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Sample records for blood mercury levels

  1. Hyperestrogenemia and increased blood mercury level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2012-01-01

    Hyperestrogenemia is an important reproductive hormone abnormality. This condition is not common in male patients. In this report, the author presents a case study on hyperestrogenemia with increased blood mercury level. The metalloestrogen phenomenon is discussed.

  2. Umbilical cord blood mercury levels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqin Wu,; Chonghuai Yan; Jian Xu; Wei Wu; Hui Li; Xin Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant.Hg exposure at high levels can harm individuals of all ages.Even low level exposure to Hg can damage the brain of fetuses and young children,and affect their central nervous system and cognitive development.The aims of our study were to measure total Hg levels in infant umbilical cord blood and to investigate the risk factors associated with total Hg cord blood levels in various cities in China.Our goal was to provide clues for the prevention of Hg exposure in utero.The results indicated that the average cord blood mercury levels (CBMLs) were (1.81 ± 1.93) μg/L,which were lower than those found in most previous studies.The concentrations also differed according to geographic region.The CBMLs were not only associated with family economic and living conditions,but also with diet in pregnant women,especially the intake of marine fish,shellfish,poultry,formula milk and fruits.

  3. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  4. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  5. Relation between Cord Blood Mercury Levels and Early Child Development in a World Trade Center Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Sally Ann; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Rauh, Virginia; Sheets, Stephen E.; Tang, Deliang; Viswanathan, Sheila; Becker, Mark; Stein, Janet L.; Wang, Richard Y; Perera, Frederica P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to determine whether prenatal mercury exposure, including potential releases from the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, adversely affects fetal growth and child development. Methods We determined maternal and umbilical cord blood total mercury of nonsmoking women who delivered at term in lower Manhattan after 11 September 2001, and measured birth outcomes and child development. Results Levels of total mercury in cord and maternal blood were not significantly...

  6. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  7. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  8. Blood serum mercury test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E

    1977-06-01

    A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.

  9. Blood Mercury Level and Its Determinants among Dental Practitioners in Hamadan, Iran

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    M. Vahedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to mercury can occur in occupational and environmental settings.During clinical work with dental amalgam, the dental personnel are exposed to both metallic mercury and mercury vapor. The aim of the present study was to investigate bloodmercury level (BML and its determinants among dentists practicing in Hamadan city,Iran.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on all dental practitioners of Hamadan (n=43. Dentists were asked to complete a questionnaire, and then 5 ml bloodsamples were obtained from them. After preparation, mercury concentration of each sample was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption device. Pearson correlation test and regression models served for statistical analysis.Results: The mean blood concentration of mercury was 6.3 μg/l (SD=1.31 range 4.15-8.93. BML was positively associated with age, years in practice, working hours per day,number of amalgam restorations per day, number of amalgam removal per week, sea foodconsumption, working years in present office, using amalgam powder, using diamond bur for amalgam removal, dry sterilization of amalgam contaminated instruments, and deficient air ventilation.Conclusion: BML of dentists in Hamadan was higher than standards. Working hours and number of amalgam restorations per day were significantly correlated with blood mercury.

  10. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  11. Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China

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    Guixia Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132, r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284, r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children.

  12. Menopause and blood mercury levels: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Tai June; Lee, Myung-Hwa; Park, Won I

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between menopause and blood mercury concentrations in South Korean women. Women aged ≥20 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were included in this study. Primary and secondary analyses included women aged ≥20 years (n = 1,642) and 45-55 years (i.e., perimenopausal; n = 325), respectively. For all analyses, the mercury levels were log-transformed. The linear regression model for mercury levels was adjusted for age, body mass index, household income, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, use of oral contraceptives, smoking history, alcohol intake, physical activity, number of pregnancies, serum ferritin levels, and fish consumption. After adjusting for covariates, log-transformed blood mercury levels were significantly lower in women who were menopausal [β-coefficient -0.1488; 95 % confidence interval -0.2586, -0.0389; P = 0.01) than in those who were premenopausal. A similar relationship was identified in perimenopausal women (β-coefficient -0.1753; 95 % confidence interval -0.3357, -0.015; P = 0.03). The blood mercury concentration was lower in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. There was a significant positive correlation between blood mercury concentrations and both the frequency of alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels.

  13. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  14. Bird blood as bioindicator for mercury in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, S; Becker, P H

    1999-12-01

    Mercury concentrations were studied in blood, down and feathers of Common Gull (Larus canus L.) to investigate the suitability of bird blood as a matrix for biomonitoring of mercury in the marine environment. Chicks were collected in 1996 on the Elbe river and the Jade Bay. Like the side feathers, blood indicated site differences in mercury contamination. Correlational analyses showed that mercury concentrations in blood are significantly related to levels in side feathers (p 0.05; Pearson). Therefore, blood can be considered as a suitable matrix to indicate the current mercury burden in wild birds.

  15. Total blood mercury levels and depression among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

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    Tsz Hin H Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5-27. RESULTS: Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36-0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status. However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40 even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50-1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding.

  16. Screening of Blood Levels of Mercury, Cadmium, and Copper in Pregnant Women in Dakahlia, Egypt: New Attention to an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawei, Shimaa M; Gouda, Hossam E

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood levels of cadmium, mercury, and copper were measured in 150 pregnant women attending to the antenatal care in Mansoura University Hospital in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The mean ± SD of blood mercury, cadmium, and copper levels were found to be far from their levels in the population surveys carried in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and Canada. Heavy metal intoxication and accumulation is a major health hazard. Developing countries, including Egypt, still lack many of the regulatory policies and legislations to control sources of pollution exposure. This should be dealt with in order to solve this problem and limit its health consequences.

  17. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of fish intake.

  18. Mercury levels in saltmarsh sparrows on Region 5 refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This poster summarizes a study that was done to analyze mercury levels in blood from saltmarsh sparrows in Region 5 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Joëlle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-07-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  20. Lead levels - blood

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    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  1. Methyl mercury, but not inorganic mercury, associated with higher blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Herbstman, Julie B; Lin, Yu Hong; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies.

  2. High blood cholesterol levels

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  3. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  4. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

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    Luca Elli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4±2.3/1.0±1.4, 10.2±6.7/2.2±3.0 and 3.7±2.7/1.3±1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism.

  5. Differential DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood of infants exposed to mercury and arsenic in utero.

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    Cardenas, Andres; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, E Andres; Jackson, Brian P; Kile, Molly L; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J

    2015-01-01

    Mercury and arsenic are known developmental toxicants. Prenatal exposures are associated with adverse childhood health outcomes that could be in part mediated by epigenetic alterations that may also contribute to altered immune profiles. In this study, we examined the association between prenatal mercury exposure on both DNA methylation and white blood cell composition of cord blood, and evaluated the interaction with prenatal arsenic exposure. A total of 138 mother-infant pairs with postpartum maternal toenail mercury, prenatal urinary arsenic concentrations, and newborn cord blood were assessed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation450 array. White blood cell composition was inferred from DNA methylation measurements. A doubling in toenail mercury concentration was associated with a 2.5% decrease (95% CI: 5.0%, 1.0%) in the estimated monocyte proportion. An increase of 3.5% (95% CI: 1.0, 7.0) in B-cell proportion was observed for females only. Among the top 100 CpGs associated with toenail mercury levels (ranked on P-value), there was a significant enrichment of loci located in North shore regions of CpG islands (P = 0.049), and the majority of these loci were hypermethylated (85%). Among the top 100 CpGs for the interaction between arsenic and mercury, there was a greater than expected proportion of loci located in CpG islands (P = 0.045) and in South shore regions (P = 0.009) and all of these loci were hypermethylated. This work supports the hypothesis that mercury may be contributing to epigenetic variability and immune cell proportion changes, and suggests that in utero exposure to mercury and arsenic, even at low levels, may interact to impact the epigenome.

  6. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior across the High-Level Waste Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, D. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, H. B. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Occhipinti, J. E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-17

    The Mercury Program team’s effort continues to develop more fundamental information concerning mercury behavior across the liquid waste facilities and unit operations. Previously, the team examined the mercury chemistry across salt processing, including the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU), and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheets. This report documents the data and understanding of mercury across the high level waste 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  7. Mercury Levels in an Urban Pregnant Population in Durham County, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Maxson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of prenatal mercury exposure, most commonly resulting from maternal fish consumption, have been detected at very low exposure levels. The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, however, have been shown to support fetal brain and vision development. Using data from a prospective, cohort study of pregnant women from an inland area in the US South, we sought to understand the fish consumption habits and associated mercury levels across subpopulations. Over 30% of women had at least 1 µg/L of mercury in their blood, and about 2% had blood mercury levels above the level of concern during pregnancy (≥3.5 µg/L. Mercury levels were higher among Asian/Pacific Islander, older, higher educated, and married women. Fish consumption from any source was reported by 2/3 of the women in our study, with older women more likely to consume fish. Despite eating more fish meals per week, lower income, lower educated women had lower blood mercury levels than higher income, higher educated women. This suggests the different demographic groups consume different types of fish. Encouraging increased fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure requires careful crafting of a complex health message.

  8. Health effects in the Flemish population in relation to low levels of mercury exposure: from organ to transcriptome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Kim; De Coster, Sam; De Galan, Sandra; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nelen, Vera; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Colles, Ann; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Baeyens, Willy; Gao, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Due to possible health risks, quantification of mercury accumulation in humans was included in the Flemish biomonitoring programmes FLEHS I (2002-2006) and FLEHS II (2007-2011). The general objective of FLEHS I was to assess regional exposure levels in order to link possible differences in these internal exposure levels to different types of local environmental pressure. Therefore, Hg and MMHg (methylmercury) were only measured in pooled blood samples per region and per age class. In FLEHS II, mercury concentrations were measured in hair of each participant. About 200 adolescents and 250 mothers (reference group) and two times 200 adolescents (2 hotspots) were screened. The main objectives of the FLEHS II study were: (1) to determine reference levels of mercury in hair for Flanders; (2) to assess relations between mercury exposure and possible sources like fish consumption; (3) to assess dose-effect relations between mercury exposure and health effect markers. The results showed that mercury concentrations in the Flemish population were rather low compared to other studies. Mercury levels in the Flemish populations were strongly related to the age of the participants and consumption of fish. Significant negative associations were observed between mercury in hair and asthma, having received breast feeding as a newborn, age at menarche in girls, allergy for animals and free testosterone levels. Significant correlations were also observed between mercury in hair and genes JAK2, ARID4A, Hist1HA4L (boys) and HLAdrb5, PIAS2, MANN1B1, GIT and ABCA1 (girls).

  9. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values.

  10. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  11. Mercury in the nation's streams: levels, trends, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in fish to levels of concern for human health and the health of fish-eating wildlife. Mercury contamination of fish is the primary reason for issuing fish consumption advisories, which exist in every State in the Nation. Much of the mercury originates from combustion of coal and can travel long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. This can result in mercury-contaminated fish in areas with no obvious source of mercury pollution. Three key factors determine the level of mercury contamination in fish—the amount of inorganic mercury available to an ecosystem, the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Inorganic mercury originates from both natural sources (such as volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, geothermal springs, and volatilization from the ocean) and anthropogenic sources (such as coal combustion, mining, and use of mercury in products and industrial processes). Humans have doubled the amount of inorganic mercury in the global atmosphere since pre-industrial times, with substantially greater increases occurring at locations closer to major urban areas. In aquatic ecosystems, some inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury, the form that ultimately accumulates in fish. The rate of mercury methylation, thus the amount of methylmercury produced, varies greatly in time and space, and depends on numerous environmental factors, including temperature and the amounts of oxygen, organic matter, and sulfate that are present. Methylmercury enters aquatic food webs when it is taken up from water by algae and other microorganisms. Methylmercury concentrations increase with successively higher trophic levels in the food web—a process known as bioaccumulation. In general, fish at the top of the food web consume other fish and tend to accumulate the highest methylmercury concentrations. This report summarizes selected stream

  12. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  13. Reduction in operatory mercury levels after contamination or amalgam removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracane, J L; Engle, J H; Okabe, T; Mitchem, J C

    1994-04-01

    The threshold limit value (TLV) for occupational exposure to mercury can be exceeded in the dental operatory after a contamination event or during certain dental procedures. The objective of this study was to determine the time required for the mercury vapor levels to return to baseline in both non-ventilated and ventilated operatories after they had been contaminated with mercury to the TLV of 0.050 mg/m3; and to evaluate the efficiency of an activated charcoal filtering device for removing mercury vapor. The results showed that even in a poorly ventilated operatory, the mercury vapor level returned to background within 20-30 minutes after a contamination, and within 10-20 minutes when the operatory was ventilated. The filtering device reduced the level of mercury vapor by approximately 25% during a continuous contamination event, but did not clear the operatory faster than normal settling after a limited source contamination. The filter caused a significant reduction in mercury in the breathing zones of the patient and dentist during and after amalgam removal, but did not eliminate the exposure. This study demonstrated the difficulty in contaminating an operatory with mercury vapor and confirmed the limited time mercury remains airborne, presumably due to its density and affinity for surfaces.

  14. Neurotransmitter level changes in domestic ducks(Shaoxing duck) growing up in typical mercury contaminated area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiu-ling; YANG Liu; SHEN Zhe-min; CHENG Jin-ping; JIN Gui-wen; QU Li-ya; WANG Wen-hua

    2005-01-01

    The neurotransmitter level changes of ducks exposed 8-month in a mercury-polluted site(Wanshan, China) and a reference site ( Shanghai, China) were examined. Chemical analyses showed both higher mercury and selenium concentrations in the organ of Wanshan ducks. An increased content of acetylcholine(ACh) in brain and blood and a decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in blood were observed. Moreover, there was an increasing trend for nitric oxide synthase(NOS) activity and nitric oxide(NO) production in duck brain, but a reduction of NOS activity in duck serum. The possible explanations were due to the interactive effect of selenium accumulation and the sublethal exposure level of mercury in Wanshan area. The present study showed that AChE and NOS were sensitive to mercury contamination of real circumstance, suggesting that these two indexes have the potential to be biomarkers in assessment of health effects by mercury contamination.

  15. Use of implantable pellets to administer low levels of methyl mercury to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B.S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Implantable pellets of methyl mercury chloride were tested in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to appraise the effectiveness of the method for chronic studies of mercury. Two dosing regimes of 15 and 1.5 grams/CH3HgCl pellet (test 1) and 1 and 0.1 grams/pellet (test 2-3) of methyl mercury chloride were used in three tests. Additional pellets containing only matrix were used as controls. The pellets were inserted into the peritoneal cavity along with a microchip for identification. Three methods of incision closure: sutures and two types of surgical glue, were tested. Pellets used in test one released the dose too fast, resulting in premature death of the fish. Results from test 2 and 3 show blood mercury concentrations over time and tissue levels at necropsy consistent with dose suggesting that this is a viable method of dosing fish.

  16. Use of implantable pellets to administer low levels of methyl mercury to fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B.S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1999-07-01

    Implantable pellets of methyl mercury chloride were tested in Nile Tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) to appraise the effectiveness of the method for chronic studies of mercury. Two dosing regimes of 15 and 1.5 grams/CH{sub 3}HgCl pellet (test 1) and 1 and 0.1 grams/pellet (tests 2--3) of methyl mercury chloride were used in three tests. Additional pellets containing only matrix were used as controls. The pellets were inserted into the peritoneal cavity along with a microchip for identification. Three methods of incision closure: sutures and two types of surgical glue, were tested. Pellets used in test one released the dose too fast, resulting in premature death of the fish. Results from tests 2 and 3 show blood mercury concentrations over time and tissue levels at necropsy consistent with dose suggestion that this is a viable method of dosing fish.

  17. Trace Metal Mercury Levels in Residential Homes in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. AL-Awadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kuwait is an oil rich state on the northeastern corner of Arabian Peninsula and has faced the unprecedented man made environmental disaster in early 1991 of igniting over 600 oil wells those continually burnt for a period of over six months. The use of crude and heavy fuel oil in the power generating facilities has aggravated the pollution due to particulate matters that carry trace metals. The climatic conditions in this part of the world result into very frequent dust storm transporting particulate matters short and long distance. Mercury in atmosphere is mainly due to burning of fossil fuel, incinerators, crematoriums, extraction of precious metals and salt-chlorine industries. This study has been initiated for mercury measurements from an old salt-chlorine industrial site that has been closed since 1984. To compare the mercury levels elsewhere, a comprehensive measurement program was devised and conducted to obtain mercury levels in most of the urban areas in Kuwait. Domestic dust samples from selected residences were collected for a period of a week. These samples were analyzed using KISR/T0-345 method especially developed for precise measurements of trace metals in particulate matter. It is required to identify the sources of mercury that resulted into such mercury levels in indoor air in the urban areas. For those areas where mercury levels are substantially high mitigation methods have been proposed to reduce the impact on to the residents.

  18. Mercury levels in seabirds in the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a pilot study to screen mercury (Hg) levels in Gulf of Maine seabirds in an effort to determine which species are most at risk, are the most appropriate...

  19. Mercury poisoning dentistry: high-level indoor air mercury contamination at selected dental sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Abbasi, Maryam Shabbir

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), also known as quick silver, is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported. The present report briefly describes and discusses our recent investigations carried out at 34 dental sites (teaching institutions, hospitals and private clinics) in Pakistan. It is evident from the data that at many sites the indoor mercury vapor levels exceed far above the permissible limit recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public in general and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. To minimize such risk, some of the recommendations are, best in-house environmental practices for occupational health and safety, mercury contaminated waste reduction at source, mercury specific legislation and ratification of Minamata convention on mercury by Pakistan and other world governments at the earliest time possible.

  20. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  1. Fish faddism causing low-level mercury poisoning in the Caribbean: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Teelucksingh, Surujpaul

    2009-04-29

    Two otherwise healthy middle-aged males presented with persistent abdominal and lower- back pain, progressive weakness, paraesthesias, fatigue and weight loss over 8-12 months. Extensive work-up failed to localize organ pathology. Both men, strongly aware of the nutritional benefits of fish had a diet dedicated of canned and fresh fish. Raised blood mercury levels confirmed clinical suspicion and serial levels declined with symptom resolution after excluding dietary fish. To gain reported health benefits of fish as a healthy food modest consumption is encouraged. Efforts to monitor fish consumption and mercury residues in fish are recommended in Trinidad and Tobago.

  2. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  3. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treatments are needed. ELEMENTAL MERCURY Inhaled elemental mercury poisoning may be difficult to treat. The person may ... metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury poisoning, treatment often begins with supportive care. The person ...

  4. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  5. Fish faddism causing low-level mercury poisoning in the Caribbean: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Lexley M Pinto; Teelucksingh, Surujpaul

    2009-01-01

    Two otherwise healthy middle-aged males presented with persistent abdominal and lower- back pain, progressive weakness, paraesthesias, fatigue and weight loss over 8-12 months. Extensive work-up failed to localize organ pathology. Both men, strongly aware of the nutritional benefits of fish had a diet dedicated of canned and fresh fish. Raised blood mercury levels confirmed clinical suspicion and serial levels declined with symptom resolution after excluding dietary fish. To gain reported hea...

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: southeast Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Bagie M; Batzer, Darold

    2008-03-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury.

  7. Economic implications of mercury exposure in the context of the global mercury treaty: Hair mercury levels and estimated lost economic productivity in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; DiGangi, Joseph; Evers, David C; Petrlik, Jindrich; Buck, David G; Šamánek, Jan; Beeler, Bjorn; Turnquist, Madeline A; Regan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Several developing countries have limited or no information about exposures near anthropogenic mercury sources and no studies have quantified costs of mercury pollution or economic benefits to mercury pollution prevention in these countries. In this study, we present data on mercury concentrations in human hair from subpopulations in developing countries most likely to benefit from the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. These data are then used to estimate economic costs of mercury exposure in these communities. Hair samples were collected from sites located in 15 countries. We used a linear dose-response relationship that previously identified a 0.18 IQ point decrement per part per million (ppm) increase in hair mercury, and modeled a base case scenario assuming a reference level of 1 ppm, and a second scenario assuming no reference level. We then estimated the corresponding increases in intellectual disability and lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A total of 236 participants provided hair samples for analysis, with an estimated population at risk of mercury exposure near the 15 sites of 11,302,582. Average mercury levels were in the range of 0.48 ppm-4.60 ppm, and 61% of all participants had hair mercury concentrations greater than 1 ppm, the level that approximately corresponds to the USA EPA reference dose. An additional 1310 cases of intellectual disability attributable to mercury exposure were identified annually (4110 assuming no reference level), resulting in 16,501 lost DALYs (51,809 assuming no reference level). A total of $77.4 million in lost economic productivity was estimated assuming a 1 ppm reference level and $130 million if no reference level was used. We conclude that significant mercury exposures occur in developing and transition country communities near sources named in the Minamata Convention, and our estimates suggest that a large economic burden could be avoided by timely implementation of measures to

  8. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  9. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  10. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  11. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, to form inorganic mercury compounds or "salts," which are usually white powders or ... Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds. The most common one, methylmercury, is produced mainly ...

  12. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.

    1966-02-15

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques.

  13. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  14. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  15. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index and waist circumference in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suhyun; Park, Soo-Jung; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Blood mercury (methyl-mercury) from environmental exposure may be related to inflammation in our body. We investigated the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. On the basis of data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012), 11,159 subjects (5543 males and 5616 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Partial correlation, linear regression, and analysis of covariance (according to the mercury quartile) tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between blood mercury and BMI or waist circumference. In addition, we determined the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased BMI and waist circumference in both genders. Mean values of blood mercury concentration were 5.07 ± 0.07 μg/L in males and 3.59 ± 0.04 μg/L in females. After log transformation of blood mercury, significant (p waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant and gradual increase as mercury quartile increased in both genders. Blood mercury concentration was weakly but significantly (p waist circumference. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration correlated with increased BMI and waist circumference were around 3.95 μg/L in males and 3.40 μg/L in females.

  16. Measurement of mercury species in human blood using triple spike isotope dilution with SPME-GC-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Yuliya L; Verdon, Carl P; Fresquez, Mark R; Ward, Cynthia D; Wood, Elliott B; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of different mercury compounds in human blood can provide valuable information about the type of mercury exposure. To this end, our laboratory developed a biomonitoring method for the quantification of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg), and ethyl (EtHg) mercury in whole blood using a triple-spike isotope dilution (TSID) quantification method employing capillary gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). We used a robotic CombiPAL(®) sample handling station featuring twin fiber-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) injector heads. The use of two SPME fibers significantly reduces sample analysis cycle times making this method very suitable for high sample throughput, which is a requirement for large public health biomonitoring studies. Our sample preparation procedure involved solubilization of blood samples with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) followed by the derivatization with sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate (NaBPr(4)) to promote volatility of mercury species. We thoroughly investigated mercury species stability in the blood matrix during the course of sample treatment and analysis. The method accuracy for quantifying iHg, MeHg, and EtHg was validated using NIST standard reference materials (SRM 955c level 3) and the Centre de Toxicologie du Québec (CTQ) proficiency testing (PT) samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for iHg, MeHg, and EtHg in human blood was determined to be 0.27, 0.12, and 0.16 μg/L, respectively.

  17. Mercury levels in pristine and gold mining impacted aquatic ecosystems of Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouboter, Paul E; Landburg, Gwendolyn A; Quik, Jan H M; Mol, Jan H A; van der Lugt, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Mercury levels in sediment and predatory fish were measured for 53 localities in Suriname. The average mercury level in bottom sediment surpassed the Canadian standard for sediment in most localities, except the coastal plains. Of the predatory fish, 41 % had a mercury level above the European Union standard for human consumption of 0.5 μg g(-1). Highest mercury levels were found in fish from the Brokopondo Reservoir and from the Upper Coppename River. High levels of mercury in fish in pristine areas are explained by atmospheric transportation of mercury with the northeastern trade winds followed by wet deposition. Contrary to gold mining areas, where mercury is bound to drifting sediments, in "pristine" areas the mercury is freely available for bio-accumulation and uptake. Impacts on piscivorous reptiles, birds, and mammals are unknown, but likely to be negative.

  18. Mercury in human hair and blood samples from people living in Wanshan mercury mine area, Guizhou, China: an XAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Feng; Chen, Chunying; Li, Bai; Li, Wei; Qu, Liya; Dong, Zeqin; Nomura, Masaharu; Gao, Yuxi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2008-03-01

    Human hair and blood samples from persons living in the town of Wanshan, a mercury mine area in Guizhou Province of China, were collected and the quantitative speciation and structural information of Hg and S in hair samples and of Hg in erythrocyte and serum samples were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Least-squares fitting of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra found that inorganic mercury is the major mercury species in hair samples (91.74%), while inorganic and methyl mercury are both about 50% of total mercury in RBC and serum samples, which is in agreement with the data obtained by acidic extraction, fractionation of Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) and quantification by ICP-MS. Curve-fitting analysis revealed that the Hg-S bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.248+/-0.002 nm and 3.10, respectively, while the S-Hg bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.236+/-0.002 nm and 4.05. The Hg-S bond length and coordination number in RBC were 0.251+/-0.003 nm and 4.09, respectively, while they were 0.228+/-0.002 nm and 4.08 in serum, respectively. The techniques for speciation, structural and binding information described in this study will find the potential application in similar studies of other elements.

  19. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  20. Mercury Levels in Pristine and Gold Mining Impacted Aquatic Ecosystems of Suriname, South America

    OpenAIRE

    Paul E. Ouboter; Landburg, Gwendolyn A.; Quik, Jan H. M.; Mol, Jan H. A.; van der Lugt, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Mercury levels in sediment and predatory fish were measured for 53 localities in Suriname. The average mercury level in bottom sediment surpassed the Canadian standard for sediment in most localities, except the coastal plains. Of the predatory fish, 41 % had a mercury level above the European Union standard for human consumption of 0.5 μg g−1. Highest mercury levels were found in fish from the Brokopondo Reservoir and from the Upper Coppename River. High levels of mercury in fish in pristine...

