomatically compensated using PS, and then vacuole portions were automatically segmented by IJ. The rAV and rECA were measured by counting pixels by IJ. For evaluating the accuracy in segmentations of vacuoles with PS-IJ, the rAV/rECA ratios calculated with results from PS-IJ were compared with those calculated with human eye and IJ (HE-IJ). The rECA and rAV/ in P1 significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.05) were enlarged and increased, but did not significantly (P = 0.46, P = 0.21) change in P2. The rAV/rECA ratios by PS-IJ were significantly correlated (r = 0.90, P < 0.01) with those by HE-IJ. PS-IJ method can successfully segment vacuoles and measure the rAV and rECA, becoming a useful tool for quantitative description of morphological observation of blood and marrow film. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Serial alterations in digital hemodynamics and endothelin-1 immunoreactivity, platelet-neutrophil aggregation, and concentrations of nitric oxide, insulin, and glucose in blood obtained from horses following carbohydrate overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Susan C; Stokes, Ashley M; Johnson, Philip J; LeBlanc, Casey J; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Buff, Preston R; Moore, Rustin M

    2007-01-01

    To quantify changes in endothelium-derived factors and relate those changes to various aspects of digital hemodynamics during the prodromal stages of carbohydrate overload (CHO)-induced laminitis in horses. 20 adult horses without abnormalities of the digit. Digital and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 1-hour intervals (for assessment of endothelin-1 [ET-1] immunoreactivity and measurement of glucose, insulin, and nitric oxide [NO] concentrations) or 4-hour intervals (CBC and platelet-neutrophil aggregate assessment) for 8 hours or 16 hours after induction of CHO-associated laminitis in horses treated with an ET-1 antagonist. Effects of treatment, collection site, and time and the random effects of horse on each variable were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures model. Where treatment and collection site had no significant effect, data were combined. Compared with baseline values, CHO resulted in changes in several variables, including a significant increase from baseline in digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity at 11 hours; digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity was significantly greater than that in jugular venous blood at 8, 9, 11, and 12 hours. Digital and jugular venous blood concentrations of glucose increased from baseline significantly at 3, 4, and 5 hours; insulin concentration increased significantly at 5 hours; and the number of platelet-neutrophil aggregates increased significantly at 12 hours. In horses, concurrent increases in venous blood ET-1 immunoreactivity, insulin and glucose concentrations, and platelet-neutrophil aggregates support a role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CHO-induced laminitis.

  17. Heterogeneity of neutrophil antibodies in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, A; Le Corre, R; Pennec, Y L; Cartron, J; Youinou, P

    1995-11-01

    Our aims were to determine the prevalence of neutrophil antibodies in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), identify their target antigen(s), and evaluate their functional significance. Neutrophil antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescence (IIIF) test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using recombinant human Fc-gamma receptor (Fc gamma RIIIb) as a capture agent. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was then measured by an established technique. Antibodies to neutrophils were detected in 30 of 66 patients (45%) and categorized on the basis of positivity for the two assays: IIF+/ELISA+ (group A: five patients), IIF+/ELISA- (group B: five patients), and IFF-/ELISA+ (group C: 20 patients). All positive sera contained antibodies directed to the neutrophil specific Fc gamma RIIIb, and none of them bound to NAnull neutrophils. The titer of neutrophil-reactive antibodies (groups A and B) showed no correlation with the neutrophil count, but these autoantibodies did reduce the cell ability to generate a respiratory burst. Thus, neutrophil antibodies are common in patients with pSS. Their main target appears to be Fc gamma RIII, and this may partly account for the dysfunction in Fc gamma R-mediated clearance by the reticuloendothelial system reported in these patients.

  18. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5%) does not change neutrophil oxidative burst or expression of endothelial adhesion molecules after abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Rasmussen, Torsten Bøgh; Krog, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of leukocyte and differential count, neutrophil membrane expression of endothelial adhesion molecules by flow cytometry, and O2- -generation by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome C. RESULTS: Surgery induced well-known changes in the number and distribution of white blood cells, reduced...... the expression of adhesion molecules, and halved the superoxide production unrelated to the tonicity or volume of the infused fluids. CONCLUSION: Infusion of a clinically relevant dose of hypertonic saline has no detectable effect on the membrane expression of endothelial adhesion molecules or O2- -generation...

  19. Blood eosinophil counts for the prediction of the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y I; Choi, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that airway eosinophilic inflammation is associated with the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Blood eosinophils are known to be an indirect marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study is to investigate that a simple and easy blood test for blood eosinphil counts may predict the severity of EIB in asthma. Seventy-seven men with perennial asthma (age range 18-23 years) were included. Lung function test, skin prick test, and blood tests for eosinophils counts and total IgE levels were performed. Methacholine bronchial provocation test and, 24 h later, free running test were carried out. EIB was defined as a 15% reduction or more in post-exercise FEV1 compared with pre-exercise FEV1 value. Atopy score was defined as a sum of mean wheal diameters to allergens. EIB was observed in 60 (78%) of 77 subjects. Asthmatics with EIB showed significantly increased percentages of eosinophils (P 700 microl(-1) (36.9 +/- 12.7%) had significantly greater maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise than asthmatics with eosinophils of 350 microl(-1) yielded the specificity of 88% and positive predictive value of 93% for the presence of EIB. When a multiple regression analysis of maximal % fall in FEV1 according to log eosinophil counts, log PC20, log IgE and atopy score was performed, only blood eosinophil counts were significant factor contributing to the maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise. These findings not only suggest that a simple blood test for eosinophils may be useful in the prediction of the severity of EIB, but also reinforce the view that airway eosinophilic inflammation may play a major role in EIB in asthma.

  20. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.C.; Baggio-Zappia, G.L.; Brunialti, M.K.C. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Assunçao, M.S.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, L.C.P. [Hospital Sírio Libanês, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Machado, F.R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salomao, R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-11

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated.

  1. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.C.; Baggio-Zappia, G.L.; Brunialti, M.K.C.; Assunçao, M.S.C.; Azevedo, L.C.P.; Machado, F.R.; Salomao, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated

  2. Is automated platelet counting still a problem in thrombocytopenic blood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Antônio Gomes Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Reliable platelet counting is crucial for indicating prophylactic platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision and accuracy of platelet counting for thrombocytopenic patients, using four different automated counters in comparison with the Brecher & Cronkite reference method recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH. TYPE OF STUDY: Automated platelet counting assessment in thrombocytopenic patients. SETTING: Hematology Laboratory, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, and the Hematology Division of Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Brecher & Cronkite reference method and four different automated platelet counters. PARTICIPANTS: 43 thrombocytopenic patients with platelet counts of less than 30,000/µl RESULTS: The ADVIA-120 (Bayer, Coulter STKS, H1 System (Technicom-Bayer and Coulter T-890 automatic instruments presented great precision and accuracy in relation to laboratory thrombocytopenic samples obtained by diluting blood from normal donors. However, when thrombocytopenic patients were investigated, all the counters except ADVIA (which is based on volume and refraction index showed low accuracy when compared to the Brecher & Cronkite reference method (ICSH. The ADVIA counter showed high correlation (r = 0.947. However, all counters showed flags in thrombocytopenic samples. CONCLUSION: The Brecher & Cronkite reference method should always be indicated in thrombocytopenic patients for platelet counts below 30,000 plt /µl obtained in one dimensional counters.

  3. Radioprotective effect of both vitamins E and / or C on some blood components of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, W.A.; El-Daway, H.A.E.; Tawfik, S.S.M.; Soliman, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The protective effects of vitamin C and/or vitamin E on some blood components and serum level of thiobarbituric reactive substances (as indicator to level of lipid peroxidation) of irradiated male mice at dose 3 Gy sacrificed after 15,24 and 46 days of irradiation have been assessed in comparison with control and non-irradiated-treated with vitamin C and/or vitamin E groups. Vit. C, vit. E or in combination decreased the effect of irradiation on blood components and the level of thiobarbituric reactive substances, but average haemoglobin level RBC count, total WBC count, neutrophil count and lymphocyte count did not reach to the original average level even after 36 days of irradiation. Vit. E had a more protective effect than vit. C in case of total white blood cells, while vit. C was more protective in case of lymphocyte count. The combination of vitamins C and E had more protective effect than either of both vitamins alone. The decrease in lipid peroxidation products due to administration of vit. E and vit. C as antioxidants supported the theory that lipid peroxidation increased due to free radicals induced by irradiation

  4. Biomaterial-induced alterations of neutrophil superoxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S S; Basford, R E; Mora, E; Jeong, M H; Simmons, R L

    1992-08-01

    Because periprosthetic infection remains a vexing problem for patients receiving implanted devices, we evaluated the effect of several materials on neutrophil free radical production. Human peripheral blood neutrophils were incubated with several sterile, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free biomaterials used in surgically implantable prosthetic devices: polyurethane, woven dacron, and velcro. Free radical formation as the superoxide (O2-) anion was evaluated by cytochrome c reduction in neutrophils that were exposed to the materials and then removed and in neutrophils allowed to remain in association with the materials. Neutrophils exposed to polyurethane or woven dacron for 30 or 60 min and then removed consistently exhibited an enhanced release of O2- after simulation via receptor engagement with formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Enhanced reactivity to stimulation via protein kinase C with phorbol myristate acetate, however, was not consistently observed. The cells evaluated for O2- release during continuous association with the biomaterials showed enhanced metabolic activity during short periods of association (especially with polyurethane and woven dacron). Although O2- release by neutrophils in association with these materials decreased with longer periods of incubation, it was not obliterated. These studies, therefore, show that several commonly used biomaterials activate neutrophils soon after exposure and that this activated state diminishes with prolonged exposure but nevertheless remains measurable. The diminishing level of activity with prolonged exposure, however, suggests that ultimately a depletion of reactivity may occur and may result in increased susceptibility to periprosthetic infection.

  5. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information

  6. Meningeal mast cells affect early T cell central nervous system infiltration and blood-brain barrier integrity through TNF: a role for neutrophil recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Blayne A; Christy, Alison L; Walker, Margaret E; Brown, Melissa A

    2010-06-15

    Mast cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a rodent model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Yet their site and mode of action is unknown. In both diseases, myelin-specific T cells are initially activated in peripheral lymphoid organs. However, for disease to occur, these cells must enter the immunologically privileged CNS through a breach in the relatively impermeable blood-brain barrier. In this study, we demonstrate that a dense population of resident mast cells in the meninges, structures surrounding the brain and spinal cord, regulate basal CNS barrier function, facilitating initial T cell CNS entry. Through the expression of TNF, mast cells recruit an early wave of neutrophils to the CNS. We propose that neutrophils in turn promote the blood-brain barrier breach and together with T cells lead to further inflammatory cell influx and myelin damage. These findings provide specific targets for intervention in multiple sclerosis as well as other immune-mediated CNS diseases.

  7. Effect of scaling and root planing on blood counts in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis

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    Devinder Singh Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many systemic diseases have been implicated as risk factors in periodontal disease. Studies suggest that periodontal infection can adversely affect systemic health; by inference periodontal disease will also have an effect on blood values, but the data available is not conclusive. Aim: This clinical study was designed to evaluate the effect of treatment of plaque induced periodontitis on commonly assessed blood parameters. Materials and Method: 37 males and 31 females aged between 20 and 50 years in good general health but suffering from plaque induced chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The selected patients were assessed for ESR, TLC, PMN count, lymphocyte count from DLC, HB, BT and their periodontal condition before the start of the study. SCRP was carried out and patients were reassessed for the same clinical and hematological parameters 21 days after the periodontal therapy (SCRP. Results: A highly significant reduction in the counts of PMNs and the values of ESI was seen after SCRP. Furthermore a significant reduction in TLC, lymphocytes count, and BT and a non significant decrease in Hb were also observed. Conclusion: SCRP done in patients of chronic periodontitis has a considerable affect on the assessed blood parameters.

  8. Study on the peripheral white blood cell count in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with microangiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wenpin; Zhu Pinghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible role played by peripheral white blood cells in the development of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and complication of microvascular pathological changes. Methods: White blood cell count and metabolism related parameters (FBG, 2hPBG, 2h Pinsulin, TCH, HDL, LDL, TG, HbA1c, BMI, age) were examined in 33 DM2 patients without complication, 41 DM2 patients with micro-angiopathy and 31 controls. Results: The white blood cell counts in both DM2 patients with no complication and the DM2 with microvascular pathological changes were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). The white blood cell counts were positively correlated with age,body metabolism index (BMI), triglyceride (TG), 2h glucose (PBG) and 2h insulin (the r value 0.248, 0.201, 0.435, 0.225, 0.352 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion: Peripheral white blood cells possibly played some role in development of DM2 and microvascular pathological changes and might be of some predictive importance. (authors)

  9. Detection of anti-neutrophil antibodies in autoimmune neutropenia of infancy: a multicenter study.

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    Sella, Ruti; Flomenblit, Lena; Goldstein, Itamar; Kaplinsky, Chaim

    2010-02-01

    Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy is caused by neutrophil-specific autoantibodies. Primary AIN is characterized by neutrophil count familial or congenital neutropenias. To further assure the quality of the new test, we retested six samples previously tested by the gold standard method. All medical files were screened and clinical outcomes were recorded. Our method showed specificity of 85%, sensitivity of 62.5%, and a positive predictive value of 91.8%, values quite similar to those obtained by more traditional methods. The new method showed high specificity for detection of anti-neutrophil antibodies in the appropriate clinical setting and could be an effective tool for clinical decision making.

  10. Autophagy Primes Neutrophils for Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation during Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Youn, Young-Jin; Kim, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Hee; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Park, Yong Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Yousang; Lee, Suh-Young; Koh, Younsuck; Park, Myung Jae; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2017-09-01

    Neutrophils are key effectors in the host's immune response to sepsis. Excessive stimulation or dysregulated neutrophil functions are believed to be responsible for sepsis pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating functional plasticity of neutrophils during sepsis have not been fully determined. We investigated the role of autophagy in neutrophil functions during sepsis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Neutrophils were isolated from patients with sepsis and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The levels of reactive oxygen species generation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and granule release, and the autophagic status were evaluated. The effect of neutrophil autophagy augmentation was further evaluated in a mouse model of sepsis. Neutrophils isolated from patients who survived sepsis showed an increase in autophagy induction, and were primed for NET formation in response to subsequent PMA stimulation. In contrast, neutrophils isolated from patients who did not survive sepsis showed dysregulated autophagy and a decreased response to PMA stimulation. The induction of autophagy primed healthy neutrophils for NET formation and vice versa. In a mouse model of sepsis, the augmentation of autophagy improved survival via a NET-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that neutrophil autophagy primes neutrophils for increased NET formation, which is important for proper neutrophil effector functions during sepsis. Our study provides important insights into the role of autophagy in neutrophils during sepsis.

  11. Interval and continuous exercise regimens suppress neutrophil-derived microparticle formation and neutrophil-promoted thrombin generation under hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Ho, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-04-01

    Acute hypoxic exposure increases vascular thrombotic risk. The release of procoagulant-rich microparticles from neutrophils accelerates the pathogenesis of inflammatory thrombosis. The present study explicates the manner in which interval and continuous exercise regimens affect neutrophil-derived microparticle (NDMP) formation and neutrophil/NDMP-mediated thrombin generation (TG) under hypoxic condition. A total of 60 sedentary males were randomized to perform either aerobic interval training [AIT; 3-min intervals at 40% and 80% V̇O2max (maximal O2 consumption)] or moderate continuous training (MCT; sustained 60% V̇O2max) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks, or to a control (CTL) group who did not receive any form of training. At rest and immediately after hypoxic exercise test (HE, 100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min), the NDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. Before the intervention, HE (i) elevated coagulant factor VIII/fibrinogen concentrations and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), (ii) increased total and tissue factor (TF)-rich/phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed NDMP counts and (iii) enhanced the peak height and rate of TG promoted by neutrophils/NDMPs. Following the 5-week intervention, AIT exhibited higher enhancement of V̇O2max than did MCT. Notably, both MCT and AIT attenuated the extents of HE-induced coagulant factor VIII/fibrinogen elevations and aPTT shortening. Furthermore, the two exercise regimens significantly decreased TF-rich/PS-exposed NDMP formation and depressed neutrophil/NDMP-mediated dynamic TG at rest and following HE. Hence, we conclude that AIT is superior to MCT for enhancing aerobic capacity. Moreover, either AIT or MCT effectively ameliorates neutrophil/NDMP-promoted TG by down-regulating expression of procoagulant factors during HE, which may reduce thrombotic risk evoked by hypoxia. Moreover, either AIT or MCT effectively ameliorates neutrophil

  12. Potentially pathogenic airway bacteria and neutrophilic inflammation in treatment resistant severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benjamin J; Wiriyachaiporn, Surasa; Grainge, Christopher; Rogers, Geraint B; Kehagia, Valia; Lau, Laurie; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce, Kenneth D; Howarth, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Molecular microbiological analysis of airway samples in asthma has demonstrated an altered microbiome in comparison to healthy controls. Such changes may have relevance to treatment-resistant severe asthma, particularly those with neutrophilic airway inflammation, as bacteria might be anticipated to activate the innate immune response, a process that is poorly steroid responsive. An understanding of the relationship between airway bacterial presence and dominance in severe asthma may help direct alternative treatment approaches. We aimed to use a culture independent analysis strategy to describe the presence, dominance and abundance of bacterial taxa in induced sputum from treatment resistant severe asthmatics and correlate findings with clinical characteristics and airway inflammatory markers. Induced sputum was obtained from 28 stable treatment-resistant severe asthmatics. The samples were divided for supernatant IL-8 measurement, cytospin preparation for differential cell count and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling for bacterial community analysis. In 17/28 patients, the dominant species within the airway bacterial community was Moraxella catarrhalis or a member of the Haemophilus or Streptococcus genera. Colonisation with these species was associated with longer asthma disease duration (mean (SD) 31.8 years (16.7) vs 15.6 years (8.0), p = 0.008), worse post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 (68.0% (24.0) vs 85.5% (19.7), p = 0.025) and higher sputum neutrophil differential cell counts (median (IQR) 80% (67-83) vs 43% (29-67), p = 0.001). Total abundance of these organisms significantly and positively correlated with sputum IL-8 concentration and neutrophil count. Airway colonisation with potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in asthma is associated with more severe airways obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. This altered colonisation may have a role in the development of an asthma phenotype that

  13. CORD BLOOD NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELL COUNT: A SIMPLE BEDSIDE TEST OF PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH IMMEDIATE OUTCOME

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    Ramesh Chand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Asphyxia is a leading cause of foetal neonatal mortality and morbidity. Nucleated red blood cell count (NRBC produced as compensatory response to asphyxia in foetus and NRBC level can be correlated to asphyxia. Because the present indices are unhelpful in the diagnosis and prediction of the severity of asphyxia, we wished to investigate the relationship between the nucleated RBC count and the severity & immediate outcome of perinatal asphyxia. METHOD This prospective comparative study was conducted in maternity ward of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department and Paediatric Department of GSVM Medical College, Kanpur (Central UP, from January 2014 to September 2014. Newborns of term gestation were selected after satisfying inclusion criteria and were divided in 2 groups. The control group consisted 60 normal newborns and case group had 60 asphyxiated newborns. The cord blood was collected soon after birth, investigated for pH and making smears that were stained with Leishman’s stain. NRBCs were counted against 100 WBCs. The statistical analysis was done using IMSTAT. RESULTS The mean NRBC count in the study group was 22.63±6.95 as compared to 4.75±2.04 in the control group (p=<0.0001. The NRBC count was significantly higher in low pH, neonates with low Apgar scores of < 3 at 1 minutes, newborns with HIE stage III & in neonates who were neurological abnormal at discharge (P=0.0001. CONCLUSIONS A simple, easy to do, cost effective bedside test, such as NRBC count at time of delivery is a good marker of perinatal asphyxia & its forthcoming immediate neurological outcome.

  14. Chemokine receptor Ccr1 drives neutrophil-mediated kidney immunopathology and mortality in invasive candidiasis.

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    Michail S Lionakis

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is the 4(th leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1(lo to Ccr1(high at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1(+/+ and Ccr1(-/- donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1(+/+ recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1(+/+ cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ.

  15. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

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    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  16. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  17. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in predicting prognosis and course of community community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients.

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    T. O. Pertseva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a marker which could be used both to assess the severity of community acquired pneumonia (CAP and determine the risk of complications is being searched. According to some authors, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR could be such a marker. Therefore, the aim of our research was to determine the diagnostic significance of NLR in patients with CAP and to establish the relationship of NLR with other clinical and laboratory parameters. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 171 case histories of patients with CAP of 3 and 4 clinical groups, with the calculation of NLR (according to the common blood count. In the course of the work, it was found that NLR reflects a balance between the response of neutrophils and lymphocytes and this parameter is associated with the severity of systemic inflammation in patients with CAP. NLR has good diagnostic value in determining the mortality risk in patients with CAP, specially an increase in the level of NLR (more than 10 is associated with a high risk of life-threatening complications.

  18. d(−) Lactic Acid-Induced Adhesion of Bovine Neutrophils onto Endothelial Cells Is Dependent on Neutrophils Extracellular Traps Formation and CD11b Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Alarcón; Carolina Manosalva; Carolina Manosalva; Ivan Conejeros; María D. Carretta; Tamara Muñoz-Caro; Liliana M. R. Silva; Anja Taubert; Carlos Hermosilla; María A. Hidalgo; Rafael A. Burgos

    2017-01-01

    Bovine ruminal acidosis is of economic importance as it contributes to reduced milk and meat production. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to an overload of highly fermentable carbohydrate, resulting in increased d(−) lactic acid levels in serum and plasma. Ruminal acidosis correlates with elevated acute phase proteins in blood, along with neutrophil activation and infiltration into various tissues leading to laminitis and aseptic polysynovitis. Previous studies in bovine neutrophils indic...

  19. Neutropenia Prediction Based on First-Cycle Blood Counts Using a FOS-3NN Classifier

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    Elize A. Shirdel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delivery of full doses of adjuvant chemotherapy on schedule is key to optimal breast cancer outcomes. Neutropenia is a serious complication of chemotherapy and a common barrier to this goal, leading to dose reductions or delays in treatment. While past research has observed correlations between complete blood count data and neutropenic events, a reliable method of classifying breast cancer patients into low- and high-risk groups remains elusive. Patients and Methods. Thirty-five patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer under the care of a single oncologist are examined in this study. FOS-3NN stratifies patient risk based on complete blood count data after the first cycle of treatment. All classifications are independent of breast cancer subtype and clinical markers, with risk level determined by the kinetics of patient blood count response to the first cycle of treatment. Results. In an independent test set of patients unseen by FOS-3NN, 19 out of 21 patients were correctly classified (Fisher’s exact test probability P<0.00023 [2 tailed], Matthews’ correlation coefficient +0.83. Conclusions. We have developed a model that accurately predicts neutropenic events in a population treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the first cycle of a 6-cycle treatment.

  20. The Combination of Platelet Count and Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Is a Predictive Factor in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Ji-Feng Feng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC were investigated and compared. METHODS: This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/l and hypoalbuminemia (300 × 109/l and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (>3 were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. RESULTS: The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P < .001. The 5-year CSS in patients with COP-NLR0, 1, and 2 was 51.8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < .001. Multivariate analysis showed that both GPS (P = .003 and COP-NLR (P = .003 were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367. CONCLUSIONS: COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  1. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

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    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  2. Suppressed neutrophil function in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumiko; Goto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Naruto, Takuya; Nishimaki, Shigeru; Yokota, Shumpei

    2009-10-01

    Infection is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. Neutropenia has been considered to be the most important risk factor for severe infection; however, other factors, such as impaired neutrophil function, may be involved in susceptibility to infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this study, we analyzed neutrophil function in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Whole blood samples were obtained from 16 children with ALL at diagnosis, after induction chemotherapy, and after consolidation chemotherapy. Oxidative burst and phagocytic activity of neutrophils were analyzed by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst of neutrophils was impaired in ALL patients. The percentage of neutrophils with normal oxidative burst after PMA stimulation was 59.0 +/- 13.2 or 70.0 +/- 21.0% at diagnosis or after induction chemotherapy, respectively, which was significantly lower compared with 93.8 +/- 6.1% in healthy control subjects (P = 0.00004, or 0.002, respectively); however, this value was normal after consolidation chemotherapy. No significant differences were noted in phagocytic activity in children with ALL compared with healthy control subjects. Impaired oxidative burst of neutrophils may be one risk factor for infections in children with ALL, especially in the initial periods of treatment.