  1. Pilot study for utilization of dried blood spots for screening of lead, mercury and cadmium in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sanwat N; Butala, Steven J M; Ball, R Wayne; Braniff, Christopher T

    2009-03-01

    The exposure of pregnant women and young children to environmental pollutants is an ongoing concern of state and local public health departments. Of primary concern is the exposure to lead in lead-based paints, methyl mercury in contaminated fish and cadmium present at mining sites. The feasibility, utility and methodology of using blood spot cards collected for new born health screening purposes was studied for use in conducting routine state-wide surveillance of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels in infants. Homogeneity of different lots of blank filter paper was examined. Mass measurements (weights) of filter paper punches were taken across three different lots of filter paper. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way ANOVA, which indicated no significant difference in the means of all three lots, but high variances were noted. The three metals were examined in three different lots of filter papers purchased from the manufacturer. The lots had measurable amounts of cadmium and lead, but not mercury. Lead spike values were observed for roughly about 7% of the blank samples, indicating heterogeneous distribution of this metal. Statistical analysis of the data was also performed using a two-way ANOVA calculation with Tukey's pairwise comparisons. The results found that total mean metal loadings across the three lots were different. The concentration of the metals can be different from each other and the concentration of any one metal can differ across lots. Stability at different concentrations of the heavy metals in blood spotted onto filter paper with time and storage conditions was examined. Results indicate acceptable performance for at least 8.5 months for lead (near CDC's concern level) and for mercury (near NRC's concern level). The filter paper and blood spots were analyzed for metals using an acid extraction, followed by analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood spot cards were studied from four

  2. Ecological factors differentially affect mercury levels in two species of sympatric marine birds of the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipfner, J.M., E-mail: mark.hipfner@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada); Hobson, K.A., E-mail: keith.hobson@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Elliott, J.E., E-mail: john.elliot@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    In 2003 and 2004, we measured mercury concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C values in the whole blood of adults of two species of seabirds, Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), during their prelaying, incubation, and provisioning periods. We also collected whole blood from the offspring of both seabirds. Among prey items, {delta}{sup 15}N values were higher in fish than in crustaceans, while {delta}{sup 13}C did not vary systematically between prey types. Mercury concentrations in prey showed little relationship with either stable isotope. In the zooplanktivorous Cassin's auklet, year, reproductive stage, and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C stable isotope values explained only 14% of the variation in mercury concentrations in adult blood, and none of these variables had a statistically significant effect. In contrast, these same variables explained 41% of the variation in mercury levels in the more piscivorous rhinoceros auklet, and all but {delta}{sup 15}N values had statistically significant effects. Mercury concentrations in adult rhinoceros auklets were higher in 2003 than in 2004; higher prior to laying than during the incubation or provisioning periods; and increased with {delta}{sup 13}C values - but in just one of two years. In both species, mercury concentrations were substantially higher in adults than in nestlings. Our results accord with previous studies in showing that mercury concentrations can vary among years, species and age classes, while the marked variation with reproductive stage is noteworthy because it is so rarely considered. Our results may help to explain the disparate conclusions of previous studies: while many factors influence mercury concentrations in marine predators, they apparently do so in a manner that defies easy characterization. We believe that there is a need for more studies that consider a range of physiological, ecological and behavioral

  3. Correlation between blood mercury levels in mothers and newborns in Itaituba, Pará State, Brazil Correlação de teores de mercúrio no sangue entre mulheres e recém-nascidos do Município de Itaituba, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Oliveira Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated transplacental mercury transfer by measuring Hg in blood samples of mothers and newborns (umbilical cord in hospitals in the municipality (county of Itaituba, Pará State, Brazil. Epidemiological and mercury exposure data were collected, besides clinical birth data. Mercury tests were performed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A total of 1,510 women and an equal number of their newborns participated in the study. Mean blood mercury was 11.53µg/L in mothers and 16.68µg/L in newborns (umbilical cord. The highest Hg levels were in the 31-40-year maternal age group and their newborns, with 14.37µg/L and 21.87µg/L, respectively. However, in all age groups the mean mercury level was higher in newborns than in mothers. There was a strong positive correlation between Hg levels in newborns and mothers (r = 0.8019; p = 0.000, with a significant linear regression model (r = 0.5283; p = 0.000. The results highlight the importance of monitoring pregnant women exposed to mercury as part of public health surveillance.Este estudo avaliou a transferência transplacentária de mercúrio (Hg utilizando amostras de sangue das mães e recém-nascidos (cordão umbilical de hospitais do Município de Itaituba, Pará, Brazil. Foram coletados dados epidemiológicos e de exposição ao Hg, além de dados clínicos ao nascimento. As análises de mercúrio foram realizadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com sistema de vapor frio. Um total de 1.510 mulheres e seus recém-nascidos participaram do estudo. A média de Hg em sangue das mães foi de 11,52µg/L e no cordão umbilical foi 16,68µg/L. Os níveis mais elevados de Hg foram verificados nas idades entre 31 a 40 anos, com médias de 14,37µg/L nas mães e 21,87µg/L nos recém-nascidos. Entretanto, em todas as faixas de idade materna as médias de Hg estavam mais elevadas nos recém-nascidos em relação às mães. Verificou-se correlação positiva e forte entre

  4. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: Southeast Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Bagie M. [Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, 413 Biological Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)], E-mail: bgeorge@ggc.usg.edu; Batzer, Darold [Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, 413 Biological Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury. - This study measured mercury levels in invertebrates and found the highest levels in amphipods.

  6. Detoxification of mercury species - an in vitro study with antidotes in human whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truempler, Stefan; Nowak, Sascha; Meermann, Bjoern; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster (Germany); Wiesmueller, Gerhard A. [University Hospital Muenster, Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissues, Muenster (Germany); Sperling, Michael [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster (Germany); European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis, Muenster (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    To investigate the effects of mercury species intoxication and to test the efficiency of different commonly applied antidotes, human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}, CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) prior to treatment with the antidotes 2,3-dimercaptopropan-1-ol (British Anti Lewisite), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For mercury speciation analysis in these samples, liquid chromatography was coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Adduct formation between mercury species and physiological thiols (cysteine and glutathione) was observed as well as the release of glutathione under treatment with the antidotes DMSA and NAC. (orig.)

  7. Detoxification of mercury species--an in vitro study with antidotes in human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Nowak, Sascha; Meermann, Björn; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Buscher, Wolfgang; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effects of mercury species intoxication and to test the efficiency of different commonly applied antidotes, human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury (MeHg+, CH3Hg+) prior to treatment with the antidotes 2,3-dimercaptopropan-1-ol (British Anti Lewisite), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For mercury speciation analysis in these samples, liquid chromatography was coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Adduct formation between mercury species and physiological thiols (cysteine and glutathione) was observed as well as the release of glutathione under treatment with the antidotes DMSA and NAC.

  8. Human brain mercury levels related to exposure to amalgam fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, E; Aksoy, A; Turla, A; Karaarslan, E S; Karaarslan, B; Aydın, A; Eken, A

    2014-08-01

    The safety of dental amalgam as the primary material in dental restoration treatments has been debated since its introduction. It is widely accepted that amalgam restorations continuously release elemental mercury (Hg) vapor, which is inhaled and absorbed by the body and distributed to tissues, including the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of amalgam fillings is correlated with brain Hg level. The Hg levels in the parietal lobes of the brains of 32 cadavers were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer with the mercury hydride system. A total of 32 brain samples were tested; of these, 10 were from cadavers with amalgam fillings, while 22 of them were amalgam free. Hg was detected in 60.0% (6 of 10) of the samples in the amalgam group and in 36.3% (8 of 22) in the amalgam-free group. The average Hg level of the amalgam group was 0.97 ± 0.83 µg/g (minimum: 0.3 µg/g and maximum: 2.34 µg/g), and in the amalgam-free group, it was 1.06 ± 0.57 µg/g (minimum: 0.17 µg/g and maximum: 1.76 µg/g). The results of the present study showed no correlation between the presence of amalgam fillings and brain Hg level.

  9. Impact of exposure to low levels of mercury on the health of dental workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Freitas Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the impact of exposure to mercury on the health of workers comparing dentists and dental assistants exposed to mercury by handling amalgam in a public dental clinic with a reference group which, in private offices, did not make use of the metal in their professional routine. Data collection included mercury levels in urine and air samples determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, questionnaires and direct observation. The difference between urine and air samples in both groups was statistically significant while mercury levels in air and urine showed positive associations. Mercury concentration in urine correlated with gender, practice time, and age of workers. Half of those exposed had complaints compatible with mercury contamination. Among the exposed, the most common complaints were cognitive and neurocognitive symptoms. Correlations between symptoms and exposure time and also number of amalgam fillings placed per week were positive. Amalgam handling resulted in environmental and biological contamination by mercury.

  10. Marsh wrens as bioindicators of mercury in wetlands of Great Salt Lake: do blood and feathers reflect site-specific exposure risk to bird reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herring, Garth; Isanhart, John; Herzog, Mark

    2013-06-18

    Nonlethal sampling of bird blood and feathers are among the more common ways of estimating the risk of mercury exposure to songbird reproduction. The implicit assumption is that mercury concentrations in blood or feathers of individuals captured in a given area are correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs from the same area. Yet, this assumption is rarely tested. We evaluated mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs of marsh wrens in wetlands of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and, at two spatial scales, specifically tested the assumption that mercury concentrations in blood and feather samples from birds captured in a defined area were predictive of mercury concentrations in eggs collected in the same area. Mercury concentrations in blood were not correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected within the same wetland unit, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected at the smaller home range spatial scale of analysis. Moreover, mercury exposure risk, as estimated via tissue concentrations, differed among wetland units depending upon whether blood or egg mercury concentrations were sampled. Mercury concentrations in feathers also were uncorrelated with mercury concentrations in eggs, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in blood. These results demonstrate the potential for contrasting management actions that may be implemented based solely on the specific avian tissue that is sampled, and highlight the importance of developing avian tissues as biomonitoring tools for assessing local risk of mercury exposure to bird reproduction.

  11. Effects of lead and mercury on the blood proteome of children

    OpenAIRE

    Birdsall, Robert E.; Kiley, Michael P.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Christopher D. Palmer; Madera, Milan; Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Parsons,Patrick J.; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V.; Bendinskas, Kestutis G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal exposure in children has been associated with a variety of physiological and neurological problems. The goal of this study was to utilize proteomics to enhance the understanding of biochemical interactions responsible for the health problems related to lead and mercury exposure at concentrations well below CDC guidelines. Blood plasma and serum samples from 34 children were ...

  12. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N; Kaneko, J John; Drazen, Jeffrey C

    2009-08-18

    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage.

  13. Seasonal Variations of Mercury Levels in Selected Medicinal Plants Originating from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordak, M; Wesolowski, M; Radecka, I; Muszynska, E; Bujalska-Zazdrozny, M

    2016-10-01

    The presence of mercury in the living cells may be caused by environmental pollution with this element, which is referred to as a toxic xenobiotic. Many literature reports have provided evidence for toxic effects of low levels of mercury in the human body. Therefore, it seems essential to investigate mercury content in food and in natural environment, particularly its seasonal variations. The objective of this study was to determine trace amounts of mercury in 45 samples of 20 medicinal plant species collected in northern Poland, in various seasons of the year, i.e., in autumn 2012 and then spring 2013. The results obtained showed that the levels of mercury in the herbs were lower in spring (3.66-34.89 ng/g) than in autumn (4.55-81.54 ng/g). The statistically significant correlation (p mercury in herbs collected in spring and autumn indicates hazardous accumulation of the element in plants in autumn. The highest levels of mercury were found in leaves and plants growing in the vicinity of busy streets. Perennials plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those of monocarpic plants. Furthermore, commonly used herbal plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those less common.

  14. Mercury in human brain, blood, muscle and toenails in relation to exposure: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morild Inge

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main forms of mercury (Hg exposure in the general population are methylmercury (MeHg from seafood, inorganic mercury (I-Hg from food, and mercury vapor (Hg0 from dental amalgam restorations. While the distribution of MeHg in the body is described by a one compartment model, the distribution of I-Hg after exposure to elemental mercury is more complex, and there is no biomarker for I-Hg in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between on the one hand MeHg and I-Hg in human brain and other tissues, including blood, and on the other Hg exposure via dental amalgam in a fish-eating population. In addition, the use of blood and toenails as biological indicator media for inorganic and organic mercury (MeHg in the tissues was evaluated. Methods Samples of blood, brain (occipital lobe cortex, pituitary, thyroid, abdominal muscle and toenails were collected at autopsy of 30 deceased individuals, age from 47 to 91 years of age. Concentrations of total-Hg and I-Hg in blood and brain cortex were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry and total-Hg in other tissues by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. Results The median concentrations of MeHg (total-Hg minus I-Hg and I-Hg in blood were 2.2 and 1.0 μg/L, and in occipital lobe cortex 4 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between MeHg in blood and occipital cortex. Also, total-Hg in toenails correlated with MeHg in both blood and occipital lobe. I-Hg in both blood and occipital cortex, as well as total-Hg in pituitary and thyroid were strongly associated with the number of dental amalgam surfaces at the time of death. Conclusion In a fish-eating population, intake of MeHg via the diet has a marked impact on the MeHg concentration in the brain, while exposure to dental amalgam restorations increases the I-Hg concentrations in the brain. Discrimination between mercury species is

  15. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  16. Determination of methyl mercury in whole blood by ethylation-GC-CVAFS after alkaline digestion-solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L; Evens, C; Lazoff, S; Woods, J S; Cernichiari, E; Horvat, M; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T

    2000-01-01

    A method for the determination of methyl mercury in whole blood samples based on ethylation-gas chromatography-cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry after alkaline digestion-solvent extraction is described. The extraction procedure and conditions were optimized, and the matrix interference after extraction was critically investigated. The storage stability of MeHg in blood samples and a series of extracts was determined. The method detection limit was found to be approximately 0.02 ng/g for a 0.5-g blood sample with relative standard deviations of less than 10%. The accuracy and precision were evaluated by summarizing the quality-control (QC) data generated over a one and one half year period. Appropriate procedures for sample collection, transportation, and storage were adapted to the method. Using this method accompanied by explicit QC protocols and procedures, background levels of MeHg and total mercury in blood for 150 8-10-year-old Portuguese children with nonoccupational and nonamalgamal exposure were determined and reported with summarized QC data.

  17. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano,Eunice; Labady,Mary; Gomes,Clara; Aguiar,Guillermina; Laine,Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  18. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  19. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  20. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  1. Blood creatinine level in postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Funaki, Hironao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Akasaka, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Blood chemical analysis for the diagnosis of diseases in forensic cases should be conducted in the same way as for clinical cases. However, it is sometimes difficult to obtain serum samples in forensic cases because of postmortem changes such as hemolysis and putrefaction. This study aimed to evaluate renal function in postmortem cases by blood creatinine analysis. The blood creatinine level was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using whole blood samples taken from 77 postmortem cases, and the relationships between blood creatinine level, postmortem interval, and cause of death were examined. The median blood creatinine level was found to be 1.15 mg/dL, with no significant differences between blood samples taken from different parts of the body. The blood creatinine level was stable for 3 days after death and gradually increased after that period, in line with a previous study using enzymatic analysis that found the serum creatinine level was stable in the early postmortem period. The blood creatinine level was high in the cases of blunt injury, intoxication, and in deaths caused by fire. This was considered to reflect acute renal dysfunction. However, the postmortem blood creatinine level remained higher than the clinical normal value despite omitting cases with renal dysfunction from the analysis. Therefore, we next investigated the change in postmortem creatinine levels in mice and found that the blood creatinine level increased with the emergence of rigor mortis. Our findings indicate that HPLC is useful in the postmortem evaluation of renal function even in the cases where serum cannot be obtained. However, the presence of rigor mortis should be considered in the evaluation of blood creatinine values.

  2. Accuracy of a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure device: comparisons with intraarterial and mercury manometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S; Wenzel, R R; di Matteo, C; Meier, B; Lüscher, T F

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurement of arterial blood pressure is of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Because of the chronic nature of antihypertensive drug therapy, the involvement of the patient in blood pressure control is desirable. Such an involvement, however, is only feasible if simple, user-friendly, and precise blood pressure measurement devices are available. In this study we tested a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure measurement device in 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Blood pressures were simultaneously taken intraarterially (axillary artery) and with a mercury manometer and stethoscope or noninvasive measurement device (OMRON R3). Intraarterial measurements were directly compared with two measurements taken in random order with either an arm cuff mercury manometer or the wrist cuff device. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure as assessed with the mercury manometer was higher, especially when compared with the intraarterial and the wrist cuff values, which were comparable. Correlations of blood pressure values with intraarterial measurement were 0.86 systolic and 0.75 diastolic (P mercury manometer measurements. Reproducibility of both measurements was good for the wrist cuff device ([systolic/diastolic]: r = 0.94/0.92; P mercury manometer (r = 0.97/0.88; P mercury manometer were higher than intraarterial values and those of the wrist cuff. Both noninvasive devices overestimated high diastolic values.

  3. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  4. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre J Obeid; Bilal E1-Khoury; Joanne Burger; Samer Aouad; Mira Younis; Amal Aoun; John Hanna El-Nakat

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet.However,very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption.This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption.Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh,frozen,processed,and canned fish.All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight.The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 μg/g in fresh samples,0.0059 to 0.0665 μg/g in frozen samples,and 0.0305 to 0.1190 μg/g in canned samples.The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure.Moreover,the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia),Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus),Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops),and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury.On the other hand,processed fish such as fish fillet,fish burger,small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury.Lebanese population should therefore,be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  5. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  6. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  7. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy S; Blaxill, Mark F; Haley, Boyd E

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers. Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number of the mothers' amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control. These data cast doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In light of the biological plausibility of mercury's role in neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further insight into one

  8. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  9. Temporal characterization of mercury accumulation at different trophic levels and implications for metal biomagnification along a coastal food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P G; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Azeiteiro, U M

    2014-10-15

    The main goal of this study was to assess temporal mercury variations along an estuarine food web to evaluate the mercury contamination level of the system and the risks that humans are exposed to, due to mercury biomagnification. The highest mercury concentrations in the sediments and primary producers (macrophytes) were observed during winter sampling. Instead, the highest mercury concentrations in the water, suspended particulate matter as well as in the zooplanktonic and suprabenthic communities were observed during summer sampling. Evidences of mercury biomagnification along the food web were corroborated by the positive biomagnification factors, particularly for omnivorous macrobenthic species. Comparing the mercury levels at distinct components with several environmental quality criteria it suggests that sediments, water and edible species (e.g., bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the crustacean Carcinus maenas) presented higher mercury levels than the values accepted by legislation which represent a matter of concern for the environment and human health.

  10. [Reliability of blood pressure measurements; comparison of an electronic meter and a mercury manometer in family practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, B A; van der Does, E; Lubsen, J; Rijsterborgh, H

    1990-08-25

    The Riva-Rocci indirect method of measuring the blood pressure carries a number of sources of error. A report is presented of a study of the serviceability of an electronic blood pressure meter as compared with the conventional mercury manometer. Seventy-six paired measurements were carried out in patients selected at random using an electronic blood pressure meter and a mercury manometer meeting all Health Council requirements. The systematic error and the incidental error in both measuring procedures were compared. The differences found were so slight as to be negligible in practice. It is concluded that the electronic blood pressure meter in practice constitutes an acceptable substitute for the conventional mercury manometer.

  11. Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  12. Mercury in blood and eggs of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Osuna, F; Calderón-Campuzano, M F; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Ruelas-Inzunza, J

    2011-06-01

    Mercury concentrations were assessed in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony of Oaxaca, Mexico; 25 female turtles were sampled, a total of 250 eggs were collected during the season 2005-2006. Higher concentrations were found in yolk fraction, while in blood and albumen mean levels were below of 0.0010μg g(-1) dry wt. On the basis of one nesting season, the maternal transfer of Hg via eggs-laying was estimated in 2.0±1.1%. According to international norms, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Hg and corresponds to baseline levels of a nearly pristine environment.

  13. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-01-29

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg(-1) wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg(-1)). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  14. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  15. Association between mercury concentrations in blood and hair in methylmercury-exposed subjects at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul J;

    2004-01-01

    was between five-fold and nine-fold greater than the 5th percentile. The results were examined in structural equation models to estimate the total imprecision of the individual biomarker results and the possibility that the ratio may not be constant. The hair-to-blood ratio was found to increase at lower...... than is the maternal hair concentration. Although practical for field studies and monitoring purposes, hair-mercury concentration results, therefore, need to be calibrated and interpreted in regard to each specific study setting....

  16. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas

  17. Within-person reproducibility of red blood cell mercury over a 10- to 15-year period among women in the Nurses' Health Study II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L; Nielsen, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    assessed within-person reproducibility of red blood cell (RBC) mercury (Hg), a marker of methyl-mercury, over 10-15 years in a sample of 57 women. Fifty-seven women from the Nurses' Health Study II provided two blood samples 10-15-years apart (median: 12 years), which were analyzed for mercury levels...... in the red blood cells (B-Hg*). To characterize within-person reproducibility, we estimated correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients (r and ICC) across the two samples. Further, we compared different prediction models, including variables on fish and seafood consumption, for B-Hg* at the first.......8% of the variability in that B-Hg*, giving a correlation of r=0.52. Despite decreasing B-Hg* levels over time, we observed strong correlations and high ICC estimates across B-Hg* measured 10-15 years apart, suggesting good relative within-person stability over time. Our results indicate that a single measurement of B...

  18. Comparative determination of methyl mercury in whole blood samples using GC-ICP-MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, J; Hoppe, H W; Mosel, F; Rettenmeier, A W; Hirner, A V

    2009-08-15

    Two methods for the determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in whole blood samples based on different mass spectrometric detection techniques are compared. The methods were employed in two studies in which the internal exposure of a group of mercury-exposed workers to total mercury and MeHg was investigated. Blood samples of these workers were analysed for MeHg independently from each other in two laboratories using similar extraction procedures but different detection techniques, viz. coupled GC-EI-MS/ICP-MS and GC-MS using D(3)-MeHg as internal standard. MeHg was detected in all blood samples in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 9.0 microg/L. Though different detection techniques were employed, the results obtained by the two laboratories were in relatively good agreement.

  19. Speciation of mercury in human whole blood by capillary gas chromatography with a microwave-induced plasma emission detector system following complexometric extraction and butylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulska, E; Emteborg, H; Baxter, D C; Frech, W; Ellingsen, D; Thomassen, Y

    1992-03-01

    Methyl- and inorganic mercury were extracted from human whole blood samples, as their diethyldithiocarbamate complexes, into toluene and butylated by using a Grignard reagent. The mercury species were then separated by gas chromatography (on a 12 m non-polar DB-1 capillary column) and detected by a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometric (GC-MPD) system. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were established by the analysis of Seronorm lyophilized human whole blood standards for methyl- and inorganic mercury. No statistical difference (t-test) between the sum of these two species determined by the GC-MPD based method and the recommended total mercury concentrations in the Seronorm samples was observed. Results for the determination of methyl- and inorganic mercury in 60 controls and 90 previously occupationally exposed (to inorganic mercury) workers are presented to illustrate the practical utility of the proposed method. No significantly elevated inorganic mercury concentrations between the two groups were evident.

  20. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  1. Iron telluride nanorods-based system for the detection of total mercury in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prathik; Lin, Zong-Hong [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liang, Chi-Te [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Huan-Tsung, E-mail: changht@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Elucidation of the detection of mercury using iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs), and dose-response curve for varying concentrations of Hg{sup 2+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs) are prepared from tellurium nanowires (Te NWs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury telluride nanorods (HgTe NRs) form by cation exchange reaction of FeTe NRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+} ions released catalyze the oxidation of ABTS by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury is effectively determined in blood with an LOD of 1.31 nM at S/N ratio 3. - Abstract: We have developed a simple, colorimetric iron telluride (FeTe) nanorods (NRs) based system for the detection of mercury, mainly based on the cation exchange reaction between FeTe NRs and Hg{sup 2+}. FeTe NRs (length, 105 {+-} 21 nm) react with Hg{sup 2+} to form HgTe NRs (length, 112 {+-} 26 nm) and consequently release Fe{sup 2+} ions that catalyzes the oxidation between a peroxidase substrate 2,2 Prime -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The concentration of Fe{sup 2+} and thereby Hg{sup 2+} can be determined by measuring the absorbance of the ABTS oxidized product at 418 nm. This approach allows the detection of Hg{sup 2+}, with a limit of detection of 1.31 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio 3 and a linear range 5-100 nM (R{sup 2} = 0.99). The low-cost, simple, sensitive, and reproducible assay has been validated for the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in a blood sample (SRM 955c), with the result being in good agreement with that provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  2. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  3. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY LEVELS IN HUMAN SCALP HAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴之芳; 关铭; 等

    1994-01-01

    The contents of total and methyl mercury in scalp hair samples of 1179 fishermen living at a typical Hg-polluted region in Northeast China and 27 lying-in women and their new born babies in Beijing have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis,gas chromatography(electron coupling)and other techniques.Only 18 of all fishermen have the Hg contents above 5μg/g,which indicates that the Hg pollution there has been substantially alleviated.The longitudinal Hg patterns of the lying-in women show a gradually lowering tendency during pregnant period.Further,the Hg contents of the new-born babies are generally above or close to those of their mothers,confirming the mechanism that the methyl Hg,an organic species of Hg with high toxicity,is readily able to penetrate the placental barrier and accumulated in fetus.Thus,the mercury poison has occurred at the early stage of pregnancy.

  4. Toxicokinetics of mercury in blood compartments and hair of fish-fed sled dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieske Camilla L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding mercury (Hg distribution in blood and the importance of hair as an excretory pathway is critical for evaluating risk from long term dietary Hg exposure. The major objective of this study was to characterize changes in total Hg concentrations in specific blood compartments and hair over time due to long term piscivory. Methods Eight sled dogs (Canis lupus familiaris were fed either a fish and kibble diet (n = 4, or a fish-free control diet (n = 4 for 12 weeks. Concentrations of Hg were monitored throughout the exposure period, and for 10 weeks post exposure, until Hg concentrations in all blood compartments of one of the exposed dogs dropped below detection limit. Additionally, foreleg hair was sampled during acclimation and weeks 0 and 12. Results Hg was detected primarily in whole blood and packed cells, although it was sporadically detected at low concentrations in plasma and serum in two of the fish fed dogs. Dogs ingested an estimated average of 13.4 ± 0.58 μg Hg per kg body weight per day. Hg was detectable in whole blood and packed cells within a week of exposure. Detected concentrations continued to rise until plateauing at approximately 3-6 weeks of exposure at a mean of 9.2 ± 1.97 ng/g (ppb in whole blood. Hg concentration decreased post exposure following 1st order elimination. The mean half-life (t1/2 in whole blood for Hg was 7 weeks. Mean Hg in hair for the fish-fed dogs at week 12 was 540 ± 111 ppb and was significantly greater (about 7-fold than the Hg hair concentration for the control dogs. The hair to blood ratio for Hg in fish-fed dogs was 59.0 ± 7.6:1. Conclusions This study found the sled dog model to be an effective method for investigating and characterizing blood Hg distribution (whole blood, serum, plasma, packed cells and toxicokinetics associated with a piscivorous diet, especially for Hg-exposed fur bearing mammals (such as polar bears. Although hair excretion and hair to blood

  5. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects.

  6. New determination of the core-level life-time broadenings in mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martensson, Nils, E-mail: nils.martensson@fysik.uu.se; Svensson, Svante

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We report core-level life-time widths for mercury in the gas phase. • Photoelectron spectra for the 4p, 4d, 4f and 5p levels are analyzed. • A Coster–Kronig like CI effect is observed for the 4d{sub 3/2} level. - Abstract: Previously recorded and published photoelectron spectroscopic data for mercury in the gas phase has been reanalyzed. The life-time broadenings have been determined for a large number of core levels. It is then seen that a recent detailed derivation of core-level line-widths based on X-ray emission spectroscopy give life-time widths that are generally too large. The 4d{sub 3/2}4d{sub 5/2}nd Coster–Kronig (CK) transition is also discussed. We find that the additional broadening of the 4d{sub 3/2} level for mercury metal is indeed due to a CK decay, in contrast to recent claims. In atomic mercury, however, the CK process in energetically forbidden. In spite of this we find that the 4d{sub 3/2} level is broadened also in this case. We propose that this is due to a mixing between the 4d{sub 3/2} hole state and discrete 4d{sub 5/2}nd states.