  3. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  4. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of adequacy of hematopoietic stem cell collection for autologous transplantation

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    Combariza, Juan F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to carry out an autologous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells should be mobilized to peripheral blood and later collected by apheresis. The CD34+ cell count is a tool to establish the optimal time to begin the apheresis procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between peripheral blood CD34+ cell count and the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Materials and methods: A predictive test evaluation study was carried out to establish the usefulness of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of successful stem cell collection in patients that will receive an autologous transplantation. Results: 77 patients were included (median age: 49 years; range: 5-66. The predominant baseline diagnosis was lymphoma (53.2 %. The percentage of patients with successful harvest of hematopoietic stem cells was proportional to the number of CD34+cells in peripheral blood at the end of the mobilization procedure. We propose that more than 15 CD34+cells/μL must be present in order to achieve an adequate collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Conclusion: Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count is a useful tool to predict the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells.

  5. Effect of the addition of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC for up to 7 days

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    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complete blood count is one of the most common routine tests. This study aimed to evaluate possible effects of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC over seven days. METHODS: Venous blood samples of 25 healthy males were distributed into two sets of tubes with each set of four tubes containing 50 µL of solutions with zero, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, 10 g/L taurine. The tubes were kept at room temperature or at 4ºC. Complete blood counts were performed on seven successive days. The mean percentage changes [Δ = (mean value - mean baseline value / mean baseline value x 100] were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Complete blood count parameters exhibited different patterns of behavior which were affected by the storage temperature, time and taurine concentration. Taurine at room temperature significantly enhancedthe stability of: the platelet count over seven days (Δ7 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 5.45, 6.11, and 5.80 x 10(9 cells/L, respectively; the red blood cell count over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 1.59, 2.79, and 1.98 x 10(12 cells/L, respectively; mean corpuscular hemoglobin over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were -0.91,-1.52 and -0.84 fl respectively; and red cell distribution width over two days (Δ2 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 0.90%, 1.30% and -0.1%, respectively. No additional stabilizing effects of taurine were reported for the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and hemoglobin, while it negatively affected the white blood cell stability. CONCLUSION: Complete blood count parameters exhibited variable stability patterns in respect to temperature, time and taurine concentration.

  6. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (Pissues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis (AA is not uncommon during pregnancy but can be difficult to diagnose. This study evaluated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR in addition to conventional diagnostic indicators of the disease to diagnose AA during pregnancy. Age, gestational age, white blood cell (WBC count, Alvarado scores, C-reactive protein (CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR were compared among 28 pregnant women who underwent surgery for AA, 35 pregnant women wrongly suspected as having AA, 29 healthy pregnant women, and 30 nonpregnant healthy women. Mean WBC counts and CRP levels were higher in women with proven AA than in those of control groups (all p < 0.05. Among all the groups, the median NLR and PLR were significantly different in women with proven AA (all p < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine cut-off values for WBC count, CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR and PLR used with routine methods could diagnose AA with 90.5% accuracy. Used in addition to routine diagnostic methods, NLR and PLR increased the accuracy of the diagnosis of AA in pregnant women.

  8. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation in supragingival biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Josefine; Dommisch, Henrik; Skora, Philipp; Horvath, Gabor; Latz, Eicke; Hoerauf, Achim; Waller, Tobias; Kawai, Toshihisa; Jepsen, Søren; Deschner, James; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Oral biofilms are the causative agents of the highly prevalent oral diseases periodontitis and caries. Additionally, the host immune response is thought to play a critical role in disease onset. Neutrophils are known to be a key host response factor to bacterial challenge on host surfaces. Release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a novel antimicrobial defense strategy has gained increasing attention in the past years. Here, we investigated the influx of neutrophils into the dental plaque and the ability of oral bacteria to trigger intra-biofilm release of NETs and intracellular proteins. Supragingival biofilms and whole saliva were sampled from systemically healthy subjects participating in an experimental gingivitis study. Biofilms were analysed by immunofluorescence followed by confocal and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, concentrations of cytokines and immune-associated proteins in biofilm suspensions and saliva were assessed by ELISA. Neutrophils obtained from blood were stimulated with twelve bacterial species isolated from cultured biofilms or with lipopolysaccharide to monitor NET formation. Neutrophils, NETs, neutrophil-associated proteins (myeloperoxidase, elastase-2, cathepsin G, cathelicidin LL-37), interleukin-8, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor were detected within plaque samples and saliva. All tested bacterial species as well as the polymicrobial samples isolated from the plaque of each donor induced release of NETs and interleukin-8. The degree of NET formation varied among different subjects and did not correlate with plaque scores or clinical signs of local inflammation. Our findings indicate that neutrophils are attracted towards dental biofilms, in which they become incorporated and where they are stimulated by microbes to release NETs and immunostimulatory proteins. Thus, neutrophils and NETs may be involved in host biofilm control, although their specific role needs to be further elucidated. Moreover, inter

  9. Use of hematological parameters in evaluation of treatment efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Bilal Sula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we investigated the role of hematological parameters, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width in the evaluation of treatment efficacy in adult patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: The study group included 45 adult patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and treated as inpatients in the dermatology clinic between 2011 and 2014. A group of 45 healthy adults served as a control group. Results: Pre- and post-treatment white blood cell count, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly reduced among the patient group relative to the control group. Platelet distribution width, red cell distribution width, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio were significantly elevated among the patients compared to the healthy subjects. Pre-treatment white blood cell, lymphocyte and platelet counts were significantly elevated compared to post-treatment counts among the patient cohort. Treatment was associated with reduced eosinophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio relative to pre-treatment status. Conclusion: Routine hematological testing results such as platelet/lymphocyte ratio, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, red cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume may be clinically significant markers of the inflammatory state useful in the evaluation of early treatment efficacy among patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 167-172

  10. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count probability, white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability, the estimated risk of AAS based on the number of alterations amongst white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  11. Short-term exposure of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor early in culture improves ex vivo expansion of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturana, Flavia; Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2011-03-01

    Despite the availability of modern antibiotics/antimycotics and cytokine support, neutropenic infection accounts for the majority of chemotherapy-associated deaths. While transfusion support with donor neutrophils is possible, cost and complicated logistics make such an option unrealistic on a routine basis. A manufactured neutrophil product could enable routine prophylactic administration of neutrophils, preventing the onset of neutropenia and substantially reducing the risk of infection. We examined the use of pre-culture strategies and various cytokine/modulator combinations to improve neutrophil expansion from umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC). Enriched UCB HPC were cultured using either two-phase pre-culture strategies or a single phase using various cytokine/modulator combinations. Outcome was assessed with respect to numerical expansion, cell morphology, granulation and respiratory burst activity. Pre-culture in the absence of strong differentiation signals (e.g. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; G-CSF) failed to provide any improvement to final neutrophil yields. Similarly, removal of differentiating cells during pre-culture failed to improve neutrophil yields to an appreciable extent. Of the cytokine/modulator combinations, the addition of granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF) alone gave the greatest increase. In order to avoid production of monocytes, it was necessary to remove GM-CSF on day 5. Using this strategy, neutrophil expansion improved 2.7-fold. Although all cytokines and culture strategies employed have been reported previously to enhance HPC expansion, we found that the addition of GM-CSF alone was sufficient to improve total cell yields maximally. The need to remove GM-CSF on day 5 to avoid monocyte differentiation highlights the context and time-dependent complexity of exogenous signaling in hematopoietic cell differentiation and growth.

  12. Survival and function of phagocytes in blood culture media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T K; Prag, J; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    The survival and function of human phagocytes in sterile aerobic and anaerobic blood culture media were investigated using neutrophil morphology, white blood cell count in a haemoanalyser, flow cytometry, oxidative burst response, and bactericidal effect in Colorbact and Septi-Chek blood culture...... media and Bact/Alert. When comparing agitation to stationary incubation no difference in phagocytic activity was found. The methods showed the same trends demonstrating that the phagocytes' viability and activity were prolonged by oxygen and shortened by anaerobic conditions and sodium polyethanol...... sulfonate (SPS). Best preserved activity and viability were found in the aerobic media containing less than 0.5 g/l SPS, in which significant phagocyte oxidative burst and bactericidal activity were found up to 4 days after inoculation. Considering that the majority of bacteremias are due to aerobic...

  13. Chemokine Receptor Ccr1 Drives Neutrophil-Mediated Kidney Immunopathology and Mortality in Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Wan, Wuzhou; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Scheinberg, Phillip; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is the 4th leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1lo to Ccr1high at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1+/+ and Ccr1−/− donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1+/+ recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1+/+ cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ. PMID:22916017

  14. Association of microparticles and neutrophil activation with decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Stephen R; Bennett, Michael; Banham, Neil D; Chin, Walter; Blake, Denise F; Rosen, Anders; Pollock, Neal W; Madden, Dennis; Barak, Otto; Marroni, Alessandro; Balestra, Costantino; Germonpre, Peter; Pieri, Massimo; Cialoni, Danilo; Le, Phi-Nga Jeannie; Logue, Christopher; Lambert, David; Hardy, Kevin R; Sward, Douglas; Yang, Ming; Bhopale, Veena B; Dujic, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a systemic disorder, assumed due to gas bubbles, but additional factors are likely to play a role. Circulating microparticles (MPs)--vesicular structures with diameters of 0.1-1.0 μm--have been implicated, but data in human divers have been lacking. We hypothesized that the number of blood-borne, Annexin V-positive MPs and neutrophil activation, assessed as surface MPO staining, would differ between self-contained underwater breathing-apparatus divers suffering from DCS vs. asymptomatic divers. Blood was analyzed from 280 divers who had been exposed to maximum depths from 7 to 105 meters; 185 were control/asymptomatic divers, and 90 were diagnosed with DCS. Elevations of MPs and neutrophil activation occurred in all divers but normalized within 24 h in those who were asymptomatic. MPs, bearing the following proteins: CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142, CD235, and von Willebrand factor, were between 2.4- and 11.7-fold higher in blood from divers with DCS vs. asymptomatic divers, matched for time of sample acquisition, maximum diving depth, and breathing gas. Multiple logistic regression analysis documented significant associations (P < 0.001) between DCS and MPs and for neutrophil MPO staining. Effect estimates were not altered by gender, body mass index, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or emergency oxygen treatment and were modestly influenced by divers' age, choice of breathing gas during diving, maximum diving depth, and whether repetitive diving had been performed. There were no significant associations between DCS and number of MPs without surface proteins listed above. We conclude that MP production and neutrophil activation exhibit strong associations with DCS. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Ensemble models of neutrophil trafficking in severe sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ok Song

    Full Text Available A hallmark of severe sepsis is systemic inflammation which activates leukocytes and can result in their misdirection. This leads to both impaired migration to the locus of infection and increased infiltration into healthy tissues. In order to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved, we developed a coarse-grained phenomenological model of the acute inflammatory response in CLP (cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in rats. This model incorporates distinct neutrophil kinetic responses to the inflammatory stimulus and the dynamic interactions between components of a compartmentalized inflammatory response. Ensembles of model parameter sets consistent with experimental observations were statistically generated using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampling. Prediction uncertainty in the model states was quantified over the resulting ensemble parameter sets. Forward simulation of the parameter ensembles successfully captured experimental features and predicted that systemically activated circulating neutrophils display impaired migration to the tissue and neutrophil sequestration in the lung, consequently contributing to tissue damage and mortality. Principal component and multiple regression analyses of the parameter ensembles estimated from survivor and non-survivor cohorts provide insight into pathologic mechanisms dictating outcome in sepsis. Furthermore, the model was extended to incorporate hypothetical mechanisms by which immune modulation using extracorporeal blood purification results in improved outcome in septic rats. Simulations identified a sub-population (about 18% of the treated population that benefited from blood purification. Survivors displayed enhanced neutrophil migration to tissue and reduced sequestration of lung neutrophils, contributing to improved outcome. The model ensemble presented herein provides a platform for generating and testing hypotheses in silico, as well as motivating further experimental

  16. d(− Lactic Acid-Induced Adhesion of Bovine Neutrophils onto Endothelial Cells Is Dependent on Neutrophils Extracellular Traps Formation and CD11b Expression

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    Pablo Alarcón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ruminal acidosis is of economic importance as it contributes to reduced milk and meat production. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to an overload of highly fermentable carbohydrate, resulting in increased d(− lactic acid levels in serum and plasma. Ruminal acidosis correlates with elevated acute phase proteins in blood, along with neutrophil activation and infiltration into various tissues leading to laminitis and aseptic polysynovitis. Previous studies in bovine neutrophils indicated that d(− lactic acid decreased expression of L-selectin and increased expression of CD11b to concentrations higher than 6 mM, suggesting a potential role in neutrophil adhesion onto endothelia. The two aims of this study were to evaluate whether d(− lactic acid influenced neutrophil and endothelial adhesion and to trigger neutrophil extracellular trap (NET production (NETosis in exposed neutrophils. Exposure of bovine neutrophils to 5 mM d(− lactic acid elevated NET release compared to unstimulated neutrophil negative controls. Moreover, this NET contains CD11b and histone H4 citrullinated, the latter was dependent on PAD4 activation, a critical enzyme in DNA decondensation and NETosis. Furthermore, NET formation was dependent on d(− lactic acid plasma membrane transport through monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1. d(− lactic acid enhanced neutrophil adhesion onto endothelial sheets as demonstrated by in vitro neutrophil adhesion assays under continuous physiological flow conditions, indicating that cell adhesion was a NET- and a CD11b/ICAM-1-dependent process. Finally, d(− lactic acid was demonstrated for the first time to trigger NETosis in a PAD4- and MCT1-dependent manner. Thus, d(− lactic acid-mediated neutrophil activation may contribute to neutrophil-derived pro-inflammatory processes, such as aseptic laminitis and/or polysynovitis in animals suffering acute ruminal acidosis.

  17. Could Neutrophil CD64 Expression Be Used as a Diagnostic Parameter of Bacteremia in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia?

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    Nur Efe İris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if neutrophil CD64 expression in febrile neutropenia patients could be used as an early indicator of bacteremia. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients older than 18 years of age who had developed febrile neutropenia episodes due to hematological malignancies were included in the study. Those patients who had significant growth in their blood cultures constituted the case group, while those who had febrile neutropenia without any growth in their cultures and who did not have any documented infections formed the control group. Blood culture bottles were incubated in the Bact ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France, identification and susceptibility testing were performed using an automated broth microdilution method (VITEK 2, bioMerieux, and CD64 expression analysis was performed by the flow cytometry method. C-reactive protein (CRP was measured by turbidimetric methods (Biosystems, Spain and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was measured by the Wintrobe method. Results: In total, we prospectively evaluated 31 febrile episodes. The case group consisted of 17 patients while the control group included 14 patients. CD64 was found on neutrophils of the case group patients with a mean count of 8006 molecules/cell and of control group with a mean count of 2786 molecules/cell. CD64 levels of the case group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p=0.005. In the differentiation of the case group from the control group, a 2500 cut-off value for CD64 had significant [AUC=0.792 (0.619-0.965] predictive value (p=0.001. In the prediction of patients with a 2500 cut-off value for CD64, sensitivity was 94.1%, positive predictive value was 76.2%, specificity was 64.3%, and negative predictive value was 90.0%. CRP levels and ESR values did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.005. Conclusion: Neutrophil CD64 expression could be a good predictor as an immune parameter with

  18. Application of blood cell count and retrospective biodosimetry for health protection in industrial radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Jae; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yang, Soo San; Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Young Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Industrial radiography is known to be one of the most vulnerable lines of work among the range of different radiation work. According to the relevant law in Korea, every worker registered in this work should check their blood cell counts every year in addition to their thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses. Cytogenetic dosimetry has been employed for several decades as a method for estimating the dose of ionizing radiation (IR) received by an individual. In cases of recent acute exposure, the most reliable method is to score dicentric chromosomes in solid-stained metaphase cells. Dicentric aberrations are unstable because their frequency decrease with time after IR exposure. The purpose of the present study was to review the effectiveness of the current regulation that requires all registered radiation workers to check their blood counts every year in order to screen for exposed workers. In addition, the clinical usefulness of cytogenetic dosimetry as a retrospective tool for dose estimation has been evaluated. From this study, we hope to make practical recommendations for improving the current radiation protection regulation. We ascertain that reviewing consecutive results of blood cell counts and retrospective biodosimetry are useful complementary tools to TLD doses for health protection regulation. Several confounding factors including work duration and previous medical history need to be considered for the interpretation of cytogenetic dosimetry results.

  19. Application of blood cell count and retrospective biodosimetry for health protection in industrial radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seong Jae; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yang, Soo San; Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Young Woo

    2017-01-01

    Industrial radiography is known to be one of the most vulnerable lines of work among the range of different radiation work. According to the relevant law in Korea, every worker registered in this work should check their blood cell counts every year in addition to their thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses. Cytogenetic dosimetry has been employed for several decades as a method for estimating the dose of ionizing radiation (IR) received by an individual. In cases of recent acute exposure, the most reliable method is to score dicentric chromosomes in solid-stained metaphase cells. Dicentric aberrations are unstable because their frequency decrease with time after IR exposure. The purpose of the present study was to review the effectiveness of the current regulation that requires all registered radiation workers to check their blood counts every year in order to screen for exposed workers. In addition, the clinical usefulness of cytogenetic dosimetry as a retrospective tool for dose estimation has been evaluated. From this study, we hope to make practical recommendations for improving the current radiation protection regulation. We ascertain that reviewing consecutive results of blood cell counts and retrospective biodosimetry are useful complementary tools to TLD doses for health protection regulation. Several confounding factors including work duration and previous medical history need to be considered for the interpretation of cytogenetic dosimetry results.

  20. Assessment of relationships between novel inflammatory markers and presence and severity of preeclampsia: Epicardial fat thickness, pentraxin-3, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Dincgez Cakmak, Burcu; Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Inci Coskun, Ebru; Erturk, Mehmet; Keles, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of three new inflammatory markers with presence and severity of preeclampsia and to compare the predictive values of all markers for presence of this setting. In this study, a total of 100 consecutive pregnants with a diagnosis of preeclampsia and 40 healthy pregnants between October 2014 and April 2015 were included. Epicardial fat tissue was calculated by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, and pentraxin-3 and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and routine blood count analysis, respectively. Epicardial fat thickness (p preeclampsia as compared to the healthy pregnants. Furthermore, epicardial fat thickness (p = 0.002), pentraxin-3 (p preeclampsia compared to mild preeclampsia. In the multivariate analysis, epicardial fat thickness (p = 0.013), pentraxin-3 (p = 0.04), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p preeclampsia after adjusting for other risk factors. Epicardial fat thickness, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and pentraxin-3 are important markers that provide an additional information beyond that provided by conventional methods in predicting presence and severity of preeclampsia.

  1. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  2. Effect of induced subclinical hypocalcemia on physiological responses and neutrophil function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G C; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N; Taylor-Rodriguez, D; Driver, J P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2014-02-01

    The objectives were to study the effects of induced subclinical hypocalcemia [SCH, blood ionized Ca (iCa(2+)) dairy cows. Ten nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein cows were blocked by lactation and assigned randomly to a normocalcemic (NC; intravenous infusion of 0.9% NaCl i.v. plus 43 g of oral Ca, as Ca sulfate and Ca chloride, at -1 and 11h) or an induced SCH [SCHI, 5% ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), a selective iCa(2+) chelator, intravenous infusion] treatment for 24h, using a crossover design. The sequence of treatments was either NC-SCHI or SCHI-NC, with a 6-d washout period. Ionized Ca was evaluated before, hourly during the infusion period, and at 48 and 72 h, to monitor concentrations and adjust the rate of infusion, maintaining blood iCa(2+) insulin in plasma, and urinary excretion of Ca. Total and differential leukocyte count in blood was also performed. The concentration of cytosolic iCa(2+) in neutrophils and lymphocytes was quantified and neutrophil function was assayed in vitro. Infusion of a 5% EGTA solution successfully induced SCH in all SCHI cows, resulting in decreased blood iCa(2+) concentrations throughout the 24-h treatment period (0.77 ± 0.01 vs. 1.26 ± 0.01 mM iCa(2+)). Induction of SCH reduced dry matter intake on the day of infusion (5.3 ± 0.8 vs. 9.1 ± 0.8 kg/d) and rumen contractions (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 contractions/2 min) for the last 12h of infusion. Cows in SCHI had decreased plasma insulin concentration (1.44 ± 0.23 vs. 2.32 ± 0.23 ng/mL) evident between 6 and 18 h after the beginning of the infusion, accompanied by increased concentrations of glucose (4.40 ± 0.04 vs. 4.17 ± 0.04 mM). Plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was greater for SCHI than NC cows (0.110 ± 0.019 vs. 0.061 ± 0.014 mM). Neutrophils of cows in SCHI had a faster decrease in cytosolic iCa(2+) after stimulation with ionomycin (9.9 ± 1.0 vs. 13.6 ± 1.4 Fluo-4:Fura Red post-end ratio) in vitro. Furthermore, induction of SCH reduced

  3. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  4. Combination of CD157 and FLAER to Detect Peripheral Blood Eosinophils by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, Giovanni; Marini, Alessandra; Sammuri, Paola; Domenichini, Cristiana; Ottaviano, Virginia; Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The identification of eosinophils by flow cytometry is difficult because most of the surface antigens expressed by eosinophils are shared with neutrophils. Some methods have been proposed, generally based on differential light scatter properties, enhanced autofluorescence, lack of CD16 or selective positivity of CD52. Such methods, however, show several limitations. In the present study we report a novel method based on the analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked molecules. The combination of CD157 and FLAER was used, since FLAER recognizes all GPI-linked molecules, while CD157 is absent on the membrane of eosinophils and expressed by neutrophils. Peripheral blood samples from normal subjects and patients with variable percentages of eosinophils (n = 31), and without any evidence for circulating immature myeloid cells, were stained with the combination of FLAER-Alexa Fluor and CD157-PE. A FascCanto II cytometer was used. Granulocytes were gated after CD33 staining and eosinophils were identified as CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events. Neutrophils were identified as CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events. The percentages of eosinophils detected by this method showed a very significant correlation both with automated counting and with manual counting (r = 0.981 and 0.989, respectively). Sorting assays were carried out by a S3 Cell Sorter: cytospins obtained from CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events consisted of 100% eosinophils, while samples from CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events were represented only by neutrophils. In conclusion, this method shows high sensitivity and specificity in order to distinguish eosinophils from neutrophils by flow cytometry. However, since CD157 is gradually up-regulated throughout bone marrow myeloid maturation, our method cannot be applied to cases characterized by immature myeloid cells.

  5. The effect of thermal shock on morphological characteristics of blood cells in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Wlasow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thermal shock on morphotic blood elements in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii triploids. The thermal shock (37 °C for 2 min was applied in the 18th min after fertilization. Blood was sampled from parallel cultured ten triploids and ten diploids on day 70 after hatching. Ploidy was assessed with the cytogenetic method and measurements of cellular nuclei. In the blood of triploids, significant dominance of immature red blood cells, erythrocytes with a displaced nucleus, microcytes and erythroplastids were observed. The blood of triploids was also characterized by a reduced number of lymphocytes. The percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes was elevated; increased share of neutrophil granulocytes with a 4-, 5- or 6-segmented nucleus and eosinophil granulocytes with a nucleus consisting of three and more segments was observed. Disturbances in the picture of red blood cells can be considered as an expression of intensification of end-stage changes in triploids. The response to these changes in the blood of triploid Siberian sturgeon is an increase in the share of polymorphonuclear PMN, cells counted as microphages. Frequent presence of immature red blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon is a process that aims at counterbalancing the loss among these blood cells. It is the first report on morphological changes and proportions among blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon.