  7. Bi-phasic trends in mercury concentrations in blood of Wisconsin common loons during 1992–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael W.; Rasmussen, Paul W.; Watras, Carl J.; Fevold, Brick M.; Kenow, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) assessed the ecological risk of mercury (Hg) in aquatic systems by monitoring common loon (Gavia immer) population dynamics and blood Hg concentrations. We report temporal trends in blood Hg concentrations based on 334 samples collected from adults recaptured in subsequent years (resampled 2-9 times) and from 421 blood samples of chicks collected at lakes resampled 2-8 times 1992-2010.. Temporal trends were identified with generalized additive mixed effects models (GAMMs) and mixed effects models to account for the potential lack of independence among observations from the same loon or same lake. Trend analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in the blood of Wisconsin loons declined over the period 1992-2000, and increased during 2002-2010, but not to the level observed in the early 1990s. The best fitting linear mixed effects model included separate trends for the two time periods. The estimated trend in Hg concentration among the adult loon population during 1992-2000 was -2.6% per year and the estimated trend during 2002-2010 was +1.8% per year; chick blood Hg concentrations decreased by -6.5% per year during 1992-2000, but increased 1.8% per year during 2002-2010. This bi-phasic pattern is similar to trends observed for concentrations of methylmercury (meHg) and SO4 in lake water of a well studied seepage lake (Little Rock Lake, Vilas County) within our study area. A cause-effect relationship between these independent trends is hypothesized.

  8. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Removal of trace level aqueous mercury by adsorption and photocatalysis on silica-titania composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Heather E; Mazyck, David W

    2009-10-30

    Silica-titania composites (STCs) were applied to trace level mercury solutions (100 microg/L Hg) to determine the degree of mercury removal that could be accomplished via adsorption and photocatalysis. STCs are a porous, high surface area silica substrate (> 200 m(2)/g), manufactured using sol-gel methodology, impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles. The performance of this material along with its precursors, silica and Degussa P25 TiO2 were compared. Under adsorption alone (no UV illumination), STCs were able to achieve approximately 90% removal of mercury, which is comparable to that of Degussa P25. Silica without TiO2 performed poorly in comparison and was minimally affected by UV illumination. Contrary to expectations, the performance of Degussa P25 was not largely changed by UV irradiation and the STC was detrimentally affected under the same conditions. It was concluded that elemental mercury was formed under UV irradiation with or without the presence of TiO2 due to photochemical reactions, decreasing the mercury removal by STC. Additionally, the primary particle size of the STC was reduced to increase mass transfer. The result was improved Hg removal under adsorption and photocatalysis conditions. Improved adsorption kinetics were also achieved by altering the STC pore size and TiO2 loading.

  10. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).

  11. Trace level analysis of mercury using urease in combination with an ammonia gas sensitive semiconductor structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winquist, F.; Lundstroem, I.; Danielsson, B.

    1988-10-01

    A method for the determination of mercury(II)ions at trace levels is described. The method is based on the profound inhibitory effect of mercury on the enzyme urease. The activity of the enzyme was determined by the rate of ammonia produced from urea as followed by an ammonia gas sensitive iridium thin metal film-oxide-semiconductor (IrTMOS) structure. Two systems were investigated. For the initial urease activity studies, a simple microcell was used. Also a test plate, containing dry reagent strips with all necessary chemicals was developed, making the analytical procedure very simple to perform. The test volume applied was 2 ..mu..l and the sensitivity to standard of mercury(II) ions is at least 0.005..mu..M (1.0 ng/ml). One sample could be analyzed in less than 8 minutes. Furthermore, the kinetics of sensor response versus enzyme activity is discussed.

  12. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta;

    2015-01-01

    that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis...... with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia...... of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify...

  13. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  14. Relationship between mercury concentrations in the blood with that in the muscle of four estuarine tropical fish species, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Maciel, Patrícia Oliveira; da Silva, Luiz César Cavalcanti Pereira; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira; Andreata, José Vanderli; Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Castilhos, Zuleica Carmen

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between mercury concentrations in the blood with that in muscle for non-invasive mercury contamination assessment in fish. At Ribeira Bay were collected 198 fishes of 4 species (Genidens genidens, Arius luniscutis, Haemulon steindachneri, Micropogonias furnieri). At Guanabara Bay were collected 84 fishes of 2 species (Genidens genidens, Micropogonias furnieri). Means of mercury concentrations in fish muscles in both areas were below 500 ng/g. The mean ratio, including all specimens of all species, for mercury in muscle-to-whole blood was 13.4:1, for muscle-to-erythrocytes, 6.5:1 and for erythrocytes-to-plasma, 6.5:1. Further studies are necessary to insure that blood could be used as an exposure biomarker, in order to assess mercury availability in aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Case series of mercury toxicity among children in a hot, closed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Basak Nur; Kondolot, Meda; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Konuşkan, Bahadir

    2012-03-01

    Mercury poisoning is much more prevalent in the general population than possibly many physicians realize. We present data on 26 pediatric cases with mercury intoxication from exposure to mercury by inhalation or skin contact as a result of a broken thermometer in a school laboratory. This is the largest pediatric series in Turkey. During a 3-month period, the study team observed the children for clinical symptoms, physical findings, and blood and mercury levels. Of all patients, 21 inhaled, 3 inhaled and touched the element, and 2 took the mercury home. Sixteen children were symptomatic at admission, although blood mercury levels in the symptomatic children were higher than those in asymptomatic children (P = 0.003). The urine mercury levels were not statistically different between the groups at the admission (P > 0.05). The exposure times were 3.5 and 2 hours for symptomatic and asymptomatic children, respectively (P = 0.003). The 2 children who took the mercury home had the highest blood mercury levels and the most prolonged exposure time. N-acetylcysteine and chelation treatments were started in 21 children who had symptoms of mercury intoxication and high mercury levels in their blood or urine. No adverse effects were observed during chelation therapy. Prompt removal of children from contaminated environments and proper decontamination or elimination of devices containing large amounts of mercury from schools are necessary to prevent serious complications caused by exposure to mercury.

  16. Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Peterson, Sarah; Evers, David C.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Elliott, John E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of the environment is an important issue globally, and birds are useful bioindicators for mercury monitoring programs. The available data on mercury contamination of birds in western North America were synthesized. Original data from multiple databases were obtained and a literature review was conducted to obtain additional mercury concentrations. In total, 29219 original bird mercury concentrations from 225 species were compiled, and an additional 1712 mean mercury concentrations, representing 19998 individuals and 176 species, from 200 publications were obtained. To make mercury data comparable across bird tissues, published equations of tissue mercury correlations were used to convert all mercury concentrations into blood-equivalent mercury concentrations. Blood-equivalent mercury concentrations differed among species, foraging guilds, habitat types, locations, and ecoregions. Piscivores and carnivores exhibited the greatest mercury concentrations, whereas herbivores and granivores exhibited the lowest mercury concentrations. Bird mercury concentrations were greatest in ocean and salt marsh habitats and lowest in terrestrial habitats. Bird mercury concentrations were above toxicity benchmarks in many areas throughout western North America, and multiple hotspots were identified. Additionally, published toxicity benchmarks established in multiple tissues were summarized and translated into a common blood-equivalent mercury concentration. Overall, 66% of birds sampled in western North American exceeded a blood-equivalent mercury concentration of 0.2 μg/g wet weight (ww; above background levels), which is the lowest-observed effect level, 28% exceeded 1.0 μg/g ww (moderate risk), 8% exceeded 3.0 μg/g ww (high risk), and 4% exceeded 4.0 μg/g ww (severe risk). Mercury monitoring programs should sample bird tissues, such as adult blood and eggs, that are most-easily translated into tissues with well-developed toxicity benchmarks and that

  17. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  18. Mercury contamination in spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus: an assessment of liver, kidney, blood, and nervous system health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas H; Sonne, Christian; Basu, Niladri; Dietz, Rune; Nam, Dong-Ha; Leifsson, Pall S; Jensen, Asger L

    2010-11-01

    Marine fishes in South Florida (Florida Keys-Florida Bay-Everglades region) accumulate higher concentrations of mercury (Hg) in their tissues than similar fishes from other areas of the southeastern U.S., though it is not known whether these elevated levels affect fish health. In this study, we used quantifiable pathological and biochemical indicators to explore Hg-associated differences in marine fish from South Florida, where Hg contamination is high, and from Indian River Lagoon, Florida, which served as a reference area. Hg concentrations in all tissues of mature spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) from South Florida were significantly higher than those from Indian River Lagoon and were within the threshold range of those in studies where effects of Hg exposure have been observed. The distribution of Hg among tissues followed the same trend in both areas, with the greatest concentration in kidney tissue, followed by liver, muscle, brain, gonad, and red blood cells. Blood-plasma biochemistry showed that concentrations of iron, inorganic phosphate, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly less in South Florida. Also, fructosamine and alkaline phosphatase were significantly less in South Florida. Liver histology revealed that pyknosis/necrosis, interstitial inflammation, and bile duct hyperplasia were found only in seatrout from South Florida, and steatosis/glycogen was more frequently found in Indian River Lagoon specimens. In renal tissue, interstitial inflammation, glomerular dilatation and thickening, and tubular degeneration and necrosis were more frequently found in South Florida specimens. Changes in the liver cytoskeleton and morphology may explain some of the differences in blood parameters between study areas. Neurochemical analyses showed that brain N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (but not those of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, monoamine oxidase, or acetylcholinesterase) were significantly less in fish

  19. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  20. Mercury vapour levels in a domestic environment following breakage of a clinical thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, E R

    1986-12-01

    Following the breakage of a clinical thermometer in the kitchen of the author's own home, mercury vapour was found to be present in most rooms, but not in concentrations which exceeded the current threshold limit value (TLV). However, assuming a more stringent standard of safety, based on continuous exposure to mercury vapour, it was noted that some of the readings could be considered to be excessive, although these were of a freakish and transient nature. In reality the overall time-weighted average exposure of the occupants was within reasonable limits. Lack of ventilation was a major factor in maintaining discernible levels of vapour over a 3-week period. However, the advent of mild weather was instrumental in dispersing the vapour, by allowing the opening of windows. The residual mercury on the floors would seem to have evaporated, so that no long-term health risk ensued. Cross contamination of the hallway carpet was noted indicating that mercury had been transported on the soles of feet and shoes.

  1. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  2. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas.

  3. Mercury-resistant bacteria from salt marsh of Tagus Estuary: the influence of plants presence and mercury contamination levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Neusa L L; Areias, Andreia; Mendes, Ricardo; Canário, João; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems has been recognized as a global, serious problem affecting both wildlife and humans. High levels of Hg, in particular methylmercury (MeHg), were detected in surface sediments of Tagus Estuary. MeHg is neurotoxic and its concentration in aquatic systems is dependent upon the relative efficiency of reduction, methylation, and demethylation processes, which are mediated predominantly by the microbial community, in particular mercury-resistant (HgR) bacteria. Plants in contaminated ecosystems are known to take up Hg via plant roots. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) isolate and characterize HgR bacteria from a salt marsh of Tagus Estuary (Rosário) and (2) determine HgR bacteria levels in the rhizosphere and, consequently, their influence in metal cycling. To accomplish this objective, sediments samples were collected during the spring season in an area colonized by Sacocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima and compared with sediments without plants. From these samples, 13 aerobic HgR bacteria were isolated and characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and susceptibility to Hg compounds, Hg(2+), and MeHg was assessed by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Genetically, the mer operon was searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing was used for bacterial identification. Results showed that the isolates were capable of growing in the presence of high Hg concentration with MIC values for HgCl2 and MeHgCl in the ranges of 1.7-4.2 μg/ml and 0.1-0.9 μg/ml, respectively. The isolates from sediments colonized with Sacocornia fruticosa displayed higher resistance levels compared to ones colonized with Spartina maritima. Bacteria isolates showed different capacity of Hg accumulation but all displayed Hg volatilization capabilities (20-50%). Mer operon was found in two isolates, which genetically confirmed their capability to convert Hg compounds by

  4. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

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    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  5. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

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    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  6. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts.

  7. Correlation between objective automatic and auscultatory mercury manometer blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Biosca, M D; Fernandez-Cruz, A; Mizushima, S; Yamori, Y

    1990-01-01

    The automatic blood pressure (BP) measurement device (A) developed for the World Health Organization (WHO) Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study was compared in Spain with the standard auscultatory-mercury manometer (M) in 440 randomly selected subjects, 50-54 years old (50% men and 50% women). BPs were recorded simultaneously in the same arm. Systolic BP (SBP), analyzed in 1,440 readings, was 127.5 +/- 18.9 mm Hg by A system and 127.6 +/- 18.6 mm Hg by M system (NS). Diastolic BP (DBP) was 71.3 +/- 11.7 mm Hg by A and 79.3 +/- 11 mm Hg by M (p less than 0.001). We confirmed good correlations in SBP and DBP measured by both methods (r = 0.95 and r = 0.88, respectively; both p less than 0.001). Nearly complete consistency was noted between SBP readings by both methods but not between DBP readings; the readings by M were significantly higher than those by A. Since A's consistency with SBP and DBP readings obtained by the intra-arterial method (the most commonly used method) previously had been proven to be satisfactory, DBP obtained by clinical practice is possibly overestimated in adults.

  8. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  9. Cytogenetic damage related to low levels of methyl mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon

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    MARÚCIA I. M. AMORIM

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The mercury rejected in the water system, from mining operations and lixiviation of soils after deforestation, is considered to be the main contributors to the contamination of the ecosystem in the Amazon Basin. The objectives of the present study were to examine cytogenetic functions in peripheral lymphocytes within a population living on the banks of the Tapajós River with respect to methylmercury (MeHg contamination, using hair mercury as a biological indicator of exposure. Our investigation shows a clear relation between methylmercury contamination and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes at levels well below 50 micrograms/gram, the level at which initial clinical signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning occur. The first apparent biological effect with increasing MeHg hair level was the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation measured as mitotic index (MI. The relation between mercury concentration in hair and MI suggests that this parameter, an indicator of changes in lymphocytes and their ability to respond to culture conditions, may be an early marker of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in humans and should be taken into account in the preliminary evaluation of the risks to populations exposed in vivo. This is the first report showing clear cytotoxic effects of long-term exposure to MeHg. Although the results strongly suggest that, under the conditions examined here, MeHg is both a spindle poison and a clastogen, the biological significance of these observations are as yet unknown. A long-term follow-up of these subjects should be undertaken.

  10. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications.

  11. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months

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    Ji Xiaojun

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb and total blood calcium (Ca levels; blood zinc (Zn levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1-36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. Conclusions: The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls.

  12. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  13. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  14. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  15. Data relating to early child development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, their relationship with prenatal blood mercury and stratification by fish consumption

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    Yasmin Iles-Caven

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, measures of early child development were collected using both hands-on expert assessment (on a random 10% sub-sample by trained psychologists at 18 months using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (Extended 0–8 years and from detailed questionnaires completed by the study mothers on the whole cohort using assessments based on the Denver Developmental Screening Test. The development determined by the psychologists on the 10% subsample showed a correlation of 0.49 (R. Wilson, 2003 [9] with the developmental level estimated from the maternal report. Maternal reports were used to determine the associations between prenatal blood mercury levels and scores of social achievement, fine motor skills, gross motor skills and communication at various preschool ages. (For results, please see doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2016.02.006 [1].

  16. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks.

  17. Relationship between Blood Mercury Concentration and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men in the 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Hee; Seo, Min Seok; Yim, Hyung Ji; Cho, Mi Ra

    2016-01-01

    Background The results of previous studies on the association between blood mercury (Hg) and bone mineral density (BMD) are inconsistent. We therefore used a large-scale nationwide representative sample of Korean men to investigate the relationship between these two parameters. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate the relationship between blood Hg and BMD and the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in 1,190 men over 50 years of age. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed for each body site according to World Health Organization T-score criteria. Results After adjusting for age, body mass index, caloric energy and calcium intake, vitamin D levels, fish consumption, alcohol consumption, smoking, and exercise, quartiles of blood Hg were positively associated with femur neck T-scores in multiple linear regression analysis (β=0.06, P-value=0.03). Compared with the lowest blood Hg quartile, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis in the second and fourth quartiles were 0.63 (0.41–0.99) and 0.57 (0.36–0.91), respectively, in the femur neck after adjusting for the same co-variables. Conclusion High blood Hg levels were associated with reduced odds of decreased femur neck BMD in Korean men. However, subgroup analysis did not show a significant protective effect of blood Hg on osteoporotic fractures. Further research is necessary to clarify the association between blood Hg and BMD. PMID:27688860

  18. COMPARISON OF MERCURY BLOOD PRESSURE READINGS TO OSCILLOMETRIC AND CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREDICTING TARGET ORGAN DAMAGE IN YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Elaine M; Khoury, Philip R; McCoy, Connie E; Daniels, Stephen R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Kimball, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor for target organ damage (TOD). New methods for measuring BP are replacing mercury sphygmomanometry in many clinics. We examined the utility of different BP measurement techniques in predicting subclinical TOD in adolescents and young adults. Methods Subjects in a study of the CV effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were evaluated (N=677, 18 ± 3.3 years, 35% male, 60% non-Caucasian, 30% T2DM). We measured adiposity, lab, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness & pulse wave. BP was measured 3 times with mercury sphygmomanometery (BPm) an oscillometric device (BPo) and central aortic BP (BPc) was derived with arterial tonometry. Subjects were stratified as normotensive (N), pre-hypertensive (P) or hypertensive (H). Results The prevalence of HT this cohort with mean BMI of 31 was highest with BPo (16%), followed by BPm (11%) and BPc (9%), p≤0.001. BPm was most consistent in differentiating left ventricular mass and pulse wave velocity among subjects in the P group as compared to the N & H groups. Mercury BP was also more sensitive and specific in predicting greater left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity and carotid thickness than the other BP measurement techniques in logistic regression. Conclusions We conclude that mercury sphygmomanometry should remain the gold standard for evaluation of HT and the risk for TOD in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25647284

  19. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  20. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, H.J.; Kozlov, K.; Buckley, J.P.; Centeno, J.; Jurgenson, V.; Kolker, A.; Conko, K.; Landa, E.; Panov, B.; Panov, Y.; Xu, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 ??g/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 ??g/L (blood), 3.95 ??g/g (hair), and 1.16 ??g/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with both blood and urinary mercury concentrations but not with hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility. Copyright ?? 2008 JOEH, LLC.

  1. Whole blood viscosity issues VI: Association with blood salicylate level and gastrointestinal bleeding

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    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This series on whole blood viscosity issues has been trying to elucidate the sensitivity, specificity and usefulness of the laboratory parameter in clinical practice. The postulation has been that since antiplatelet is used in the management of stasis, of which blood viscosity is an index, the latter would be useful laboratory indication and/or contraindication. Aim : The aim of this study was to observe whether blood level of acetylsalicylic acid differs with the level of whole blood viscosity. Patients and Methods : Out of the ten years database, 538 cases that were concomitantly tested for haematocrit, total proteins and blood level of salicylate were selected for this study. A separate nine cases of positive faecal occult blood tests were audited for blood viscosity and reviewed. Results : A statistically significant difference is observed with lower blood viscosity being associated with higher salicylate level in comparison of the former between the highest vs. lowest quartiles (p < 0.002. This observation demonstrates the effect of aspirin in lowering blood stasis. Reviewing the positive faecal occult blood cases indicate that gastrointestinal bleeding is characterized by relative hypoviscosity and that hyperviscosity is not present during bleeding complications. Conclusion : The findings affirm that whole blood viscosity is a valid clinical laboratory parameter for evidence-based contraindication, indication and monitoring of antiplatelet medication. It calls for better appreciation and clinical utility of whole blood viscosity, which (in the absence of viscometer can now be extrapolated from haematocrit and total proteins.

  2. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the ma

  3. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the m

  4. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  5. Mercury exposure and malaria prevalence among gold miners in Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silbergeld Ellen K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development, including resource extraction, can cause toxic exposures that interact with endemic infectious diseases. Mercury is an immunotoxic metal used in the amalgamation of gold, resulting in both occupational exposures and environmental pollution. A cross-sectional medical survey was conducted in 1997 on 135 garimpeiros in Para, Brazil, because of their risks of both mercury exposure and malaria transmission. Mean levels of blood and urine mercury were well above non-exposed background levels. Twenty-six subjects had malaria parasitemia: Health symptoms consistent with mercury exposure were reported, but neither symptoms nor signs correlated with mercury levels in blood or urine. We did not find a dose response relationship between mercury exposure and likelihood of prevalent malaria infection, but there was a possible reduction in acquisition of immunity that may be associated with conditions in gold mining, including mercury exposure.

  6. Mercury accumulation by lower trophic-level organisms in lentic systems within the Guadalupe River watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Moon, Gerald E.; Husby, Peter; Lincoff, Andrew; Carter, James L.; Croteau, Marie-Noële

    2005-01-01

    The water columns of four reservoirs (Almaden, Calero, Guadalupe and Lexington Reservoirs) and an abandoned quarry pit filled by Alamitos Creek drainage for recreational purposes (Lake Almaden) were sampled on September 14 and 15, 2004 to provide the first measurements of mercury accumulation by phytoplankton and zooplankton in lentic systems (bodies of standing water, as in lakes and reservoirs) within the Guadalupe River watershed, California. Because of widespread interest in ecosystem effects associated with historic mercury mining within and downgradient of the Guadalupe Riverwatershed, transfer of mercury to lower trophic-level organisms was examined. The propensity of mercury to bioaccumulate, particularly in phytoplankton and zooplankton at the base of the food web, motivated this attempt to provide information in support of developing trophic-transfer and solute-transport models for the watershed, and hence in support of subsequent evaluation of load-allocation strategies. Both total mercury and methylmercury were examined in these organisms. During a single sampling event, replicate samples from the reservoir water column were collected and processed for dissolved-total mercury, dissolved-methylmercury, phytoplankton mercury speciation, phytoplankton taxonomy and biomass, zooplankton mercury speciation, and zooplankton taxonomy and biomass. The timing of this sampling event was coordinated with sampling and analysis of fish from these five water bodies, during a period of the year when vertical stratification in the reservoirs generates a primary source of methylmercury to the watershed. Ancillary data, including dissolved organic carbon and trace-metal concentrations as well as vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and pH, were gathered to provide a water-quality framework from which to compare the results for mercury. This work, in support of the Guadalupe River Mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Study, provides

  7. Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin

    2014-05-01

    Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg pollution in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher levels of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg levels in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  8. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  9. Evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Stephanie N.; Ackerman, Josh; Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; O'Hara, Todd M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. The relationship between total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. We examined [THg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. For each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quantify the ability of [THg] in hair to predict [THg] in blood at the time of sampling and examined the influence of varying ontogenetic phases and life history of the sampled animals. Overall, we found that the relationship between [THg] in hair and blood was affected by factors including age class, weaning status, growth, and the time difference between hair growth and sample collection. Hair [THg] was moderately to strongly predictive of current blood [THg] for adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), whereas hair [THg] was poorly predictive or not predictive (different times of year) of blood [THg] for adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Within species, except for very young pups, hair [THg] was a weaker predictor of blood [THg] for prereproductive animals than for adults likely due to growth, variability in foraging behavior, and transitions between ontogenetic phases. Our results indicate that the relationship between hair [THg] and blood [THg] in pinnipeds is variable and that ontogenetic phase and life history should be considered when interpreting [THg] in these tissues.

  10. Locational differences in mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who fish, and their families that ingest self-caught fish, make decisions about where to fish, what type of fish to eat, and the quantity of fish to eat. While federal and state agencies often issue consumption advisories for some fish with high mercury (Hg) concentrations, advisories seldom provide the actual metal levels to the general public. There are few data for most saltwater fish, and even less information on variations in Hg levels in fish within a state or geographical region. The objective of this study was to provide Hg concentrations from 19 species of fish caught in different locations in New Jersey to (1) test the hypothesis that mean metal levels vary geographically, (2) provide this information to individuals who fish these coastal waters, and (3) provide a range of values for risk assessors who deal with saltwater fish exposure in the Northeastern United States. Selenium (Se) was also examined because of its purported moderating effect on the toxicity of Hg. Hg levels showed significant geographical variation for 10 of 14 species that were caught in more than one region of New Jersey, but there were significant locational differences for Se in only 5 of the fish. Mercury levels were significantly lower in fish collected from northern New Jersey (except for ling, Molva molva), compared to other regions. As might be expected, locational differences in Hg levels were greatest for fish species with the highest Hg concentrations (shark, Isurus oxyrinchus; tuna, Thunnus thynnus and T. albacares; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix). Fishers and their families might reduce their risk from Hg exposure not only by selecting fish generally lower in Hg, but by fishing predominantly in some regions over others, further lowering the potential risk. Health professionals might use these data to advise patients on which fish are safest to consume (in terms of Hg exposure) from particular geographical regions.

  11. Cadmium, mercury and lead in the blood of urban women in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, China, Ecuador and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pawlas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to make an international comparison of blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd, lead (BPb and mercury (B-Hg of women in seven European, and three non-European cities, and to identify determinants. Materials and Methods: About 50 women (age: 46–62 from each city were recruited (totally 480 in 2006–2009. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. Blood samples were analysed in one laboratory to avoid interlaboratory variation. Results: Between the European cities, the B-Pb and B-Cd results vary little (range of geometric means: 13.5–27.0 μg/l and 0.25–0.65 μg/l, respectively; the variation of B-Hg was larger (0.40–1.38 μg/l. Between the non-European cities the results for B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg were 19.2–68.0, 0.39–0.99 and 1.01–2.73 μg/l, respectively. Smoking was a statistically signifi cant determinant for B-Cd, while fi sh and shellfi sh intakes contributed to B-Hg and B-Pb, amalgam fi llings also contributed to B-Hg. Conclusions: The present results confi rm the previous results from children; the exposure to lead and cadmium varies only little between different European cities suggesting that other factors than the living area are more important. The study also confi rms the previous fi ndings of higher cadmium and lead levels in some non-European cities. The geographical variation for mercury is signifi cant.

  12. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Cañas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Díaz, Gema; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies.

  13. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams.

  14. [Distribution of Mercury in Plants at Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Li, Xian-yuan; Tang, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; WANG, Ding-yong

    2015-11-01

    The mercury (Hg) distribution and storage in plants at water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir were investigated by analyzing the total mercury(THg) and methylmercury ( MeHg) levels in different parts of plants collected from three typical sites including Shibaozhai, Zhenxi and Hanfeng Lake in WLFZ. The results indicated that THg and MeHg concentrations in plants ranged from (1.62 ± 0.57) to (49.42 ± 3.93) μg x kg(-1) and from (15.27 ± 7.09) to (1 974.67 ± 946.10) ng x kg(-1), respectively. In addition, THg levels in different plant parts followed the trend: root > leaf > stem, and similar trend for MeHg was observed with the highest level in root. An obvious spatial distribution was also found with the THg and MeHg levels in plants in Hanfeng higher than those in the same plants in the other two sampling sites (Shibaozhai and Zhenxi), and there was a difference of THg and MeHg storage in plants in various attitudes. The corresponding THg and MeHg storages were 145.3, 166.4, 124.3 and 88.2 mg x hm(-2), and 1.9, 2.7, 3.6 and 3.2 mg x hm(-2) in 145-150, 150-160, 160-170 and 170-175 m attitudes. The accumulation ability of dominant plants in WLFZ for THg (bioaccumulation factor, BAF 1).

  15. Mercury correlations among blood, muscle, and hair of northern elephant seals during the breeding and molting fasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Josh; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring and toxicological risk assessments for marine mammals commonly sample different tissues, making comparisons to toxicity benchmarks and among species and regions difficult. Few studies have examined how life history events, such as fasting, influence the relationship between total Hg (THg) concentrations in different tissues. We evaluated the relationships between THg concentrations in blood, muscle, and hair of female and male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at the start and end of the breeding and molting fasts. The relationships between tissues varied among tissue pairs and differed by sampling period and sex. Blood and muscle were generally related at all time periods; however, hair, an inert tissue, did not strongly represent the metabolically active tissues (blood and muscle) at all times of year. The strongest relationships between THg concentrations in hair and those in blood or muscle were observed during periods of active hair growth (end of the molting period) or during time periods when internal body conditions were similar to those when the hair was grown (end of the breeding fast). Our results indicate that THg concentrations in blood or muscle can be translated to the other tissue type using the equations we developed, but that THg concentrations in hair were generally a poor index of internal THg concentrations except during the end of fasting periods.

  16. Occurrence of high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal plants of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Plants can contain heavy metals from their presence in the soil, water or air. High levels of toxic metals can occur when the plants are grown in polluted areas, such as near roadways or metal mining and smelting operations. In addition, high levels can be found when agricultural expedients are used, including Cadmium containing fertilizers, organic mercury or lead based pesticides, and contaminated irrigation water. Quality has to be built into the whole process beginning from the selection of starting material to the final product reaching the consumer. In the present study were carried out, to evaluate the quality and safety of crude drug. The result shows that Indian herbal drug industry needs to ensure procurement of standardized authentic raw material free from toxic contaminants. Such approaches remain important in global promotion of medicinal plants & herbal medicinal products from India.

  17. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P... people and especially in competition athletes....

  18. Selenite Effect on the Content of Mercury in Chicken Blood and Tissue%硒对雏鸡血液及组织汞含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武瑞; 仝宗喜; 杨爽; 王伟; 康世良

    2001-01-01

    选用雏鸡作实验动物,采用分组对比的方法,通过测定血液、羽毛、粪便和组织中汞、硒含量,研究硒对雏鸡血液及组织汞含量的影响,进而探讨硒与汞的拮抗机理。实验结果表明:汞在鸡体内的分布具有较强的选择性,主要蓄积于肝脏和肾脏,其含量分布为肾脏>肝脏>大脑>心脏>肌肉>全血。血液和组织中汞含量相关回归分析表明,血汞不能反映体内汞负荷,但可粗略地反映近期汞摄入水平;肝脏和肾脏汞含量及其动态变化可较好地反映体内的汞负荷;毛汞可反映动物生长期体内吸收的汞量;粪汞含量升高可诊断为汞吸收;这对汞中毒的诊断及环境生物学的监测有一定的意义。硒与汞之间存在拮抗作用,汞可以影响硒的吸收、分布、利用,硒也可以改变汞的积累部位和积累方式。%In the study we selected the chickens as laboratory animal, derided groups for comparison, determiated the content of selenite and mercury in the chickan blood, feather, excrements and tissue for studing the selenie effect on the content of mercury, for the more to reveal the antagonistic mechanism between selenite and mercury. The results were shown that: 1. Mercury was selectively distributed to different organs.It mainly stored up in liver and kidey. Its content were in kidney, liver, brain, chest muscle and blood in order. The mercury content in the hlood did not reflect the mercury content in the body, but it could show rcent intake of mercury;The experiment showed the mercury content in liver and kindey and its dynamic change could perfectly reflect the mercury content in the body;The mercury content in the feather could show absorb of mercury content during grow; The mercury content in the excrements could diagnosis absorb of mercury content. All there were significent in diagnoaing mercury poisoning and envirimeatal biology monitoring. 2. It exist that the

  19. Can mercury in fish be reduced by water level management? Evaluating the effects of water level fluctuation on mercury accumulation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H; Maki, Ryan P; Knights, Brent C; Gray, Brian R

    2014-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of fisheries is a major concern for resource managers of many temperate lakes. Anthropogenic Hg contamination is largely derived from atmospheric deposition within a lake's watershed, but its incorporation into the food web is facilitated by bacterial activity in sediments. Temporal variation in Hg content of fish (young-of-year yellow perch) in the regulated lakes of the Rainy-Namakan complex (on the border of the United States and Canada) has been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, presumably through variation in sediment inundation. As a result, Hg contamination of fish has been linked to international regulations of WL fluctuation. Here we assess the relationship between WL fluctuations and fish Hg content using a 10-year dataset covering six lakes. Within-year WL rise did not appear in strongly supported models of fish Hg, but year-to-year variation in maximum water levels (∆maxWL) was positively associated with fish Hg content. This WL effect varied in magnitude among lakes: In Crane Lake, a 1 m increase in ∆maxWL from the previous year was associated with a 108 ng increase in fish Hg content (per gram wet weight), while the same WL change in Kabetogama was associated with only a 5 ng increase in fish Hg content. In half the lakes sampled here, effect sizes could not be distinguished from zero. Given the persistent and wide-ranging extent of Hg contamination and the large number of regulated waterways, future research is needed to identify the conditions in which WL fluctuations influence fish Hg content.

  20. Mercury vapor inhalation and poisoning of a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Serife Gul; Tozlu, Mukaddes; Yalcin, Songul Siddika; Sozen, Tumay; Guven, Gulay Sain

    2012-08-01

    Acute mercury vapor poisoning is a rare but fatal toxicological emergency. People are exposed to mercury in daily life by the way of foods, vaccines, antiseptics, ointments, amalgam or occupation. We present here, the clinical picture and management of four members of the same family who were exposed to elemental mercury. Three of the family members were seen in another hospital with malaise, fever, eritematous rash and pulmonary problems. Their questioning revealed the mercury exposure. Having a suspicion of heavy metal intoxication, blood and urine mercury levels were measured and mercury intoxication was diagnosed. On admission to our hospital, two patients already had chelation therapy. In three of them we found three distinct abnormalities: encephalopathy, nephrotic syndrome and polyneuropathy. The fourth family member had minor symptoms. This family is an example for the inhalation exposure resulting from inappropriate handling of liquid mercury. During the first days, flu like illness ensues. Then, severe pulmonary, neurological, renal, hepatic, hematological and dermatological dysfunctions develop. Blood and urine mercury levels should be tested on suspicion, but it must be kept in mind that blood level is unreliable in predicting the severity of mercury toxicity. The priority in the treatment should be removing the patient from the source of exposure. Then British anti-Lewisite, edetate calcium disodium, penicillamine, Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfhonate and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid can be used for binding the mercury. We conclude that since mercury-containing devices are present in daily life, physicians must be able to recognize the clinical manifestations and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  1. A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2003-12-01

    Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic or mildly pruritic discreet papular and papulovesicular eruption that correlated with high blood mercury levels. The mercury evidently came from increased seafood consumption. All of the patients improved when they were placed on either a seafood-free diet or chelation therapy. Physicians should suspect mercury poisoning in patients who eat a high-seafood diet who present with an asymptomatic or mildly pruritic papular or papulovesicular eruption.

  2. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324.

  3. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained.

  4. Diamondback terrapins, Malaclemys terrapin, as a sentinel species for monitoring mercury pollution of estuarine systems in South Carolina and Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Schwenter, Jeffrey A; Day, Rusty D; Point, David; Christopher, Steven J; Roumillat, William A; Owens, David W

    2007-07-01

    Total mercury concentrations were measured in diamondback terrapin blood and scutes collected from four sites in South Carolina, USA, and at a superfund site in Brunswick, Georgia, USA. There was a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in the two terrapin body compartments (Kendall's tau = 0.79, p Mercury concentrations in terrapin scute and blood and in salt marsh periwinkles, Littoraria irrorata, were significantly higher in Brunswick (scute x = 3810.2 ng/g, blood x = 746.2 ng/g) than from all other sites (scute x = 309.5 ng/g, blood x = 43.2 ng/g, p mercury in the blood and scutes of terrapins collected in the Ashley River, South Carolina, were significantly lower in August than in April, June, or October in blood (p mercury in the scutes of females than males (n = 32, p mercury levels in their body tissues than smaller periwinkles (p mercury stored in this compartment was in the organic form. A methylmercury biomagnification factor of 173.5 was calculated from snails to terrapin scutes, and we found that mercury levels in scutes were representative of the mercury levels in other compartments of the ecosystem. These findings show that terrapin scutes are good predictors of mercury pollution and that this species could be used as a bioindicator for assessing mercury contamination of estuarine systems.

  5. Metal levels in blood, muscle and liver of water snakes (Nerodia spp.) from New Jersey, Tennessee and South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Lab., Rutgers Univ., 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]|[Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Campbell, Kym Rouse [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]|[Biological Research Associates, 3910 U.S. Highway 301 North, Suite 180, Tampa, Florida 33619 (United States); Murray, Stephanie; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean [Div. of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Lab., Rutgers Univ., 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]|[Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Campbell, Todd S. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]|[Dept. of Biology, Box 3F, Univ. of Tampa, 401 West Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, Florida 33606-1490 (United States); Gaines, Karen F. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]|[Savannah River Ecology Lab., Univ. of Georgia, P.A. Drawer E, Aiken, South Carolina 29802 (United States)]|[Dept. of Biology, Univ. of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States); Shukla, Tara; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]|[Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Reptiles, particularly snakes, could serve as bioindicators of contamination because some are comparatively long-lived, exhibit different trophic levels, and are at the top of their food chains. We test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the concentrations of heavy metals in the blood, muscle and liver of water snakes (Nerodia spp.) from rivers in New Jersey, Tennessee and South Carolina. While the former site is in an urban/suburban area, the latter two sites are relatively rural and are located on Department of Energy sites. For the snakes from New Jersey, there were significant differences in metal concentrations among tissues for all metals, the highest levels for arsenic and selenium were in liver and kidney, for cadmium were in the liver, for chromium and lead were in skin, and for mercury and manganese were in the muscle. Body length was not correlated with metal levels, and there were more significant correlations for skin with internal tissues than for blood with other tissues. There were more significant correlations for mercury than for other metals. In comparing metal levels among states, levels were generally higher for snakes collected from South Carolina. These data indicate that, since water snakes accumulate contaminants differentially as a function of location, they can be useful bioindicators of environmental exposure to contaminants. Moreover, because of their wide geographical distribution and use of varying trophic compartments, this genus can be useful for cross-site comparisons.

  6. Electrolytes Disturbance and Cyclosporine Blood Levels among Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einollahi, B.; Nemati, E.; Rostami, Z.; Teimoori, M.; Ghadian, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is associated with various biochemical abnormalities such as changes in serum blood level of sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorous (P). Although cyclosporine (CsA) is used commonly, the prevalence of its side effects, including electrolytes disturbance, is not well understood. Objective: To find the prevalence of electrolytes disturbance and its relation to CsA blood levels. Methods: In a retrospective study, 3308 kidney transplant recipients transplanted between 2008 and 2011 were studied. We evaluated the relation between serum Ca, P, Na, K and CsA trough (C0) and 2-hour post-dose (C2) levels. Results: The mean±SD age of recipients was 37±15 years; 63% of patients were male. Overall, C2 levels had correlation with Ca blood level (p=0.018; OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.02–1.25), C0 levels had also correlation with blood levels of P and Cr (p<0.001; OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.59–2.11). Conclusion: Electrolyte disturbances are prevalent. Higher serum levels of CsA can worsen the allograft function by disturbing the serum P and Ca levels. PMID:25013642

  7. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  8. Pregnancy hypertension and umbilical cord blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Needleman, H. (Children' s Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Schoenbaum, S. (Harvard Community Health Plan, Brookline Village, MA (USA))

    Pregnancy hypertension, blood pressure during labor, and the umbilical cord blood lead concentration were assessed in 3,851 women for whom additional demographic, medical, and personal information was available. Lead levels correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure during labor. The incidence of clinically defined pregnancy hypertension, nearly 11% overall, increased with lead level. A series of multivariate models of pregnancy hypertension and of systolic blood pressure as a function of maternal age, parity, hematocrit, ponderal index, race, season, and diabetes were improved by including lead as a predictor variable. These other risk factors are not affected by the lead term. The relative risk for pregnancy hypertension doubles when lead increases from 2 to 15 {mu}g/dl. The effect is statistically strong, with a magnitude of about 3 mm for a 10 {mu}g/dl range, about the same magnitude associated with diabetes. At these observed levels (mean blood lead = 6.0 {mu}g/dl, SD = 3.3, range 0 > 35), not currently recognized as overtly toxic, lead has a small but demonstrable association with pregnancy hypertension and blood pressure at the time of delivery, but not with pre-eclampsia nor toxemia. Although this association is not likely to influence the clinical management of hypertension, it indicates that lead at typical contemporary urban levels, does effect multiple physiological functions.

  9. Biomarkers of mercury exposure at a mercury recycling facility in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman Jones; Kozlov, Kostj; Buckley, Jessie Poulin; Centeno, Jose; Jurgenson, Vera; Kolker, Allan; Conko, Kathryn; Landa, Edward; Panov, Boris; Panov, Yuri; Xu, Hanna

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluates biomarkers of occupational mercury exposure among workers at a mercury recycling operation in Gorlovka, Ukraine. The 29 study participants were divided into three occupational categories for analysis: (1) those who worked in the mercury recycling operation (Group A, n = 8), (2) those who worked at the facility but not in the yard where the recycling was done (Group B, n = 14), and (3) those who did not work at the facility (Group C, n = 7). Urine, blood, hair, and nail samples were collected from the participants, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain data on age, gender, occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption, fish consumption, tattoos, dental amalgams, home heating system, education, source of drinking water, and family employment in the former mercury mine/smelter located on the site of the recycling facility. Each factor was tested in a univariate regression with total mercury in urine, blood, hair, and nails. Median biomarker concentrations were 4.04 microg/g-Cr (urine), 2.58 microg/L (blood), 3.95 microg/g (hair), and 1.16 microg/g (nails). Occupational category was significantly correlated (p hair or nail mercury. Four individuals had urinary mercury concentrations in a range previously found to be associated with subtle neurological and subjective symptoms (e.g., fatigue, loss of appetite, irritability), and one worker had a urinary mercury concentration in a range associated with a high probability of neurological effects and proteinuria. Comparison of results by occupational category found that workers directly involved with the recycling operation had the highest blood and urinary mercury levels. Those who worked at the facility but were not directly involved with the recycling operation had higher levels than those who did not work at the facility.

  10. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  11. Lake levels and water quality in comparison to fish mercury body burdens, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kissane, Claire; LeDuc, Jamie F.

    2017-01-18

    Within Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota, lake levels are controlled by a series of dams to support a variety of uses. Previous research indicates a link between these artificially maintained water levels, referred to as rule curves, and mercury concentrations in fish owing to the drying and rewetting of wetlands and other nearshore areas, which may release methylmercury into the water when inundated. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and University of Wisconsin-La Crosse cooperated in a study to assess the importance of lake-level fluctuation and other factors affecting mercury concentrations in Perca flavescens (yellow perch) in the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. For this study, mercury body burdens were determined for young-of-the-year yellow perch collected from the large lakes within Voyageurs National Park during 2013–15. These mercury body burdens were compared to lake levels and water-quality constituents from the same period.Field properties and profiles of lake water quality indicated that Sand Point, Little Vermilion, and Crane Lakes were anoxic at times near the lake bottom sediments, where sulfate-reducing bacteria may convert mercury to methylmercury. The median dissolved sulfate concentration was highest in Crane Lake, the median total organic carbon concentration was highest in Sand Point Lake, and the median total phosphorus concentration was highest in Kabetogama Lake, all of which is consistent with previous research. All lakes had median chlorophyll a concentrations of 3.6 micrograms per liter or less with the exception of Kabetogama Lake, where the median concentrations were 4.3 micrograms per liter for the midlake sites and 7.1 micrograms per liter and 9.0 micrograms per liter for the nearshore sites.Mercury concentrations in sampled fish varied widely between years and among lakes, from 14.7 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Kabetogama Lake in 2015 to 178 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Crane Lake in

  12. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  13. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  14. Urinary mercury levels in females: influence of skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Saleh, I; Shinwari, N

    1997-10-01

    The influence of application of skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam fillings on the urinary mercury (Hg) level was evaluated in 225 females (ages 17 to 58 years) living in Riyadh, capital of Saudi Arabia. The arithmetic mean of the urinary Hg level was 6.96 +/- 20.43 micrograms 1(-1), in the range 0 to 204.8 micrograms 1(-1). The mean urinary Hg level adjusted by creatinine (Cr) was 11.22 +/- 37.23 micrograms g-1 Cr, in the range 0 to 459.37 micrograms g-1. No significant difference in urinary Hg was noted between the females regarding the use of skin-lightening creams. On the other hand, results showed that urinary Hg concentration was influenced by the use and number of dental amalgam fillings. No women were identified with symptoms or signs that could be attributed to Hg intoxication. Urine analyses for creatinine, urea, uric acid, phosphorus, magnesium, glucose and calcium showed significant correlation with urinary Hg. This suggests that chronic exposure to Hg may be associated with a deterioration of renal function.

  15. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  16. Benznidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernanda Bulffer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benznidazole (Bz exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg. We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals.

  17. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L.; Hardin, Rebecca D.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  18. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  19. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  20. Differentiated availability of geochemical mercury pools controls methylmercury levels in estuarine sediment and biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Sofi; Skyllberg, Ulf; Nilsson, Mats B; Lundberg, Erik; Andersson, Agneta; Björn, Erik

    2014-08-20

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) formed from inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) accumulates in aquatic biota and remains at high levels worldwide. It is poorly understood to what extent different geochemical Hg pools contribute to these levels. Here we report quantitative data on MeHg formation and bioaccumulation, in mesocosm water-sediment model ecosystems, using five Hg(II) and MeHg isotope tracers simulating recent Hg inputs to the water phase and Hg stored in sediment as bound to natural organic matter or as metacinnabar. Calculations for an estuarine ecosystem suggest that the chemical speciation of Hg(II) solid/adsorbed phases control the sediment Hg pool's contribution to MeHg, but that input of MeHg from terrestrial and atmospheric sources bioaccumulates to a substantially greater extent than MeHg formed in situ in sediment. Our findings emphasize the importance of MeHg loadings from catchment runoff to MeHg content in estuarine biota and we suggest that this contribution has been underestimated.

  1. Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin B; Laden, Francine; Guller, Ulrich; Shankar, Anoop; Kazani, Shamsah; Garshick, Eric

    2005-05-15

    Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as > or = 10 microg/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 microg/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level Lead levels lead levels > or = 10-19.9 microg/dl and 97 (9%) had levels > or = 20 microg/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels > or = 10 microg/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.

  2. Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Dutta, Siddartha; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.

  3. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  4. Influence of age, sex and breeding status on mercury accumulation patterns in the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S; Xavier, J C; Phillips, R A; Pereira, M E; Pardal, M A

    2013-10-01

    Although mercury bio-amplifies through the food chain and accumulates in top predators, mercury concentrations in tissues of the wandering albatross are greater than in any other vertebrate, including closely related species. In order to explore the alternative explanations for this pattern, we measured total mercury concentrations in feathers, plasma and blood cells of wandering albatrosses of known age, sex and breeding status sampled at South Georgia. Mercury concentrations were low in feathers and blood components of chicks, and higher in the feathers of young pre-breeders than in feathers or blood of older pre-breeders and breeding adults. There was no effect of sex on mercury concentrations in the feathers of pre-breeders or breeding adults, whereas levels were significantly higher in blood cells of breeding females than males. The high feather mercury concentrations of young pre-breeders compared with older birds suggest an increase in moult frequency as birds approach maturity.

  5. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  6. Feathers as a Tool to Assess Mercury Contamination in Gentoo Penguins: Variations at the Individual Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pedro

    Full Text Available Feathers have been widely used to assess mercury contamination in birds as they reflect metal concentrations accumulated between successive moult periods: they are also easy to sample and have minimum impact on the study birds. Moult is considered the major pathway for mercury excretion in seabirds. Penguins are widely believed to undergo a complete, annual moult during which they do not feed. As penguins lose all their feathers, they are expected to have a low individual-variability in feather mercury concentration as all feathers are formed simultaneously from the same somatic reserves. This assumption is central to penguin studies that use feathers to examine the annual or among-individual variation in mercury concentrations in penguins. To test this assumption, we measured the mercury concentrations in 3-5 body feathers of 52 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S 38°W. Twenty-five percent of the penguins studied showed substantial within-individual variation in the amount of mercury in their feathers (Coefficient of Variation: 34.7-96.7%. This variation may be caused by differences in moult patterns among individuals within the population leading to different interpretations in the overall population. Further investigation is now needed to fully understand individual variation in penguins' moult.

  7. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibody Levels in Blood Supply of Shiraz Blood Transfusion Institute, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Shaddel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products.A total of 250 blood products (112 fresh frozen plasma and 138 packed cells in the Blood Transfusion Institute, Shiraz, Iran were tested for specific T. gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM by ELISA method in 2013. Positive IgG anti-T. gondii samples were further tested for IgM anti-T. gondii antibody. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis, respectively. The relationship of jobs, blood types, sex, marital status and residency of participants with chronic toxoplasmosis prevalence were statistically analyzed by χ(2.Of 250 samples, 58 (23.2% and one were positive for IgG anti-T. T. gondii (chronic and IgM anti-T. T. gondii (acute antibodies levels, respectively. Twenty nine (25.9% of fresh frozen plasma (FFP samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondiiiand 1(0.89% of them was positive for IgM anti-T. gondiii antibody. Thirty (21.74% of packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibody. The prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in workers, farmers, house wives, unemployed and free jobs (P=0.007, people with low education levels (P=0.035 and B type of blood ABO system (P=0.0001. However, there were no significant differences regarding to age, sex, marital status, residency and type of blood products.There were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T. gondii antibodies may be considered.

  8. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  9. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  10. Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Yong-Un, Ma [Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, 251 Nuha-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-806, Republic of Korea (Korea); Baker, C. Scott [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Marine Mammal Program and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365 (United States); Funahashi, Naoko [International Fund for Animal Welfare, 1-6-10-203, Saiwaicho, Higashikurume, Tokyo 203-0052 (Japan); Lavery, Shane [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dalebout, Merel L. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi [School of Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Levels of total mercury (T-Hg) were surveyed in red meat (n = 73) and liver (n = 3) from toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises (odontocetes) sold for human consumption in the coastal cities of South Korea. High concentrations of T-Hg were found in the liver products of finless porpoises (18.7 and 156 {mu}g/wet g) and common dolphins (13.2 {mu}g/wet g). The T-Hg concentrations in red meat products were highest in the false killer whale (9.66 {+-} 12.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 9), bottlenose dolphin (10.6 {+-} 12.6 {mu}g/wet g, n = 3) and killer whale (13.3 {mu}g/wet g, n = 1), and lowest in Cuvier's beaked whale and the harbour porpoise (0.4-0.5 {mu}g/wet g). Thus, most of the products that originated from odontocetes exceeded the safety limit of 0.5 {mu}g/wet g for T-Hg set by the South Korean health authorities for the fishery industry. Pregnant women and other vulnerable sectors of the population living in South Korea should therefore limit their consumption of odontocete products.

  11. Mercury concentration in the feathers of birds from various trophic levels in Fereydunkenar International wetland (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Mousa; Lan-Hai, Li; Ahmadpour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Seyed Hamid; Mashrofeh, Abdolreza; Binkowski, Łukasz J

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the main global pollutants that may biomagnify in food nets, especially in wetlands. Birds may be useful in the biomonitoring of Hg in such habitats and may even serve in vivo samples. This paper examined Hg concentration in the feathers of seven bird species foraging on Fereydunkenar International wetland (in 2013). Mean Hg concentrations found ranged from 0.005 ± 0.002 μg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight) (Common hoopoe) to 0.38 ± 0.047 μg g(-1) d.w. (Greylag goose). Significant differences in Hg concentrations were noted between bird species as well as between trophic levels (one-way ANOVAs, p  Northern pintail ≥ Gadwall ≥ Mallard > Eurasian bittern ≥ Little bittern > Common hoopoe. The position in the trophic chain significantly influenced Hg concentrations, which were the highest in omnivorous species. Hg concentrations may also depend on migration routes and breeding habitats, but the evaluation of the exposure exceeds the ambit of this paper. The Hg concentrations found generally were low, lower than the safe thresholds reported in the literature.

  12. IMPACT OF ELIMINATING MERCURY REMOVAL PRETREATMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MELTER OFFGAS SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J; Alexander Choi, A

    2009-03-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: (1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; (2) adjust feed rheology; and (3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid pretreatment has been proposed to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems; alternative reductants would be used to control redox. However, elimination of formic acid would result in significantly more mercury in the melter feed; the current specification is no more than 0.45 wt%, while the maximum expected prior to pretreatment is about 2.5 wt%. An engineering study has been undertaken to estimate the effects of eliminating mercury removal on the melter offgas system performance. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model and an aqueous phase model were developed to study the speciation of mercury in the DWPF melter offgas system. The model was calibrated against available experimental data and then applied to DWPF conditions. The gas-phase model predicted the Hg{sub 2}{sup 2-}/Hg{sup 2+} ratio accurately, but some un-oxidized Hg{sup 0} remained. The aqueous model, with the addition of less than 1 mM Cl{sub 2} showed that this remaining Hg{sup 0} would be oxidized such that the final Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Hg{sup 2+} ratios matched the experimental data. The results of applying the model to DWPF show that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of

  13. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  14. Nematode and mercury content in freshwater fish belonging to different trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina

    2013-06-01

    Fish are a protein source for many people in Colombia. However, environmental pollution of some aquatic ecosystems may pose health risks to humans. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in muscle and their relationship with nematode infections in fish from Dique Channel, a freshwater ecosystem located Northern Colombia. Eight hundred ninety fish specimens belonging to 13 different species were collected. T-Hg concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy, previous electrothermal atomization. Nematodes were identified as Contracaecum sp. Species such as Hoplias malabaricus and Sorubim cuspicaudus presented the highest values for Hg and parasite infection (0.09 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 μg/g; prevalence 100, 100 %, respectively), whereas the lowest were detected in Prochilodus magdalenae (0.02 ± 0.002 μg/g; 0 %). Pooled data revealed a high correlation between trophic level and parasite abundance (ρ = 0.771; P = 0.002) as well as with T-Hg (ρ = 0.786; P < 0.001). The overall correlation between parasite abundance and T-Hg was moderately to low but positive (ρ = 0.217; P < 0.001). However, when individual species were considered, pair relationships between parasite abundance, morphometric parameters, and Hg concentration, varied between positive and negative values. These data suggest the presence of nematodes is determined by the trophic level of the fish species, similarly to what occurs with Hg. Moreover, the co-occurrence of these two stressors involves different types of interactions with morphometric variables that are species-specific. These observations open new doors to the understanding of the interaction between chemical pollutants and organisms.

  15. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  16. Expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hui Zhang; Liang-Hua Xia; Jia-Mei Jin; Ming Zong; Ming Chen; Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between the expression level of miR-155 and the severity of coronary lesion, and explore the action mechanism.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated form blood simple from patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UAP), stable angina (SAP) and chest pain syndrome (CPS). RT-PCR was performed to analysis the expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, plasma and RAW264.7 macrophagocyte. MTT was used to analyze the cell viability of OxLDL treated RAW264.7 macrophagocyte.Results: The expression level of miR-155 in blood sample from coronary heart disease patients was much lower than in the blood sample of non-coronary heart disease (P<0.05). The level of miR-155 in PBMCs was much higher in the blood sample from CPS group than the other three group, and the level of miR-155 in plasma was higher in the CPS group than in the UAP and the AMI group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression level of miR-155 in PBMCs is positively associated with the level in the plasma (r=0.861,P=0.000). OxLDL can induce the expression of miR-155 in RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, decrease the cell viability of RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, and with the concentration and the treatment time of OxLDL increased, the effort become more obvious. The inhibition effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte with high miR-155 expression is much lower than the control group, and it is statistically significant after treated for 12, 24 and 48 h.Conclusions: miR-155 plays a protective role in the progression of atherosclerosis, and it may be achieved by reducing the apoptosis effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte.