  6. Growth factors G-CSF and GM-CSF differentially preserve chemotaxis of neutrophils aging in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Maianski, Nikolai A.; Tool, Anton T. J.; van Bruggen, Robin; Roos, Dirk; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The ability of human neutrophils to migrate was studied during culture in vitro. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from human blood and cultured at 37 degrees C. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate binding. Receptor expression was measured by fluorescence in

  7. Improved recovery of functionally active eosinophils and neutrophils using novel immunomagnetic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kiho; Mukherjee, Manali; McIntyre, Brendan A S; Eguez, Jose C; Radford, Katherine; LaVigne, Nicola; Ethier, Caroline; Davoine, Francis; Janssen, Luke; Lacy, Paige; Nair, Parameswaran

    2017-10-01

    Clinically relevant and reliable reports derived from in vitro research are dependent on the choice of cell isolation protocols adopted between different laboratories. Peripheral blood eosinophils are conventionally isolated using density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunomagnetic selection (positive/negative) while neutrophils follow a more simplified dextran-sedimentation methodology. With the increasing sophistication of molecular techniques, methods are now available that promise protocols with reduced user-manipulations, improved efficiency, and better yield without compromising the purity of enriched cell populations. These recent techniques utilize immunomagnetic particles with multiple specificities against differential cell surface markers to negatively select non-target cells from whole blood, greatly reducing the cost/time taken to isolate granulocytes. Herein, we compare the yield efficiencies, purity and baseline activation states of eosinophils/neutrophils isolated using one of these newer protocols that use immunomagnetic beads (MACSxpress isolation) vs. the standard isolation procedures. The study shows that the MACSxpress method consistently allowed higher yields per mL of peripheral blood compared to conventional methods (Peosinophils (95.0±1.7%) and neutrophils (94.2±10.1%) assessed by two methods: Wright's staining and flow cytometry. In addition, enumeration of CD63 + (marker for eosinophil activation) and CD66b + (marker for neutrophil activation) cells within freshly isolated granulocytes, respectively, confirmed that conventional protocols using density-gradient centrifugation caused cellular activation of the granulocytes at baseline compared to the MACSxpress method. In conclusion, MACSxpress isolation kits were found to be superior to conventional techniques for consistent purifications of eosinophils and neutrophils that were suitable for activation assays involving degranulation markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Medium-chain, triglyceride-containing lipid emulsions increase human neutrophil beta2 integrin expression, adhesion, and degranulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G. J.; Geijtenbeek, T. B.; Raymakers, R. A.; van Kooyk, Y.; Roos, D.; Jansen, J. B.; Naber, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that lipid emulsions with different triglyceride structures have distinct immunomodulatory properties, we analyzed human neutrophil adhesion and degranulation after lipid incubation. METHODS: Neutrophils, isolated from the blood of 10 healthy volunteers, were

  9. Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years. These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV, which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow.

  10. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  11. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  12. A convenient diagnostic function test of peripheral blood neutrophils in glycogen storage disease type Ib

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.J.; Visser, G; Van Zwieten, R; Gruszczynska, B; Poll-The, DWEET; Smit, GPA

    Neutrophils from patients suffering from glycogen storage disease type To (GSD-Ib) show several defects, one of which is a decreased rate of glucose utilization. In this study, we established experimental conditions to show the stimulation of the neutrophil respiratory burst by extracellular

  13. Counter-flow elutriation of clinical peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentrates for the production of dendritic and T cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroncek, David F; Fellowes, Vicki; Pham, Chauha; Khuu, Hanh; Fowler, Daniel H; Wood, Lauren V; Sabatino, Marianna

    2014-09-17

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) concentrates collected by apheresis are frequently used as starting material for cellular therapies, but the cell of interest must often be isolated prior to initiating manufacturing. The results of enriching 59 clinical PBMC concentrates for monocytes or lymphocytes from patients with solid tumors or multiple myeloma using a commercial closed system semi-automated counter-flow elutriation instrument (Elutra, Terumo BCT) were evaluated for quality and consistency. Elutriated monocytes (n = 35) were used to manufacture autologous dendritic cells and elutriated lymphocytes (n = 24) were used manufacture autologous T cell therapies. Elutriated monocytes with >10% neutrophils were subjected to density gradient sedimentation to reduce neutrophil contamination and elutriated lymphocytes to RBC lysis. Elutriation separated the PBMC concentrates into 5 fractions. Almost all of the lymphocytes, platelets and red cells were found in fractions 1 and 2; in contrast, most of the monocytes, 88.6 ± 43.0%, and neutrophils, 74.8 ± 64.3%, were in fraction 5. In addition, elutriation of 6 PBMCs resulted in relatively large quantities of monocytes in fractions 1 or 2. These 6 PBMCs contained greater quantities of monocytes than the other 53 PBMCs. Among fraction 5 isolates 38 of 59 contained >10% neutrophils. High neutrophil content of fraction 5 was associated with greater quantities of neutrophils in the PBMC concentrate. Following density gradient separation the neutrophil counts fell to 3.6 ± 3.4% (all products contained <10% neutrophils). Following red cell lysis of the elutriated lymphocyte fraction the lymphocyte recovery was 86.7 ± 24.0% and 34.3 ± 37.4% of red blood cells remained. Elutriation was consistent and effective for isolating monocytes and lymphocytes from PBMC concentrates for manufacturing clinical cell therapies, but further processing is often required.

  14. Activated signature of antiphospholipid syndrome neutrophils reveals potential therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jason S.; Meng, He; Coit, Patrick; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Sule, Gautam; Gandhi, Alex A.; Grenn, Robert C.; Mazza, Levi F.; Ali, Ramadan A.; Renauer, Paul; Wren, Jonathan D.; Bockenstedt, Paula L.; Wang, Hui; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Sawalha, Amr H.

    2017-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies, present in one-third of lupus patients, increase the risk of thrombosis. We recently reported a key role for neutrophilsneutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in particular — in the thrombotic events that define antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To further elucidate the role of neutrophils in APS, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of neutrophils isolated from patients with primary APS. Moreover, APS-associated venous thrombosis was modeled by treating mice with IgG prepared from APS patients, followed by partial restriction of blood flow through the inferior vena cava. In patients, APS neutrophils demonstrated a proinflammatory signature with overexpression of genes relevant to IFN signaling, cellular defense, and intercellular adhesion. For in vivo studies, we focused on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a key adhesion molecule overexpressed in APS neutrophils. The introduction of APS IgG (as compared with control IgG) markedly potentiated thrombosis in WT mice, but not PSGL-1–KOs. PSGL-1 deficiency was also associated with reduced leukocyte vessel wall adhesion and NET formation. The thrombosis phenotype was restored in PSGL-1–deficient mice by infusion of WT neutrophils, while an anti–PSGL-1 monoclonal antibody inhibited APS IgG–mediated thrombosis in WT mice. PSGL-1 represents a potential therapeutic target in APS. PMID:28931754

  15. Evaluation of Complete Blood Count Indices (NLR, PLR, MPV/PLT, and PLCRi) in Healthy Dogs, Dogs With Periodontitis, and Dogs With Oropharyngeal Tumors as Potential Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejec, Ana; Butinar, Janos; Gawor, Jerzy; Petelin, Milan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess complete blood count (CBC) indices of dogs with periodontitis (PD; n = 73) and dogs with oropharyngeal tumors (OT; n = 92) in comparison to CBC indices of healthy dogs (HD; n = 71). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume to platelet ratio, and platelet large cell ratio index (PLCRi) were evaluated as biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response provoked by PD and OT. Results of multivariable polytomous logistic regression analysis indicated no significant associations between CBC indices and PD. Both NLR and PLCRi were significantly higher in dogs with OT when compared to HD and dogs with PD and could, therefore, indicate a tumor-associated systemic inflammatory response. Additional studies of CBC indices, along with other biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response, are recommended to validate them as reliable indicators of clinical disease activity.

  16. Effect of a 21-day balneotherapy program on blood cell counts, ponogen levels, and blood biochemical indexes in servicemen in sub-health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wu, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xing, Wenrong; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Shu; Su, Zongyi

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to explore the changes in the blood of servicemen in sub-health conditions during a 21-day balneotherapy program. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 129 servicemen in sub-health condition were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into either the balneotherapy group (70) or the control group (59). Subjects in the balneotherapy group received whole-body immersion bath therapy in thermomineral water (30 min daily) for 21 days. Their blood samples were examined 1 day before and after balneotherapy. The parameters studied included mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), lactic acid (LAC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose (GLU), and triglycerides (TG) levels. [Results] After 21 days of balneotherapy, MCH levels and MCHC increased significantly and WBC counts increased significantly. LAC levels decreased significantly. ALT, GLU, and TG levels decreased significantly. In the control group, there were no statistical differences before and after tap water baths following the same procedure. [Conclusion] A 21-day balneotherapy program significantly improved blood cell counts and blood biochemical indexes and reduced ponogen levels in servicemen in sub-health condition.

  17. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...... measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils....

  18. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of 51 Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of 51 Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers

  19. effects of garlic on some haematological and biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    and packed cell volume significantly (P<0.05). The same dose (100mg) of garlic similarly and significantly increased total white blood cell count (TWBC), neutrophil and lymphocyte counts (P<0.05). Garlic thus promote leucopoiesis and increases neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio. Garlic increased sodium and potassium serum ...

  20. Evasion of Human Neutrophil-Mediated Host Defense during Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tatiane S; Gov, Lanny; Lodoen, Melissa B

    2018-02-13

    Neutrophils are a major player in host immunity to infection; however, the mechanisms by which human neutrophils respond to the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are still poorly understood. In the current study, we found that, whereas primary human monocytes produced interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in response to T. gondii infection, human neutrophils from the same blood donors did not. Moreover, T. gondii inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1β synthesis in human peripheral blood neutrophils. IL-1β suppression required active parasite invasion, since heat-killed or mycalolide B-treated parasites did not inhibit IL-1β release. By investigating the mechanisms involved in this process, we found that T. gondii infection of neutrophils treated with LPS resulted in reduced transcript levels of IL-1β and NLRP3 and reduced protein levels of pro-IL-1β, mature IL-1β, and the inflammasome sensor NLRP3. In T. gondii -infected neutrophils stimulated with LPS, the levels of MyD88, TRAF6, IKKα, IKKβ, and phosphorylated IKKα/β were not affected. However, LPS-induced IκBα degradation and p65 phosphorylation were reduced in T. gondii- infected neutrophils, and degradation of IκBα was reversed by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Finally, we observed that T. gondii inhibited the cleavage and activity of caspase-1 in human neutrophils. These results indicate that T. gondii suppression of IL-1β involves a two-pronged strategy whereby T. gondii inhibits both NF-κB signaling and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These findings represent a novel mechanism of T. gondii evasion of human neutrophil-mediated host defense by targeting the production of IL-1β. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects approximately one-third of humans worldwide and can invade virtually any nucleated cell in the human body. Although it is well documented that neutrophils infiltrate the site of acute T

  1. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  2. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watz, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Kay; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-01-01

    were seen with eosinophil cutoffs of 300 cells per μL and 400 cells per μL, and mutually exclusive subgroups. INTERPRETATION: Blood eosinophil counts at screening were related to the exacerbation rate after complete ICS withdrawal in patients with severe to very severe COPD and a history...... of exacerbations. Our data suggest that counts of 4% or greater or 300 cells per μL or more might identify a deleterious effect of ICS withdrawal, an effect not seen in most patients with eosinophil counts below these thresholds. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim....

  3. Prognostic impact of leukocyte counts before and during radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett L. Jensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peripheral blood count components are accessible and evidently predictive in other cancers but have not been explored in oropharyngeal carcinoma. We examine if there is an association between the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT and lymphopenia, as well as if there is an association between baseline neutrophilia, baseline leukocytosis and lymphocyte nadir in oropharyngeal cancer. Materials and Methods: Analysis started with 150 patients from a previous case to case study design, which retrospectively identified adults with oropharyngeal carcinoma, 100 treated with IMRT in 2010-2012 and 50 treated with IMPT in 2011–2014. Pretreatment leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and hemoglobin levels were extracted, as were neutrophil and lymphocyte nadir levels during radiotherapy. We retained 137 patients with recorded pre-treatment leukocyte and neutrophil levels for associated analysis and 114 patients with recorded lymphocyte levels during radiation and associated analysis. Multivariate survival analyses were done with Cox regression. Results: The radiotherapy type (IMRT vs. IMPT was not associated with lymphopenia (grade 3 P > .99; grade 4 P = .55. In univariate analyses, poor overall survival was associated with pretreatment neutrophilia (hazard ratio [HR] 5.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99–15.7, P = .001, pretreatment leukocytosis (HR 4.85, 95% CI 1.73–13.6, P = .003, grade 4 lymphopenia during radiotherapy (HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.14–9.44, P = .03, and possibly smoking status >10 pack-years (HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.01–8.18, P = .05, but only T status was possibly significant in multivariate analysis (HR 2.64, 95% CI 0.99–7.00, P = .05. Poor progression-free survival was associated with pretreatment leukocytosis and T status in univariate analysis, and pretreatment neutrophilia and

  4. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W; Baker, I A; Sweetnam, P M; Bainton, D; O'Brien, J R; Whitehead, P J; Elwood, P C

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hemostatic factors and white blood cell count are predictive of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relations of fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count to the incidence of IHD in the Caerphilly and Speedwell prospective studies are described. The two studies have a common core protocol and are based on a combined cohort of 4,860 middle-aged men from the general population. The first follow-up was at a nearly constant interval of 5.1 years in Caerphilly and 3.2 years in Speedwell; 251 major IHD events had occurred. Age-adjusted relative odds of IHD for men in the top 20% of the distribution compared with the bottom 20% were 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.5) for fibrinogen, 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.4) for viscosity, and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.9) for white blood cell count. Associations with IHD were similar in men who had never smoked, exsmokers, and current smokers, and the results suggest that at least part of the effect of smoking on IHD is mediated through fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis shows that white blood cell count is an independent risk factor for IHD as is either fibrinogen or viscosity, or possibly both. Jointly, these three variables significantly improve the fit of a logistic regression model containing all the main conventional risk factors. Further, a model including age, smoking habits, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count predicts IHD as well as one in which the three hemostatic/rheological variables are replaced by total cholesterol, diastolic pressure, and body mass index. Jointly, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are important risk factors for IHD.

  5. Spontaneous neutrophil activation in HTLV-1 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline B. Guerreiro

    Full Text Available Human T cell lymphotropic Virus type-1 (HTLV-1 induces lymphocyte activation and proliferation, but little is known about the innate immune response due to HTLV-1 infection. We evaluated the percentage of neutrophils that metabolize Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan in HTLV-1 infected subjects and the association between neutrophil activation and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha levels. Blood was collected from 35 HTLV-1 carriers, from 8 patients with HAM/TSP (HTLV-1- associated myelopathy; 22 healthy individuals were evaluated for spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated neutrophil activity (reduction of NBT to formazan. The production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha by unstimulated mononuclear cells was determined by ELISA. Spontaneous NBT levels, as well as spontaneous IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production, were significantly higher (p<0.001 in HTLV-1 infected subjects than in healthy individuals. A trend towards a positive correlation was noted, with increasing percentage of NBT positive neutrophils and levels of IFN-gamma. The high IFN-gamma producing HTLV-1 patient group had significantly greater NBT than healthy controls, 43±24% and 17±4.8% respectively (p< 0.001, while no significant difference was observed between healthy controls and the low IFN-gamma-producing HTLV-1 patient group (30±20%. Spontaneous neutrophil activation is another marker of immune perturbation resulting from HTLV-1 infection. In vivo activation of neutrophils observed in HTLV-1 infected subjects is likely to be the same process that causes spontaneous IFN-gamma production, or it may partially result from direct IFN-gamma stimulation.

  6. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Hu

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM.Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital.Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001.The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  7. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shidong; Zou, Zhenyu; Li, Hao; Zou, Guijun; Li, Zhao; Xu, Jian; Wang, Lingde; Du, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China) between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital. Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P colon cancer (OR: 0.078, 95%CI: 0.020~0.309, P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001). The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  8. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  9. Response of neutrophils in peripheral blood of participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to an additional radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshevskij, A.A.; Grebenyuk, A.N.; Kalinina, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    Specific effect of radiation exposure in vitro on morphobiochemical characteristics of leukocytes in peripheral blood of the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences are investigated. Samples of peripheral blood taken from 49 participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences were irradiated in vitro in doses 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 Gy. Cytochemical analysis of neutrophils was used for estimating the contents of lipids and cationic proteins, and also the activity of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase. The irradiation of samples of peripheral blood taken from the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences has the same effects on functional and metabolic somatic status but with no history of exposure to the complex of radiation accident factors [ru

  10. Prognostic meaning of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte ration (LMR) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated upfront with a PET-2 based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Vetro, Calogero; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Cerchione, Claudio; Ippolito, Massimo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Recent reports identify NLR (the ratio between absolute neutrophils counts, ANC, and absolute lymphocyte count, ALC), as predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in cancer patients. We retrospectively tested NLR and LMR (the ratio between absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated upfront with a PET-2 risk-adapted strategy. NLR and LMR were calculated using records obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) from 180 newly diagnosed HL patients. PFS was evaluated accordingly to Kaplan-Meier method. Higher NLR was associated to advanced stage, increased absolute counts of neutrophils and reduced count of lymphocytes, and markers of systemic inflammation. After a median follow-up of 68 months, PFS at 60 months was 86.6% versus 70.1%, respectively, in patients with NLR ≥ 6 or NLR PET-2 scan (p PET-2 was an independent predictor of PFS in multivariate analysis. Advanced-stage patients (N = 119) were treated according to a PET-2 risk-adapted protocol, with an early switch to BEACOPP regimen in case of PET-2 positivity. Despite this strategy, patients with positive PET-2 still had an inferior outcome, with PFS at 60 months of 84.7% versus 40.1% (negative and positive PET-2 patients, respectively, p PET-2 status and to a lesser extend NLR in advanced stage, while LMR maintained its significance in early stage. By focusing on PET-2 negative patients, we found that patients with NLR ≥ 6.0 or LMR PET-2 scan, NLR and LMR can result in a meaningful prognostic system that needs to be further validated in prospective series including patients treated upfront with PET-2 adapted-risk therapy.

  11. [The significances of peripheral neutrophils CD(55) and myeloperoxidase expression in patients with myeloperoxidase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X L; Zheng, M J; Shuai, Z W; Zhang, L; Zhang, M M; Chen, S Y

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of CD(55) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) on neutrophils in patients with MPO-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis(MPO-AAV), and analyze the relationship between the expression and clinical manifestation. Methods: Forty untreated patients with active MPO-AAV (patient group) and 30 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. The CD(55) on neutrophils and both membrane and cytoplasmic MPO were detected by flow cytometry. Serum fragment-from the activated complement factor B(Ba) and MPO were measured by ELISA. The clinical activity of vasculitis was valued by Birmingham vasculitis activity score-version 3(BVAS-V3). The significance of laboratory data was evaluated by Spearman correlation test and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results: (1)The mean fluorescence intensity(MFI) of CD(55) expressed on neutrophils was significantly higher than that in control group[4 068.6±2 306.0 vs 2 999.5±1 504.9, P =0.033]. Similar results of serum MPO and Ba in patient group were found compared to controls [500.0(381.0, 612.7) IU/L vs 286.9(225.5, 329.1) IU/L, P <0.001; 35.2(25.2, 79.5) ng/L vs 18.0(15.0, 28.0) ng/L, P <0.001], respectively. However, MIF of cytoplasmic MPO in patients was significantly lower than that of control group(1 577.1±1 175.9 vs 3 105.3±2 323.0, P =0.003) . (2) In patient group, cytoplasmic intensity of MPO was negatively associated with the serum levels of MPO( r =-0.710, P <0.001) and Ba ( r =-0.589, P =0.001). Moreover, serum MPO was positively associated with serum Ba( r =0.691, P <0.001). Membrane intensity of CD(55) on neutrophils was positively correlated with patient age ( r =0.514, P =0.001), C reactive protein ( r =0.376, P =0.018), peripheral neutrophils count ( r =0.485, P =0.001) and BVAS-V3 ( r =0.484, P =0.002), whereas negative correlation between membrane CD(55) and disease duration was seen ( r =-0.403, P =0.01). (3) The result of multiple

  12. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN. A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of

  13. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  14. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  15. PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes activate neutrophils to increase production of hypochlorous acid, the oxidant capable of degrading nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, Irina I., E-mail: irina.vlasova@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhrusheva, Tatyana V. [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Alexey V.; Kostevich, Valeria A. [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gusev, Alexandr A.; Gusev, Sergey A. [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Melnikova, Viktoriya I. [Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lobach, Anatolii S. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-01

    Perspectives for the use of carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications depend largely on their ability to degrade in the body into products that can be easily cleared out. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs) were shown to be degraded by oxidants generated by peroxidases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study we demonstrated that conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to c-SWCNTs does not interfere with their degradation by peroxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system or by hypochlorite. Comparison of different heme-containing proteins for their ability to degrade PEG-SWCNTs has led us to conclude that the myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the major oxidant that may be responsible for biodegradation of PEG-SWCNTs in vivo. MPO is secreted mainly by neutrophils upon activation. We hypothesize that SWCNTs may enhance neutrophil activation and therefore stimulate their own biodegradation due to MPO-generated HOCl. PEG-SWCNTs at concentrations similar to those commonly used in in vivo studies were found to activate isolated human neutrophils to produce HOCl. Both PEG-SWCNTs and c-SWCNTs enhanced HOCl generation from isolated neutrophils upon serum-opsonized zymosan stimulation. Both types of nanotubes were also found to activate neutrophils in whole blood samples. Intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of PEG-SWCNTs into mice induced an increase in percentage of circulating neutrophils and activation of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the evolution of an inflammatory response. Activated neutrophils can produce high local concentrations of HOCl, thereby creating the conditions favorable for degradation of the nanotubes. -- Highlights: ► Myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acid is able to degrade CNTs. ► PEGylated SWCNTs stimulate isolated neutrophils to produce hypochlorous acid. ► SWCNTs are capable of activating neutrophils in blood samples. ► Activation of

  16. Sex differences in step count-blood pressure association: a preliminary study in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Manjoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking and cardiovascular mortality are inversely associated in type 2 diabetes, but few studies have objectively measured associations of walking with individual cardiovascular risk factors. Such information would be useful for "dosing" daily steps in clinical practice. This study aimed to quantify decrements in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (A1C per 1,000 daily step increments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two hundred and one subjects with type 2 diabetes underwent assessments of step counts (pedometer-measured, blood pressure, A1C and anthropometric parameters. Due to missing data, the final analysis was conducted on 83 women and 102 men, with a mean age of 60 years. Associations of daily steps with blood pressure and A1C were evaluated using sex-specific multivariate linear regression models (adjusted for age, ethnicity, and BMI. Potential sex differences were confirmed in a combined model (women and men with interaction terms. Mean values for daily steps, blood pressure, A1C and BMI were 5,357 steps/day; 137/80 mm Hg; 7.7% and 30.4 kg/m(2 respectively. A 1,000 daily step increment among women was associated with a -2.6 (95% CI: -4.1 to -1.1 mm Hg change in systolic and a -1.4 (95% CI: -2.2 to -0.6 mm Hg change in diastolic blood pressure. Among men, corresponding changes were -0.7 (95% CI: -2.1 to 0.7 and -0.6 (95% CI: -1.4 to 0.3 mm Hg, respectively. Sex differences were confirmed in combined models. Step counts and A1C did not demonstrate clinically important associations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A 1,000 steps/day increment is associated with important blood pressure decrements among women with type 2 diabetes but the data were inconclusive among men. Targeted "dose increments" of 1,000 steps/day in women may lead to measurable blood pressure reductions. This information may be of potential use in the titration or "dosing" of daily steps. No associations were found between step count increments and A1C.