  17. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  18. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  19. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  20. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  1. Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bocharova

    Full Text Available Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources. This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1 canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus population and 2 relative total mercury (THg level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland' for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs. Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.

  2. Toward an Inexpensive Test for Vitamin D Levels in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various synthetic redox mediators were tried and cobalt sepulchrate trichloride (Co(sep)3+/2+) was found to...25(OH)D (circulating form of vitamin D in blood) levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cytochrome P450, mediated electrochemistry, direct electron chemistry...activity of the enzyme using non-natural redox mediators . This work provides a path forward for developing this enzyme into a biosensor for Vitamin D

  3. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States); Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Newhouse, Michael [NJ Meadowlands Commission, One DeKorte Park Plaza, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (United States); Jeitner, Christian [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mizrahi, David [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  4. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics.

  5. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range 2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, α2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS negative pyometra cases. Conclusion Increased blood lactate concentrations were demonstrated in 3% (1

  6. A dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary mercury levels: a further assessment of the Casa Pia Children's Dental Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, D A; Carmody, T; Kern, J K; King, P G; Geier, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Dental amalgams are a commonly used dental restorative material, and amalgams are about 50% mercury (Hg). In our study, urinary Hg levels was examined in children of age 8-18 years, with and without dental amalgam fillings, from a completed clinical trial (parent study) that was designed to evaluate the potential health consequences of prolonged exposure to Hg from dental amalgam fillings. Our study was designed to determine whether there was a significant dose-dependent correlation between increasing Hg exposure from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels. Hg exposure depends on the size and number of teeth with dental amalgams. Overall, consistent with the results observed in the parent study, there was a statistically significant dose-dependent correlation between cumulative exposure to Hg from dental amalgams and urinary Hg levels, after covariate adjustment. Further, it was observed that urinary Hg levels increased by 18% to 52% among 8 to 18 year old individuals, respectively, with an average exposure to amalgams, in comparison to study subjects with no exposure to amalgams. The results of our study suggest that dental amalgams contribute to ongoing Hg exposure in a dose-dependent fashion.

  7. An immune response network associated with blood lipid levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inouye

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent scans for genetic variation associated with human disease have been immensely successful in uncovering large numbers of loci, far fewer studies have focused on the underlying pathways of disease pathogenesis. Many loci which are associated with disease and complex phenotypes map to non-coding, regulatory regions of the genome, indicating that modulation of gene transcription plays a key role. Thus, this study generated genome-wide profiles of both genetic and transcriptional variation from the total blood extracts of over 500 randomly-selected, unrelated individuals. Using measurements of blood lipids, key players in the progression of atherosclerosis, three levels of biological information are integrated in order to investigate the interactions between circulating leukocytes and proximal lipid compounds. Pair-wise correlations between gene expression and lipid concentration indicate a prominent role for basophil granulocytes and mast cells, cell types central to powerful allergic and inflammatory responses. Network analysis of gene co-expression showed that the top associations function as part of a single, previously unknown gene module, the Lipid Leukocyte (LL module. This module replicated in T cells from an independent cohort while also displaying potential tissue specificity. Further, genetic variation driving LL module expression included the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP most strongly associated with serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels, a key antibody in allergy. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM indicated that LL module is at least partially reactive to blood lipid levels. Taken together, this study uncovers a gene network linking blood lipids and circulating cell types and offers insight into the hypothesis that the inflammatory response plays a prominent role in metabolism and the potential control of atherogenesis.

  8. Mercury levels in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from regulated and unregulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharampal, Prarthana S; Findlay, Robert H

    2017-03-01

    Within areas of comparable atmospheric mercury deposition rates methylmercury burden in largemouth bass populations vary significantly between regulated and unregulated rivers. To investigate if trophic dynamics strongly influenced pollutant body load, we sampled largemouth bass from two adjacent rivers, one regulated and one unregulated, and applied a suite of biochemical and stable isotope assays to compare their trophic dynamics. Total mercury burden in the bass from the unregulated Sipsey River (Elrod, AL, USA) and the regulated Black Warrior River (Demopolis, AL, USA) averaged 0.87 mg kg(-1) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. For both populations, age, weight, and length were positively correlated with muscle mercury concentration. Compound specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids showed the trophic position of both populations was just under four. Quantitative and isotopic analysis of neutral lipid fatty acid of Sipsey River bass indicated a greater reliance upon the detrital component of the food web compared to Demopolis Reservoir bass which fed within the autochthonous, pelagic component of the food web. Since the close proximity of the rivers makes differences in atmospheric deposition unlikely and both populations had similar trophic position, our findings indicate that food web dynamics should be included among the factors that can strongly influence mercury concentration in fish.

  9. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  10. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  11. Glycated hemoglobin in camel: Minimal correlation with blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi Mohammad D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb in the blood of camel (Camelus dromedarius and cow (Bos taurus were analyzed and compared with human values. Camel displayed high blood glucose concentration (9.7±2.8 mM but a low level of glycated-Hb (3.4± 0.23%.Cow blood samples did not show sufficient variations in glucose concentrations (5.7±0.73 mM or glycated Hb levels (3.2± 0.11% compared to human values. The low glycation of camel Hb at higher glucose concentrations suggest that certain factors protect the Hb from glycation at high glucose concentrations. Camel Hb also exhibited a higher electrophoretic mobility than normal hemoglobin of human or cow. Camel Hb migrated at a rate corresponding to that of human Hb-C. Bioinformatics tools were used to explore the biochemical basis for the difference in camel Hb migratory position and its apparent resistance to glycation.

  12. MERCURY DEPOSITION AND LAKE QUALITY TRENDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed factors influence the differing trends in mercury residue levels. Fish mercury concentrations show positive correlations with water color, methylmercury concentrations, and plankton mercury, and negative correlations with pH and alkalinity.

  13. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponder M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sponder,1 Monika Fritzer-Szekeres,2 Rodrig Marculescu,2 Martina Mittlböck,3 Maria Uhl,4 Birgit Köhler-Vallant,5 Jeanette Strametz-Juranek1 1Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Medical-Chemical Laboratory Analysis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Section for Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Department of Pollutants and Human, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria; 5Department of Inorganic Analysis, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria Background: Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and mercury (Hg are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods: Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD. Results: Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 µg/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I level. Median Pb (20 µg/L and Hg (0.55 µg/L levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine

  14. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  15. Mercury levels and trends (1993-2009) in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from German surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepom, Peter; Irmer, Ulrich; Wellmitz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Mercury concentrations have been analysed in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) collected at 17 freshwater sites in Germany from 1993-2009 and 1994-2009, respectively, within the German Environmental Specimen programme. Mercury concentrations in bream ranged from 21 to 881 ng g(-1) wet weight with lowest concentrations found at the reference site Lake Belau and highest in fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries. Statistical analysis revealed site-specific differences and significant decreasing temporal trends in mercury concentrations at most of the sampling sites. The decrease in mercury levels in bream was most pronounced in fish from the river Elbe and its tributary Mulde, while in fish from the river Saale mercury levels increased. Temporal trends seem to level off in recent years. Mercury concentrations in zebra mussels were much lower than those in bream according to their lower trophic position and varied by one order of magnitude from 4.1 to 42 ng g(-1) wet weight (33-336 ng g(-1) dry weight). For zebra mussels, trend analyses were performed for seven sampling sites at the rivers Saar and Elbe of which three showed significant downward trends. There was a significant correlation of the geometric mean concentrations in bream and zebra mussel over the entire study period at each sampling site (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.892, p=0.00002). A comparison of the concentrations in bream with the environmental quality standard (EQS) of 20 ng g(-1) wet weight set for mercury in biota by the EU showed that not a single result was in compliance with this limit value, not even those from the reference site. Current mercury levels in bream from German rivers exceed the EQS by a factor 4.5-20. Thus, piscivorous top predators are still at risk of secondary poisoning by mercury exposure via the food chain. It was suggested focusing monitoring of mercury in forage fish (trophic level 3 or 4) for compliance checking with the EQS for

  16. Hidden sources of mercury in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, C R; Federico-Perez, R A; Gomez-Alvarez, A; Velazquez-Contreras, L E; Perez-Rios, R

    2014-09-01

    The healthcare sector is an important contributor to mercury (Hg) pollution because of the potential presence of mercury in thermometers, blood pressure cuffs, amalgams, etc. There are also other potential sources of mercury in this sector which are used frequently and in high volumes where the presence of the metal is not obvious and which might be collectively contributing to pollution. For instance, some chemicals used for the clinical diagnosis of illness may contain mercury. The goal of this study was to investigate potential sources of mercury pollution, which originate from clinical laboratory discharges, using an exploratory approach. The focus was on the residue generated during automatic analysis of patients' bodily fluids at a medical center in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. This study shows an overview of what might be happening in the region or the country related to non-obvious sources of mercury in the healthcare sector. The results showed measurable levels of mercury in the residues coming from urine sediment analysis. These amounts do not exceed the maximum allowed by Mexican environmental regulations; nevertheless, the frequency and cumulative volume of residues generated, combined with the potential for persistence and the bioaccumulation of mercury in the environment, warrant attention. The work carried out in this study is being taken as a model for future studies for pollution prevention in the healthcare sector with the goal of measuring mercury emissions to the environment from clinical laboratory wastewater, including identifying sources which--while not obvious--could be important given the frequency and volume of their use in the clinical diagnosis.

  17. Blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, A; Tran, J L; Krammer-Lukas, S; Höller, U; Thalhammer, J G; Zentek, J; Willmann, M

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may affect excretion and metabolism of vitamins but data for dogs are limited. In this study, blood vitamin levels were investigated in 19 dogs with chronic renal failure. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, whereas cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were increased compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with CKD showed decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Alpha-tocopherol, biotin, pantothenate and cobalamin levels were not significantly different between controls and dogs with CKD. Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies.

  18. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

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    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  19. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Renee M; Nyland, Jennifer F; Silva, Ines A; Ventura, Ana Maria; de Souza, Jose Maria; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-05-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of auto-antibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (antinuclear auto-antibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (antinucleolar auto-antibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socio-economic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations.

  20. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Cardiology); Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Gedik, O. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1991-10-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.).

  1. Exhaled metallic mercury in acatalasemic, hypocatalasemic and normal mice injected with mercury (II chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the relationship between the catalase activity in mouse organs and the amounts of metallic mercury exhaled, normal, homozygous hypocatalasemic and acatalasemic mice were injected with mercuric chloride. The cumulative amount of metallic mercury exhaled by mice was evidently expressed in the descending order of acatalasemic, hypocatalasemic, and normal mice. Statistically significant differences in the cumulative exhaled metallic mercury levels were observed between acatalasemic and hypocatalasemic mice, between normal and hypocatalasemic mice, and between acatalasemic and normal mice using the method of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. A linear relationship was obtained through logarithm of catalase activity in the lungs or the blood, and logarithm of the cumulative amount of the exhaled mercury.

  2. The Relationship Between Blood Lead Level and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Fatemeh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Dabirioskoei, Atousa; Nasiri, Malihe; Mellati, Aliosat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lead is a heavy metal to which people are commonly exposed. One of the possible mechanisms of tissue damages caused by this toxic metal is oxidative stress, which in turn may cause numerous pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal Blood Lead Level (BLL) and preeclampsia. Methods The present case-control study was conducted on 158 pregnant women admitted to a hospital in Zanjan, Iran, from August 2015 to March 2016. To measure their BLL, 1.5 cc of blood was drawn from each participant. The demographic and obstetric details of the patients were recorded in a form. The potentiometric method was used to test the samples. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using Mann-Whitney U test, the Chi square, independent-samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simple linear regression analysis. Results The mean BLL was 6.24±1.74 μg/dl in the control group and 8.04±3.4 μg/dl in the preeclampsia group. The two groups were matching in terms of the mother’s age and education and the household income. A significant relationship was observed between BLL and preeclampsia (p=0.028), as per every unit of increase (1 μg/dl) in BLL, systolic blood pressure increased by 0.014 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 0.013 mm Hg (p=0.004). Conclusion The results obtained suggest a relationship between BLL and preeclampsia. Global health measures should be taken to remove the exposure to lead so as to reduce its absorption by pregnant women. PMID:28163864

  3. Imported seabass as a source of mercury exposure: a Wisconsin case study.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The Wisconsin Division of Health investigated mercury exposure in a 40-year-old man, his 42-year-old wife, and their 2.5-year-old son. At the time of our investigation, these individuals had blood mercury levels ranging from 37 to 58 micrograms/L (normal < 5 micrograms/L) and hair samples from the adults contained 10-12 micrograms mercury/g dry weight. A personal interview and home inspection failed to identify any occupational or household sources of mercury exposure. The family's diet inclu...

  4. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region.

  5. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...... may affect the normal physiology of the animals....

  6. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  7. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  8. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R

    2014-07-03

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 μg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology.

  9. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  10. Signs and symptoms of mercury-exposed gold miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bose-O'Reilly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gold miners use mercury to extract gold from ore adding liquid mercury to the milled gold-containing ore. This results in a mercury-gold compound, called amalgam. Miners smelt this amalgam to obtain gold, vaporizing it and finally inhaling the toxic mercury fumes. The objective was to merge and analyze data from different projects, to identify typical signs and symptoms of chronic inorganic mercury exposure. Material and Methods: Miners and community members from various artisanal small-scale gold mining areas had been examined (Philippines, Mongolia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Indonesia. Data of several health assessments were pooled. Urine, blood and hair samples were analyzed for mercury (N = 1252. Questionnaires, standardized medical examinations and neuropsychological tests were used. Participants were grouped into: Controls (N = 209, living in an exposed area (N = 408, working with mercury as panners (N = 181, working with mercury as amalgam burners (N = 454. Chi2 test, linear trend test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation coefficient, Spearman’s rho, and analysis of variance tests were used. An algorithm was used to define participants with chronic mercury intoxication. Results: Mean mercury concentrations in all exposed subgroups were elevated and above threshold limits, with amalgam burners showing highest levels. Typical symptoms of chronic metallic mercury intoxication were tremor, ataxia, coordination problems, excessive salivation and metallic taste. Participants from the exposed groups showed poorer results in different neuropsychological tests in comparison to the control group. Fifty-four percent of the high-exposed group (amalgam burners were diagnosed as being mercury-intoxicated, compared to 0% within the control group (Chi2 p < 0.001. Conclusions: Chronic mercury intoxication, with tremor, ataxia and other neurological symptoms together with a raised body burden of mercury was clinically diagnosed in

  11. Elevation of blood ciclosporin levels by voriconazole leading to leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Caihong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that one 18-year-old female patient with no epilepsia history developed severe epileptiform seizures while she was receiving "ciclosporin A (CsA-mycophenolate-methylprednisolone" antirejection therapy after combining one week′s voriconazole administration following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Her blood concentration of CsA was 378 ng/ml (elevated ↑64%, contrasted with the level before the addition of voriconazole on the second day of admission, and the MRI of head showed leukoencephalopathy in bilateral occipital and left frontal lobe on the 4 th day of admission. The most likely mechanism is that because of voriconazole′s enzyme inhibition and CsA as the substrate of hepatic enzymes, voriconazole elevated the blood concentration of CsA and enhanced its toxicity. This case highlights the importance of clinical pharmacists joining the medical team and optimizing the patients′ treatment protocols by performing a systematic literature research, accumulating the knowledge of the potential drug interaction and examining prescriptions.

  12. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Lead-based rifle bullets, used in game hunting and recreational shooting, fragment when striking bone and soft tissues. Lead fragments may be ingested by birds scavenging offal piles or nonretrieved carcasses and therefore pose a poisoning risk. We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers. Lead was detected in blood of most (97%, n=70) eagles; mean blood level was 0.26 parts per million (ppm). Most eagles (65%) had background levels (1.0 ppm) in blood. Lead in blood decreased from winter to spring. Resident eagles had higher lead levels than eagles of unknown residency. Mercury was detected in few eagles, whereas selenium was detected in all, but at a low level (0.36 ppm). Other chemical elements in blood were at low or biologically appropriate levels. Lead in feathers (n=29) was correlated with blood lead (P=0.010), as was mercury in blood and feathers (n=48; P=0.003). Concentrations of lead and mercury in feathers were higher in adults than in juveniles and immatures (Pelements tended to increase with age. Selenium in feathers (n=48) appeared stable across plumage classes. Although detection rates of lead in blood of eagles captured in spring increased from 1985-1993 to 2008-2010, mean levels decreased (P0.2 ppm; P<0.02).

  13. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  14. Hair mercury levels and food consumption in residents from the Pearl River Delta: South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dingding; Kang, Yuan; Cheng, Zhang; Wang, Hongsheng; Huang, Minjuan; Wu, Shengchun; Chen, Kunci; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is located in the Southern part of China and is the main region for fish culture in Guangdong Province. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with dietary consumption of mercury, hair samples from 91 urban, town and fishing village residents, 37 species of fish, cereal, vegetables, and meat samples were collected. The average total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in hair were 1.08 ± 0.94 and 0.58 ± 0.59 μg/g, respectively. Daily Hg intake via fish consumption is significantly correlated with THg and MeHg accumulated in human hair (r=0.48, p<0.01; r=0.43, p<0.01). The estimated daily intake of Hg via different food types showed that both fish and cereal consumption were the two main routes of Hg exposure for residents in the sampling areas. Besides food intake, smoking was also an important source for daily THg intake in the smoke group, contributing 11-18% to EDI of THg.

  15. TRACE LEVEL VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL MERCURY IN TEA MATRICES (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio

    2013-10-24

    An analytical procedure regarding the voltammetric determination of mercury(II), copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in matrices involved in food chain is proposed. In particular, tea leaves were analysed as real samples. The digestion of each matrix was carried out using a concentrated HCl-HNO3-H2SO4 acidic attack mixture; 0.01 mol L(-1) EDTA-Na2 + 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl + 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl was employed as the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using a conventional three electrode cell, employing, as working electrodes, a gold electrode (GE) and a stationary hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The analytical procedure has been verified on the standard reference materials Spinach Leaves NIST-SRM 1570a, Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a and Apple Leaves NIST-SRM 1515. For all the elements, the precision as repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr) was of the order of 3-5 %, while the trueness, expressed as relative error (e) was of the order of 3-7 %. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was applied to commercial tea leaves samples. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed.

  16. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  17. A Comparative Analysis on Levels of Mercury in Human Scalp Hair of Students from Different Locations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Anim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to assess the levels of accumulation of total mercury (Hg-T in human scalp hair samples from selected students. Thirty seven (37 human scalp hair samples were collected from students of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology whilst on campus and analysed for total mercury (Hg-T concentrations by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The least concentration, 0.007±0.001 μ/g was measured in a sample from a male student. The highest concentration, 5.535±0.133 μg/g was measured in a sample from a female student.5.4% of the population had Hg-T concentrations above the WHO, 1990 limit of 2 μg/g based on fish consumption. 94.6% of the population studied however measured Hg- T concentrations below the WHO limit. In general, the concentrations measured in female students were higher compared to concentrations in male students. The mean concentration of Hg-T in female students was 1.417±0.037 μg/g compared to 0.600±0.001 μg/g for male students. The higher concentrations measured in female students may be attributed to the application of Hg containing cosmetics aside environmental exposures.

  18. Nephrotic syndrome of minimal change disease following exposure to mercury-containing skin-lightening cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Fuyou; Peng, Youming; Sun, Lin; Chen, Chunguo

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old female suffered from nephrotic syndrome after a long-term use of mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. The blood and urinary mercury content of this patient increased with use. Renal biopsy showed minimal change disease. Her symptoms were relieved 6 months after discontinuing use of the cream and receiving sodium dimercaptosulfonate and glucocorticosteroid treatments. Proteinuria disappeared, and blood and urinary mercury levels returned to normal. Previous reports of nephrotic syndrome caused by mercury-containing, skin-lightening creams have mostly been identified as be.ing due to membranous nephropathy. Minimal change disease has been reported in a few case reports published in the English language. Here we report a case of nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease following exposure to a mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. We also reviewed relevant published reports to summarize clinical features and treatments and to explore the possible mechanisms involved.

  19. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  20. Dynamics of the distribution of mercury in the animal organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S. (Instytut Weterynarii, Pulawy (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on 60 rabbits poisoned with single doses of mercuric chloride (/sup 203/HgCl/sub 2/) administered intravenously or perorally. The radiometric investigations demonstrate that in rabbits of group I there can be distinguished the period of accumulation of mercury (up to 1 hour) and the period of elimination, which, in turn, can be divided into the phase of rapid elimination (6-14 days) and the phase of prolonged elimination (60-90 days or even more). In the rabbits of group II, the period of accumulation of mercury in the individual tissues is diversified, e.g. up to 6 hours in the small intestine and up to 30 days in the liver, after which gradual elimination of the isotope ensues. In rabbits of both groups the highest level of mercury poisoning was included by stomach, kidneys and liver. Some correlation between mercury levels in the skeletal muscles and in peripheral blood were found.

  1. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels in paired South Korean cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Bang, Du Yeon; Lim, Hyun Jung; Won, A Jin; Ahn, Mee Young; Patra, Nabanita; Chung, Ki Kyung; Kwack, Seung Jun; Park, Kui Lea; Han, Soon Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Han, Jung Yeol; Lee, Byung Mu; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2012-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used flame retardants, have been reported as potential endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicants, thus giving rise to the public health concern. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk concentrations of PBDEs in South Korean. We assessed PBDE levels in paired samples of umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk. The levels of seven PBDE congeners were measured in 21 paired samples collected from the Cheil Woman's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) in 2008. We also measured thyroid hormones levels in maternal and cord blood to assess the association between PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormone levels. However, there was no correlation between serum thyroxin (T4) and total PBDEs concentrations. The total PBDEs concentrations in the umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk were 10.7±5.1 ng g(-1) lipid, 7.7±4.2 ng g(-1) lipid, and 3.0±1.8 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The ranges of total PBDE concentrations observed were 2.28-30.94 ng g(-1) lipid in umbilical cord blood, 1.8-17.66 ng g(-1) lipid in maternal blood, and 1.08-8.66 ng g(-1) lipid in breast milk. BDE-47 (45-73% of total PBDEs) was observed to be present dominantly in all samples, followed by BDE-153. A strong correlation was found for major BDE-congeners between breast milk and cord blood or maternal blood and cord blood samples. The measurement of PBDEs concentrations in maternal blood or breast milk may help to determine the concentration of PBDEs in infant.

  2. Trace elements and mercury levels in Indian coals used for thermal power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva Kumaran, P.; Sivasubramanian, R.; Lawrence, A.; Reddy, M.K. [DGM/Coal Research, BHEL, Tiruchi (India)

    2008-03-15

    In this paper the emphasis is on the trace elements, as they exist in Indian coal. Emissions of trace elements to the atmosphere, their concentrations in the environment and their effects, are of concern now, as the environmental importance of the trace elements in coal remains high for the future goal of zero emissions. The US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identified eleven trace elements and their compounds commonly found in coals, the potentially 'hazardous air pollutants'. Values of seven trace elements out of these elements in the input coals in India are listed. Over 53 samples were analysed for 24 trace elements in Indian coals. The database is available for the scientific analysis. Reduction of mercury in washed coals compared to corresponding ROM coals is deduced from direct lab analysis. Future needs of R & D in trace elements are identified. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Auto-aggressive metallic mercury injection around the knee joint: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friesenbichler Joerg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental or intentional subcutaneous and/or intramuscular injection of metallic mercury is an uncommon form of poisoning. Although it does not carry the same risk as mercury vapour inhalation, it may cause destructive early and late reactions. Case Presentation Herein we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient who developed an obsessive-compulsive disorder causing auto-aggressive behaviour with injection of elemental mercury and several other foreign bodies into the soft tissues around the left knee about 15 years before initial presentation. For clinical examination X-rays and a CT-scan of the affected area were performed. Furthermore, blood was taken to determine the mercury concentration in the blood, which showed a concentration 17-fold higher than recommended. As a consequence, the mercury depots and several foreign bodies were resected marginally. Conclusion Blood levels of mercury will decrease rapidly following surgery, especially in combination with chelating therapy. In case of subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of metallic mercury we recommend marginal or wide excision of all contaminated tissue to prevent migration of mercury and chronic inflammation. Nevertheless, prolonged clinical and biochemical monitoring should be performed for several years to screen for chronic intoxication.

  4. Health and environmental assessment of mercury exposure in a gold mining community in Western Mindanao, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Maramba, Nelia; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Sunio, Rose; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta

    2006-10-01

    The small-scale gold mining activities using mercury began in the late 1980s in Sibutad, Western Mindanao. It is located very near the Murcielagos Bay with tailing ponds directly discharging into bodies of water. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the health and environmental effects of gold mining activities on the community. Residents were randomly selected and classified into two groups, namely, the directly exposed and indirectly exposed populations using a set inclusion criteria. Complete medical and laboratory examinations were performed. Environmental and biologic samples were collected for total mercury and methylmercury determinations. The results showed that the directly exposed group had significantly higher mean blood total mercury and methylmercury levels in comparison with the indirectly exposed population. Although there were no significant differences between hair total mercury and methylmercury levels, there was a trend for higher levels of these biomarkers among the directly exposed residents as compared with the unexposed group. The absence of statistically significant differences may be attributable to the small sample size. Ambient air quality monitoring for mercury exceeded the allowable levels. However, levels of mercury in drinking water and sediments were within allowable limits. Frequency of gastrointestinal complaints was significantly associated with elevated hair methylmercury levels (p=0.02). Also, there appears to be a trend towards higher blood total mercury levels and frequency of gastrointestinal complaints (p=0.09). An interesting finding in this study was the increasing incidence of elevated diastolic blood pressure with elevated hair total mercury levels (p=0.07). Mercury storage at home is a risk factor.

  5. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: trend from birth to age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Cases, Amparo; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Ballester, Ferran

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008-2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations.

  6. Predicting mercury concentrations in mallard eggs from mercury in the diet or blood of adult females and from duckling down feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of Hg concentrations in avian eggs can be used to predict possible harm to reproduction, but it is not always possible to sample eggs. When eggs cannot be sampled, some substitute tissue, such as female blood, the diet of the breeding female, or down feathers of hatchlings, must be used. When female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing methylmercury chloride, the concentration of Hg in a sample of their blood was closely correlated with the concentration of Hg in the egg they laid the day they were bled (r2=0.88; pembryotoxicity, our findings demonstrate that measuring Hg in the diet of breeding birds, in the blood of egg-laying females, or in down feathers of hatchlings all can be used to estimate what concentration of Hg may have been in the egg.

  7. Increased neurofilament light chain blood levels in neurodegenerative neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Gaiottino

    Full Text Available Neuronal damage is the morphological substrate of persisting neurological disability. Neurofilaments (Nf are cytoskeletal proteins of neurons and their release into cerebrospinal fluid has shown encouraging results as a biomarker for neurodegeneration. This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies.We developed and applied a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL based immunoassay for quantification of NfL in blood and CSF.Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD (30.8 pg/ml, n=20, Guillain-Barré-syndrome (GBS (79.4 pg/ml, n=19 or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS (95.4 pg/ml, n=46 had higher serum NfL values than a control group of neurological patients without evidence of structural CNS damage (control patients, CP (4.4 pg/ml, n=68, p<0.0001 for each comparison, p=0.002 for AD patients and healthy controls (HC (3.3 pg/ml, n=67, p<0.0001. Similar differences were seen in corresponding CSF samples. CSF and serum levels correlated in AD (r=0.48, p=0.033, GBS (r=0.79, p<0.0001 and ALS (r=0.70, p<0.0001, but not in CP (r=0.11, p=0.3739. The sensitivity and specificity of serum NfL for separating ALS from healthy controls was 91.3% and 91.0%.We developed and validated a novel ECL based sandwich immunoassay for the NfL protein in serum (NfL(Umea47:3; levels in ALS were more than 20-fold higher than in controls. Our data supports further longitudinal studies of serum NfL in neurodegenerative diseases as a potential biomarker of on-going disease progression, and as a potential surrogate to quantify effects of neuroprotective drugs in clinical trials.

  8. A systematic study of the disposition and metabolism of mercury species in mice after exposure to low levels of thimerosal (ethylmercury)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos, E-mail: mafehoca@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Souza, Juliana Maria, E-mail: souza.jmo@gmail.com [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Grotto, Denise, E-mail: denise.grotto@prof.uniso.br [Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, Monte Alegre, CEP 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de Sorocaba, Rodovia Raposo Tavares km 92.5, CEP 18023-000 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); and others

    2014-10-15

    Thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (etHg)-containing preservative used in some vaccines despite very limited knowledge on the kinetics and direct interaction/effects in mammals' tissues after exposure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of Hg species in mice in a time course analysis after intramuscular injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues. Mice were exposed to one single intramuscular dose of 20 µg of Hg as TM. Blood, brain, heart, kidney and liver were collected at 0.5 hour (h), 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 144 h, 720 h and 1980 h after TM exposure (n=4). Hg species in animal tissues were identified and quantified by speciation analysis via liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS). It was found that the transport of etHg from muscle to tissues and its conversion to inorganic Hg (inoHg) occur rapidly. Moreover, the conversion extent is modulated in part by the partitioning between EtHg in plasma and in whole blood, since etHg is rapidly converted in red cells but not in a plasma compartment. Furthermore, the dealkylation mechanism in red cells appears to be mediated by the Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radical formation). Interestingly, after 0.5 h of TM exposure, the highest levels of both etHg and inoHg were found in kidneys (accounting for more than 70% of the total Hg in the animal body), whereas the brain contributed least to the Hg body burden (accounts for <1.0% of total body Hg). Thirty days after TM exposure, most Hg had been excreted while the liver presented the majority of the remaining Hg. Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that TM (etHg) kinetics more closely approximates Hg{sup 2+} than methylmercury (meHg) while the kidney must be considered a potential target for etHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Ethylmercury is rapidly converted to inorganic

  9. Surfactant protein D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of premature infants. The influence of perinatal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    of SP-D in capillary blood day 1 was 1,466 ng/mL (range 410-5,051 ng/mL), with lowest values in infants born with ROM and delivered vaginally. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were found to be more likely in infants in need for respiratory support or surfactant...

  10. [Effect of Soil and Dominant Plants on Mercury Speciation in Soil and Water System of Water-Level-Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Ya-wei; An, Si-wei; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-03-15

    Plentiful plants in the water-level-fluctuation-zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir ( TGR) grow vigorously during the non-flooded period, especially the herbaceous ones. Then, the WLFZ is submerged gradually from the end of September. Soil-plant system that under a long time flooded condition may change the form of mercury, thus resulting in a secondary pollution of the water environment in TGR. To understand the characteristics of mercury species in soils and water after submerged, four kinds of typical plants from TGR were tested in the lab under submerged condition. The results indicated that the plants could promote the formation of soil methylmercury ( MeHg) , and had a significant effect on the different forms of mercury concentrations of the overlying water during inundation. Cynodon dactylon as the dominant species in WLFZ, because of its higher content of total mercury ( THg ) and methylmercury, the effect on MeHg and the other forms of mercury in the soil and the overlying water system was obvious. After 90 days, the soil MeHg level was the highest in Cynodon dactylon & soil & water treatment (B1) [(1,135.86 ± 113.84) ng · kg⁻¹]. It was approximately 2 times less than that of the soil MeHg in soil & water treatment (CK2) . The variation characteristics of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg) , dissolved mercury (DHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) of overlying water all showed a parabolic shape with a peak skewed to the left, and the peak was reached on the 30th day. Meanwhile, TMeHg, THg and DHg in B1 treatment were the highest, which were (2.88 ± 0.06), (40.29 · 2.42) and (35.51 · 3.77) ng · L⁻¹ respectively, and TMeHg and THg in the overlying water were mainly in the form of dissolved state. Therefore, it could be inferred that the water consumption of the Three Gorges reservoir would increase the mercury pollution load of the reservoir.

  11. Minimal change disease caused by exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream: a report of 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hon-Lok; Mak, Yuen-Fun; Chu, Kwok-Hong; Lee, William; Fung, Samuel Kaâ Shun; Chan, Thomas Yan-Keung; Tong, Kwok-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Mercury is a known cause of nephrotic syndrome and the underlying renal pathology in most of the reported cases was membranous nephropathy. We describe here 4 cases of minimal change disease following exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream for 2 - 6 months. The mercury content of the facial creams was very high (7,420 - 30,000 parts per million). All patients were female and presented with nephrotic syndrome and heavy proteinuria (8.35 - 20.69 g/d). The blood and urine mercury levels were 26 - 129 nmol/l and 316 - 2,521 nmol/d, respectively. Renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease (MCD) in all patients. The use of cosmetic cream was stopped and chelation therapy with D-penicillamine was given. Two patients were also given steroids. The time for blood mercury level to normalize was 1 - 7 months, whereas it took longer for urine mercury level to normalize (9 - 16 months). All patients had complete remission of proteinuria and the time to normalization of proteinuria was 1 - 9 months. Mercury-containing skin lightening cream is hazardous because skin absorption of mercury can cause minimal change disease. The public should be warned of the danger of using such products. In patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome, a detailed history should be taken, including the use of skin lightening cream. With regard to renal pathology, apart from membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease should be included as another pathological entity caused by mercury exposure or intoxication.

  12. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  13. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice Marcano; Mary Labady; Clara Gomes; Guillermina Aguiar; Jorge Laine

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  14. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  15. [Effects of Citric Acid on Activation and Methylation of Mercury in the Soils of Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges.Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cai-qing; Liang, Li; You, Rui; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-12-01

    To investigate effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-citric acid on activation and methylation of mercury in the soil of water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted by extracting and cultivating soil with different concentrations of citric acid. The results showed that after adding citric acid, the total mercury content in leaching solution before reaching peak were higher than that of the control, and increased with the increase of citric acid concentrations. The maximum amount of mercury complexes increased initially and then reached plateaus with the percentage against the total mercury in soil of 1.03%, 1.67%, 1.99%, 2.47%, 2.68%, 2.73% and 2.73% for different citric acid concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 mmol · L⁻¹). In addition, concentrations of methylmercury ( MeHg) in soil remained stable in the first 3 hours, and then increased accompanying with the increasing rate rising with the concentration of citric acid ( besides the control group) . This result indicated that citric acid probably could promote the transformation process from inorganic mercury to MeHg in soil. which increased with the concentration of citric acid.

  16. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  17. Extremely elevated methyl mercury levels in water, sediment and organisms in a Romanian reservoir affected by release of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Cosio, Claudia; Amouroux, David; Zopfi, Jakob; Chevalley, Pierre-Alain; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Ungureanu, Viorel-Gheorghe; Dominik, Janusz

    2014-02-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry and biomagnification in the Babeni Reservoir, a system strongly affected by the release of Hg from a chlor-alkali plant. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in river water reached 88 ng L(-1) but decreased rapidly in the reservoir (to 9 ng L(-1)). In contrast, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations increased from the upstream part of the reservoir to the central part (0.7 ng L(-1)), suggesting high methylation within the reservoir. Moreover, vertical water column profiles of THg and MMHg indicated that Hg methylation mainly occurred deep in the water column and at the sediment-water interface. The discharge of Hg from a chlor-alkali plant in Valcea region caused the highest MMHg concentrations ever found in non-piscivorous fish worldwide. MMHg concentrations and bioconcentration factors (BCF) of plankton and macrophytes revealed that the highest biomagnification of MMHg takes place in primary producers.

  18. Mercury and selenium levels in lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in relation to a harmful red tide event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Adams, Douglas H; Reyier, Eric A; Basu, Niladri

    2011-05-01

    Tissue levels of mercury (Hg; total, organic) and selenium (Se) were assessed in juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from Florida nearshore waters collected during a harmful algal bloom (HAB, brevetoxin) event and compared with sharks not exposed to HABs. In all sharks studied, total Hg levels in the muscle were generally present in a molar excess over Se (which may protect against Hg toxicity) and mean muscle Hg levels (0.34 microg/g) exceed safe human consumption guidelines. While there was generally no difference in tissue Hg and Se levels following exposure of sharks to HABs, hepatic Hg levels were significantly lower (56% reduction) in the HAB-exposed sharks compared to controls. As Hg and HABs are globally increasing in scope and magnitude, further work is warranted to assess their interactions and biotic impacts within aquatic ecosystems, especially for a species such as the lemon shark that is classified as a near-threatened species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

  19. Mercury in the snow and firn at Summit Station, Central Greenland, and implications for the study of past atmospheric mercury levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous Elemental Mercury (Hg° or GEM was investigated at Summit Station, Greenland, in the interstitial air extracted from the perennial snowpack (firn at depths ranging from the surface to 30 m, during summer 2005 and spring 2006. Photolytic production and destruction of Hg° were observed close to the snow surface during summer 2005 and spring 2006, and we observed dark oxidation of GEM up to 270 cm depth in June 2006. Photochemical transformation of gaseous elemental mercury resulted in diel variations in the concentrations of this gas in the near-surface interstitial air, but destruction of Hg° was predominant in June, and production was the main process in July. This seasonal evolution of the chemical mechanisms involving gaseous elemental mercury produces a signal that propagates downward through the firn air, but is unobservably small below 15 m in depth. As a consequence, multi-annual averaged records of GEM concentration should be well preserved in deep firn air at depths below 15 m, and available for the reconstruction of the past atmospheric history of GEM over the last decades.

  20. Negative blood oxygen level dependent signals during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Moreno, Diana; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Speech comprehension studies have generally focused on the isolation and function of regions with positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals with respect to a resting baseline. Although regions with negative BOLD signals in comparison to a resting baseline have been reported in language-related tasks, their relationship to regions of positive signals is not fully appreciated. Based on the emerging notion that the negative signals may represent an active function in language tasks, the authors test the hypothesis that negative BOLD signals during receptive language are more associated with comprehension than content-free versions of the same stimuli. Regions associated with comprehension of speech were isolated by comparing responses to passive listening to natural speech to two incomprehensible versions of the same speech: one that was digitally time reversed and one that was muffled by removal of high frequencies. The signal polarity was determined by comparing the BOLD signal during each speech condition to the BOLD signal during a resting baseline. As expected, stimulation-induced positive signals relative to resting baseline were observed in the canonical language areas with varying signal amplitudes for each condition. Negative BOLD responses relative to resting baseline were observed primarily in frontoparietal regions and were specific to the natural speech condition. However, the BOLD signal remained indistinguishable from baseline for the unintelligible speech conditions. Variations in connectivity between brain regions with positive and negative signals were also specifically related to the comprehension of natural speech. These observations of anticorrelated signals related to speech comprehension are consistent with emerging models of cooperative roles represented by BOLD signals of opposite polarity.

  1. Influence of Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations on Sediment Methylmercury Concentrations Downstream of the Historical Black Butte Mercury Mine, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern due to its ability to accumulate as methylmercury (MeHg) in biota. Mercury is methylated by anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water and sediment. Throughout North America, reservoirs tend to have e...

  2. Mercury levels in fish, invertebrates and sediment in a recently recorded polluted area (Nissum Broad, western Limfjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Ulrik Riisgård, Hans

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of mercury were measured in sediment and animals collected in the immediate vicinity of a closed-down chemical factory. Sediment contained up to 22 ppm (dry wt) of mercury, deposit-feeding bivalves between 1.4 and 4.4 ppm (wet wt), suspension-feeding bivalves between 0.9 and 1...

  3. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  4. Relationship between leptin levels in maternal blood,amniotic fluid,arterial and venous cord blood and fetal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽莎; 薛昭卿; 宋岩峰; 何晓宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between leptin concentration and fetal growth.Methods: Levels of leptin in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, arterial and venouscord blood of 65 normal parturients (gestational age 37-42weeks) were measured by ra-dioimmunoassay (RIA) method. At the same time, maternal blood lipids were detected.Neonates were divided into three groups: small for gestational age (SGA) group (n=10), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=45), large for gestational age(LGA) group (n= 10). Statistical analysis was performed by t test, variance analysisand correlation analysis.Results: (1) There was no obvious correlation between leptin concentrations in ma-ternal serum and arterial/ venous cord blood, amniotic fluid, and also no correlationwith birth weight and placental weight (P>0.05). Maternal body mass index signifi-cantly correlated with birth weight and neonatal length and leptin levels in arterial andvenous cord blood (P<0.01). Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood positivelycorrelated significantly with placental and neonatal weight and body length (P<0.01)and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (P<0. 01). There was no obvi-ous correlation between fetal gender and leptin concentrations in maternal serum, arteri-al and venous cord blood and amniotic fluid; (2) Leptin levels in arterial and venouscord blood , placental weight in LGA group were significantly higher than those in SGAand AGA group (P<0.05). Among three groups, leptin concentrations in maternalblood were significantly higher than those in arterial and venous cord blood (P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Fetal leptin is synthesized in uterus, born of itself and placenta.Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood are related to the intrauterine growthpattern. It might positively regulate birth weight and body fat content. (2)Either mater-nal or fetal leptin was not correlated with fetal gender. There is no gender difference infetal leptin

  5. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  6. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  7. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  8. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  9. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  10. Biomarkers of adverse response to mercury: histopathology versus thioredoxin reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Vasco; Ramos, Paula; Canário, João; Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to mercury is normally assessed by measuring its accumulation in hair, blood or urine. Currently, the biomarkers of effect that have been proposed for mercurials, such as coproporphyrines or oxidative stress markers, are not sensitive enough and lack specificity. Selenium and selenoproteins are important targets for mercury and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in particular was shown to be very sensitive to mercury compounds both in vitro and in vivo. In this study we looked into the relation between the inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and histopathological changes caused by exposure to mercurials. Juvenile zeabra-seabreams were exposed to Hg(2+) or MeHg for 28 days and histopathological changes were analyzed in the liver and kidney as well as TrxR activity. Both mercurials caused histopathological changes in liver and kidney, albeit Hg(2+) caused more extensive and severe lesions. Likewise, both mercurials decreased TrxR activity, being Hg(2+) a stronger inhibitor. Co-exposure to Hg(2+) and Se fully prevented TrxR inhibition in the liver and reduced the severity of lesions in the organ. These results show that upon exposure to mercurials, histopathological alterations correlate with the level of TrxR activity and point to the potential use of this enzyme as a biomarker of mercury toxicity.

  11. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ13C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation.

  12. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Costa, Daniel P

    2015-07-07

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ(13)C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation.

  13. Compromised immune competence in free-living tree swallows exposed to mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Dana M; Hallinger, Kelly K; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant and a well-documented immunosuppressor. However, little is known about the effects of mercury contamination on health of free-living vertebrate populations. The South River in Virginia, USA was heavily contaminated with industrial mercury from 1929 to 1950, and recent studies have documented high levels of circulating mercury in riparian songbirds breeding below the site of contamination. Here we used two standardized immune assays, mitogen-induced swelling in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), to test for effects of mercury toxicity on the immune system of female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) which feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects along the contaminated waterway. We found that females breeding at mercury-contaminated sites mounted significantly weaker PHA-induced swelling responses than those at reference sites in both years of study. However, among females on the contaminated sites, individual bloodstream mercury concentration did not predict the extent of mitogen-induced swelling. We did not detect any differences between reference and contaminated females in the strength of antibody responses to SRBCs, but sample sizes for this assay were significantly smaller. Overall, our results suggest that mercury toxicity can exert sub-lethal immunosuppression in free-living, insectivorous songbirds. The potential fitness consequences of the detected differences in immunocompetence caused by mercury toxicity warrant further study.

  14. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    OpenAIRE

    Janle, Elsa M.; Helene Freiser; Christopher Manganais; Tzu-Ying Chen; Craig, Bruce A.; Santerre, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single ora...

  15. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  16. The association between blood pressure and whole blood methylmercury in a cross-sectional study among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Anni Brit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Inuit in Greenland have a high average consumption of marine species and are highly exposed to methylmercury, which in other studies has been related to hypertension. Data on the relation between methylmercury and hypertension is limited, especially in populations subjected to a high exposure of methylmercury. We examined the relation between whole blood mercury and blood pressure (BP in Inuit in Greenland. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study among adult Inuit in Greenland was performed in 2005–2009. Information on socio-demography, lifestyle, BP, blood samples and clinical measurements was obtained – the latter after overnight fasting. BP was measured according to standardized guidelines. Whole blood mercury concentration was used as a marker of exposure. The analyses were restricted to Inuit aged 30–69 years with four Greenlandic grandparents (N = 1,861. Multivariate regression analyses with inclusion of confounders were done separately for men and women with the omission of participants receiving anti-hypertensive drugs, except for logistic regression analyses of the relation between mercury and presence of hypertension (yes/no. Results The mean whole blood mercury level was 20.5 μg/L among men and 14.7 μg/L among women. In multivariate analyses adjusted for confounders, diastolic BP decreased with increasing mercury concentration. In men diastolic BP decreased significantly for each four-fold increase in mercury concentration (Beta = −0.04, standard error = 0.01, p = 0.001, while no relation between mercury and diastolic BP was found among women. For systolic BP, a similar non-statistically significant result was seen only for men (Beta = −0.02, standard error = 0.01, p = 0.06. A relation between mercury and hypertension was only found in men; the odds ratio for hypertension was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99. No relation between quintiles of mercury and hypertension

  17. Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen levels using the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi; Ono, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Asumi; Katabami, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Wada, Takeshi; Yanagida, Yuichiro; Sawamura, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen (Fbg) levels is essential for maintaining homeostasis in patients with massive bleeding during severe trauma and major surgery. This study evaluated the accuracy of fibrinogen levels measured by the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer (A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan) using heparinized blood drawn for blood gas analysis (whole blood-Fbg). A total of 100 matched pairs of heparinized blood samples and citrated blood samples were simultaneously collected from patients in the intensive care unit. Whole blood-Fbg results were compared with those of citrated plasma (standard-Fbg). The whole blood coagulation analyzer measured fibrinogen levels within 2 minutes. Strong correlations between standard-Fbg and whole blood-Fbg were observed (ρ = 0.91, p blood-Fbg was 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.951-1.000, p blood coagulation analyzer can rapidly measure fibrinogen levels in heparinized blood and could be useful in critical care settings where excessive bleeding is a concern.

  18. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other organic compounds, elemental (metallic) mercury, and inorganic mercury compounds. Methylmercury and other organic mercury compounds are formed when mercury combines with carbon. Microscopic ...

  19. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  20. [Release of mercury from soil and plant in water-level-fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its accumulation in zebrafish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Xian; Sun, Rong-Guo; Wang, Ding-Yong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Yang; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the production, distribution and bioavailability of methylmercury (MMHg) in soil and plants of the water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted in laboratory. Results indicated that the level of total mercury (THg) in soil decreased with the lengthening of submerging time while that in water increased obviously. The level of MMHg in inundated soil and water increased, especially in the water treated by Echinochloa crusgalli and soils. And the MMHg level in that treatment was 2.52 times higher than that treated only by soils for 21 days. This indicated that soil and plants of WLFZ were important sources of mercury in the water of the reservoir. Echinochloa crusgalli as the tested plant was decomposed after being submerged, leading to lower pH and DO and higher DOC, which had little effect on MMHg in soil but significant effect on MMHg in water. The level of THg in the head, viscera and muscle of zebrafish increased obviously, which had a significant correlation with that in water (P mercury to water so as to cause elevated levels of MMHg in fish.

  1. Sensitivity of the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis to mercury exposure--linking endpoints from different biological organization levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Novais, Sara C; Santos, Sílvia C; Rodrigues, Andreia C M; Pestana, João L T; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Lemos, Marco F L

    2015-01-01

    Mercury contamination is a common phenomenon in the marine environment and for this reason it is important to develop cost-effective and relevant tools to assess its toxic effects on a number of different species. To evaluate the possible effects of Hg in the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis, animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of the contaminant in the ionic form for 96 h. After this exposure period, mortality, feeding and flipping behavior, the activity of the biomarkers glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lactate dehydrogenase and cholinesterase, the levels of lipid peroxidation and cellular energy allocation were measured. After 96 h of exposure to the highest Hg concentration (≈LC20), there was a significant inhibition of the cholinesterase activity as well as impairment in the flipping behavior and post-exposure feeding of the snails. Cholinesterase inhibition was correlated with the impairment of behavioral responses also caused by exposure to Hg. These endpoints, including the novel flipping test, revealed sensitivity to Hg and might be used as relevant early warning indicators of prospective effects at higher biological organization levels, making these parameters potential tools for environmental risk assessment. The proposed test species showed sensitivity to Hg and proved to be a suitable and resourceful species to be used in ecotoxicological testing to assess effects of other contaminants in marine ecosystems.

  2. An study on status and influencing factors of mercury exposure in neonatal umbilical cord blood in Zhoushan Islands%舟山群岛新生儿脐带血汞暴露水平及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟双飞; 吴金华

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解舟山群岛新生儿脐带血汞暴露水平及影响因素。方法选择2012年6月—2013年7月进行围产保健并住院分娩的舟山户籍孕产妇及其新生儿为研究对象,对孕产妇全血和新生儿脐带血进行汞含量检测,问卷调查新生儿家庭社会环境与健康状况。结果共检测3052名孕妇全血及其新生儿脐带血汞水平,孕妇血汞平均为(5.33±3.69)μg/kg,中位数为4.63μg/kg,P25~P75为2.8~8.2μg/kg。新生儿脐带血汞含量平均为(7.72±4.87)μg/kg,中位数为7.31μg/kg,P25~P75为4.7~11.2μg/kg。单因素分析提示新生儿脐血汞与母亲孕期吃马鲛鱼有关联(OR =1.79,P <0.01),而与新生儿性别,母亲孕期补维生素、补钙、补铁、修补牙齿个数,母亲经常使用皮肤增白化妆品,孕期每月吃鱼及海产品次数及父亲每天吸烟、家庭月平均收入、在本地居住时间等均无关联。经多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,脐血汞值与母亲孕期吃马鲛鱼存在关联(OR =1.96,P<0.01)。结论舟山地区新生儿脐带血汞量水平较高,孕妇血汞值与脐血汞值相关,孕妇进食马鲛鱼是新生儿脐带血暴露水平的影响因素,有待进一步研究证实。%Objective To investigate the mercury exposure level in cord blood of neonatal in Zhoushan Islands and to analyze the related factors,in order to provide scientific basis for relevant prevention and control measures.Methods From June 201 2 to July 201 3,peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood samples were collected in local women who delivered their babies in Zhoushan Islands.Questionnaire survey and mercury exposure test were performed.Results 3 052 maternal blood and neonatal umbilical cord blood samples were tested,and the mean,median,P25 and P75 of the maternal blood mercury were 5.33 ±3.69,4.63,2.8 and 8.2 μg/kg respectively.And the mean

  3. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  4. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  5. Postoperative systemic dissemination of injected elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-04-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcutaneous layer of abdomen. Partial hemilaminectomy and open mercury evacuation of spinal canal was performed. For the removal of abdominal subcutaneous mercury, C-arm guided needle aspiration was done. After surgery, radiologic study showed disseminated mercury in the lung, heart, skull base and low spinal canal. Neck pain and abdominal pain were improved after surgery. During 1 month after surgery, there was no symptom of mercury intoxication except increased mercury concentration of urine, blood and hair. We assumed the bone work during surgery might have caused mercury dissemination. Therefore, we recommend minimal invasive surgical technique for removal of injected mercury. If open exposures are needed, cautious surgical technique to prohibit mercury dissemination is necessary and normal barrier should be protected to prevent the migration of mercury.

  6. The level of mercury contamination in mariculture sites at the estuary of Pearl River and the potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, H C; Zhao, K Y; Ding, W Y; Li, J B; Liang, P; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the Hg contamination in mariculture sites located at the estuary of Pearl River was to investigate with an attempt to analyse associated health risks of dietary exposure to both total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in cultured fish and shellfish. The highest total mercury concentration (7.037 ± 0.556 ng L(-1)) of seawater was observed at Zhuhai Estuary. The Hg concentrations of sediment in Guishan Island were significantly higher (p mercury methylation mostly occurred at the sediment-water interface. Results of health risk assessments showed that fish consumption would impose a higher risk to children but less to adults, while shellfish produced in the studied area was safe for consumption.

  7. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... muscles at forces corresponding to 10% and 40% MVC. Mean value for endurance time at 10% MVC was significantly longer for flexion [111.3 (SD 56.1) min] than for extension [18.1 (SD 7.5) min;n = 7]. At 40% MVC the difference in mean endurance time disappeared [2.3 (SD 0.7) min for elbow flexion and 2.3 (SD...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...

  8. Mercury(6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    31. Since Mariner Ten's flight, astronomers have been trying to find out more about Mercury. Telescopes, including the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope,cannot help much. They would be damaged by the bright light of the sun if they turned to look at Mercury. So, astronomers are studying Mercury from observatories on Earth. They are recording information about the planet's radiation.

  9. Mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in Asian market fish: a response to results from mercury biomonitoring in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Chang, Moses; Arnason, John; Jeffery, Nancy; Kricheff, Judith; Kass, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    In 2004, the New York City (NYC) Health and Nutrition Examination Survey measured the highest blood mercury levels in Asian and foreign-born Chinese demographic groups. Fish consumption was the strongest predictor of exposure. The survey did not inquire about consumption of individual species, and subsequent visits to fish markets serving the Asian community suggested that many popular species lack contaminant data. Our objective was to supplement existing information on contaminants in commercial fish by collecting data on species present in markets serving the Asian community. We measured total mercury and the sum of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 282 individual specimens of 19 species or products from retail fish markets in Chinese neighborhoods in NYC. Species were selected based on their volume in the market, and an absence or insufficiency of national data on mercury levels. PCBs were measured because they are also contaminants of concern. All measurements were made on a wet weight basis on whole fillets (with skin) or products (drained of liquid). Mean mercury levels ranged from below the limit of detection (0.004microg/g) in tilapia to 0.229microg/g in tilefish. The highest mercury level (1.150microg/g) was measured in a tilefish specimen, and mercury levels in tilefish increased with the specimen size. Mean PCB levels ranged from 1ng/g in red snapper to 98ng/g in buffalo carp. The highest PCB levels were measured in a buffalo carp (469ng/g) and a yellow croaker (495ng/g). Species-specific differences in PCB levels accounted for only 6.3% of total variability, in contrast with 39.2% for mercury. Although we did not measure high mean mercury levels in the species we sampled, frequent consumption of fish with low to moderate levels can also elevate blood mercury. The data we collected can be used to guide fish consumption in Asian communities. However, risk-benefit trade-offs also need to be considered.