  17. A comparison of high-mobility group-box 1 protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and procalcitonin in severe community-acquired infections and bacteraemia: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, Shahin; Koldkjaer, Ole G; Møller, Holger J

    2008-01-01

    manner. Demographic data, comorbidity, routine biochemistry, microbiological data, infection focus, severity score and mortality on day 28 were recorded. Plasma and serum were sampled within 24 hours after admission. Levels of all studied markers (HMGB1, LBP, PCT, IL-6, C-reactive protein, white blood...... patients compared with nonbacteraemic patients (P white blood cell count and neutrophils (P ... (HMGB1, LBP, PCT, IL-6) and infection markers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, neutrophils) were elevated among bacteraemic patients. PCT performed best as a diagnostic test marker for bacteraemia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null...

  18. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  19. Comparison of the peripheral blood eosinophil count using near-patient testing and standard automated laboratory measurement in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambleton K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsty Hambleton, Clare M Connolly, Catherine Borg, Joanne H Davies, Helen P Jeffers, Richard EK Russell, Mona Bafadhel Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Near-patient testing (NPT allows clinical decisions to be made in a rapid and convenient manner and is often cost effective. In COPD the peripheral blood eosinophil count has been demonstrated to have utility in providing prognostic information and predicting response to treatment during an acute exacerbation. For this potential to be achieved having a reliable NPT of blood eosinophil count would be extremely useful. Therefore, we investigated the use of the HemoCue® WBC Diff System and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects. This method requires a simple skin prick of blood and was compared to standard venepuncture laboratory analysis. The HemoCue® WBC Diff System measured the peripheral blood eosinophil count in healthy, asthma and COPD subjects with very close correlation to the eosinophil count as measured by standard venepuncture. The correlations were unaffected by disease status. This method for the measurement of the peripheral blood eosinophil count has the potential to provide rapid near-patient results and thus influence the speed of management decisions in the treatment of airway diseases. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eosinophils, near-patient testing

  20. Neutrophils at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauseef, William M; Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this Review we discuss data demonstrating recently recognized aspects of neutrophil homeostasis in the steady state, granulopoiesis in 'emergency' conditions and interactions of neutrophils with the adaptive immune system. We explore in vivo observations of the recruitment of neutrophils from ...

  1. Neutrophils in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Braedon

    2018-03-01

    During critical illness, dramatic alterations in neutrophil biology are observed including abnormalities of granulopoeisis and lifespan, cell trafficking and antimicrobial effector functions. As a result, neutrophils transition from powerful antimicrobial protectors into dangerous mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction. In this article, the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of critical illness (sepsis, trauma, burns and others) will be explored, including pathological changes to neutrophil function during critical illness and the utility of monitoring aspects of the neutrophil phenotype as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostication. Lastly, we review findings from clinical trials of therapies that target the harmful effects of neutrophils, providing a bench-to-bedside perspective on neutrophils in critical illness.

  2. Comparison of absolute neutrophil to CD4 lymphocyte values as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.5 x 109/L is therefore obviously not appropriate for people of negroid descent whose lower reference limit is ANC 1.3 x 109/L.6,7 Neutropenia remains the most common predisposing factor to infections in cancer pa- tients.1,8,9 The accepted definition of neutropenia is an absolute neutrophil count ≤ 1.5 x 109/L,8 though ...

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Neutrophils Have a Distinct Phenotype and Are Resistant to Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juss, Jatinder K; House, David; Amour, Augustin; Begg, Malcolm; Herre, Jurgen; Storisteanu, Daniel M L; Hoenderdos, Kim; Bradley, Glyn; Lennon, Mark; Summers, Charlotte; Hessel, Edith M; Condliffe, Alison; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2016-10-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is refractory to pharmacological intervention. Inappropriate activation of alveolar neutrophils is believed to underpin this disease's complex pathophysiology, yet these cells have been little studied. To examine the functional and transcriptional profiles of patient blood and alveolar neutrophils compared with healthy volunteer cells, and to define their sensitivity to phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition. Twenty-three ventilated patients underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. Alveolar and blood neutrophil apoptosis, phagocytosis, and adhesion molecules were quantified by flow cytometry, and oxidase responses were quantified by chemiluminescence. Cytokine and transcriptional profiling were used in multiplex and GeneChip arrays. Patient blood and alveolar neutrophils were distinct from healthy circulating cells, with increased CD11b and reduced CD62L expression, delayed constitutive apoptosis, and primed oxidase responses. Incubating control cells with disease bronchoalveolar lavage recapitulated the aberrant functional phenotype, and this could be reversed by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. In contrast, the prosurvival phenotype of patient cells was resistant to phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition. RNA transcriptomic analysis revealed modified immune, cytoskeletal, and cell death pathways in patient cells, aligning closely to sepsis and burns datasets but not to phosphoinositide 3-kinase signatures. Acute respiratory distress syndrome blood and alveolar neutrophils display a distinct primed prosurvival profile and transcriptional signature. The enhanced respiratory burst was phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent but delayed apoptosis and the altered transcriptional profile were not. These unexpected findings cast doubt over the utility of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition in acute respiratory distress syndrome and highlight the importance of evaluating novel therapeutic strategies in patient-derived cells.

  4. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis...... of the isolation of the causative bacteria from blood. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the glutaraldehyde coagulation time, total leucocyte count, per cent neutrophil granulocytes, pulse rate and duration of disease could help to discriminate endocarditis from other diseases. Among 138 animals necropsied...... the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultivation were 70.7 per cent, 93.8 per cent and 89.1 per cent, respectively. None of the other measurements could be used to discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis cases....

  5. Leukocyte subtype counts and its association with vascular structure and function in adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between leukocyte subtype counts and vascular structure and function based on carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, central augmentation index and cardio-ankle vascular index by gender in intermediate cardiovascular risk patients.This study analyzed 500 subjects who were included in the MARK study, aged 35 to 74 years (mean: 60.3±8.4, 45.6% women.Brachial ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (ba-PWV estimate by equation, Cardio-AnkleVascular Index (CAVI using the VaSera device and Carotid ultrasound was used to measure carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT. The Mobil-O-Graph was used to measure the Central Augmentation Index (CAIx.Total leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively correlated with IMT (p < 0.01 in men. Monocyte count was positively correlated with CAIx in women (p < 0.01. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the IMT mean maintained a positive association with the neutrophil count (β = 1.500, p = 0.007 in men. CAIx maintained a positive association with the monocyte count (β = 2.445, p = 0.022 in women.The results of this study suggest that the relationship between subtype circulating leukocyte counts and vascular structure and function, although small, may be different by gender. In men, the neutrophil count was positively correlated with IMT and in women, the monocyte count with CAIx, in a large sample of intermediate-risk patients. These association were maintained after adjusting for age and other confounders.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428934.

  6. [Changes and significance of peripheral blood platelet count in tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-lin; Jia, Yu-jie; Jiang, Miao-na; Shu, Xiao-hong; Li, Chuan-gang

    2008-06-01

    To establish a mouse model for BTT739 tumor-bearing mice cured by a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX). And then to observe the dynamic changes and significance of peripheral blood counts especially blood platelet count during tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice. Mouse bladder carcinoma tissues were inoculated subcutaneously into T739 mice. Seven days later, different doses of CTX or the same volume of NS were administered intraperitoneally to treat these tumor-bearing T739 mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of CTX that could cure most of these tumor-bearing mice. Then another 12 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 15 mg/kg CTX treatment group and control group. Blood samples were obtained from orbital venous sinus on different times after CTX treatment. Complete blood counts were performed and the relationship between peripheral blood platelet counts and tumor shrinkage was analyzed. Within 2 weeks after CTX treatment, the speed of tumor shrinkage had a positive relationship with the dose of CTX used; but the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice had a negative relationship with the dose of CTX used in 2 months after CTX treatment. 15 mg/kg CTX could cure most of the tumor bearing mice, while it had no remarkably inhibitive effects on peripheral blood cells. The perpherial platelet count increased to (1483.4+/-184.4)x10(9)/L in mice 6 h after CTX treatment. There was significant difference compared with that in mice of control group (1086.6+/-81.0)x10(9)/L (P0.05). CTX 15 mg/kg could cure most of bladder tumor-bearing T739 mice. The transient increase of the peripheral platelet count in 6 h after CTX treatment may relate to the antitumor effects of CTX.

  7. Neutrophil extracellular traps - the dark side of neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole E.; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were discovered as extracellular strands of decondensed DNA in complex with histones and granule proteins, which were expelled from dying neutrophils to ensnare and kill microbes. NETs are formed during infection in vivo by mechanisms different from those ori...

  8. The hematology of captive Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa): blood counts, light microscopy, cytochemistry, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Cheryl A; Gaál, Tibor; Mills, Jennifer N

    2016-12-01

    Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) are native to Australia. The only previous study on the hematology of this species documented just 6 animals. The aims of this study were to characterize the light microscopy, ultrastructure and cytochemistry of blood cells, and evaluate CBCs of captive Bobtail lizards. Over 2 consecutive summers, heparinized venous blood was collected from the ventral coccygeal vein of 46 clinically healthy, captive indoor- or outdoor-housed adult Bobtails. Complete blood cell counts and smear evaluations were performed, and cytochemical stains and transmission electron microscopy were used to further characterize blood cells. The eosinophils of this species were uniformly vacuolated: a unique feature not previously reported in reptiles. Heterophils were the predominant leukocyte, with fewer lymphocytes, azurophilic and nonazurophilic monocytes, occasional eosinophils, and basophils. Thrombocytes were frequently clumped. Slight polychromasia (0-15% of erythrocytes) was typically present. Hemogregarine parasites were seen on some smears. The range of CBC results was often wide. The PCV ranged from 11% to 38%. Total plasma proteins by refractometry were between 3.5 and 7.8 g/dL. Hemoglobin ranged between 2.6 and 12.6 g/dL by the modified hemoglobin-hydroxylamine method. Manual RBC count was 0.35-1.27 × 10 6 /μL, and WBC count was 2.86-22.66 × 10 3 /μL. Bobtail lizards housed outdoors had lower PCVs than indoor-housed animals. Bobtails with hemogregarine infections had lower PCVs than noninfected lizards. Ranges for CBC data were often very wide, influenced by preanalytic and analytic factors. Hemogregarine infection is associated with a decreased PCV, suggesting that some hemogregarine species are pathogenic in this population. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Mitochondrial membrane potential in human neutrophils is maintained by complex III activity in the absence of supercomplex organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raam, Bram J.; Sluiter, Wim; de Wit, Elly; Roos, Dirk; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutrophils depend mainly on glycolysis for their energy provision. Their mitochondria maintain a membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), which is usually generated by the respiratory chain complexes. We investigated the source of Deltapsi(m) in neutrophils, as compared to peripheral blood

  10. Effects of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neonatal neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imteyaz Khan,1 Liying Zhang,2 Moiz Mohammed,1 Faith E Archer,1 Jehan Abukharmah,1 Zengrong Yuan,2 S Saif Rizvi,1 Michael G Melek,1 Arnold B Rabson,1,2 Yufang Shi,2 Barry Weinberger,1 Anna M Vetrano1,21Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Rutgers Child Health Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USABackground: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been proposed as autologous therapy for inflammatory diseases in neonates. MSCs from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs are accessible, with high proliferative capacity. The effects of WJ-MSCs on neutrophil activity in neonates are not known. We compared the effects of WJ-MSCs on apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory, oxidant, and antioxidant mediators in adult and neonatal neutrophils.Methods: WJ-MSCs were isolated, and their purity and function were confirmed by flow cytometry. Neutrophils were isolated from cord and adult blood by density centrifugation. The effects of neutrophil/WJ-MSC co-culture on apoptosis and gene and protein expression were measured.Results: WJ-MSCs suppressed neutrophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. WJ-MSCs decreased gene expression of NADPH oxidase-1 in both adult and neonatal neutrophils, but decreased heme oxygenase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor and increased catalase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the presence of lipopolysaccharide only in adult cells. Similarly, generation of interleukin-8 was suppressed in adult but not neonatal neutrophils. Thus, WJ-MSCs dampened oxidative, vascular, and inflammatory activity by adult neutrophils, but neonatal neutrophils were less responsive. Conversely, Toll-like receptor-4, and cyclooxygenase-2 were upregulated in WJ-MSCs only in the presence of adult neutrophils, suggesting an inflammatory MSC phenotype that is not induced by neonatal neutrophils.Conclusion: Whereas WJ-MSCs altered gene expression in adult neutrophils in ways suggesting anti

  11. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Increased neutrophil expression of pattern recognition receptors during COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Simon D.; Van Geffen, Wouter H.; Jonker, Marnix R.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Heijink, Irene H.

    Previously, we observed increased serum levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) during COPD exacerbations. Here, gene expression of DAMP receptors was measured in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients during stable disease and severe acute exacerbation. The expression of

  13. Effect of blood collection technique in mice on clinical pathology parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Michael A; Hardy, Christine; Hawley, Melanie; Propert, Kathleen Joy; Wilson, James M

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in normal healthy C57BL/6 mice to determine the effect of method of blood collection on clinical pathology parameters and to provide value ranges for these parameters. Males and females were used and were randomly assigned to treatment groups based upon phlebotomy method. The blood was collected using one of four methods: intracardiac (IC), a single attempt at collection from the caudal vena cava (VC), collection from the caudal vena cava with collection of any extravasated blood from the peritoneum (MC), or retroorbital phlebotomy (RO). Evaluation of blood and serum samples was conducted for a number of serum biochemistries including liver function tests and complete blood count with differentials and platelet counts. Female mice demonstrated higher values for red blood cell number, hemoglobin (p values for platelet counts, specific white blood cell numbers (total, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts), globulin, amylase, and the BUN/creatinine ratio. Overall, the VC method was associated with the least variation in both sexes and appeared slightly better than the IC method for the parameters evaluated. The largest difference between groups was noted for the transaminase levels. While alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were similar between the IC and VC groups, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values were associated with less variation for the VC method. Transaminase levels for the MC and RO groups were associated with relatively large ranges and variation. ALT results from the RO method, the only method amenable to repetitive sample collection used in this evaluation, indicate that this is an acceptable method. The results demonstrate the substantial impact that phlebotomy method has on the assay results and that the VC or IC methods provide the most consistent results. The ranges by collection method and sex provided here can be used to select the preferred method of collection when designing a study and for comparison of data

  14. Relationship between radiation dose and changes of blood cells in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenzheng

    1984-01-01

    The hematological changes of 2867 cases of medical X-ray workers and 1152 cases of non-X-ray medical workers were compared. It was shown that the total number of leukocytes, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets were significantly lower in X-ray workers than those in controls. However, the percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and the concentration of hemoglobin were higher in the irradiated group. the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The degree of changes in the number of blood cells was dose-dependent. A negative correlation could be found between the changes of leukocyte and neutrophil counts and cumulative dose (<250 mGy), annual dose (<15 mGy/a) and length of service of the X-ray workers; and a positive correlation existed between the percentages of basophils, eosinophils and monocytes, and the radiation dose. The abnormality rate of blood picture in the irradiated group was higher than that in the control group. Most X-ray workers with abnormal blood picture were distributed in low-dose group. The data also showed that radiation effect on male X-ray workers was greater than that on female workers. (Author)

  15. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats—Multiple factorial regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200–240 g for 28 days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15 mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000 mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight

  16. Changes in neutrophil morphology and morphometry following exposure to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannan, S.; McLean, A.; Drost, E.; Gillooly, M.; Donaldson, K.; Lamb, D.; MacNee, W.

    1992-01-01

    Acute cigarette smoking delays neutrophils within the pulmonary circulation in some smokers. Evidence from an in-vitro Micropore filter model of the pulmonary capillaries indicates that this may be due to a smoke induced decrease in cell deformability. In order to determine whether changes in cell shape are associated with the observed decrease in neutrophil deformability following smoke exposure, cell morphology, using scanning electron microscopy, and morphometric measurements, made using transmission electron microscopy, were performed on aliquots of neutrophils harvested from whole blood in non-smoking subjects before and after exposure in vitro to cigarette smoke. Smoke exposure increased the maximum diameter and circumference of neutrophils, without changing their area. There was also a change in the maximum to minimum cell diameter ratio, which indicated that the cells had become less spherical. Scanning electron microscopy showed that smoke exposed cells had developed blebbing of their surface membranes, suggestive of an oxidative injury to the cell membrane rather than the shape changes associated with cell activation. These changes in the morphology and morphometry of smoke exposed neutrophils may contribute to the reduction in cell deformability induced by cigarette smoke. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1571278

  17. Targeting neutrophilic inflammation in severe neutrophilic asthma : can we target the disease-relevant neutrophil phenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeel, Piet L B; Uddin, Mohib; Koenderman, Leo

    2015-01-01

    In severe, neutrophilic asthma, neutrophils are thought to have an important role in both the maintenance of the disease and during exacerbations. These patients often display excessive, mucosal airway inflammation with unresolving neutrophilia. Because this variant of asthma is poorly controlled by

  18. Radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: correlation with the blood CD4 cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isusi, M.; Eguidazu, J.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.

    2000-01-01

    To describe the radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its correlation with the blood CD4 cell count. We present 44 HIV+patients, 24 with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) and 20 in whom the CD4 counts surpassed this level (group B). We also assessed the chest x-ray images to determine whether or not there was any correlation with the blood CD4 cell counts. Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical study of the differences in the radiological findings in the two groups. The incidence of atypical features was significantly greater in the patients with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) than in those with CD4 counts of over 200 cells/mm''3 (group B). Among HIV+patients, those with a more intact immune status were more likely to present lung x-ray images typical of post-primary TB, with cavitary lesions in upper lobes. The group of patients in whom the immune deficiency was more marked showed a greater incidence of atypical pulmonary findings, more characteristics of primary TB. (Author)

  19. Studies on alkaline and acid phosphatase activity of neutrophil leukicytes, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Yoko

    1983-01-01

    With a view to analyzing the inhibiting effect of anticancer drugs and irradiation on hematopoiesis in rabbits neutrophil (pseudoeosinophil) counts and the neutrophilic activities of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (SP) were serially followed up after drug administration or irradiation. The enzym activity was estimated histochemically, using azo-dye staining. Each rabbit was given cyclophosphamid (CP) (25mg/kg x 10, at intervals of 5 - 7 days ; 50mg/kg x 5, every day; or 100mg/kg x 1, i.m.), Thio-TEPA (4mg/kg x 1, i.m.), Vinblastin (VBT) (1mg/kg x 1, i.v.), 6MP (25mg/kg x 1, p.o.), or Mitomycin C (MMC) (1.5mg/kg x 1, i.v.). The results obtained were as follows : 1) The neutrophil counts became slightly elevated at 24 hrs, reached their nadir at 48 to 72 hrs, and recovered to normal in 5 to 6 days thereafter, except with 6 MP which produced no significant change but for a temporary elevation after dosages. 2) Except in the group administrated 6MP, which caused no significant hematorogical changes, the AP changes were similar in all of the animal groups : after temporary depression, it became elevated for 5 to 6 days, and recovered to normal about 9 days thereafter. 3) SP showed no changes in the 25mg/kg x 10 CP and the 6MP groups, it became elevated in 2 or 3 days after the administration of MMC, VBT, or Thio-TEPA to recover to normal in 5 to 10 days thereafter. 4) 60 Co irradiation (1,000 rad/whole body x 1) led to a temporary ascent in phil count followed by a descent from the 6th day on, and then a slow recovery to normal. AP was elevated from the third to the sixth days, and, after a depression on the tenth day, it returned to normal 24 days after irradiation, while SP showed a continued elevation from the 2nd to the 13th day. (author)

  20. A Survey Of Normal Haematological Variables Among Adults In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Main outcome measures: Haematological values of the following blood parameters were determined; Haemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit(PCV), Erythrocyte (RBC) count, Leucocyte (WBC) count, Platelet count and the differential cells count (consisting of the Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophiles, Lymphocytes and Monocyte ...

  1. Hematologic effects of subcutaneous administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) in healthy alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C; Tornquist, Susan J; Gorman, M Elena; Cebra, Christopher K; Payton, Mark E

    2008-06-01

    To determine the effects of SC administration of filgrastim on cell counts in venous blood and bone marrow of healthy adult alpacas. 10 healthy alpacas. Alpacas were randomly assigned to receive treatment with filgrastim (5 microg/kg, SC; n=5) or an equivalent volume of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5) once a day for 3 days. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture 1 day prior to treatment and once a day for 5 days commencing 24 hours after the first dose was administered. Complete blood counts were performed for each blood sample. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the sternum of each alpaca 48 hours before the first treatment was administered and 72 hours after the third treatment was administered. Myeloid-to-erythroid cell (M:E) ratio was determined via cytologic evaluation of bone marrow aspirates. In filgrastim-treated alpacas, substantial increases in counts of WBCs and neutrophils were detected within 24 hours after the first dose was administered. Band cell count and percentage significantly increased 24 hours after the second dose. Counts of WBCs, neutrophils, and band cells remained high 48 hours after the third dose. Red blood cell counts and PCV were unaffected. The M:E ratio also increased significantly after treatment with filgrastim. Filgrastim induced rapid and substantial increases in numbers of circulating neutrophils and M:E ratios of bone marrow in healthy alpacas. Therefore, filgrastim may be useful in the treatment of camelids with impaired bone marrow function.

  2. Neutrophils and Granulocytic MDSC: The Janus God of Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Zilio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating blood cell type in humans, and are the first white blood cells recruited at the inflammation site where they orchestrate the initial immune response. Although their presence at the tumor site was recognized in the 1970s, until recently these cells have been neglected and considered to play just a neutral role in tumor progression. Indeed, in recent years neutrophils have been recognized to play a dual role in tumor development by either assisting the growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis or by exerting tumoricidal action directly via the secretion of antitumoral compounds, or indirectly via the orchestration of antitumor immunity. Understanding the biology of these cells and influencing their polarization in the tumor micro- and macro-environment may be the key for the development of new therapeutic strategies, which may finally hold the promise of an effective immunotherapy for cancer.

  3. Comparison of the neutrophil proteome in trauma patients and normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teles, Liz M B; Aquino, Elaine N; Neves, Anne C D

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils have an impressive array of microbicidal weapons, and in the presence of a pathogen, progress from a quiescent state in the bloodstream to a completely activated state. Failure to regulate this activation, for example, when the blood is flooded with cytokines after severe trauma, causes......, and ion flux. Proteins such as Zfyve19, MAOB and albumin- like protein were described for the first time in the neutrophil. In this work we achieved the identification of several proteins potentially involved in inflammatory signaling after trauma, as well as proteins described for the first time...

  4. Immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in blood from type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-García, Sara; Guerra-Laso, José Manuel; García-García, Silvia; Juan-García, Javier; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Diez-Tascón, Cristina; Nebreda-Mayoral, Teresa; López-Medrano, Ramiro; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of tuberculosis and diabetes represents a co-epidemic that threatens progress against tuberculosis. We have investigated type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for tuberculosis susceptibility, and have used as experimental model whole blood infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Blood samples from diabetic patients were found to have a higher absolute neutrophil count that non-diabetic controls, but their immune functionality seemed impaired because they displayed a lower capacity to phagocytose M. tuberculosis, a finding that had been previously reported only for monocytes. In contrast, an increased production of TNFα was detected in infected blood from diabetic patients. Despite the altered phagocytic capacity showed by cells from these patients, the antimicrobial activity measured in both whole blood and monocyte derived macrophages was similar to that of controls. This unexpected result prompts further improvements in the whole blood model to analyze the immune response of diabetes patients to tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial membrane potential in human neutrophils is maintained by complex III activity in the absence of supercomplex organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. van Raam (Bram); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); F.R.C. de Wit (Frank); D. Roos (Dirk); A.J. Verhoeven (Arthur); T.W. Kuijpers (Taco W.)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Neutrophils depend mainly on glycolysis for their enegry provision. Their mitochondria maintain a membrace potential (ΔΨm), which is usually generated by the repiratory chain complexes. We investigated the source of ΔΨm in neutrophils, as compared to peripheral blood

  6. [Reference values of neonatal erythrocyte and leukocyte count in Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Dapa Aly; Diawara, Faoumata; Guindo, Aldiouma; Touré, Moustaph; Traoré, Mamadou; Fofana, Aïssata Traoré; Dembélé, Albdoul K; Guindo, Agnès; Diallo, Yacouba Lazare; Diallo, Oumahane; Baraika, Ag Mohamed; Dolo, Amadou Ingré

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for blood cell count are not established at birth in Mali. This study aimed to determine reference values for erythrocyte and leukocyte at birth in Bamako. Blood was collected from the umbilical cord immediately following its clamping and studied for complete blood cell count in 481 newborns with a birth weight > 2500g, Apgar score ≤ 7 at 5 or 10 minutes, without abnormal hemoglobin mutations and whose mothers were willing in Bamako, Mali. Other than the median and mean values, 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles were calculated. The findings suggest that the normal reference values following a timely clamping of the umbilical cord were (mean ± 1SD and range): RBC = 4,00 ± 0,46.1012/L (3,13 - 4,89), Hb = 14,12 ± 1,49 g/dL (11,20 - 17,00), Hct = 40,27 ± 4,71% (31,62 - 50,18), MCV = 101 ± 5 fl (91 - 112), MCHC = 35,37 ± 2,16 pg/cellule (30,70 - 39,59), MCH = 35,06 ± 0,93 g/dL (33,40 - 36,90), RDW = 17,79 ± 7,33% (15,50 - 20,39), Reticulocytes (109/L) = 133,081 ± 29,95 (66,62 - 200,86), GB (109/L) = 13,24 ± 7,23 (7,20 - 23,70), PMN (109/L) = 7,16 ± 4,70 (3,07 - 14,22), PME (109/L) = 0,28 ± 0,26 (0 - 0,98), PMB(109/L) = 0,05 ± 0,09 (0 - 0,31), Lymphocytes (109/L) = 4,49 ± 2,45 (1,96 - 9,42), Monocytes (10 9 /L) = 1,06 ± 0,73 (0,21 - 2,54), myelocytes = 1.43 ± 1.51%, erythroblasts = 4.52 ± 7.83%. It should be noted that male babies had a lower neutrophil count than female newborns. By taking into account these results when interpreting the blood cell count in Malian newborn infants, costly misdiagnoses should be considerably decreased in a population struggling with low incomes. Le comitée de rédaction se réserve le droit de revoyer aux auteurs avant toute soumission à l'avis des lecteurs les manuscrits qui ne seraient pas conformes à ces modalités de présentation. En outre il leur conseille de sonserver un examplaire du manuscrit, des figures et des tableaux.

  7. Increased expression of brother of the regulator of imprinted sites in peripheral blood neutrophils is associated with both benign and malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Nahla M; Radwan, Wafaa M; Essa, Enas S; Kandeel, Eman Z; Abd El-Fattah, Eman K; Kandil, Samia H; Kamel, Azza M

    2017-09-01

    BORIS, a paralog of the multifunctional CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) gene is restricted to testis and normally not present in females. It is aberrantly activated in various human cancers including cancer breast. Using immunohistochemistry, western blot and/or RT-PCR, significantly higher levels of BORIS expression were reported in the neutrophils of cancer breast patients. We hypothesized that Flow Cytometry might be a better technique for objective quantitative evaluation of BORIS in neutrophils and we wanted to investigate if BORIS would discriminate between benign and malignant breast lesions. The study included 85 females; 52 breast cancer, 13 benign breast lesions and 20 age-matched healthy controls. BORIS expression in the neutrophils was detected by Flow Cytometry. High level of BORIS was detected in all malignant (64.4 ± 16.6%) and benign cases (67 ± 12.3), mean florescent intensity ratio (MFIR) of 7.2 ± 4.1 and 7 ± 3.5, median 5.8 and 6.6%; and staining index (SI) 8.3 ± 3.9 and 8.2 ± 3.4, median 7.6 and 7.9 respectively vs.13.4 ± 11.5% MFI 1.8 ± 0.7, median1.6 and SI 2.6 ± 0.69, median 2.5 for the control. BORIS level was comparable in the malignant and benign group (P = 0.934) and significantly higher than control (P = 0.0001). There was no correlation between neutrophil BORIS expression and ER/PR status, HER-2/neu expression or tumor stage or size. Increased BORIS expression in peripheral blood neutrophils is associated with both benign and malignant breast lesions; apparently, increased proliferation of breast tissue is the determining factor. This excludes BORIS as a tumor marker but it does not jeopardize its value as a potential therapeutic target. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. Hematologic, cytochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular findings of Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Narkkong, Nual-Anong; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Pattanarangsan, Rattapan

    2008-03-01

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia and is considered extremely endangered. Little is known about the hematologic values, blood cell morphology, or hemoparasites of this species in relation to other Felidae. The objective of this study was to report basic hematologic values and describe the light microscopic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in 2 wild-caught flat-headed cats. In addition, molecular analysis was done of a Hepatozoon organism found in the neutrophils of both cats. Blood samples were collected into EDTA from the cephalic vein. A CBC, manual differential count, manual reticulocyte count, cytochemical stains (Sudan black B [SBB], alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were done using standard methods. HCT was slightly lower and reticulocyte counts and red cell distribution width were higher than the expected values for other species of cats. Hepatozoon organisms were found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils in both cats, but the number of infected neutrophils was very low (1%-2%). Neutrophils stained strongly positive for SBB, but were negative for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. Hepatozoon-infected neutrophils were negative for SBB, but focally positive for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. By transmission electron microscopy, gamonts of Hepatozoon sp were observed in neutrophils, and rarely free in plasma. Infected neutrophils had fewer specific granules and more mitochondria compared with noninfected neutrophils. PCR products of partial 18S rRNA revealed that the isolate of Hepatozoon in the flat-headed cats was closely related to that of the frog Hepatozoon sp. These results add to our understanding of hematologic values and blood cell morphology in Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats as well as the molecular analysis of the Hepatozoon organism, and may be useful for the health management and evaluation of

  9. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  10. Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using 124-iodine. Predicted blood doses correlate with changes in blood cell counts after radioiodine therapy and depend on modes of TSH stimulation and number of preceding radioiodine therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung-Knemeyer, V.; Nagarajah, J.; Jentzen, W.; Ruhlmann, M.; Freudenberg, L.S.; Stahl, A.R.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry prior to a high-dose radioiodine therapy (RAIT) is recommended and a blood dose of 2 Gy is considered to be safe. In this study, changes in the blood cell count after radioiodine therapy of high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were analyzed and compared with the results of the pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. Moreover, the influence of different modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding radioiodine therapies on the blood dose were assessed. 198 patients with locally advanced or metastasized DTC received a pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. To analyze the influence of the modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding RAITs on blood dose subgroups were built as follows: patients with endogenous TSH stimulation versus patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and patients with no preceding RAIT versus patients with at least one preceding RAIT. In 124/198 patients subsequent RAIT was performed. In 73/124 patients, hemograms were performed from day 2 to 12 month after RAIT. There was no high-grade bone marrow toxicity (id est (i.e.) ≥grade 3) in patients receiving less than 2 Gy blood dose-independent of the therapeutic history. Within the first month after radioiodine therapy, there was an overall decrease in the white blood cell and platelet counts. The erythrocyte count was essentially stable. There was a correlation between cell count decrease and predicted blood doses (Spearman's correlation coefficient >-0.6 each) for the white cell line and the platelets. With regard to the subgroups, the blood dose per administered 131 I activity (BDpA) was significantly higher in patients with endogenous TSH stimulation (median 0.08 Gy/GBq) than in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation (0.06 Gy/GBq) and in patients with no previous RAIT (0.08 Gy/GBq) compared to patients who had previously undergone at least one RAIT (0.07 Gy/GBq). The range of BDpA among DTC patients is rather wide. Our

  11. Effect of prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C on platelet count measured by Sysmex XT-2000iV in dogs, cats, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tim L; Archer, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to platelet clumping is a common cause of preanalytic error for platelet counts in dogs, cats, and horses. In human beings, it is suggested that prewarming blood samples to 37°C prior to hematology analysis will reduce platelet clumping. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C on measured platelet counts and other hematologic variables. The EDTA blood samples from dogs, cats and horses submitted to the clinical pathology laboratory at the University of Cambridge were included. Complete blood cell counts performed using a Sysmex XT-2000iV hematology analyzer were done on samples at room temperature (approximately 22°C) and following warming of the samples to 37°C in a water bath. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare hematologic variables, including platelet count, before and after sample warming to 37°C. Data are presented as median (25(th) , 75(th) percentile) increase. Blood samples from 39 dogs, 19 cats, and 10 horses were included. Sample warming to 37°C resulted in a statistically significant increase in platelet counts in dogs (11 [-2, 30] ×10(9) /L), cats (36 [14, 84] ×10(9) /L), and horses (42 [31, 79] ×10(9) /L). Sample warming did not significantly affect other hematologic variables. Prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C prior to hematologic analysis increased platelet counts overall in canine, feline, and equine blood, but did not abrogate platelet clumping and pseudothrombocytopenia fully in some cases. Furthermore, true pseudothrombocytopenia was not confirmed in these animals. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps under low oxygen level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Branitzki-Heinemann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs have been characterized as a fundamental host innate immune defense mechanism. Conversely, excessive NET release may have a variety of detrimental consequences for the host. A fine balance between NET formation and elimination is necessary to sustain a protective effect during an infectious challenge. Our own recently published data revealed that stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α by the iron chelating HIF-1α-agonist desferoxamine or AKB-4924 enhanced the release of phagocyte extracellular traps. Since HIF-1α is a global regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen, we hypothesized that NET formation may be similarly increased under low oxygen conditions. Hypoxia occurs in tissues during infection or inflammation, mostly due to overconsumption of oxygen by pathogens and recruited immune cells. Therefore, experiments were performed to characterize the formation of NETs under hypoxic oxygen conditions compared to normoxia. Human blood-derived neutrophils were isolated and incubated under normoxic (21% oxygen level and compared to hypoxic (1% conditions. Dissolved oxygen levels were monitored in the primary cell culture using a Fibox4-PSt3 measurement system. The formation of NETs was quantified by fluorescence microscopy in response to the known NET-inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA or S. aureus wildtype and a nuclease-deficient mutant. In contrast to our hypothesis, spontaneous NET formation of neutrophils incubated under hypoxia was distinctly reduced compared to control neutrophils incubated under normoxia. Furthermore, neutrophils incubated under hypoxia showed significantly reduced formation of NETs in response to PMA. Gene expression analysis revealed that mRNA level of hif-1α as well as hif-1α target genes was not altered. However, in good correlation to the decreased NET formation under hypoxia, the cholesterol content of the neutrophils was

  13. Induction of hyperresponsiveness in human airway tissue by neutrophils--mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevich, S Z; Hughes, J M; Black, J L; Armour, C L

    1996-05-01

    The two main features of asthma are bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. The inflammatory response in asthma consists of infiltration and activation of a variety of inflammatory cells including neutrophils. Our previous studies have shown that stimulated neutrophil supernatants cause hyperresponsiveness of human bronchial tissue in vitro. To investigate the effect of the sensitization status of the tissue and the albumin concentration used to prepare supernatants on the response of human bronchial tissue to stimulated neutrophil supernatants. Neutrophil supernatants were prepared from human isolated blood in the presence of varying concentrations of albumin (0%, 0.1% and 4%). Neutrophil supernatants were added to sensitized and non-sensitized human isolated bronchial tissue which was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) (20 s every 4 min). Receptor antagonists specific for the prostaglandin and thromboxane (10(-7) M GR32191), platelet activating factor (10(-6) M WEB 2086), leukotriene D4 (10(-6) M MK-679) and neurokinin A (10(-7) M SR48968) receptors were used to identify neutrophil products responsible for the effects observed in the bronchial tissue. In non-sensitized human bronchial tissue, stimulated neutrophil supernatants induced a direct contraction in the presence of 0% and 0.1% but not 4% albumin. This contraction was due to leukotriene D4 as MK-679 completely inhibited the contraction. In contrast, stimulated neutrophil supernatants increased responsiveness of sensitized human bronchial tissue to EFS. The increased responsiveness was observed only in the presence of 0.1% albumin, with the site of modulation likely to be prejunctional on the parasympathetic nerve. The increased responsiveness was not inhibited by any of the antagonists tested. Sensitization status of the tissue and albumin concentration effect the responsiveness of human bronchial tissue to stimulated neutrophil supernatant. Our results suggest a possible role for

  14. Relative uptake of technetium 99m stannous colloid by neutrophils and monocytes is altered by gram-negative infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, Stuart C.; Maggs, Jacqueline A.; Ketheesan, Natkunam; Norton, Robert; LaBrooy, Justin

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative infection alters phagocytic cell function; hence, it could affect phagocytic uptake of inorganic colloids by these cells. Neutrophil and monocyte uptake of technetium 99m stannous colloid ( 99m Tc SnC) in whole blood was measured in 10 patients with gram-negative infection (Burkholderia pseudomallei) and 7 controls. Mean uptake per individual neutrophil was reduced in infection. Uptake per monocyte was not significantly different. Blood from six normal individuals was incubated with lysed B. pseudomallei and colloid, which showed reduced neutrophil uptake, but increased monocyte uptake. These results indicate that uptake of 99m Tc SnC stannous colloid can be used to measure alteration in phagocytic cell function. They suggest that infection with B. pseudomallei is associated with reduced phagocytosis by individual neutrophils, possibly through toxic effects of bacterial products. This could have immunopathogenic consequences for this gram-negative infection and may explain why it responds to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

  15. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    A-antibodies on 3 mm blood spots collected from phenylketonuria [PKU cards (Guthrie cards)]. Toxoplasma-infected children received 3 months continuous treatment with 50–100 mg/kg per day sulfadiazine in two separate administrations and 1 mg/kg per day pyrimethamine after a 1-day loading dose of 2 mg/kg, and folinic...... acid 7.5 mg was administered twice weekly. Blood cell counts and body weight were recorded during follow-up. The plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were analysed in a subgroup of seven children, using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric...... detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5×109/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was 0.5×109/l or lower...

  16. Do classic blood biomarkers of JSLE identify active lupus nephritis? Evidence from the UK JSLE Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M D; Jorgensen, A L; Beresford, M W

    2017-10-01

    Background Lupus nephritis (LN) affects up to 80% of juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients. The value of commonly available biomarkers, such as anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement (C3/C4), ESR and full blood count parameters in the identification of active LN remains uncertain. Methods Participants from the UK JSLE Cohort Study, aged modeling, with stepAIC function applied to select a final model. Receiver-operating curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy. Results A total of 370 patients were recruited; 191 (52%) had active LN and 179 (48%) had inactive LN. Binary logistic regression modeling demonstrated a combination of ESR, C3, white cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes and IgG to be best for the identification of active LN (area under the curve 0.724). Conclusions At best, combining common classic blood biomarkers of lupus activity using multivariate analysis provides a 'fair' ability to identify active LN. Urine biomarkers were not included in these analyses. These results add to the concern that classic blood biomarkers are limited in monitoring discrete JSLE manifestations such as LN.

  17. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O- 2 and H 2 O 2 . This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O- 2 generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O- 2 responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils

  18. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  19. Effect of Different Thermal Neutron Fluxes on Blood of Male Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Latif, A.A.; Saeid, Kh. S.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.; Emara, N.M.; Emara, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the exposing of male mice to different fluxes of thermal neutron .Investigation has been performed by calculating of thermal neutron fluxes(0.27x10 8 N/cm 2 . 1h , 0.54x10 8 N/cm 2 . 1h, 1.08x10 8 N/cm 2 . 1h, 2.16x10 8 N/cm 2 . 3h and 4.32x10 8 N/cm 2 . 6h) which emitted from neutron irradiation cell with source Ra - Be (α,n) have activity 3 m. Ci made by leybold(55930) . The number and differential leucocytes counts types of white blood cells in million per cubic millimeter (W. B. Cs. mm -3 ) ,the number of platelets mm -3 ,the number of red blood cells in million per cubic millimeter (R. B. Cs. mm -3 ), the hemoglobin in Blood (mg/dl), the lymphocytes ,and the eosiniphil leucocytes in blood decrease with increasing thermal neutron fluxes. But neutrophile and monocytes in blood increase with increasing the thermal neutron fluxes

  20. Effects of chronic occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to influence neutrophil function. The aim was to determine the effect of chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists. To test this hypothesis, we compared the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in anaesthetists who had been chronically exposed to volatile anaesthetic agents with that in unexposed volunteers. METHODS: Venous blood (20 mL) was withdrawn from 24 ASA I-II volunteers, from which neutrophils were isolated, and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. RESULTS: At 1 h (but not at 12 and 24 h) in culture, the rate of neutrophil apoptosis was significantly less in the anaesthetists--13.8 (12.9%) versus 34.4 (12.1%) (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents may inhibit neutrophil apoptosis. This may have implications for anaesthetists and similarly exposed healthcare workers in terms of the adequacy of their inflammatory response.

  1. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats-Multiple factorial regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200-240g for 28days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight antagonism

  2. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) improves the risk assessment of ISS staging in newly diagnosed MM patients treated upfront with novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Parrinello, N L; Consoli, M L; Marchionni, L; Forte, S; Conticello, C; Pompa, A; Corso, A; Milone, G; Di Raimondo, F; Borrello, I

    2015-11-01

    Recent reports identify the ratio between absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), called neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as a predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in various malignancies. We retrospectively examined the NLR in a cohort of 309 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR was calculated using data obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) at diagnosis and subsequently correlated with PFS and OS. The median NLR was 1.9 (range 0.4-15.9). Higher NLR was independent of international staging system (ISS) stage, plasma cell infiltration or cytogenetics. The 5-year PFS and OS estimates were, respectively, 18.2 and 36.4 % for patients with NLR ≥ 2 versus 25.5 and 66.6 % in patients with NLR < 2. Among younger patients (age <65 years, N = 179), NLR ≥ 2 had a negative prognostic impact on both PFS and OS, in all ISS stages. By combining ISS stage and NLR in a model limited to young patients, we found that 19 % of the patients were classified as very low risk, 70 % standard risk and 11 % very high risk. The 5-year estimates were 39.3, 19.4 and 10.9 % for PFS and 95.8, 50.9 and 23.6 % for OS for very low, standard-risk and very high-risk groups. We found NLR to be a predictor of PFS and OS in MM patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR can be combined with ISS staging system to identify patients with dismal outcome. However, larger cohorts and prospective studies are needed to use NLR as additional parameter to personalise MM therapy in the era of novel agents.

  3. Haematological and biochemical changes in dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum before and after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willesen, Jakob; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2009-01-01

    eosinophilia, whereas increased total white blood cell (WBC) counts and neutrophilia were observed in only 4.2%. WBC counts and concentrations of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes decreased significantly from days 0 to 42, indicating that, even in dogs without elevated absolute blood values, a low grade...

  4. Ectodomain Shedding by ADAM17: Its Role in Neutrophil Recruitment and the Impairment of This Process during Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Hemant K; Ma, Jing; Walcheck, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are specialized at killing bacteria and are recruited from the blood in a rapid and robust manner during infection. A cascade of adhesion events direct their attachment to the vascular endothelium and migration into the underlying tissue. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) functions in the cell membrane of neutrophils and endothelial cells by cleaving its substrates, typically in a cis manner, at an extracellular site proximal to the cell membrane. This process is referred to as ectodomain shedding and it results in the downregulation of various adhesion molecules and receptors, and the release of immune regulating factors. ADAM17 sheddase activity is induced upon cell activation and rapidly modulates intravascular adhesion events in response to diverse environmental stimuli. During sepsis, an excessive systemic inflammatory response against infection, neutrophil migration becomes severely impaired. This involves ADAM17 as indicated by increased levels of its cleaved substrates in the blood of septic patients, and that ADAM17 inactivation improves neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in animal models of sepsis. Excessive ADAM17 sheddase activity during sepsis thus appears to undermine in a direct and indirect manner the necessary balance between intravascular adhesion and de-adhesion events that regulate neutrophil migration into sites of infection. This review provides an overview of ADAM17 function and regulation and its potential contribution to neutrophil dysfunction during sepsis.