  10. Dental Amalgam Exposure and Urinary Mercury Levels in Children: The New England Children’s Amalgam Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Assmann, Susan F.; Barregard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background Urinary mercury (U-Hg) excretion is a commonly used biomarker for mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Objectives Our goal was to determine the most efficient measure of dental amalgam exposure for use in analyses concerning U-Hg in children. Methods We analyzed time-sensitive longitudinal amalgam exposure data in children randomized to amalgam restorations (n = 267) during the 5-year New England Children’s Amalgam Trial. We calculated 8 measures of amalgam, evaluatin...

  11. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration...... of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  12. Association between the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood lipids in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, SI-PING; Chen, Yan-Hong; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in blood is closely associated with the status of the health of individuals; in particular, the lack of ω-3 fatty acids may lead to the development of numerous diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of PUFAs, and their correlation with triglycerides and other factors in blood. The levels of PUFAs and blood lipids were detected in 156 healthy individuals; the blood samples were tested by combined thin-layer and gas liquid...

  13. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  14. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Vinberg, Maj; Aznar, Susana

    2008-01-01

    and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had...... neuroticism scores and two or less recent stressful events were associated with decreased whole blood BDNF levels (n=50, p

  15. Influence of a chlor-alkali superfund site on mercury bioaccumulation in periphyton and low-trophic level fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Kate L.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Chalmers, Ann T.; Broadley, Hannah J.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2015-01-01

    In Berlin, New Hampshire, USA, the Androscoggin River flows adjacent to a former chlor-alkali facility that is a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site and source of mercury (Hg) to the river. The present study was conducted to determine the fate and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) to lower trophic-level taxa in the river. Surface sediment directly adjacent to the source showed significantly elevated MeHg (10–40× increase, mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 20.1 ± 24.8 ng g–1 dry wt) and total mercury (THg; 10–30× increase, mean ± SD: 2045 ± 2669 ng g–1 dry wt) compared with all other reaches, with sediment THg and MeHg from downstream reaches elevated (3–7× on average) relative to the reference (THg mean ± SD: 33.5 ± 9.33 ng g–1 dry wt; MeHg mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.21 ng g–1 dry wt). Water column THg concentrations adjacent to the point source for both particulate (0.23 ng L–1) and dissolved (0.76 ng L–1) fractions were 5-fold higher than at the reference sites, and 2-fold to 5-fold higher than downstream. Methylmercury production potential of periphyton material was highest (2–9 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt) adjacent to the Superfund site; other reaches were close to or below reporting limits (0. 1 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt). Total Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation in fauna was variable across sites and taxa, with no clear spatial patterns downstream of the contamination source. Crayfish, mayflies, and shiners showed a weak positive relationship with porewater MeHg concentration.

  16. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.; Argraves, W Scott

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and...

  17. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [FISABIO–Universitat de València–Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario [FISABIO–Universitat de València–Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Vioque, Jesús [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Julvez, Jordi [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.

  18. Levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in whole blood from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, A.; Bavel, B. van; Hardell, L.; Lindstroem, G. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environmental Research Centre; Jaernberg, U. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

    2004-09-15

    Historically the reports on perfluoroalkylated (PFA) compounds have been limited to mainly perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) but recently a number of other, potentially bioaccumulating, perfluorinated acids were reported in wildlife and in human blood. PFOS is the PFA compound that has been reported most frequently and in the < 1-82 pg/{mu}l range in human serum from the general population of several countries. PFOS and its salts represents only a fraction of the total fluoroproduction but can occur as an impurity in other products and is suspected to be the stable degradation product from other perfluorinated compounds, for example derivatives of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Recent studies indicate that more volatile fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamidethanols can degrade biotic to different PFA compounds. FTOHs and sulfonamidoalcohols are used in both industrial and household applications and have been found in the trophosphere. Since possible degradation pathways, distribution and exposure routes for this group of compounds are still under investigation; information of human exposure to a larger number of PFAs is valuable. In this study we analysed 66 whole blood samples from the Swedish general population with respect to 12 perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates (including perfluorooctane sulfonamide) with carbon chain length between 4 and 14.

  19. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  20. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  1. Environmental mercury exposure, semen quality and reproductive hormones in Greenlandic Inuit and European men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Specht, Ina O; Marott, Jacob Louis;

    2013-01-01

    Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529.......024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total...... sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility) and reproductive hormones (free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and LH×testosterone) in any region. In conclusion, the findings do not provide evidence that environmental mercury...

  2. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  3. Mercury exposure in terrestrial birds far downstream of an historical point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Allyson K., E-mail: allyson.jackson@briloon.org [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Evers, David C.; Folsom, Sarah B. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Condon, Anne M. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061 (United States); Diener, John; Goodrick, Lizzie F. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); McGann, Andrew J. [Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Schmerfeld, John [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061 (United States); Cristol, Daniel A. [Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Historical Hg contamination in rivers can impact the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem, but there is little known about how far downstream this contamination persists. In 2009, we sampled terrestrial forest songbirds at five floodplain sites up to 137 km downstream of an historical source of Hg along the South and South Fork Shenandoah Rivers (Virginia, USA). We found that blood total Hg concentrations remained elevated over the entire sampling area and there was little evidence of decline with distance. While it is well known that Hg is a pervasive and long-lasting aquatic contaminant, it has only been recently recognized that it also biomagnifies effectively in floodplain forest food webs. This study extends the area of concern for terrestrial habitats near contaminated rivers for more than 100 km downstream from a waterborne Hg point source. - Highlights: > We report blood mercury levels for terrestrial songbirds downstream of contamination. > Blood mercury levels remain elevated above reference for at least 137 km downstream. > Trends vary based on foraging guild and migration strategy. > Mercury affects terrestrial biota farther downstream than previously documented. - Blood mercury levels of forest songbirds remain elevated above reference levels for at least 137 km downstream of historical point source.

  4. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.

  5. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  6. Sustained action tetracycline preparation--tetrabid-organon blood level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C R; Mugglestone, C J; Thomas, D R

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the plasma levels of tetracycline obtained whilst taking standard therapeutic doses of Tetrabid-Organon was made in twelve healthy volunteers. Two standard production batches were used in the study which was conducted under double-blind conditions. Sampling 12 hours and 8 hours after dosing showed no significant differences in plasma levels, with each batch. Even at these lowest levels satisfactory concentrations were rapidly obtained following initial administration, and were maintained when the drug was given at 12-hourly intervals. No side-effects of the drug were noted.

  7. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  8. Blood Pressure Levels in Male Carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    (122 mmHg versus 115; p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (77 mmHg versus 72; pgroups. Metalloproteinase-9 level was higher in CT-carriers than in CC-carriers (P... found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima...

  9. Food web analysis reveals effects of pH on mercury bioaccumulation at multiple trophic levels in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: tim.jardine@usask.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O’ Driscoll, Nelson [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We examine biomagnification of Hg through stream food webs using δ15 N. ► Slopes of methyl Hg vs. trophic level were higher than total Hg vs. trophic level. ► Biomagnification from predatory insects to fish was related to pH of the water. ► Biomagnification at lower trophic levels was related to dietary concentrations. ► These trends can explain variation in field-measured Hg in food webs. -- Abstract: Biomagnification processes and the factors that govern them, including those for mercury (Hg), are poorly understood in streams. Total and methyl Hg concentrations and relative trophic position (using δ{sup 15}N) were analyzed in biofilm and invertebrates from 21 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to assess food web biomagnification leading to the common minnow blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), a species known to have Hg concentrations that are higher in low pH waters. Biomagnification slopes within stream food webs measured using Hg vs. δ{sup 15}N or corresponding trophic levels (TL) differed depending on the chemical species analyzed, with total Hg exhibiting increases of 1.3–2.5 per TL (mean slope of total Hg vs. δ{sup 15}N = 0.14 ± 0.06 S.D., range = 0.06–0.20) and methyl Hg showing a more pronounced increase of 2.8 to 6.0 per TL (mean slope of methyl Hg vs. δ{sup 15}N = 0.30 ± 0.08 S.D., range = 0.22–0.39). While Hg biomagnification slopes through the entire food web (Trophic Magnification Factors, TMFs) were not influenced by water chemistry (pH), dietary concentrations of methyl Hg strongly influenced biomagnification factors (BMFs) for consumer-diet pairs within the food web at lower trophic levels, and BMFs between dace and predatory invertebrates were significantly higher in low pH waters. These analyses, coupled with observations of higher Hg in primary producers in streams with low pH, suggest that pH influences both baseline concentrations and biomagnification of Hg in these systems. Because higher Hg

  10. A simulation study of inorganic sulfur cycling in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China and the implications for mercury methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Wang, Dingyong; Zhang, Jinzhong; Qian, Sheng; Yin, Deliang; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China experiences a drying and wetting rotation every year, and the water level induced redox variation may influence inorganic sulfur speciation and mercury methylation. In this work, a simulative flooding and drying experiment and a sulfate added flooding experiment were conducted to study this topic. The results showed that sulfate was reduced from the 10th d during the flooding period based on the detected sulfide in water and the increased elemental sulfur (S(0)) in sediment. Sulfate reduction and sulfide re-oxidation led to the increase of S(0) contents with the maximal values of 1.86 and 0.46 mg kg(-1) during the flooding and drying period, respectively. Methylmercury (MeHg) content in sediment displayed a rising trend (0.16-0.28 μg kg(-1)) in the first 40 d during the flooding period, and then declined from 0.28 to 0.15 μg kg(-1). A positive correlation between MeHg content and S(0) content in soil (r = 0.53, p mercury through adsorption process. This study demonstrated that inorganic sulfur species especially S(0) and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) play an important role on mercury methylation in the WLFZ of the TGR.

  11. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  12. Mercury and selenium in American White Pelicans breeding at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Miesner, J.F.; Tuttle, P.L.; Murphy, E.C.; Sileo, L.; Withers, D.

    2007-01-01

    American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) that breed on Anaho Island, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, are potentially exposed to a variety of contaminants. Therefore, the reproductive success of this colony was monitored in 1996 and eggs, blood and feathers from nestlings, livers from adults and nestlings, regurgitated fish from nestlings, and fish from representative feeding areas were collected and analyzed for mercury and selenium to determine exposure to the pelicans and sources of contamination. Additional samples were collected and analyzed in 1988, 1992, and 2004. Reproductive success at the Anaho Island colony was normal in 1996 based on hatching rates of eggs (???75% in undisturbed areas) and survival of nestlings. Mercury and selenium concentrations in eggs were generally below known effect levels and did not appear to have an adverse impact on hatching success. Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish ranged widely, with mercury of greatest concern. Microscopic lesions characteristic of mercury toxicity were absent in pre-fledging nestlings in 1996. Some adult pelicans had elevated mercury concentrations in their livers; however, the potential toxic effects were difficult to evaluate because of probable demethylation of mercury, thereby possibly providing protection from toxicity. Exposure of pelicans to mercury varied among years, most likely in relation to wet-dry cycles and available feeding areas.

  13. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  14. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  15. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  16. Magnesium blood levels and preterm labor: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantoushzadeh S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past two decades we have seen a marked increase in the survival of very low birth weight infants. This increase in survival has been attributed to increased use of corticosteroids, regionalization of perinatal care, improved methods of mechanical ventilation, availability of exogenous surfactant, and improved nutritional therapy. However, the reduction in mortality has not been accompanied by a reduction in neonatal morbidity or long-term handicaps. Preterm labor is a major issue in Iran. Besides various etiologies, preterm labor may be due to a biochemical alteration, such as magnesium. It is known that magnesium plasma levels fall during pregnancy. Since magnesium has an inhibitory role on myometrial contractions attention has been paid to the role of magnesium deficiency in preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia leads to neuromuscular hyperexcitability resulting in muscle cramps and uterine hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum magnesium levels and preterm delivery in order to circumvent the high morbidity of preterm delivery by early diagnosis of this deficiency.Methods: Serum magnesium was measured in 42 cases of preterm labor of idiopathic etiology (28-37 weeks and 42 normal pregnancies at the same gestational age.Results: Hypomagnesemia was variable in preterm labor cases, with only slightly low values in normal pregnant women.Conclusion: Our study indicates that serum magnesium levels during pregnancy can be a valuable predictive tool for preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia must be considered in all pregnant women with preterm labor and supplementation must be provided effectively.

  17. Temporal pattern in the effect of postnatal blood lead level on intellectual development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaas, L; Rothenberg, S J; Perroni, E; Martínez, S; Hernández, C; Hernández, R M

    2000-01-01

    To determine the temporal pattern of the effect of postnatal blood lead level on the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, we used data from 112 children of the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study with complete evaluations from 36 to 60 months of age at 6-month intervals. We measured blood lead level every 6 months from 6 to 54 months. We controlled for 5-min Apgar, birth weight, birth order, sex, socioeconomic level, maternal IQ, and maximum maternal educational level in a repeated measures ANCOVA using child blood lead level grouped by 6-18 month (geometric mean 10.1 microg/dl, range 3.5-37.0 microg/dl), 24-36 month (geometric mean 9.7 microg/dl, range 3.0-42.7 microg/dl), and 42-54 month (geometric mean 8.4 microg/dl, range 2.5-44.8 microg/dl) averages. There were significant interactions between the 6-18 month blood lead level and age with GCI as the endpoint and between 24-36 month blood lead level and age. The regression coefficient of blood lead at 6-18 months became more negative with age until 48 months, when the rate of decline moderated (linear polynomial contrast p=0. 047). The regression coefficient of blood lead at 24-36 months with CGI became more negative as well from 36 to 48 months but then started decreasing toward zero from 48 to 60 months (quadratic polynomial contrast p=0.019). Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 24-36 month blood lead level at 48 months (p=0.021) and at 54 months (p=0.073). The greatest effect (at 48 months) was a 5.8-point GCI decrease with each natural log unit increase in blood lead. Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 42-54 month blood lead level at 54 months (p=0. 040) and at 60 months (p=0.060). The effect of postnatal blood lead level on GCI reaches its maximum approximately 1-3 years later, and then becomes less evident. Four to five years of age appears to be a critical period for the manifestation of the earlier postnatal

  18. STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN SERUM LIPIDS FOLLOWING MERCURY INTOXIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M TAHER

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The toxicity of mercury which is used as mercury chloride in different parts of living world has been reported in literature. In our knowledge, however, these reports are on the effects of mercury on serum blood parameters. As lipids have important role in cell metabolism, we decided to study the effects of mercury on blood parameters which are related to lipid metabolism as well as its effect on hepatocyte triglycerides. Methods. Each group of 5 rats were treated with daily IP injections of either 10 mg/kg (Body Weight for 5 and 10 days or 5 mg/kg B.W. for 30 and 60 days, before determination of serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions. Results. The results obtained are as follows. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg B.W of mercury for 5 and 10 days elevated serum triglycerides by (10.9, 19.3 LDLc (16.5, 22.5 VLDLc (10.9, ,19.3 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (105.1, 136.3 percent respectively. HDLc was decreased by (13.4, 17.3 percent. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg body weight of mercury for 30 and 60 days elevated serum triglycerides by (34.7, 47.4. LDLc (28.9, 33.3, VLDLc (34.7, 47.4 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (177.3, 213.4 percent respectively. HDLc was lowered by (22.9, 27.7 percent. Discussion. The results showed that mercury could affect lipid metabloism in a dose and time dependent manner. This effect might be considered as a possilbe cause of hyperlipidemia in those who are intoxified with this element.

  19. Mercury(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Mercury is the planet closest to the sun.It is thefastest moving planet.And it is the second smallestplanet in our solar system. 2.Mercury is very difficult to see.Its orbit isbetween us and the sun.So,we have to look toward thebright light of the sun to see it.The sunlight usuallyhides Mercury.When we can see it,it appears as a fuzzyball.

  20. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): emphasis on interspecies comparison, gender difference and association with blood thyroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8-130 ng g(-1)wet wt. and 0.71-4.6 ng g(-1)wetwt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation.

  1. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  2. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  3. Mercury Levels In Fly Ash And Apc Residue From Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Before And After Electrodialytic Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8 to 10 h. The original residues and the treated material were analysed for mercury (Hg...

  4. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (pempathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  5. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  6. Correlation Correlation of Blood Lead Levels, Anemia and Water Source in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gurukripa, Sowmya Sanjeeva; Shetty, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to lead and its consequences is a health risk frequently encountered in developing countries.Aims & Objectives: This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the source of water poses a risk for high blood levels and consequently anemia.Material & Methods: 30 children with proven anemia and an equal number of children without anemia were enrolled in the study and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to analyse and quantify their blood lead levels. Thei...

  7. Blood antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology. In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidas (GSH-Px, Super oxide dismotase (SOD in patients with RA compared with the healthy subjects. Methods: In a case-control study sixty rheumatoid arthritis patients 18-75 years old and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected, Catalase activity was measured by determining the constant rate (k of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. GSH-Px activity of plasma was measured with spectrophotometer by Glutathione oxide generation due to GSH-Px. SOD activity is measured by degree of inhibition effect of SOD in generating super oxide radicals by xanthine and xanthine oxidase. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor values were determined by agglutination and latex tests. Results: The plasma activity of catalase (p0.05. There was a negative significant relation between C reactive protein and Rheumatoid factor values with the erythrocyte activity of catalase and GSH-Px (p<0.01. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress plays a very important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.

  8. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaki, E N; Varelas, P N; Syrigou, A I; Spanaki, M V; Andreadou, E; Kakami, A E; Papageorgiou, C T

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups (5.64+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.96+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.88+/-1.3 microg/dl, and 5.76+/-1.7 microg/dl, respectively). Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (i.e., aspartate aminotransferase) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (i.e., alanine aminotransferase) were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past.

  9. Storage and survival of red blood cells with elevated sodium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H; Harris, A S; Wetherall, N T

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of black blood donors have an elevated red blood cell (RBC) sodium (Nai) level compared with white donors. This elevation results in a significant increase in the mean Nai from black (9.00 +/- 2.96 mmoles/l RBC) as compared to white blood donors (7.04 +/- 1.48 mmoles/l RBC, p less than 0.001). Red blood cells from four black donors with mean Nai levels of 15 +/- 2.8 mmoles/l RBC were stored for 35 days in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and compared to that of four donors with normal levels of Nai. Serial measurements of red blood cell adenosine triphosphate, diphosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic kinase, lactate production rates, and intracellular cations showed no differences between the two donor groups. Furthermore, the mean 24-hour posttransfusion survival was not significantly different for the high Nai group (83.2 +/- 5.6%) as compared with the control group (82.3 +/- 6.9%). Based on this study, it is not necessary to eliminate individuals with an elevated red blood cell Nai level as blood donors.

  10. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  11. SCREENING OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FOR BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AT KIMS HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to screen preschool children for blood lead level with an objective to estimate ZPP levels among preschool children attending OPD and admitted to wards and to confirm blood lead levels in children whose ZPP is>_35ugm/dl. METHODS: hospital based descriptive study conducted at KIMS, BANGALORE from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. 100 preschool children aged between 1 to 6 years who came to OPD and were admitted, were chosen randomly. Data was collected in a simple questionnaire which included demographic, clinical, investigations. Venous blood, 2 ml was drawn and estimated for ZPP. If ZPP >_ 35ugm/dl, then blood samples were estimated for blood lead levels. The data collected in this study was analyzed statistically using chi square test and standard normal variate (Z test for proportions. RESULTS: Out of 100 children, 37% of them had ZPP > 35 ugm/dl .Among these 20% had blood level more >10ugm/dl. Socio economic status affects lead exposure with poor socio economic status group being most prone for lead absorption. Among the 20% who had blood lead levels >10 ugm/dl, 15% of them belonged to urban area and 5% belonged to rural area. Location of the house of children in this study was observed that in industrial area were 85%, mechanic factory were 7%, battery factory were 3%, automobile and cottage industry were 2% . Among 100 children, 57 had hemoglobin % of > 10 gm and 43 were anemic having hemoglobin <10 gm%. CONCLUSION: As lead poisoning patients can be asymptomatic or symptomatic with only vague presentations, screening of blood lead levels should be made as a routine investigation. Awareness should be created regarding the sources of lead, its exposure and potential health effects

  12. JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2008-03-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with

  13. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  14. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  15. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  16. Mercury(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    26. Mercury appears to have a center of iron thattakes up seventy-five percent 0f the planet. There isonly a thin outer covering of rock around the core. Someastronomers think most of Mercury's rock was explodedoff when the planet was hit by a huge object early in itshistory.

  17. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybilski AJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  18. Mercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Champlain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric K; Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

    2012-04-01

    Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25-75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 μg g(-1) in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury.

  19. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  20. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  1. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  2. Mercury in the Umbilical Cord: Implications for Risk Assessment for Minamata Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen;

    1994-01-01

    in umbilical cord blood and in maternal hair. The results were compared with published values for mercury in umbilical cord tissue from 12 infants diagnosed with congenital methylmercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan. From the regression coefficients obtained in the Faroese samples, the median umbilical cord...... mercury concentration of 4.95 nmol/g dry weight in Minamata would correspond to 668 nmol/l cord blood and 114 nmol/g maternal hair. These levels agree well with other evidence of susceptibility of the fetus to increased exposure to methylmercury....

  3. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  4. Correlation between low neuraminidase blood levels and a predisposition toward family-related breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, R E; Laraja, R D; Imran-Ul-Hag; Saber, A A; Nadkarni, M

    1996-11-01

    It has been shown that high sialic acid levels are often found in conjunction with breast cancer, and these high concentrations are thought to be due to deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. The study proposes to elicit a relationship between low levels of blood neuraminidase and a family history of breast cancer. Neuraminidase blood levels were measured in 30 healthy women between the ages of 35 and 65 years with no evidence of a family history of breast cancer (control group), and in 33 healthy women between the ages of 35 to 65 years, all of whom had immediate members of their families with breast cancer (study group). The mean level of the blood neuraminidase was found to be 1.375 units in the control group. On the other hand, the mean level for the study group was 1.256 units. The difference between the two groups is statistically significant, (P value breast cancer.

  5. Alcohol levels in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from patients under pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, S; Vassilieff, I; Curi, P R

    1992-11-01

    We measured alcohol levels by the Cordebard method in 148 CSF samples from individuals who had abstained from alcohol for at least 7 days prior to the beginning of the study. Each blood sample was accompanied by a CSF sample from the same patient. CSF samples found to be normal after analysis were used as controls. Mean alcohol concentration in blood did not differ significantly between the control group and the groups with altered CSF. The group with altered CSF had statistically higher alcohol levels in CSF than in blood. CSF lactate, glucose and protein levels were not correlated with alcohol level. The results suggest the presence of endogenous alcohol in the CSF, with levels increasing in the presence of pathological processes involving the nervous system.

  6. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  7. An evaluation of mercury offloading in two Central California elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Kelley E; Ebert, David A

    2017-03-02

    Elasmobranchs occupy high trophic levels, accumulate high concentrations of mercury in their tissues, and have high energetic levels of maternal investment to offspring, which may cause embryos to be exposed in utero to harmful concentrations of mercury. We investigated the maternal transfer of mercury in two common coastal elasmobranch species, Triakis semifasciata and Platyrhinoidis triseriata, to determine which reproductive parameters may influence mercury offloading, and whether embryos are at risk to mercury toxicity. Mercury concentration was measured in female muscle, female liver, and embryonic tissues. The behavior of mercury in adult female tissues differed between species, as liver mercury concentration was significantly correlated to muscle mercury concentration in P. triseriata but not in T. semifasciata. Embryos of both species were found with potentially harmful mercury concentrations in their muscle tissues. Embryo mercury concentration increased with female muscle mercury concentration, but the relationship to female liver mercury was more variable. The rate of mercury transfer and overall offloading potential were significantly greater in P. triseriata than T. semifasciata. It appears that female mercury concentration, either in muscle or liver, is an important influencing factor for mercury offloading, but the impact of the differing reproductive modes in these two species was less clear. More study on this subject will continue to elucidate the factors influencing mercury offloading in sharks and rays, and how contaminant risk affects populations on a whole.

  8. Mercury content of shark from south-western Australian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, N.; Edmonds, J.S.; Heald, D.I.

    1979-11-01

    Muscle samples from four species of commercially sought sharks off the Western Australia coast were analyzed for total mercury. While substantial amounts of mercury were accumulated by sharks, as by other marine fish, the lack of polluting industry on the coast indicates that such mercury levels probably are natural. Mercury concentrations generally increased with fish size. (4 graphs, 1 map, 8 references, 2 tables)

  9. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  10. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  11. Intraoperative blood glucose levels in neurosurgical patients : an evaluation of two fluid regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence that hyperglycaemia aggravates ischaemic cerebral injury, it has been suggested that blood glucose levels be kept within 200 mg/dL during intracranial neurosurgery. Hypoglycaemia, however, can be a serious problem if glucose-containing solutions are avoided during the first four hours, as suggested in some studies. In order to explore the possibility of administering glucose in moderation so that the blood glucose levels are within acceptable limits, but at the same time the risk of hyoglycaemia is eliminated, we compared two intraoperative fluid regimens. Of the 52 neurosurgical patients studied, 32 patients received alternately 500 ml of 5% dextrose in normal saline and Ringer′s lactate (DNS/RL Group and 18 patients received alternately 500 ml of Ringer′s lactate and normal saline (RL/NS Group. Blood glucose concentrations were determined at the end of each unit of fluid, until the patient received 4 units of fluid. In the DNS/RL group, blood glucose values peaked with the administration of each unit of DNS and tended to return towards the baseline with the subsequent RL, but remained higher than the previous control value. In the RL/NS group, there was a progressive increase in blood glucose values throughout the study period, but the increase was not statistically significant. The blood glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups after each unit of fluid except at the end of the fourth unit. Two patients in the RL/NS group had hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the DNS/RL regimen maintains blood glucose levels within acceptable limits while avoiding the risk of hyperglycaemia. Withholding glucose completely, lowers blood glucose levels, but carries a risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients.

  12. Femtomole level photoelectrochemical aptasensing for mercury ions using quercetin-copper(II) complex as the DNA intercalator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Xue, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2014-04-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for mercury ions was first fabricated based on perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic acid/graphene oxide (PTCA/GO) heterojunction using quercetin-copper(II) complex intercalated into the poly(dT)-poly(dA) duplexes. Both the PTCA/GO heterojunction and the quercetin-copper(II) complex are in favor of the sensitivity for the fabricated PEC aptasensor due to band alignment and strong reduction capability, respectively. And they efficiently promote the separation of photoexcited carriers and enhance the photocurrent. The formation of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine coordination chemistry resulted in the dehybridization of poly(dT)-poly(dA) duplexes and then the intercalator quercetin-copper(II) complex broke away from the surface of the PEC aptasensor. As the concentration of mercury ions increased, the photocurrent gradually decreased. The electrode response for mercury ions detection was in the linear range from 0.01 pmol L(-1) to 1.00 pmol L(-1) with the detection limit of 3.33 fmol L(-1). The label-free PEC aptasensor has excellent performances with ultrasensitivity and good selectivity besides the advantage of economic and facile fabrication. The strategy of quercetin-copper(II) complex as a novel DNA intercalator paves a new way to improve the performances for PEC sensors.