  5. A Potential Role for Acrolein in Neutrophil-Mediated Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerager, Brett D; Xu, Xin; Davis, Virginia A; Jones, Caleb W; Okafor, Svetlana; Whitehead, Alicia; Blalock, J Edwin; Jackson, Patricia L

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are key mediators of inflammatory processes throughout the body. In this study, we investigated the role of acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is ubiquitously present in the environment and produced endogenously at sites of inflammation, in mediating PMN-mediated degradation of collagen facilitating proline-glycine-proline (PGP) production. We treated peripheral blood neutrophils with acrolein and analyzed cell supernatants and lysates for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and prolyl endopeptidase (PE), assessed their ability to break down collagen and release PGP, and assayed for the presence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and its ability to degrade PGP. Acrolein treatment induced elevated production and functionality of collagen-degrading enzymes and generation of PGP fragments. Meanwhile, LTA4H levels and triaminopeptidase activity declined with increasing concentrations of acrolein thereby sparing PGP from enzymatic destruction. These findings suggest that acrolein exacerbates the acute inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils and sets the stage for chronic pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  6. Short communication: Relationship between urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and noninfectious pyuria in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Ferro, E; Martino, P A; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a neutrophil-derived protein whose concentration increases in plasma and urine with ongoing renal damage. Urinary leucocytes can be a potential source of urinary NGAL. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of urinary neutrophil count and other urinary parameters on urinary NGAL values in urine with negative culture. Urinalysis, urine culture, and determination of urinary NGAL were performed on 33 clinically healthy nonproteinuric dogs with negative urinoculture. The median uNGAL concentration in dogs in this study population was 9.74 ng/mL (IQR 1.93-25.43 ng/mL). In samples with WBCs > 5 hpf (mean 15.9, 6-50 leucocytes/hpf), median uNGAL value was significantly higher than that in samples with WBCs dogs with negative urinoculture. The present study suggests that noninfectious pyuria is significantly correlated with urinary NGAL values and might influence uNGAL values.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica YopH-Deficient Strain Activates Neutrophil Recruitment to Peyer's Patches and Promotes Clearance of the Virulent Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mabel N; Silva, Juan E; Eliçabe, Ricardo J; Jeréz, María B; Filippa, Verónica P; Gorlino, Carolina V; Autenrieth, Stella; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Di Genaro, María S

    2016-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica evades the immune response by injecting Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into the cytosol of host cells. YopH is a tyrosine phosphatase critical for Yersinia virulence. However, the mucosal immune mechanisms subverted by YopH during in vivo orogastric infection with Y. enterocolitica remain elusive. The results of this study revealed neutrophil recruitment to Peyer's patches (PP) after infection with a YopH-deficient mutant strain (Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH). While the Y. enterocolitica wild-type (WT) strain in PP induced the major neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 mRNA and protein levels, infection with the Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH mutant strain exhibited a higher expression of the CXCL1 receptor, CXCR2, in blood neutrophils, leading to efficient neutrophil recruitment to the PP. In contrast, migration of neutrophils into PP was impaired upon infection with Y. enterocolitica WT strain. In vitro infection of blood neutrophils revealed the involvement of YopH in CXCR2 expression. Depletion of neutrophils during Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH infection raised the bacterial load in PP. Moreover, the clearance of WT Y. enterocolitica was improved when an equal mixture of Y. enterocolitica WT and Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH strains was used in infecting the mice. This study indicates that Y. enterocolitica prevents early neutrophil recruitment in the intestine and that the effector protein YopH plays an important role in the immune evasion mechanism. The findings highlight the potential use of the Y. enterocolitica YopH-deficient strain as an oral vaccine carrier. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Demers, Melanie; Herr, Nadine; Carbo, Carla; Brill, Alexander; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Mauler, Maximilian; Cicko, Sanja; Bader, Michael; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The majority of peripheral serotonin is stored in platelets, which secrete it on activation. Serotonin releases Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) and we asked whether absence of platelet serotonin affects neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)1–deficient mice, lacking non-neuronal serotonin, showed mild leukocytosis compared with wild-type (WT), primarily driven by an elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, 50% fewer leukocytes rolled on unstimulated mesenteric venous endothelium of Tph1−/− mice. The velocity of rolling leukocytes was higher in Tph1−/− mice, indicating fewer selectin-mediated interactions with endothelium. Stimulation of endothelium with histamine, a secretagogue of WPBs, or injection of serotonin normalized the rolling in Tph1−/− mice. Diminished rolling in Tph1−/− mice resulted in reduced firm adhesion of leukocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Blocking platelet serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in WT mice reduced serum serotonin by > 80% and similarly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Four hours after inflammatory stimulation, neutrophil extravasation into lung, peritoneum, and skin wounds was reduced in Tph1−/− mice, whereas in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was independent of serotonin. Survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock was improved in Tph1−/− mice. In conclusion, platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in acute inflammation, supporting an important role for platelet serotonin in innate immunity. PMID:23243271

  9. Mean platelet volume, neutrophil to lyphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ünal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: It has been demonstrated that ratio of neutrophil and platelet count systemic inflammation and is associated with prognosis of many cardiovascular diseases, malignates and chronic inflammatory diseases.As far as it is known, there are no studies investigating neutrophil/lymphocyeratio(NLR, platelet/lymphocyte ratio(PLR and mean platelet volume(MPV values together within the context of psoriasis, a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease. Materials and Methods: 320 patients followed up in our polyclinic with psoriasis vulgaris and 200 healthy persons were evaluated in the study. Results: Leukocyte, neutrophil, platelet, MPV, NLR and PLR values in patients with psoriasis were significantly higher, and lymphocyte count, on the other hand, was significantly lower than those of the control group. No significant difference was found between MPV, NLR and PLR values of patients with or without a family history, nail and joint involvement. Conclusions: These parameters may be made use of as cheap and easily applicable methods in predicting which psoriasis patients are under the risk of cardiovascular disease. PLR is a better inflammation marker than MPV and NLR in patients with psoriasis. We did not observe a significant relationship between MPV, NLR and PLR values and such disease characteristics as severity of disease, joint involvement, nail involvement and duration of disease in patients with psoriasis. So, we believe that there is little information on the extent to which MPV,NLR and PLR might be useful regarding these characteristics.

  10. Ascorbic acid transport and accumulation in human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washko, P.; Rotrosen, D.; Levine, M.

    1989-01-01

    The transport, accumulation, and distribution of ascorbic acid were investigated in isolated human neutrophils utilizing a new ascorbic acid assay, which combined the techniques of high performance liquid chromatography and coulometric electrochemical detection. Freshly isolated human neutrophils contained 1.0-1.4 mM ascorbic acid, which was localized greater than or equal to 94% to the cytosol, was not protein bound, and was present only as ascorbic acid and not as dehydroascorbic acid. Upon addition of ascorbic acid to the extracellular medium in physiologic amounts, ascorbic acid was accumulated in neutrophils in millimolar concentrations. Accumulation was mediated by a high affinity and a low affinity transporter; both transporters were responsible for maintenance of concentration gradients as large as 50-fold. The high affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 2-5 microns by Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee analyses, and the low affinity transporter had an apparent Km of 6-7 mM by similar analyses. Each transporter was saturable and temperature dependent. In normal human blood the high affinity transporter should be saturated, whereas the low affinity transporter should be in its linear phase of uptake

  11. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each PHIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4 + and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each Ppregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha P Tull

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA, arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D(2 (PGD(2 by cyclooxygenase (COX enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD(3. This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD(2 receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD(2 signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not

  13. Meta-analysis of rare and common exome chip variants identifies S1PR4 and other loci influencing blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratz, Nathan; Schick, Ursula M; Zhou, Yi

    2016-01-01

    with Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotypes. We then performed replication analyses of new discoveries in 18,018 European-American women and 5,261 Han Chinese. We identified and replicated four new erythrocyte trait-locus associations (CEP89, SHROOM3, FADS2, and APOE) and six new WBC loci for neutrophil count...... (S1PR4), monocyte count (BTBD8, NLRP12, and IL17RA), eosinophil count (IRF1), and total WBC count (MYB). The association of a rare missense variant in S1PR4 supports the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in leukocyte trafficking and circulating neutrophil counts. Loss-of-function experiments...... for S1pr4 in mouse and s1pr4 in zebrafish demonstrated phenotypes consistent with the association observed in humans and altered kinetics of neutrophil recruitment and resolution in response to tissue injury....

  14. A simple method for regional cerebral blood flow measurement by one-point arterial blood sampling and 123I-IMP microsphere model (part 2). A study of time correction of one-point blood sample count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiko; Makino, Kenichi; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper regarding determination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the 123 I-IMP microsphere model, we reported that the accuracy of determination of the integrated value of the input function from one-point arterial blood sampling can be increased by performing correction using the 5 min: 29 min ratio for the whole-brain count. However, failure to carry out the arterial blood collection at exactly 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection causes errors with this method, and there is thus a time limitation. We have now revised out method so that the one-point arterial blood sampling can be performed at any time during the interval between 5 minutes and 20 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection, with addition of a correction step for the sampling time. This revised method permits more accurate estimation of the integral of the input functions. This method was then applied to 174 experimental subjects: one-point blood samples collected at random times between 5 and 20 minutes, and the estimated values for the continuous arterial octanol extraction count (COC) were determined. The mean error rate between the COC and the actual measured continuous arterial octanol extraction count (OC) was 3.6%, and the standard deviation was 12.7%. Accordingly, in 70% of the cases, the rCBF was able to be estimated within an error rate of 13%, while estimation was possible in 95% of the cases within an error rate of 25%. This improved method is a simple technique for determination of the rCBF by 123 I-IMP microsphere model and one-point arterial blood sampling which no longer shows a time limitation and does not require any octanol extraction step. (author)

  15. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, M; Citli, R

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is a novel marker for the evaluation of inflammation and has not been evaluated previously in patients with AD. To investigate the relationship between NLR and the clinical findings of AD. Sixty-six children with AD were included in the study.The control group was included 66 children who have no allergic and chronic diseases.The immunoglobulin(Ig)E levels and complete blood count were measured. Skin prick tests were performed using the same antigens for all patients. NLR was not significant between the patient and control groups (p>0.05).The patients with AD were divided into 3 groups according to their SCORAD score as mild, moderate and severe AD.No statistically significant difference was present between groups in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics,eosinohil-lymphocyte ratio,eosinophil-neutrophil ratio,the percentage of eosinophil, IgE,the sensitivity of skin tests(p>0.05). However,NLR and sensitivity to house dust mite were significantly different among groups(respectively,p=0.037,p:0.043).SCORAD scores were weak positively correlated with NLR levels,eosinophil-lymphocyte ratio and the sensitivity of house dust mite (respectively,r:0.329;p:0.007,r:0.264;p:00035,r:0.325;p:0.008). We didn't found significant difference in term of mean NLR betweeen patients with AD and control group. NLR was found significantly higher in severe AD patients than mild AD patients.The house dust mite sensitivity, eosinohil-lymphocyte ratio and NLR were correlated with AD severity.

  16. Is it possible to predict the presence of colorectal cancer in a blood test?: a probabilistic approach method

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    José Manuel Navarro-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of the state of immunosurveillance (the ability of the organism to prevent the development of neoplasias in the blood has prognostic implications of interest in colorectal cancer. We evaluated and quantified a possible predictive character of the disease in a blood test using a mathematical interaction index of several blood parameters. The predictive capacity of the index to detect colorectal cancer was also assessed. Methods: We performed a retrospective case-control study of a comparative analysis of the distribution of blood parameters in 266 patients with colorectal cancer and 266 healthy patients during the period from 2009 to 2013. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed between patients with colorectal cancer and the control group in terms of platelet counts, fibrinogen, total leukocytes, neutrophils, systemic immunovigilance indexes (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio, hemoglobin, hematocrit and eosinophil levels. These differences allowed the design of a blood analytical profile that calculates the risk of colorectal cancer. This risk profile can be quantified via a mathematical formula with a probabilistic capacity to identify patients with the highest risk of the presence of colorectal cancer (area under the ROC curve = 0.85. Conclusions: We showed that a colorectal cancer predictive character exists in blood which can be quantified by an interaction index of several blood parameters. The design and development of interaction indexes of blood parameters constitutes an interesting research line for the development and improvement of programs for the screening of colorectal cancer.

  17. MPL expression on AML blasts predicts peripheral blood neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Philipp J; Ellegast, Jana M; Widmer, Corinne C; Fritsch, Kristin; Goede, Jeroen S; Valk, Peter J M; Löwenberg, Bob; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Manz, Markus G

    2016-11-03

    Although the molecular pathways that cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are increasingly well understood, the pathogenesis of peripheral blood cytopenia, a major cause of AML mortality, remains obscure. A prevailing assumption states that AML spatially displaces nonleukemic hematopoiesis from the bone marrow. However, examining an initial cohort of 223 AML patients, we found no correlation between bone marrow blast content and cytopenia, questioning the displacement theory. Measuring serum concentration of thrombopoietin (TPO), a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocytes, revealed loss of physiologic negative correlation with platelet count in AML cases with blasts expressing MPL, the thrombopoietin (scavenging) receptor. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that MPL hi blasts could indeed clear TPO, likely therefore leading to insufficient cytokine levels for nonleukemic hematopoiesis. Microarray analysis in an independent multicenter study cohort of 437 AML cases validated MPL expression as a central predictor of thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in AML. Moreover, t(8;21) AML cases demonstrated the highest average MPL expression and lowest average platelet and absolute neutrophil counts among subgroups. Our work thus explains the pathophysiology of peripheral blood cytopenia in a relevant number of AML cases. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

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    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  19. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

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    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  20. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

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    Hajar-Alsadat Mansouri-Tehrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1 Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles (n = 22, (2 probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21 or (3 placebo capsules (n = 24 all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 10 6 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 10 3 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 10 3 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of

  1. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 10(6) cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 10(3) cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 10(3) cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and

  2. Cxcl8b and Cxcr2 Regulate Neutrophil Migration through Bloodstream in Zebrafish

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    Constanza Zuñiga-Traslaviña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play an essential role during an inflammatory response, which is dependent on their rapid recruitment from the bone marrow to the vasculature. However, there is no information about the molecular signals that regulate neutrophil entry to circulation during an inflammatory process in humans. This is mainly due to the lack of a suitable model of study that contains similar set of molecules and that allows in vivo analyses. In this study, we used the zebrafish to assess the role of Cxcl8a, Cxcl8b, and Cxcr2 in neutrophil migration to blood circulation after injury. Using Tg(BACmpx:GFPi114 transgenic embryos and two damage models (severe and mild, we developed in vivo lack of function assays. We found that the transcription levels of cxcl8a, cxcl8b, and cxcr2 were upregulated in the severe damage model. In contrast, only cxcr2 and cxcl8a mRNA levels were increased during mild damage. After knocking down Cxcl8a, neutrophil quantity decreased at the injury site, while Cxcl8b decreased neutrophils in circulation. When inhibiting Cxcr2, we observed a decrease in neutrophil entry to the bloodstream. In conclusion, we identified different functions for both Cxcl8 paralogues, being the Cxcl8b/Cxcr2 axis that regulates neutrophil entry to the bloodstream, while Cxcl8a/Cxcr2 regulates the migration to the affected area.

  3. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O-/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O-/sub 2/ generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O-/sub 2/ responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils.

  4. The Neutrophil-Platelet Score (NPS Predicts Survival in Primary Operable Colorectal Cancer and a Variety of Common Cancers.

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    David G Watt

    Full Text Available Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that a critical checkpoint early in the inflammatory process involves the interaction between neutrophils and platelets. This confirms the importance of the innate immune system in the elaboration of the systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a combination of the neutrophil and platelet counts were predictive of survival in patients with cancer.Patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer who underwent potentially curative resection at a single centre between March 1999 and May 2013 (n = 796 and patients with cancer from the Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study, who had a blood sample taken between January 2000 and December 2007 (n = 9649 were included in the analysis.In the colorectal cancer cohort, there were 173 cancer and 135 non-cancer deaths. In patients undergoing elective surgery, cancer-specific survival (CSS at 5 years ranged from 97% in patients with TNM I disease and NPS = 0 to 57% in patients with TNM III disease and NPS = 2 (p = 0.019 and in patients undergoing elective surgery for node-negative colon cancer from 98% (TNM I, NPS = 0 to 65% (TNM II, NPS = 2 (p = 0.004. In those with a variety of common cancers there were 5218 cancer and 929 non-cancer deaths. On multivariate analysis, adjusting for age and sex and stratified by tumour site, incremental increase in the NPS was significantly associated with poorer CSS (p<0.001.The neutrophil-platelet score predicted survival in a variety of common cancers and highlights the importance of the innate immune system in patients with cancer.

  5. Complement Activation Induces Neutrophil Adhesion and Neutrophil-Platelet Aggregate Formation on Vascular Endothelial Cells

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    Magdalena Riedl

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: Therefore, our findings of (i neutrophils adhering to complement-activated endothelial cells, (ii the formation of neutrophil-platelet aggregates on endothelial cells, and (iii the ability of aHUS serum to induce similar effects identify a possible role for neutrophils in aHUS manifestation.

  6. Synergic production of neutrophil chemotactic activity by colonic epithelial cells and eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Gordon; Loweth, Sam C; Hasan, Anwar Matar; Leslie, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The presence of eosinophils in the lumen and mucosa of the intestine is characteristic of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). There is evidence of eosinophil activation in the intestine during acute inflammatory episodes of these diseases; these episodes are also characterized by an influx of neutrophils, which have the potential to cause extensive tissue damage. We undertook a study to determine whether eosinophils in contact with colonic epithelial cells produce factors that may attract neutrophils in response to immunological stimulation. Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) and concentrations of three neutrophil-attracting CXC chemokines - CXCL1 (Groα), CXCL5 (Ena78) and CXCL8 (IL8) - were measured in supernatants of T84 colonic epithelial cells and blood eosinophils or eosinophil-like myeloid leukaemia cells (AML14.3D10), alone or in combination. Cells were stimulated with serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ) particles. NCA (Peosinophil co-cultures were significantly higher than in the supernatants of either cell type alone. Release of CXCL1 (Peosinophils but not higher than from OZ-stimulated epithelial cells. Eosinophils and colonic epithelial cells exhibit synergy in production of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to immunological stimulation. This may represent a mechanism for exaggerated recruitment of neutrophils to the intestine in response to acute infection in conditions that are characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the bowel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity-adjusted dose (TAD) administration of chemotherapy: Effect of baseline and nadir neutrophil count in patients with breast, ovarian, and lung cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carus, Andreas; Donskov, Frede; Gebski, Val

    2011-01-01

    Background: In some solid cancers a survival benefit has been observed for patients who had chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The prognostic impact of baseline and nadir blood neutrophils was assessed in the present study. Methods: Data on patients with breast cancer st.I-IV, ovarian cancer st.......Survival data were updated 2010. Results: A total of 819 patients were identified, comprising 507 patients with breast cancer, 118 patients with ovarian cancer, 115 patients with NSCLC and 79 patients with SCLC. Median survival for ovarian cancer patients obtaining nadir neutropenia below 2.0 x 109/l was 56...... months. In contrast, median survival for ovarian cancer patients who had nadir neutropenia above 2.0 was 27 months. In a multivariate analysis, adjusting for well-known prognostic features, nadir neutropenia below 2.0 was statistically significant (HR 1.73;p=0.03). In patients with NSCLC, baseline...

  9. A Novel Centrifugation Method Using a Cell Salvage Device Offers an Alternative to the Use of Leukocyte-Depleting Filters for Autologous Blood Transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchilon, Michael; Gaspar, Cristina; Mexas, Angela; Nieter, Don

    2016-12-01

    Autotransfusion protocols often use the use of costly filters, such as leukocyte-depleting filters (LDFs), to minimize reinfusion of activated leukocytes and inflammatory mediators associated with reperfusion injury (RI). LDFs are used extensively in hospital settings; however, they represent an additional capital expenditure for hospitals, as well as a constraint on the reinfusion rate of blood products for health-care providers. We compared a commonly used LDF to a novel centrifugation method employing a widely used cell salvage device. Complete blood counts and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) measuring tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were performed to compare the efficacy of these methodologies. The LDF removed, on average, 94% of all leukocytes, including 96% of neutrophils. The centrifugation method removed, on average, 89% of all leukocytes, including 91% of neutrophils and resulted in a highly concentrated red blood cell product. Our results suggest both methods offer equivalent leukocyte reduction. TNF-α was also comparably reduced following our novel centrifugation method and the LDF method and IL-2 levels were undetectable in all samples. These results indicate our novel centrifugation method may preclude the need for a LDF during select autotransfusion applications.

  10. Oxidative burst of circulating neutrophils following traumatic brain injury in human.

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    Yiliu Liao

    Full Text Available Besides secondary injury at the lesional site, Traumatic brain injury (TBI can cause a systemic inflammatory response, which may cause damage to initially unaffected organs and potentially further exacerbate the original injury. Here we investigated plasma levels of important inflammatory mediators, oxidative activity of circulating leukocytes, particularly focusing on neutrophils, from TBI subjects and control subjects with general trauma from 6 hours to 2 weeks following injury, comparing with values from uninjured subjects. We observed increased plasma level of inflammatory cytokines/molecules TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, dramatically increased circulating leukocyte counts and elevated expression of TNF-α and iNOS in circulating leukocytes from TBI patients, which suggests a systemic inflammatory response following TBI. Our data further showed increased free radical production in leukocyte homogenates and elevated expression of key oxidative enzymes iNOS, COX-2 and NADPH oxidase (gp91(phox in circulating leukocytes, indicating an intense induction of oxidative burst following TBI, which is significantly greater than that in control subjects with general trauma. Furthermore, flow cytometry assay proved neutrophils as the largest population in circulation after TBI and showed significantly up-regulated oxidative activity and suppressed phagocytosis rate for circulating neutrophils following brain trauma. It suggests that the highly activated neutrophils might play an important role in the secondary damage, even outside the injured brain. Taken together, the potent systemic inflammatory response induced by TBI, especially the intensively increase oxidative activity of circulating leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, may lead to a systemic damage, dysfunction/damage of bystander tissues/organs and even further exacerbate secondary local damage. Controlling these pathophysiological processes may be a promising therapeutic strategy and will protect unaffected

  11. Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 interferes with the function of human monocytes and neutrophils in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A L; Hey, A S; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    In the present study the effect of Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 on the chemotaxis and oxidative burst response of human peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils was investigated. It was shown that prior incubation of cells with Gp63 inhibited chemotaxis of neutrophils but not monocytes...... towards the chemotactic peptide f-met-leu-phe. On the other hand, chemotaxis of both neutrophils and monocytes towards zymosan-activated serum containing C5a was inhibited by Gp63. Monocyte and neutrophil chemiluminescence response to opsonized zymosan was reduced by preincubation of the cells with Gp63...... in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, monocytes were inhibited to a much greater degree than neutrophils by a given concentration of Gp63, and they were also inhibited at much lower concentrations of the protease. The inhibitory effect of Gp63 on chemotaxis and chemiluminescence was completely abolished...

  12. Tumor-Derived CXCL1 Promotes Lung Cancer Growth via Recruitment of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils

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    Ming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a traditional role in inflammatory process and act as the first line of defense against infections. Although their contribution to tumorigenesis and progression is still controversial, accumulating evidence recently has demonstrated that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Here, we detected that chemokine CXCL1 was dramatically elevated in serum from 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, 3LL cells constitutively expressed and secreted higher level of CXCL1. Furthermore, knocking down CXCL1 expression in 3LL cells significantly hindered tumor growth by inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into tumor tissues. Additionally, tumor-infiltrated neutrophils expressed higher levels of MPO and Fas/FasL, which may be involved in TAN-mediated inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-derived CXCL1 contributes to TANs infiltration in lung cancer which promotes tumor growth.

  13. A gender difference in circulating neutrophils in malnourished patients with COPD

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    Sven Larsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sven Larsson1, Anita Nordenson1, Pernilla Glader1, Shigemi Yoshihara2, Anders Lindén1, Frode Slinde31Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Pediatrics, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SwedenBackground: Circulating markers of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD may correlate to disease progression and extrapulmonary complications such as malnourishment. However, surprisingly little is known about gender-related differences for circulating inflammatory markers in COPD.Purpose: To characterize differences in circulating markers of inflammation in malnourished female and male patients with COPD.Subjects: Thirty female and 11 male patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD and malnourishment were examined. A group of control subjects without evidence of COPD was recruited for comparison of some variables.Methods: Blood samples were drawn, and the following parameters were studied: leukocytes and differential counts, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, myeloperoxidase (MPO, neutrophil elastase (NE, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin.Results: The mean neutrophil concentration was significantly (P = 0.019 higher in female (4.5 × 109/L than in male patients with COPD (3.5 × 109/L and significantly higher than in female control subjects (3.1 × 109/L (P , 0.01, n = 85. The mean CRP values were considerably higher in female (4.9 mg/mL than in male patients with COPD (1.5 mg/mL, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20. The mean concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 tended to be higher in female than in male patients with COPD, but these differences did not reach statistical

  14. Oxidative response of neutrophils to platelet-activating factor is altered during acute ruminal acidosis induced by oligofructose in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Claudia; Carretta, María Daniella; Alarcón, Pablo; Conejeros, Ivan; Gallardo, Diego; Hidalgo, Alejandra Isabel; Tadich, Nestor; Cáceres, Dante Daniel; Hidalgo, María Angélica; Burgos, Rafael Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is one of the main mechanisms used to kill microbes during innate immune response. D-lactic acid, which is augmented during acute ruminal acidosis, reduces platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced ROS production and L-selectin shedding in bovine neutrophils in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate whether acute ruminal acidosis induced by acute oligofructose overload in heifers interferes with ROS production and L-selectin shedding in blood neutrophils. Blood neutrophils and plasma were obtained by jugular venipuncture, while ruminal samples were collected using rumenocentesis. Lactic acid from plasma and ruminal samples was measured by HPLC. PAF-induced ROS production and L-selectin shedding were measured in vitro in bovine neutrophils by a luminol chemiluminescence assay and flow cytometry, respectively. A significant increase in ruminal and plasma lactic acid was recorded in these animals. Specifically, a decrease in PAF-induced ROS production was observed 8 h after oligofructose overload, and this was sustained until 48 h post oligofructose overload. A reduction in PAF-induced L-selectin shedding was observed at 16 h and 32 h post oligofructose overload. Overall, the results indicated that neutrophil PAF responses were altered in heifers with ruminal acidosis, suggesting a potential dysfunction of the innate immune response.

  15. Noradrenaline increases the expression and release of Hsp72 by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, E; Multhoff, G; Ortega, E

    2010-05-01

    The blood concentration of extracellular 72kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72) increases under conditions of stress, including intense exercise. However, the signal(s), source(s), and secretory pathways in its release into the bloodstream have yet to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of noradrenaline (NA) as a stress signal on the expression and release of Hsp72 by circulating neutrophils (as a source), all within a context of the immunophysiological regulation during exercise-induced stress in sedentary and healthy young (21-26years) women. The expression of Hsp72 on the surface of isolated neutrophils was determined by flow cytometry, and its release by cultured isolated neutrophils was determined by ELISA. Incubation with cmHsp70-FITC showed that neutrophils express Hsp72 on their surface under basal conditions. In addition, cultured isolated neutrophils (37 degrees C and 5% CO(2)) also released Hsp72 under basal conditions, with this release increasing from 10min to 24h in the absence of cell damage. NA at 10(-9)-10(-5)M doubled the percentage of neutrophils expressing Hsp72 after 60min and 24h incubation. NA also stimulated (by about 20%) the release of Hsp72 after 10min of incubation. (1) Hsp72 is expressed on the surface of isolated neutrophils under basal conditions, and this expression is augmented by NA. (2) Isolated neutrophils can also release Hsp72 under cultured basal conditions in the absence of cell death, and NA can increase this release. These results may contribute to confirming the hypothesis that NA can act as a "stress signal" for the increased eHsp72 in the context of exercise stress, with a role for neutrophils as a source for the expression and, to a lesser degree, the release of Hsp72 after activation by NA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis

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    Keskin Havva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, determined from peripheral blood, is accepted as an available and practical indicator of the systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the NLR was higher in euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis (CAT patients compared to a healthy control group.

  17. Sirt3 deficiency does not affect venous thrombosis or NETosis despite mild elevation of intracellular ROS in platelets and neutrophils in mice.

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    Hideki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a common denominator in chronic diseases of aging. Yet, how inflammation fuels these diseases remains unknown. Neutrophils are the primary leukocytes involved in the early phase of innate immunity and inflammation. As part of their anti-microbial defense, neutrophils form extracellular traps (NETs by releasing decondensed chromatin lined with cytotoxic proteins. NETs have been shown to induce tissue injury and thrombosis. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt3, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, an enzyme linked to human longevity, was expressed in mouse neutrophils and platelets. Using Sirt3-/- mice as a model of accelerated aging, we investigated the effects of Sirt3 deficiency on NETosis and platelet function, aiming to detect enhancement of thrombosis. More mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS were generated in neutrophils and platelets of Sirt3-/- mice compared to WT, when stimulated with a low concentration of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and a high concentration of thrombin, respectively. There were no differences in in vitro NETosis, with or without stimulation. Platelet aggregation was mildly augmented in Sirt3-/- mice compared to WT mice, when stimulated with a low concentration of collagen. The effect of Sirt3 deficiency on platelet and neutrophil activation in vivo was examined by the venous thrombosis model of inferior vena cava stenosis. Elevation of plasma DNA concentration was observed after stenosis in both genotypes, but no difference was shown between the two genotypes. The systemic response to thrombosis was enhanced in Sirt3-/- mice with significantly elevated neutrophil count and reduced platelet count. However, no differences were observed in incidence of thrombus formation, thrombus weight and thrombin-antithrombin complex generation between WT and Sirt3-/- mice. We conclude that Sirt3 does not considerably impact NET formation, platelet function, or venous

  18. Weight-length relationship, condition factor and blood parameters of farmed Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Cichlidae in central Amazon

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    Full Text Available Farming of native carnivore fish species has drawn attention due to their promising use in aquaculture. Among these species, tucunaré of the genus Cichla stand out, them being of high economical interest for sport fishing and Amazon's industry of ornamental fish. The present study describes the weight-length relationship (WLR, relative condition factor (Kn, red blood cell parameters, thrombocytes and leukocytes count of Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821, farmed in central Amazon. Fish that underwent food training during fingerling culture received extruded ration containing 45% of crude protein during fattening, and had Kn with values from 0.925-1.199, which indicated good health condition during the culture. The equation obtained from the WLR was W = 0.0073Lt3.1435, indicating an isometric growth, which is the desirable for fish of fish farm. Red blood cell counts, total thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, concentration of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCHC, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils had intra-specific variation. A significant (p<0.001 positive correlation of the red blood cells number with the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit was found. These are the first sets of blood parameters for C. temensis and could be used as reference for comparison in further studies to evaluate the health status of this fish in different environments, because assessment of these parameters may be used as quick tool for diagnosing diseases, stress and malnutrition.

  19. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Zhao, Li-li; Li, Wei; Ping, Fan; Ma, Liang-kun; Nie, Min

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated with WBC count;1-hour true insulin after 100 grams

  20. Neutrophil depletion improves diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

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    Ou, Rongying; Liu, Jia; Lv, Mingfen; Wang, Jingying; Wang, Jinmeng; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Yunsheng

    2017-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is highly associated with morbidity and mortality in population. Although studies have already demonstrated that the immune response plays a pivotal role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the comprehensive regulation is unclear. Therefore, present study was carried out to investigate the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development under neutrophil depletion. To achieve the aim of the study, C57BL/6 J mice were fed with high fat diet for 6 weeks before treated with neutrophil deplete antibody 1A8 or isotype control (200 μg/ mouse every week) for another 4 weeks. Treated with 1A8 antibody, obese mice exhibited better whole body metabolic parameters, including reduction of body weight gain and fasting blood glucose levels. Neutrophil depletion also effectively reduced hepatic structural disorders, dysfunction and lipid accumulation. Lipid β-oxidative markers, phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase α and phosphorylated-acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels were increased in 1A8 antibody-treated obese mouse group. The mitochondrial number and function were also reversed after 1A8 antibody treatment, including increased mitochondrial number, reduced lipid oxidative damage and enhanced mitochondrial activity. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were obviously reduced after neutrophil depletion, accompanied with decreased F4/80 mRNA level and macrophage percentage in liver. The decreased NF-κB signaling activity was also involved in the beneficial effect of neutrophil depletion. Taken together, neutrophil depletion could attenuate metabolic syndromes and hepatic dysfunction.

  1. White blood cells and subtypes in HFE p.C282Y and wild-type homozygotes in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study.

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    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn; Acton, Ronald T

    2017-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex is linked to white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts in subjects unselected for HFE genotypes. We compared age, sex, body mass index, total WBC and subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils) (Beckman Coulter® Gen-S), transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin of HFE p.C282Y and wild-type (p.C282Y, p.H63D negative) homozygotes without acquired conditions that influence WBC counts. We performed regressions on WBC and subtypes. There were 161 p.C282Y homozygotes (45.3% men) and 221 wild-type homozygotes (40.3% men). Mean WBC of men and women and between HFE genotypes were similar. Mean lymphocytes were higher in male p.C282Y homozygotes: 1.6×10 9 /L [95% confidence interval: 1.5,1.7] vs. 1.4 [1.3,1.5], p=0.0002. Mean lymphocytes and basophils were higher in female p.C282Y homozygotes: 1.6 [1.5,1.7] vs. 1.4 [1.3,1.5], p=0.0002; and 0.065 [0.059,0.071] vs. 0.052 [0.051,0.054], p=0.0001, respectively. Transferrin saturation was associated with neutrophils (negative; p=0.0163). Age was associated with lymphocytes (negative; p=0.0003) and monocytes (positive; p<0.0001). Regressions on lymphocytes and basophils revealed positive associations with p.C282Y homozygosity (p=0.0043 and 0.0003, respectively). There were significant positive associations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. We conclude that HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is significantly associated with lymphocyte and basophil counts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of correlation between nucleated red blood cell count in term newborns and meconium-stained amniotic fluid

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    Esmaeilian L

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF in newborns and its complications, and also based on indirect reports pointing out relationship between nucleated red blood cell (nRBC, as a marker of chronic hypoxia, and MSAF in term newborns, and in order to determine this relationship more accurately, this study was done on women with uncomplicated singleton term pregnancy that admitted for delivery at Shariati hospital in year 2000. After excluding confounding factors on nRBC, case group who includes infants with MSAF, and control group who have clear amniotic fluid were determined. Maternal age and parity, gestational age, birth weight, apgar score, neonatal out come, and FHR pattern as well as newborn hemoglobin values were evaluated. Venous cord blood was analyzed for nRBC counts per 100 WBC. Case and control groups were divided according to nRBC counts with cutoff point of 10 and then compared statistically. From the samples, 117 cases and 67 controls were evaluated. Maternal and neonatal factors were similar in two situations. Number of nRBC was 3.75±4.8 in control group and 12.04±11.7 in case group (P<0.01 and it was abnormal (>10 in 9 percent of newborns with clear fluid and 32 percent of MSAF (P<0.01. Cord blood nRBC count increased when meconium is passed intrauterine. This suggests that cases with MSAF may be at risk of chronic hypoxia. Cohort research is recommended to study the affect of delivery mode on the neonatal outcome in cases with MSAF and to evaluate the cause of fetal hypoxia in uncomplicated pregnancy with MSAF.

  3. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  4. Pathogenic Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoshida, Go; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Nishida, Satoshi; Tansho-Nagakawa, Shigeru; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Ono, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. A. baumannii is usually harmless, but it may cause infectious diseases in an immunocompromised host. Although neutrophils are the key players of the initial immune response against bacterial infection, their interactions with A. baumannii remain largely unknown. A new biological defense mechanism, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has been attracting attention. NETs play a critical role in bacterial killing by bacterial trapping and inactivation. Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to induce NET formation, while an inhibitory effect on NET formation is rarely reported. In the present study, to assess the inhibition of NET formation by A. baumannii, bacteria and human neutrophils were cocultured in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and NET formation was evaluated. NETs were rarely observed during the coculture despite neutrophil PMA stimulation. Furthermore, A. baumannii prolonged the lifespan of neutrophils by inhibiting NET formation. The inhibition of NET formation by other bacteria was also investigated. The inhibitory effect was only apparent with live A. baumannii cells. Finally, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, neutrophil adhesion was examined. A. baumannii suppressed the adhesion ability of neutrophils, thereby inhibiting PMA-induced NET formation. This suppression of cell adhesion was partly due to suppression of the surface expression of CD11a in neutrophils. The current study constitutes the first report on the inhibition of NET formation by a pathogenic bacterium, A. baumannii, and prolonging the neutrophil lifespan. This novel pathogenicity to inhibit NET formation, thereby escaping host immune responses might contribute to a development of new treatment strategies for A. baumannii infections. PMID:29467765

  5. Pathogenic Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion

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    Go Kamoshida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. A. baumannii is usually harmless, but it may cause infectious diseases in an immunocompromised host. Although neutrophils are the key players of the initial immune response against bacterial infection, their interactions with A. baumannii remain largely unknown. A new biological defense mechanism, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, has been attracting attention. NETs play a critical role in bacterial killing by bacterial trapping and inactivation. Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to induce NET formation, while an inhibitory effect on NET formation is rarely reported. In the present study, to assess the inhibition of NET formation by A. baumannii, bacteria and human neutrophils were cocultured in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and NET formation was evaluated. NETs were rarely observed during the coculture despite neutrophil PMA stimulation. Furthermore, A. baumannii prolonged the lifespan of neutrophils by inhibiting NET formation. The inhibition of NET formation by other bacteria was also investigated. The inhibitory effect was only apparent with live A. baumannii cells. Finally, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, neutrophil adhesion was examined. A. baumannii suppressed the adhesion ability of neutrophils, thereby inhibiting PMA-induced NET formation. This suppression of cell adhesion was partly due to suppression of the surface expression of CD11a in neutrophils. The current study constitutes the first report on the inhibition of NET formation by a pathogenic bacterium, A. baumannii, and prolonging the neutrophil lifespan. This novel pathogenicity to inhibit NET formation, thereby escaping host immune responses might contribute to a development of new treatment strategies for A. baumannii infections.

  6. Protectin DX, a double lipoxygenase product of DHA, inhibits both ROS production in human neutrophils and cyclooxygenase activities

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    Liu, Miao; Boussetta, Tarek; Makni-Maalej, Karama; Fay, Michèle; Driss, Fathi; El-Benna, Jamel; Lagarde, Michel; Guichardant, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils play a major role in inflammation by releasing large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase (NOX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). This ROS overproduction is mediated by phosphorylation of the NOX subunits with an uncontrolled manner. Therefore, targeting neutrophil subunits would represent a promising strategy to moderate NOX activity, lower ROS, and other inflammatory agents, such as cytokines and leukotrienes, produced by neutrophils. For this purpose, we investigated the effects of protectin DX (PDX) - a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) di-hydroxylated product which inhibits blood platelet aggregation - on neutrophil activation in vitro. We found that PDX decreases ROS production, inhibits NOX activation and MPO release from neutrophils. We also confirm, that PDX is an anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2, E.C. 1.14.99.1) as well as COX-2 in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated human neutrophils. However, PDX has no effect on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway that produces the chemotactic agent leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Taken together, our results suggest that PDX could be a protective agent against neutrophil invasion in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24254970

  7. Flow Cytometric Evaluation of Human Neutrophil Apoptosis During Nitric Oxide Generation In Vitro: The Role of Exogenous Antioxidants

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    Zofia Sulowska

    2005-01-01

    in vitro. The effect of exogenous supply of NO donors such as SNP, SIN-1, and GEA-3162 on the course of human neutrophil apoptosis and the role of extracellular antioxidants in this process was investigated. Isolated from peripheral blood, neutrophils were cultured in the presence or absence of NO donor compounds and antioxidants for 8, 12, and 20 hours. Apoptosis of neutrophils was determined in vitro by flow cytometric analysis of cellular DNA content and Annexin V protein binding to the cell surface. Exposure of human neutrophils to GEA-3162 and SIN-1 significantly accelerates and enhances their apoptosis in vitro in a time-dependent fashion. In the presence of SNP, intensification of apoptosis has not been revealed until 12 hours after the culture. The inhibition of GEA-3162- and SIN-1-mediated neutrophil apoptosis by superoxide dismutase (SOD but not by catalase (CAT was observed. Our results show that SOD and CAT can protect neutrophils against NO-donors-induced apoptosis and suggest that the interaction of NO and oxygen metabolites signals may determine the destructive or protective role of NO donor compounds during apoptotic neutrophil death.

  8. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2015-01-01

    microscopy and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 5711 different proteins with proteomics. The abundance of the proteins calprotectin and lactotransferrin in the tissue correlated with the degree of tissue inflammation as determined by histology. However, fecal calprotectin did...... not correlate. Forty-six proteins were measured with a statistically significant differences in abundances between the UC colon tissue and controls. Eleven of the proteins with increased abundances in the UC biopsies were associated with neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps. The findings were...... validated by microscopy, where an increased abundance of neutrophils and the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps by extracellular DNA present in the UC colon tissue were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophils, induced neutrophil extracellular traps, and several proteins that play a part in innate...

  9. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count do not improve clinical decision-making in acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Zimmermann-Nielsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis (AA) remains a diagnostic challenge as indicated by the high rate of unnecessary surgery. Blood samples, primarily C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocyte counts, are used as a diagnostic supplement despite their relatively low sensitivities and specificities...... the blood results and re-evaluate their diagnosis. The surgeon's diagnosis before and after was compared with the final diagnosis defined by surgical findings or follow-up. The gold standard was any degree of appendicitis on histology. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients were included of whom 91 (40.3%) had...... appendicitis on histology. The surgeons changed their diagnosis in nine cases after assessing blood samples. The changes in the proportion of correct diagnoses, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values after assessing blood samples were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of CRP and leucocyte...

  10. Neutrophils: potential therapeutic targets in tularemia?

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    Lee-Ann H Allen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies.

  11. The influence of very low doses of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) on the apoptosis of rat neutrophils in vivo. The role of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J; Jablonska, E; Chojnowski, M

    2001-08-13

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) causes the apoptosis of neutrophils in vitro experiments. This compound also has the ability to stimulate neutrophils for the production of reactive oxygen species. It has been decided to examine more closely whether the apoptosis of neutrophils by NDMA is caused by the influence of the radicals produced by these cells and whether the stimulation to undergo apoptosis of neutrophils is caused by NDMA in either the original form or by its metabolites. The experiment was conducted on rats. The animals were administered a one-time dose of NDMA intragastrically, 1.5 mg/kg. The research was conducted 1,2,4,12 h consecutively following NDMA administration. The concentration of NDMA in blood was evaluated by means of the gas chromatography method. The neutrophils were isolated from blood by means of differential centrifugation. Respiratory burst was assessed in cells, by means of the cytochrome c reduction method. The percentage of cells revealing morphological properties of apoptosis was determined under the fluorescent microscope. It has been observed that the activation of the respiratory burst is caused mainly by non-metabolised NDMA. Probably the non-metabolised molecules of this compound also have a decisive role in the initiation of apoptosis of neutrophils. It can be assumed that the main factor responsible for the apoptosis of neutrophil rats following a one-time NDMA administration is the induction of respiratory burst in neutrophils by this compound.

  12. Role of oncogene 24p3 neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in digestive system cancers.

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    Michalak, Łukasz; Bulska, Magdalena; Kudłacz, Katarzyna; Szcześniak, Piotr

    2016-01-04

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, known also as 24p3 lipocalin, lipocalin-2 or uterocalin (in mouse), is a small secretory protein binding small molecular weight ligands which takes part in numerous processes including apoptosis induction in leukocytes, iron transport, smell, and prostaglandins and retinol transport [19]. It was discovered in activated neutrophils as a covalent peptide associated with human gelatinase neutrophils [7]. Neutrophil lipocalin is secreted physiologically in the digestive system, respiratory tract, renal tubular cells, liver or immunity system. Systematic (circulated in plasma) neutrophil gelatinase come from multiple sources; it may be synthesized in the liver, secreted from activated neutrophils or macrophages, or derive from atherosclerosis or inflammatory endothelial cells [17]. NGAL is stored secondarily in granulates with lactoferrin, calprotectin or MAC-1, which take part in neutrophils' action and migration [13,19]. NGAL participates in acute and chronic inflammation (production of NGAL is indicated by factors conducive to cancer progression) [13,21]. NGAL levels increase in inflammatory or endothelial damage. NGAL level is measured in blood or urine. It is known as a kidney failure factor [7,20]. NGAL is therefore one of the most promising new generation biomarkers in clinical nephrology [6]. The role of NGAL in digestive system neoplasms has not been explored in detail. However, overexpression of this marker was proved in neoplasms such as esophageal carcinoma, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer or colon cancer, which may indicate an association between concentration and neoplasm [3].

  13. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  14. Usefulness of estimation of blood procalcitonin concentration versus C-reactive protein concentration and white blood cell count for therapeutic monitoring of sepsis in neonates

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    Agnieszka Kordek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was intended to assess the clinical usefulness of blood procalcitonin (PCT concentrations for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial neonatal sepsis.Material/Methods: The enrolment criterion was sepsis clinically manifesting after three days of life. PCT concentrations were measured in venous blood from 52 infected and 88 uninfected neonates. The results were interpreted against C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and white blood cell counts (WBC.Results: Differences between the two groups in PCT and CRP concentrations were highly significant. No significant differences between the groups were noted for WBC. The threshold value on the receiver operator characteristic curve was 2.06 ng/mL for PCT (SE 75%; SP 80.68%; PPV 62.22%; NPV 88.75%; AUC 0.805, 5.0 mg/L for CRP (SE 67.44%; SP 73.68%; PPV 42.02%; NPV 88.89%; AUC 0.801, and 11.9 x109/L for WBC (SE 51.16%; SP 50.68%; PPV 23.16%; NPV 78.13%; AUC 0.484. Procalcitonin concentrations decreased 24 hours after initiation of antibiotic therapy and reverted to the control level after 5-7 days. C-reactive protein concentrations began to decline after two days of antibiotic therapy but were still higher than in the control group after 5-7 days of treatment. No significant changes in WBC during the treatment were observed.Conclusions: Procalcitonin concentrations in blood appear to be of use for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial infections in neonates as this parameter demonstrates greater sensitivity and specificity than C-reactive protein. White blood cell counts appear to be of little diagnostic value in the early phase of infection or for therapeutic monitoring.

  15. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

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    Bjorn T Adalsteinsson

    Full Text Available Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179 and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20, isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed, KCNJ11 (8 CpGs, KCNQ1 (4 CpGs and PM20D1 (7 CpGs. Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter explained up to 40% (p<0.0001 of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  16. Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with haematological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, T.S.; Irfan, M.; Ansari, S.H.; Farzana, T.; Kahlid, M.Z.; Panwani, V.K.; Baig, M.I.; Shakoor, N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report the initial data on allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for haematogical malignancies in Pakistan. Patients and Methods: Patients with haematological malignancies were included who had received allogeneic PBSC transplantation of Filgrastim (rhG-CSF) mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-identical siblings (except one 5/6 antigen sibling) with Busulphan and Cyclophosphamide standard conditioning therapy in all patients. No patient received antibiotics for gut decontamination. Empirical antibiotics included Ceftriaxone and Amikacin for febrile neutropenia, oral Itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis while oral acyclovir was used for antiviral prophylaxis. All donors and recipients were CMV IgG positive Cyclosporin A / Methotrexate were given for graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. Stem cells were harvested using Haemonetics MCS+ cell separator. All patients received G-CSF starting from day +4 until their neutrophil count rose to normal. Results: There were 21 patients with age range of 8-38 years and male to female ratio of 2:1. Engraftment was achieved in all patients; median time to absolute neutrophil count of > 0.5 x 10/sup 9/I was 10 days (range 8 -12 days) and platelet count of > 20 x 10/sup 9/1 was 14 days (12-17 days). Acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) was seen in 7 patients; one patient had grade IV skin and hepatic GvHD; another patient had grade III gut GvHD, grade II GvHD was seen in 3 patients while grade I skin aGvHD was seen in 2 patients. Median hospital stay was 34 days. Treatment related mortality was seen in 3 patients (18%). Chronic GvHD was seen in 5 patients. Four more patients died during the follow-up period. Malaria was seen in 2 while tuberculosis developed in one case. Relapse was seen in 2 patients. The estimated probability of survival at one hundred day, at one year and five years was 82, 47 and 40 percent respectively. Conclusion: Haematopoietic stem cell transplant

  17. EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF REARING KITS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS IN BLOOD OF POLAR FOXES FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SZYMECZKO

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the number of rearing kits on selected blood parameters in polar fox females in the fifth week of lactation. The haematological parameters were tested in the blood of polar fox females with small (group A-mean number of pups: 3.5 and large (group B-mean number of pups: 10.7 litter. In female polar foxes rearing 9-13 kits (group B there was found a lower number of red blood cells, a lower haematocrit value and lower concentration of haemoglobin. No significant (P<0.05 effect of litter size on the number of white blood cells was observed, however there was an essential (P<0.05 increase in the percentage of neutrophiles as well as lowering of lymphocytes in the total count of leucocytes in the female of polar foxes from B group. A large number of pups in litter significantly (P<0.05 lowered the content of glucose in female blood on the 35th day of lactation.

  18. Dynamic interactions of neutrophils and biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Hirschfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of microbial infections in humans are biofilm-associated and difficult to treat, as biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and protect themselves from external threats in various ways. Biofilms are tenaciously attached to surfaces and impede the ability of host defense molecules and cells to penetrate them. On the other hand, some biofilms are beneficial for the host and contain protective microorganisms. Microbes in biofilms express pathogen-associated molecular patterns and epitopes that can be recognized by innate immune cells and opsonins, leading to activation of neutrophils and other leukocytes. Neutrophils are part of the first line of defense and have multiple antimicrobial strategies allowing them to attack pathogenic biofilms. Objective/design: In this paper, interaction modes of neutrophils with biofilms are reviewed. Antimicrobial strategies of neutrophils and the counteractions of the biofilm communities, with special attention to oral biofilms, are presented. Moreover, possible adverse effects of neutrophil activity and their biofilm-promoting side effects are discussed. Results/conclusion: Biofilms are partially, but not entirely, protected against neutrophil assault, which include the processes of phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. However, virulence factors of microorganisms, microbial composition, and properties of the extracellular matrix determine whether a biofilm and subsequent microbial spread can be controlled by neutrophils and other host defense factors. Besides, neutrophils may inadvertently contribute to the physical and ecological stability of biofilms by promoting selection of more resistant strains. Moreover, neutrophil enzymes can degrade collagen and other proteins and, as a result, cause harm to the host tissues. These parameters could be crucial factors in the onset of periodontal inflammation and the subsequent tissue breakdown.

  19. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomkins Jeffrey P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (μm/hr and 3.8 (μm3/hr, respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7. Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK. Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis

  20. Periodontal bacteria in human carotid atherothrombosis as a potential trigger for neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangé, Hélène; Labreuche, Julien; Louedec, Liliane; Rondeau, Philippe; Planesse, Cynthia; Sebbag, Uriel; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Bouchard, Philippe; Meilhac, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological, biological and clinical links between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases are now well established. Several human studies have detected bacterial DNA corresponding to periodontal pathogens in cardiovascular samples. Intraplaque hemorrhage has been associated with a higher risk of atherosclerotic plaque rupture, potentially mediated by neutrophil activation. In this study, we hypothesized that plaque composition may be related to periodontal pathogens. Carotid culprit plaque samples were collected from 157 patients. Macroscopic characterization was performed at the time of collection: presence of blood, lipid core, calcification and fibrosis. Markers of neutrophil activation released by carotid samples were quantified (myeloperoxidase or MPO, cell-free DNA and DNA-MPO complexes). PCR analysis using specific primers for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcommitans, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia was used to detect DNA from periodontal pathogens in carotid tissues. In addition, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Immunoglobulins G against T. forsythia were quantified in atherosclerotic carotid conditioned medium. Intraplaque hemorrhage was present in 73/157 carotid samples and was associated with neutrophil activation, reflected by the release of MPO, cell-free DNA and MPO-DNA complexes. LPS levels were also linked to intraplaque hemorrhage but not with the neutrophil activation markers. Seventy-three percent of the carotid samples were positive for periodontal bacterial DNA. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were associated with the detection of T. forsythia and neutrophil activation/inflammation markers. This study suggests a potential role of periodontal microorganisms, especially T. forsythia, in neutrophil activation within hemorrhagic atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: effect on neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, S S; Kwon, O J

    2000-06-01

    There have been several investigations suggesting an involvement of activated neutrophils in the development of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma. Interleukin-8 in the sputa from GD-induced asthmatic patients increased significantly after the exposure to GD. To confirm IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells when exposed to GD, and to evaluate the role of IL-8 on neutrophil recruitment. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four different concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 microg/mL of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production and neutrophil chemotaxis, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant derived from subjects with GD-induced asthma exposed to 10 microg/mL of GD, and then compared with those without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil chemotactic activity of the culture supernatant was determined by modified Boyden chamber method. Interleukin-8 production and neutrophil chemotactic activity from bronchial epithelial cells significantly increased with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05, respectively), and were significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05, respectively) at each concentration. Close correlation was noted between neutrophil chemotactic activity and IL-8 level (r = 0.87, P < .05). Compared with the untreated sample, pre-treatment of anti-IL-8 antibody induced a significant suppression (up to 67.2%) of neutrophil chemotactic activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 produced from bronchial epithelial cells may be a major cytokine, which induces neutrophil migration into the airways when exposed to GD.

  2. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in maternal (n = 56) and children's blood at 18 months (n = 42) and 5 years (n = 54). We constructed latent functions for exposures at three different ages using factor analyses and applied structural equation models adjusted for covariates. Results Prenatal mercury....... In contrast, the 5-year PFASs concentrations were associated with higher basophil counts (B = 46% SD, 95% CI: 13, 79). Significantly reduced subpopulations of lymphocytes such as B cells, CD4-positive T helper cells and CD4 positive recent thymic emigrants may suggest cellular immunity effects...... and dysregulation of T-cell mediated immunity. Conclusion Developmental exposure to environmental immunotoxicants appears to have different impacts on WBC counts in childhood....

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of the Link Between Cell Activation State and Its Rheological Impact on the Microscale Flow of Neutrophil Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Michael L.; Horrall, Nolan M.; Rowe, Dylan; Sethu, Palaniappan; Shin, Hainsworth Y.

    2015-01-01

    Activated neutrophils have been reported to affect peripheral resistance, for example, by plugging capillaries or adhering to the microvasculature. In vivo and ex vivo data indicate that activated neutrophils circulating in the blood also influence peripheral resistance. We used viscometry and microvascular mimics for in vitro corroboration. The rheological impact of differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 promyelocytes (dHL60s) or human neutrophil suspensions stimulated with 10 nM fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) was quantified using a cone-plate rheometer (450 s−1 shear rate). To evaluate their impact on microscale flow resistance, we used 10-μm Isopore® membranes to model capillaries as well as single 200 × 50 μm microchannels and networks of twenty 20 × 50 μm microfluidic channels to mimic noncapillary microvasculature. Stimulation of dHL60 and neutrophil populations significantly altered their flow behavior as evidenced by their impact on suspension viscosity. Notably, hematocrit abrogated the impact of leukocyte activation on blood cell suspension viscosity. In micropore filters, activated cell suspensions enhanced flow resistance. This effect was further enhanced by the presence of erythrocytes. The resistance of our noncapillary microvascular mimics to flow of activated neutrophil suspensions was significantly increased only with hematocrit. Notably, it was elevated to a higher extent within the micronetwork chambers compared to the single-channel chambers. Collectively, our findings provide supportive evidence that activated neutrophils passing through the microcirculation may alter hemodynamic resistance due to their altered rheology in the noncapillary microvasculature. This effect is another way neutrophil activation due to chronic inflammation may, at least in part, contribute to the elevated hemodynamic resistance associated with cardiovascular diseases (e.g., hypertension and hypercholesterolemia). PMID:26065495

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of the Link Between Cell Activation State and Its Rheological Impact on the Microscale Flow of Neutrophil Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Michael L; Horrall, Nolan M; Rowe, Dylan; Sethu, Palaniappan; Shin, Hainsworth Y

    2015-09-01

    Activated neutrophils have been reported to affect peripheral resistance, for example, by plugging capillaries or adhering to the microvasculature. In vivo and ex vivo data indicate that activated neutrophils circulating in the blood also influence peripheral resistance. We used viscometry and microvascular mimics for in vitro corroboration. The rheological impact of differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 promyelocytes (dHL60s) or human neutrophil suspensions stimulated with 10 nM fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) was quantified using a cone-plate rheometer (450 s(-1) shear rate). To evaluate their impact on microscale flow resistance, we used 10-μm Isopore® membranes to model capillaries as well as single 200 × 50 μm microchannels and networks of twenty 20 × 50 μm microfluidic channels to mimic noncapillary microvasculature. Stimulation of dHL60 and neutrophil populations significantly altered their flow behavior as evidenced by their impact on suspension viscosity. Notably, hematocrit abrogated the impact of leukocyte activation on blood cell suspension viscosity. In micropore filters, activated cell suspensions enhanced flow resistance. This effect was further enhanced by the presence of erythrocytes. The resistance of our noncapillary microvascular mimics to flow of activated neutrophil suspensions was significantly increased only with hematocrit. Notably, it was elevated to a higher extent within the micronetwork chambers compared to the single-channel chambers. Collectively, our findings provide supportive evidence that activated neutrophils passing through the microcirculation may alter hemodynamic resistance due to their altered rheology in the noncapillary microvasculature. This effect is another way neutrophil activation due to chronic inflammation may, at least in part, contribute to the elevated hemodynamic resistance associated with cardiovascular diseases (e.g., hypertension and hypercholesterolemia).

  5. Description of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    PAŞA, Serdar; KIRAL, Funda; KARAGENÇ, Tülin; ATASOY, Abidin; SEYREK, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings recorded in 10 dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey were reported. The diagnosis was made by finding H. canis gamonts within leucocytes in Giemsa-stained blood smears. H. canis parasitaemia level was calculated manually by counting 500 neutrophils in blood smears. Parasitaemia varied from 1% to 23% of the circulating neutrophils. Anorexia, fever, depression, weight loss, and lymphadenopathy are the main clinical signs in...

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis patients display altered composition and maturity of neutrophils as well as impaired neutrophil effector functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Yizengaw

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunologically, active visceral leishmaniasis (VL is characterised by profound immunosuppression, severe systemic inflammatory responses and an impaired capacity to control parasite replication. Neutrophils are highly versatile cells, which play a crucial role in the induction as well as the resolution of inflammation, the control of pathogen replication and the regulation of immune responses. Neutrophil functions have been investigated in human cutaneous leishmaniasis, however, their role in human visceral leishmaniasis is poorly understood.In the present study we evaluated the activation status and effector functions of neutrophils in patients with active VL and after successful anti-leishmanial treatment. Our results show that neutrophils are highly activated and have degranulated; high levels of arginase, myeloperoxidase and elastase, all contained in neutrophils’ granules, were found in the plasma of VL patients. In addition, we show that a large proportion of these cells are immature. We also analysed effector functions of neutrophils that are essential for pathogen clearance and show that neutrophils have an impaired capacity to release neutrophil extracellular traps, produce reactive oxygen species and phagocytose bacterial particles, but not Leishmania parasites.Our results suggest that impaired effector functions, increased activation and immaturity of neutrophils play a key role in the pathogenesis of VL.

  7. Mast cell activation and neutrophil recruitment promotes early and robust inflammation in the meninges in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Alison L; Walker, Margaret E; Hessner, Martin J; Brown, Melissa A

    2013-05-01

    The meninges are often considered inert tissues that house the CSF and provide protection for the brain and spinal cord. Yet emerging data demonstrates that they are also active sites of immune responses. Furthermore, the blood-CSF barrier surrounding meningeal blood vessels, together with the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is postulated to serve as a gateway for the pathological infiltration of immune cells into the CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous studies using mast cell-deficient (Kit(W/Wv)) mice demonstrated that mast cells resident in the dura mater and pia mater exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of MS, by facilitating CNS inflammatory cell influx. Here we examined the underlying mechanisms that mediate these effects. We demonstrate that there are dramatic alterations in immune associated gene expression in the meninges in pre-clinical disease, including those associated with mast cell and neutrophil function. Meningeal mast cells are activated within 24 h of disease induction, but do not directly compromise CNS vascular integrity. Rather, through production of TNF, mast cells elicit an early influx of neutrophils, cells known to alter vascular permeability, into the meninges. These data add to the growing evidence that inflammation in the meninges precedes CNS immune cell infiltration and establish that mast cells are among the earliest participants in these disease-initiating events. We hypothesize that mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment and activation in the meninges promotes early breakdown of the local BBB and CSF-blood barrier allowing initial immune cell access to the CNS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Supplementation and In Vitro Vitamin C on the Oxidative and Inflammatory Neutrophil Response to Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Capó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic (DHA and in vitro vitamin C (VitC at physiological concentrations on oxidative and inflammatory neutrophil response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA. Fifteen male footballers ingested a beverage enriched with DHA or a placebo for 8 weeks in a randomized double-blind study. Neutrophils were isolated from blood samples collected in basal conditions at the end of nutritional intervention. Neutrophils were cultured for 2 hours at 37°C in (a control media, (b media with PMA, and (c media with PMA + VitC. PMA induces neutrophil degranulation with increased extracellular myeloperoxidase and catalase activities, nitric oxide production, expression of the inflammatory genes cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor κβ, interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6 production. DHA diet supplementation boosts the exit of CAT from neutrophils but moderates the degranulation of myeloperoxidase granules induced by PMA. VitC facilitates azurophilic degranulation of neutrophils and increases gene expression of myeloperoxidase induced by PMA. VitC and DHA diet supplementation prevent PMA effects on inflammatory gene expression, although together they do not produce additional effects. DHA diet supplementation enhances antioxidant defences and anti-inflammatory neutrophil response to in vitro PMA activation. VitC facilitates neutrophil degranulation but prevents an inflammatory response to PMA.

  9. The Immunostimulatory and Antimicrobial Property of two Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decoctions were assessed for immunostimulatory property in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed ICR mice. Total white blood cell count, as well as lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were determined and their effects compared with Levamisole. The decoctions were also screened for antimicrobial activity by ...

  10. Neutrophils stimulation index in people under consumption of broiler chickens meat at pre-slaughter stress correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grabovskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data about changes in neutrophils stimulation index in men blood after consumption of broiler chicken meat with the natural origin immunomodulators, introduced in feed before slaughter, is presented in this paper. Spleen extract biologically active substances were used as immunomodulators and anti-stressors during pre-slaughter period. Biologically active substances influence on putrescin, spermine and spermidine content in broiler chicken blood before slaughter and on some non-specific resistance indices in people was determined after consumption of broiler chicken meat. Two groups of broiler chickens at one month age were formed for the study. The spleen extract obtained with ultrasound application (I research group served as biologically active substances was added to the feed of broiler chickens in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. Blood polyamines such as putrescin, spermine and spermidine were determined by the method of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on the liquid chromatograph Agilent 1200 (USA. The second experiment was conducted on 10 people. We recruited 10 healthy male medical students (20 years old, on average after the National Medical license examination. Spleen extract polyamines as immunomodulators and anti-stressors have the most effective influence on total quantity of polyamines in broiler chicken blood. As a result of research, it is found that aerosol introduction of spleen extract into broiler chicken feed reliably increases total quantity of polyamines by 39% and, in particular, spermidine concentration by 34%, and spermine by 40% compared with broiler chickens of the control group. Some non-specific body resistance indices in men blood upon consumption of broiler chicken meat varied within the physiological norm. The neutrophils stimulation index increased in men blood (+0,82 after consumption of meat of broiler chickens to which spleen extract as immunomodulator and anti-stressor was

  11. Leukotriene B4-Neutrophil Elastase Axis Drives Neutrophil Reverse Transendothelial Cell Migration In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Bartomeu; Bodkin, Jennifer V; Beyrau, Martina; Woodfin, Abigail; Ody, Christiane; Rourke, Claire; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Brohi, Karim; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2015-06-16

    Breaching endothelial cells (ECs) is a decisive step in the migration of leukocytes from the vascular lumen to the extravascular tissue, but fundamental aspects of this response remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that neutrophils can exhibit abluminal-to-luminal migration through EC junctions within mouse cremasteric venules and that this response is elicited following reduced expression and/or functionality of the EC junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C). Here we demonstrate that the lipid chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was efficacious at causing loss of venular JAM-C and promoting neutrophil reverse transendothelial cell migration (rTEM) in vivo. Local proteolytic cleavage of EC JAM-C by neutrophil elastase (NE) drove this cascade of events as supported by presentation of NE to JAM-C via the neutrophil adhesion molecule Mac-1. The results identify local LTB4-NE axis as a promoter of neutrophil rTEM and provide evidence that this pathway can propagate a local sterile inflammatory response to become systemic. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood count and number of somatic cells in milk of cows infected with Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radinović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to examine the intensity of the local immune response of the mammary gland and the changes in the differential blood count of chronically infected cows. An experiment was performed on a group of cows with Q fever serologically proven using the ELISA test (IDEXX. Based on the ELISA test results, an experimental group of ten infected cows was formed. Blood was sampled from the experimental cows, and cumulative milk samples were taken. The number of erythrocytes was determined spectrophotometrically, and the number of leucocytes using the method according to Bürker - Türk. The blood analysis established an increased number of erythrocytes, while the number of leucocytes was within the limits of physiological values. The milk samples were used for the determination of the number of somatic cells using flow cytometric measurements. The processing of the milk samples established an average number of somatic cells of 853.000 /mL milk.

  13. Peripheral venous blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li Chen,1 Yanjiao Zuo,1 Lihua Zhu,2 Yuxin Zhang,3 Sen Li,1 Fei Ma,4 Yu Han,5 Hongjiang Song,1 Yingwei Xue11Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 3Department of General Surgery, Mudanjiang First People’s Hospital, Mudanjiang, 4Department of Breast Surgery, 5Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Accurate and useful predictors of gastric carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are lacking at present. We aim to explore the potential prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR in advanced gastric cancer receiving S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX or oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOX regimen.Methods: We enrolled 91 patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from August 2008 to September 2015. The peripheral venous blood samples were collected before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The NLR was divided into two groups: low NLR <2.17 group and high NLR ≥2.17 group. Univariate analysis on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were generated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were assessed by univariate analyses, and the independent prognostic factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis (Cox’s proportional-hazards regression model.Results: The univariate analysis showed that median DFS and median OS were worse for high NLR values than low NLR values before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (median DFS: 19.97 and 26.87 months, respectively, P=0.299; median OS: 25.83 and 29.73 months, respectively, P=0.405. Multivariate analysis showed that the NLR before neoadjuvant

  14. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  15. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbs R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.μl-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.μl-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP

  16. Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits human neutrophil apoptosis via upregulation of bfl-1, maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential and prevention of caspase 3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Yoshiie, Kiyotaka; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis plays a central role in human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Intracellular signalling pathways through which the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits the spontaneous apoptosis of human peripheral blood neutrophils were investigated. bfl-1 mRNA levels in uninfected neutrophils after 12 h in culture were reduced to approximately 5-25% of 0 h levels, but remained high in infected neutrophils. The eukaryotic RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, prevented the maintenance of bfl-1 mRNA levels by A. phagocytophilum. Differences in mcl-1, bax, bcl-w, bad or bak mRNA levels in infected versus uninfected neutrophils were not remarkable. By using mitochondrial fluorescent dyes, Mitotracker Red and JC-1, it was found that most uninfected neutrophils lost mitochondrial membrane potential after 10-12 h incubation, whereas A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils maintained high membrane potential. Caspase 3 activity and the degree of apoptosis were lower in dose-dependent manner in A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils at 16 h post infection, as compared to uninfected neutrophils. Anti-active caspase 3 antibody labelling showed less positively stained population in infected neutrophils compared to those in uninfected neutrophils after 12 h incubation. These results suggest that A. phagocytophilum inhibits human neutrophil apoptosis via transcriptional upregulation of bfl-1 and inhibition of mitochondria-mediated activation of caspase 3.

  17. Mitochondria in neutrophil apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raam, B. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2006-01-01

    Central in the regulation of the short life span of neutrophils are their mitochondria. These organelles hardly contribute to the energy status of neutrophils but play a vital role in the apoptotic process. Not only do the mitochondria contain cytotoxic proteins that are released during apoptosis

  18. Prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a restrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayrak, Mehmet; Erdoğan, Halil Ibrahim; Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Gül, Enes Elvin; Yildirim, Oğuzhan; Erer, Murat; Akilli, Nezire Belgin; Bekci, Taha Tahir; Aribaş, Alpay; Yazici, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical condition characterised by a high mortality rate. Previous studies showed that leukocytosis was associated with recurrences of venous thromboemboli, major bleeding and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute PE during short term follow-up. A total of 640 patients were screened by I26 code of ICD-9 and 359 patients were included as cases of confirmed acute PE. Admission blood counts and clinical data were obtained from medical charts. The predictors of 30-day mortality were examined. Fifty-one out of 359 patients (14.2%) included in the study died during 30 days follow-up. In multivariate Cox regression analysis systolic blood pressure (HR:0.97 (0.94-0.99 CI95%), p=0.019), diabetes mellitus (HR:3.3 (1.30-8.39 CI95%), p=0.012), CK-MB(HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.024) and NLR (HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.008) were predictors of 30-day mortality. An optimal cut-off value of NLR was determined as 9.2 by using ROC curve. Hazards ratio of NLR>9.2 was found to be 3.60 (1.44-9.18 CI95%, p=0.006). NLR>9.2 had a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 68.6%, 80.5%, 93.9% and 36.5%, respectively. NLR on hospital admission may be a predictor of 30-day mortality in acute PE. Since complete blood count is a part of the routine laboratory investigation in the most hospitalised patients use and preliminary promising results of this study, NLR should be investigated in future prospective randomised trials regarding prognostic value in acute PE. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials.

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    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala

    Full Text Available In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, we observe that they participate in the foreign body response through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs on implant surfaces. Our results provide new insight into neutrophil function during a foreign body response to peritoneal implants which has implications for the development of biologically compatible medical devices.

  20. Ir-LBP, an ixodes ricinus tick salivary LTB4-binding lipocalin, interferes with host neutrophil function.

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    Jérôme Beaufays

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that can interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We previously identified 14 new lipocalin genes in the tick Ixodes ricinus. One of them codes for a protein that specifically binds leukotriene B4 with a very high affinity (Kd: +/-1 nM, similar to that of the neutrophil transmembrane receptor BLT1. By in silico approaches, we modeled the 3D structure of the protein and the binding of LTB4 into the ligand pocket. This protein, called Ir-LBP, inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and delays LTB4-induced apoptosis. Ir-LBP also inhibits the host inflammatory response in vivo by decreasing the number and activation of neutrophils located at the tick bite site. Thus, Ir-LBP participates in the tick's ability to interfere with proper neutrophil function in inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These elements suggest that Ir-LBP is a "scavenger" of LTB4, which, in combination with other factors, such as histamine-binding proteins or proteins inhibiting the classical or alternative complement pathways, permits the tick to properly manage its blood meal. Moreover, with regard to its properties, Ir-LBP could possibly be used as a therapeutic tool for illnesses associated with an increased LTB4 production.

  1. Neutrophils responsive to endogenous IFN-beta regulate tumor angiogenesis and growth in a mouse tumor model.

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    Jablonska, Jadwiga; Leschner, Sara; Westphal, Kathrin; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried

    2010-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-beta inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-beta-deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-beta restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-beta-deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-beta is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development.

  2. Association of peripheral differential leukocyte counts with dyslipidemia risk in Chinese patients with hypertension: insight from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial.

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    Liu, Yanhong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Wen; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Yu; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fan Fan; Gao, Wei; Sun, Ningling; Li, Jianping; Venners, Scott A; Jiang, Shanqun; Huo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between peripheral differential leukocyte counts and dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 10,866 patients with hypertension were enrolled for a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Plasma lipid levels and total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were determined according to standard methods. Peripheral differential leukocyte counts were consistently and positively associated with serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and TG levels (all P dyslipidemia/normolipidemia), we found that patients in the highest quartile of total leukocyte count (≥7.6 × 10 9 cells/l) had 1.64 times the risk of high TG [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46, 1.85], 1.34 times the risk of high TC (95% CI: 1.20, 1.50), and 1.24 times the risk of high LDL-C (95% CI: 1.12, 1.39) compared with their counterparts in the lowest quartile of total leukocyte count. Similar patterns were also observed with neutrophils and lymphocytes. In summary, these findings indicate that elevated differential leukocyte counts are directly associated with serum lipid levels and increased odds of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Neutrophil migration under normal and sepsis conditions.

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    Lerman, Yelena V; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil migration is critical for pathogen clearance and host survival during severe sepsis. Interaction of neutrophil adhesion receptors with ligands on endothelial cells results in firm adhesion of the circulating neutrophils, followed by neutrophil activation and directed migration to sites of infection through the basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix. Proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species are produced and released by neutrophils in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Although these mediators are important for host defense, they also promote tissue damage. Excessive neutrophil migration during the early stages of sepsis may lead to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage and subsequent organ dysfunction. On the other hand, dysregulation of migration and insufficient migratory response that occurs during the latter stages of severe sepsis contributes to neutrophils' inability to contain and control infection and impaired wound healing. This review discusses the major steps and associated molecules involved in the balance of neutrophil trafficking, the precise regulation of which during sepsis spells life or death for the host.

  4. Association between proximity to major roads and sputum cell counts

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    Wallace, Julie; D’silva, Liesel; Brannan, John; Hargreave, Frederick E; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions has been associated with exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases; however, the nature of the resulting bronchitis has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attendi