  13. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  14. Association between calcium intake, parathormone levels and blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between calcium intake from diet, calciotropic hormones (PTH, PTH-rp, vasoactive regulators (endothelin, nitric oxide and blood pressure levels during pregnancy, birth and puerperium.Method: In a prospective study 149 healthy normotensive primigravidas were followed-up from 15 weeks of gestation to puerperium. Daily calcium intake, calciuria, PTH, PTH-rp, endothelin, nitrite-nitrate, and Holter Test were assessed. Linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association between calcium intake, blood pressure levels and the laboratory tests. Multivariate regression models were performed to control potential confounders.Results: A significant increase of calcium intake during pregnancy was observed (931±301 mg/day to 1,195±467 mg/day, p<0.001. Plasma PTH-rp, endothelin, and nitrite-nitrate levels did not change during pregnancy. Among the women 38 (25.4% had low calcium intake (<800 mg/day with a larger increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy (p=0.04 birth (p=0.006 and puerperium (p=0.01. After adjusting for other factors the multivariate analyses showed statistical association between low calcium intake, high parathormone levels and high systolic blood pressure levels during pregnancy (p=0.002.Conclusion: Low calcium intake during pregnancy is associated with a larger increase of systolic blood pressure and high parathormone levels.

  15. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  16. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  17. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    OpenAIRE

    Morsy Amal A; Abd el-hafez Manal A; Zaher Manal M; Hegazy Amal A; Saleh Raya A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional perfo...

  18. Genetic factors influencing ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Rigas, Andreas S; Thørner, Lise W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many biologic functions depend on sufficient iron levels, and iron deficiency is especially common among blood donors. Genetic variants associated with iron levels have been identified, but the impact of genetic variation on iron levels among blood donors remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN...... AND METHODS: The effect of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors were investigated in four genes: in Human Hemochromatosis Protein gene (HFE; rs1800562 and rs179945); in Transmembrane Protease gene, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6-regulating hepcidin; rs855791); in BTB domain....../mL). RESULTS: In HFE, the G-allele of rs1800562 was associated with lower iron stores in both sexes. This was also true for the C-allele of rs179945, but in men only. Also, the T-allele of TMPRSS6 rs855791 was negatively associated with iron stores in men. Homozygocity for C in rs1799945 was associated...

  19. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  20. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kooistra; H.J. Mesman; M. de Waal; M.H.G.M. Koppelman; H.L. Zaaijer

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch blo

  1. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  2. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  3. Device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Tetyana I.; Sander, Sergii V.; Zlepko, Sergii M.; Vasilenko, Valentina B.; Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Dumenko, Victoria P.; Klapouschak, Andrii Yu.; Maciejewski, Marcin; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Surtel, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluated the diagnostic value of laser photoplethysmography when examining patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. A statistical analysis of the research results was made, and diagrams of relationship between the degrees of ischemia and blood flow are presented. Development of the device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation was presented. Also additional accessories in the form of optical fibers for different applications were suggested.

  4. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  5. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  6. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Harini M, Astirin OP. 2009. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 53-58. This study aims to determine treatment effect of VCO on blood cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic white rat (Rattus norvegicus L.. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain divided into five treatment groups, namely: control, simvastatin (1.3 mL/270 g BW, cholesterol (9:1 lard, VCO 1 (1 mL/270 g BW, and VCO 2 (1.3 mL/270 g BW. Treatment was given orally. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, day 14 and day 28. Cholesterol data (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL were analyzed by Ancova and followed by contrast test at significance level of 5%.. The results showed that treatment of VCO at different doses significantly affected the decrease in blood total cholesterol, blood LDL levels, increasing blood HDL in hipercholesterolemic white rat.

  7. Axillary versus peripheral blood levels of sialic acid, ferritin, and CEA in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, M; Catania, S; Locatelli, E; Gandini, R; Reggiani, A; Cunietti, E

    1990-12-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were measured both in tumor drainage blood (axillary vein) and in peripheral blood obtained from 121 breast cancer patients during surgery. No significant differences between mean values in peripheral and tumor draining blood, between cancer patients and healthy controls, or between patients with or without axillary lymph node metastases were found for any of the markers. Both ferritin and CEA levels were higher in axillary and peripheral blood from patients with central breast cancer versus other sites but the difference was significant only for CEA (p less than 0.05). CEA levels were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in patients with greater than 2 cm diameter carcinomas versus T1 stage patients in axillary but not in peripheral blood. When the cephalic vein was clamped before the axillary sample was taken, ferritin showed a significant increase (p less than 0.05). We conclude that measurement of sialic acid, CEA, and ferritin in axillary venous blood in breast cancer patients is not of clinical benefit, although further data are needed to clarify whether other advantages can be derived.

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  9. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Mercury and pregnancy Mercury and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... vision problems. How can you be exposed to mercury? Mercury has several forms: It can be a ...

  10. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  11. More evidence of mercury effects in children.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In research published last summer, scientists revealed that prenatal exposure to methylmercury, an organic form of mercury that accumulates in animal tissues, may affect the blood pressure and ability to respond to sensory stimuli in exposed children later in life. The team is now also confirming findings of mercury-related neurodevelopmental effects among the Faroese subjects by studying a cohort of Madeiran children.

  12. Comparison of mercury levels of general residents in coastal and inland areas%沿海和内陆地区居民汞暴露量对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛小丽; 张瑛; 周集体

    2012-01-01

    -1 in Henan. Comparing the hair mercury level of the same age between these two regions, we found that the hair mercury level in Dalian was higher than Henan obviously. Using the reference dose 1 μg.g-1 of US EPA as the benchmark, about 3% residents in Dalian were above the benchmark, and about 1% in Henan. The study provided the basic data for understanding the mercury exposure situation of the general residents in our country and quantitative calculation of the subsequent mercury exposure risk.

  13. Effects of mercury exposure on the reproductive success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Cristol, Daniel A

    2008-02-01

    An experimental tree swallow population was established in the headwaters of the Shenandoah River, Virginia, USA to assess the accumulation and effects of mercury contamination on birds that eat emergent aquatic insects. One tributary, the South River, was contaminated with mercury before 1950. Reproductive success of swallows nesting within 50 m of this river was compared to that of three uncontaminated reference tributaries in 2005 and 2006. Female swallows on the contaminated stretch of river had significantly elevated blood and feather total mercury (blood: 3.56 +/- 2.41 ppm ww vs. 0.17 +/- 0.15 ppm reference; feather: 13.55 +/- 6.94 ppm vs. 2.34 +/- 0.87 ppm reference), possibly the highest ever reported for an insectivorous songbird. Insects collected by the swallows to be fed to nestlings averaged 0.97 +/- 1.11 ppm dw total mercury, significantly higher than on reference sites. Swallows in the contaminated area produced fewer fledglings than those in reference areas. The effect of mercury contamination on productivity was detectable only for young females in the contaminated area that were breeding for the first time in 2006, a segment of the population that may already have been stressed by inexperience. Tree swallows served as practical and effective biomonitors for mercury levels and effects and have great potential as proxy biomonitors for more logistically challenging birds such as loons or eagles.

  14. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  15. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  16. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination.

  17. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang-Mo [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); The Korea Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Hyung [Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joong-Myung, E-mail: jmchoi@khu.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female.

  18. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

    2014-06-01

    Elevated blood serotonin (5-HT) levels were the first biomarker identified in autism research. Many studies have contrasted blood 5-HT levels in autistic patients and controls, but different measurement protocols, technologies, and biomaterials have been used through the years. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and between-study heterogeneity, while verifying whether and to what extent different methodological approaches influence the strength of this association. Our literature search strategy identified 551 papers, from which 22 studies providing patient and control blood 5-HT values were selected for meta-analysis. Significantly higher 5-HT levels in autistic patients compared to controls were recorded both in whole blood (WB) [O.R.=4.6; (3.1-5.2); P=1.0×10(-12]), and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) [O.R.=2.6 (1.8-3.9); P=2.7×10(-7)]. Predictably, studies measuring 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) yielded no significant group difference [O.R.=0.54 (0.2-2-0); P=0.36]. Altogether, elevated 5-HT blood levels were recorded in 28.3% in WB and 22.5% in PRP samples of autistic individuals, as reported in 15 and 4 studies, respectively. Studies employing HPLC vs fluorometric assays yield similar cumulative effect sizes, but the former display much lower variability. In summary, despite some limitations mainly due to small study sample sizes, our results significantly reinforce the reliability of elevated 5-HT blood levels as a biomarker in ASD, providing practical indications potentially useful for its inclusion in multi-marker diagnostic panels for clinical use.

  19. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BLOOD OXYGEN FREE RADICAL AND NO LEVELS IN TREATMENT OF APOPLECTIC SEQUELAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 马瑞玲; 靳瑞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on blood oxygen free radical (OFR) and nitric oxide(NO) levels in the treatment of apoplectic sequelae. Methods: A total of 61 cases of apoplectic patients were subject-ed into this study and randomly divided into "JIN San Zhen" group (n=30) and control group (n=31). Blood lipid per-oxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and nitric oxide (NO) contents beforeand after acupuncture treatment were determined with radioimmunoassay. In both groups, acupuncture was given oncedaily, six times a week, with 4 weeks being a therapeutic course and with the interval between two weeks being aweek, 3 courses all together. In "JIN San Zhen" group, acupoints of "JIN San Zhen" were used predominately, whilein control group, scalp-point Motor Sensory Area (MS 8) was used as the main point. Results: Self-comparison showedthat after 3 courses of treatment, in both groups, LPO and NO levels decreased significantly ( P < 0.05 - 0.01 ), SODand GST-Px values increased considerably ( P< 0.05 - 0.01 ). Comparison between two groups indicated that the ef-fects of "JIN San Zhen" group are significantly superior to those of control group in raising blood SOD and GST-Px lev-els ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ) and in lowering blood NO content ( P< 0.01 ). Analysis on the correlation between the restora-tion of neural function and the changes of LPO, SOD and GST-Px levels suggested that the effect of acupuncture in im-proving neural function may be related to changes of the aforementioned indexes. Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy cansignificantly lower blood LPO and NO levels and evidently raise blood SOD and GST-Px levels in stroke patients.

  20. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a

  1. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran; Vergleichende Untersuchungen ueber die Blei-, Cadmium- und Quecksilberkonzentrationen im Nabelschnurblut, im muetterlichen Blut und in der Frauenmilch sowie ueber einige persistente Organochlorverbindungen in der Milch deutscher und iranischer Muetter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanmardi, F.

    2001-07-01

    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die aktuelle Schwermetallbelastung des Nabelschnurblutes, des muetterlichen Blutes und der Muttermilch zu untersuchen. Die Bestimmung von Blei und Cadmium erfolgte mit Hilfe der Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Quecksilber wurde mittels der Fliessinjektions-Hydridtechnik bestimmt. Nach den von uns ermittelten Schwermetall- bzw. Chlorkohlenwasserstoffkonzentrationen fuer die Region Rendsburg kann das mit dem Verzehr kontaminierter Muttermilch verbundene toxische Risiko fuer den Saeugling als sehr gering eingeschaetzt werden. (orig.)

  2. Maternal-Cord Blood Vitamin D Correlations Vary by Maternal Levels

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D levels of pregnant women and their neonates tend to be related; however, it is unknown whether there are any subgroups in which they are not related. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in prenatal maternal and child cord blood samples of participants (n = 241 pairs) in a birth cohort. Spearman correlations were examined within subgroups defined by prenatal and delivery factors. Cord blood as a percentage of prenatal 25(OH)D level was calculated and characteristics compared b...

  3. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  4. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Rebagliato, Marisa [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Medicine Department, Jaume I University, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Cases, Amparo [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose [Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Amurrio, Ascensión [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  5. Differences in whole blood serotonin levels based on a typology of parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Safar, C; Israel, M; Barth, T; Felber, W; Oehler, J

    1998-01-01

    Suicidal behavior has to be considered as a multifactorial phenomenon, which can be analyzed in a classifying-phenomenological manner. We have examined the relation of parasuicide typology to whole blood concentrations of serotonin, HVA, and tryptophan in 58 patients classified into 4 groups of parasuicide typology compared to 22 nonsuicidal depressed patients and 20 healthy subjects. Suicidal patients classified as impetuous, desperate and ambivalent types had significantly reduced whole blood 5-HT levels in comparison with the appealing type as well as nonsuicidal subjects. No differences were detected in the HVA content, but whole blood tryptophan concentrations were significantly reduced in impetuous suicidal patients and depressed patients compared to healthy subjects. This study provides evidence for reduced whole blood serotonin content based on different types of parasuicide.

  6. Dynamic measurement of mercury adsorption and oxidation on activated carbon in simulated cement kiln flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    elemental mercury shows that when HCl is present with either SO2 or NOx the mercury measurement after the converter is unstable and lower than the elemental mercury inlet level. The conclusion is that red brass chips cannot fully reduce oxidized mercury to elemental mercury when simulated cement kiln gas...

  7. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

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    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  8. Mercury concentration in bivalve molluscs

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    Szkoda Józef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 mussel samples of eight species were examined. Analysis of mercury in the freeze-dried samples was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry method using direct mercury analyser AMA 254. The analytical procedure for determination of mercury was covered by the quality assurance programme of research and participation in national and international proficiency tests. Concentrations of total mercury in all investigated samples were found to be generally low, in the range of 0.033-0.577 mg/kg of dry weight and of 0.003-0.045 mg/kg of wet weight. The results indicate that obtained levels of mercury in bivalve molluscs are not likely to pose a risk to the health of consumers.

  9. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  10. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

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    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  11. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Meng; Luo, Han-Wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-Xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-Guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-11-15

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30-120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8-20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta.

  12. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  13. Assessment of total and organic mercury levels in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the south and southeastern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Degaspari, Iracema Alves Manoel; Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; de Amorim, Alberto Ferreira; Kennedy, Valerie Helen; Ferreira, José Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mercury occurrence was evaluated in samples of edible muscle tissue of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) caught in the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the south and southeastern Brazilian coast, indicating a slight increase in comparison with previous data obtained for the same studied area and being higher than those fish caught at different sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 2.40 mg kg(-1) with the organic Hg fraction ranging between 0.44 and 2.37 mg kg(-1). A negative correlation between total Hg concentration in muscle tissue and blue shark size was obtained, and 40% of samples analyzed had Hg concentrations higher than 1.0 mg kg(-1) Hg, the maximum concentration permitted in Brazilian predator fish. Data obtained showed that total Hg can be used as a reliable predictor of organic Hg in blue shark muscle because 95 to 98% of the total Hg measured was found to be organic mercury. The wide range of Hg concentrations obtained for our set of samples can be explained by the heterogeneity of sampled population and the large size of the studied area. Given the adverse toxicological effects of Hg on animals and humans, a regular monitoring program of Hg contamination in Brazilian marine ecosystem can be recommended.

  14. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  15. Levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clays for oral use on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, N M; Klerx, W N M; Kooijman, M; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women in Africa, Asia and Suriname, and some immigrants in Western societies, traditionally consume clay products known by a variety of names such as mabele, calabash chalk, sikor and pimba. Furthermore, clay is used for health purposes in Western societies. Because certain clays can contain high levels of metals and metalloids, the aim of this study was to determine lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clay products for oral use available on the Dutch market. Traditional clays originating from Africa (n = 10) and Suriname (n = 26), and health clays (n = 27) were sampled from 2004 up to and including 2012. Total metal and metalloid contents were measured by ICP-MS and showed maximum levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium of 99.7, 45.1, 2.2 and 0.75 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. In the absence of maximum limits for these type of clays, the potential exposure was estimated from the determined concentration, the estimated daily use level of the clays, and the estimated bioaccessibility of the different metals and arsenic. The intake estimates were compared with existing health-based guidance values. For lead, the use of 34 of the 36 traditional clays and two of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit by up to 20-fold. Use of 15 of the 35 traditional clays and 11 of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit for inorganic arsenic by up to 19-fold. Although limited bioaccessibility from the clay may limit the exposure and exceedance of the health-based guidance values, it was concluded that lead and arsenic intakes from some clay products could be of concern also because of their use by pregnant women and the potential developmental toxicity. As a result the use of these products, especially by pregnant women, should be discouraged.

  16. MERCURY DEPOSITION AND WATER QUALITY TRENDS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed factors influence the differing trends in mercury residue levels. Fish mercury concentrations show positive correlations with water color, methylmercury concentrations, and plankton mercury, and negative correlations with pH and alklinity.

  17. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  18. Blood Glutamate Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Zhen Zheng

    Full Text Available Glutamate plays an important role in brain development, neuronal migration, differentiation, survival and synaptogenesis. Recent studies have explored the relationship between blood glutamate levels and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, the findings are inconsistent. We undertook the first systematic review with a meta-analysis of studies examining blood glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls.A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published before March 2016. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD of the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity, and the publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests.Twelve studies involving 880 participants and 446 incident cases were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis provided evidence for higher blood glutamate levels in ASD [SMD = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.58-1.40; P < 0.001] with high heterogeneity (I2 = 86%, P < 0.001 across studies. The subgroup analyses revealed higher glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls in plasma [SMD = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.58-1.50; P < 0.001] but not true in serum [SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = -0.41-1.99; P = 0.20]. Studies employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS assays also revealed higher blood glutamate levels in ASD. A sensitivity analysis found that the results were stable, and there was no evidence of publication bias.Blood glutamate levels might be a potential biomarker of ASD.

  19. Saturated fat consumption may not be the main cause of increased blood lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, C B; Garg, R; Wood, L G; Garg, M L

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) has often been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and consequently with risk for chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease. However, epidemiological and interventional studies on this topic are contradictory. While some studies have established a positive link, other studies have failed to show a significant association between saturated fat consumption and blood lipid levels, and others have even found an inverse association. Moreover, studies using animal models have demonstrated that dietary saturated fats raise blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels only when the diet is deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). The n-3PUFA are known for their potential in the management of hyperlipidaemia for the prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as for their anti-arrhythmic, anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory potential. We believe that with an adequate consumption of n-3PUFA dietary saturated fat may not result in elevated blood lipid levels. Therefore, we critically evaluated the literature regarding saturated fat and blood lipid level, with an emphasis on the role of n-3PUFA on this relationship. Evidence from animal studies and few clinical trials lead to the hypothesis that there are beneficial or neutral effects of saturated fatty acids when combined with recommended levels of n-3PUFA in the diet. However, an intervention focusing on the background fat when the volunteers' diet is supplemented with n-3PUFA is yet to be done. Proving the authenticity of this hypothesis would mean a substantial change in public health messages regarding saturated fats and their health effects; and also a change in the strategies related to prevention of chronic cardiac and artery diseases.

  20. Relationship between androgen levels and blood pressure in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2007-06-01

    The role of testosterone on the development of hypertension is controversial, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who have higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance than women without PCOS. Little is known about the association between serum testosterone level and blood pressure in young women with PCOS. In the 151 young Taiwanese women with PCOS enrolled in this cross-sectional study, we measured the body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile, and hormone profiles. The free androgen index, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, but not the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, significantly correlated with both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and other anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal variables, the level of serum free androgen index or total testosterone, but not the sex hormone-binding globulin, were independently related to SBP and DBP. The age- and body mass index-adjusted least-square mean of serum-free androgen index levels were significantly different between the highest quartile and other quartiles of the SBP and DBP levels. The high bioavailable testosterone levels (free androgen index: >or=19%) in women with PCOS increased the risk of elevated blood pressure (SBP >or=130 mm Hg and/or DBP >or=85 mm Hg) with an odds ratio of 3.817 (P=0.029; 95% CI: 1.14 to 12.74) after adjustment for age, anthropometric measures, and metabolic profiles. Our results suggest that the characteristic hyperandrogenemia in young women with PCOS was associated with an elevated SBP and DBP independent of age, insulin resistance, obesity, or dyslipidemia.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

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    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  2. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  3. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

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    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  4. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  5. A report of high triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns

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    Seyed Ali Naghi Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The mean and 95 th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  7. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

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    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  8. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there ...

  9. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

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    Leila Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  10. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Leila; Movahed, Ali; Iranpour, Dariush; Ostovar, Afshin; Raeisi, Alireza; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Hajian, Najmeh; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-12-01

    In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES).

  11. Increased chromosome fragility as a consequence of blood folate levels, smoking status, and coffee consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.T.L.; Reidy, J.A.; Annest, J.L.; Welty, T.K.; Zhou, H. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome fragility in 96 h, low-folate cultures was found to be associated with smoking status, coffee consumption, and blood folate level. The higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations in cigarette smokers was attributable to lower red cell folate levels in smokers compared with nonsmokers. There was a positive linear relationship between the average cups of coffee consumed per day and the proportion of cells with aberrations. This association was independent of the effects of smoking and red cell folate level. These data suggest that smoking history, coffee consumption, and red cell folate level are important considerations for the design and interpretation of fragile site studies in cancer cytogenetics.

  12. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  13. The effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Handajani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperglycemia is a condition when blood sugar level is higher than normal. Hyperglycemia is also one of diabetes mellitus (DM symptoms. Hyperglycemia has a correlation with the occurrence of periodontal disease. Curcuma zedoaria oil is known to decrease concentration of serum glucose. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis in rats. Method: This study used twenty-five male Wistar rats, divided into two groups, namely the treatment group and the control group. In the treatment group, fifteen rats were divided into three subgroups (each of which was induced with 10 μl/ml, 30 μl/ml and 50 μl/ml of Curcuma zedoaria oil. The control group was consisted often rats, divided into two subgroups, as the positive control group (induced with 10 mg/kg of Glibenclamide and the negative control group (induced with propylene glycol. Streptozotocin (STZ (Naclai tesque, Kyoto Japan with a dose of 40 mg/kg was used to create hyperglycemia condition in those rats. Gingivitis was then made by using silk ligature in those hyperglycemia rats. Silk ligature was twisted at the margin of gingiva anterior mandibular incisors for seven days. After the rats had gingivitis, Curcuma zedoaria oil, glibenclamide and propylene glycol were orally administered for seven days. Their gingivitis condition was observed, and their blood sugar level was measured before and after the induction of STZ and during the treatment. The data obtained were analyzed by using Manova. Result: There were significant differences of blood sugar levels between the treatment group before and after the administration of Curcuma zedoaria oil and the positive control group (p<0.05. Healthy gingiva was then found in the treatment group and the positive control group. Conclusion: Curcuma zedoaria oil can decrease blood sugar level and gingivitis.

  14. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... atmospheric deposition of mercury on sea surfaces to uptake in marine organisms, bio-accumulation, and finally mercury levels in mammals. The studies in the project are focused on the behaviour of mercury during the spring period where special phenomena lead to an enhanced deposition of mercury in the Arctic...... environment, at a time where the marine ecosystem is particularly active. The studies also include a comprehensive time trend study of mercury in top carnivore species. Each of these studies contributes towards establishing the knowledge necessary to develop a general model for transport and uptake of mercury...

  15. In-situ measurements of low-level mercury vapor exposure from dental amalgam with zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Stefan; Welzl, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Alongside food, emissions from amalgam fillings are an essential contribution to man's mercury burden. Previous methods for the determination of intraoral mercury vapor (Hg degrees ) release used principally some form of preconcentration of Hg on gold (film or wool), allowing relatively few measurements with unknown precision and sensitivity at selected times. Recently available computer-controlled Hg detectors operating on Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZAAS) facilitate the direct real-time measurement of Hg degrees concentrations. It was the aim to adapt this method for a comparative investigation of emission processes from fillings in situ and from amalgam specimens in vitro. In addition to the ZAAS instrument, the apparatus consisted of a pump, magnetic valves, an electronic flow controller and a handle with a disposable mouth piece for aspiration of oral air. A programmable timer integrated the computer-controlled instrument operation and the data collection into a standard sampling protocol. A fast exponential decay of the emission was found after stimulation of amalgam specimens and of fillings in situ (halftimes 8.6 and 10.7 min). Precision was evaluated by a series of measurements on a single patient which indicated a consistently low coefficient of variation between 18% and 25%. After insertion of a few new fillings, sensitivity was high enough to detect a significant increase in emission against the background emission from the majority of old fillings. Zeeman-AAS in connection with a semi-automated sampling protocol and data storage provides precise in-situ measurements of Hg degrees emission from dental amalgam with real-time resolution. This facilitates the detailed exploration of the Hg degrees release kinetics and the applicability to large-scale studies.

  16. High levels of maternally transferred mercury do not affect reproductive output or embryonic survival of northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephanie Y; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Drewett, David V V; Hopkins, William A

    2013-03-01

    Maternal transfer is an important exposure pathway for contaminants because it can directly influence offspring development. Few studies have examined maternal transfer of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), in snakes, despite their abundance and high trophic position in many ecosystems where Hg is prevalent. The objectives of the present study were to determine if Hg is maternally transferred in northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) and to evaluate the effects of maternal Hg on reproduction. The authors captured gravid female watersnakes (n = 31) along the South River in Waynesboro, Virginia, USA, where an extensive Hg-contamination gradient exists. The authors measured maternal tissue and litter Hg concentrations and, following birth, assessed (1) reproductive parameters (i.e., litter size and mass, neonate mass); (2) rates of infertility, death during development, stillbirths, malformations, and runts; and (3) the overall viability of offspring. Mercury concentrations in females were strongly and positively correlated with concentrations in litters, suggesting that N. sipedon maternally transfer Hg in proportion to their tissue residues. Maternal transfer resulted in high concentrations (up to 10.10 mg/kg dry wt total Hg) of Hg in offspring. The authors found little evidence of adverse effects of Hg on these measures of reproductive output and embryonic survival, suggesting that N. sipedon may be more tolerant of Hg than other vertebrate species. Given that this is the first study to examine the effects of maternally transferred contaminants in snakes and that the authors did not measure all reproductive endpoints, further research is needed to better understand factors that influence maternal transfer and associated sublethal effects on offspring.

  17. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  18. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  19. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  20. Examination of blood clobazam levels and several pupillary measures in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzan, J A; Needham, T E; Honigberg, I L; Vallner, J J; Stewart, J T; Brown, W J; Jun, H W

    1979-08-01

    The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered to 15 subjects before initiation of the experiment. Three subgroups of five subjects were defined by computing the unweighted sum of the state and trait anxiety scores. A 40-mg dose of clobazam, a 1.5-benzodiazepine, was administered to each subject and repeated with two additional dosage forms following a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were withdrawn, and blood levels were determined by fluorometric analysis. Additionally, pupillary measures of critical flicker fusion, constriction, and dilation in response to a cognitive task were obtained at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hr. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that blood levels were, as expected, statistically different over time and dosage form. The pupillary constriction mirrored the blood levels in statistical patterns. The pupillary measure of cognition related to the anxiety state after the performance effects of the cognitive task were statistically removed. The results suggest that clobazam has less immediate human effect than does diazepam.

  1. Analysis of ochratoxin A blood levels in bladder cancer cases and healthy persons from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Rivzi, S Abidul Hassan; Beg, Anwer Ejaz; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H

    2012-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), a well-known human nephrotoxic and carcinogenic agent, is a public health concern in many countries. Exposure is assessed by means of mycotoxin analysis in food commodities and by human biomonitoring of OTA in blood samples. Data available from several European countries and some studies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas indicate frequent detection of OTA. Thus far, data from developing countries that compare blood levels in healthy and diseased individuals are scarce. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine OTA levels in blood samples of bladder cancer patients (n = 96) and healthy controls (n = 31) from Pakistan. OTA in blood plasma was analyzed after extraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Among samples of 87 cancer patients and 30 controls, 92% in total contained quantifiable amounts of OTA. In bladder cancer cases the median OTA concentration was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.296; range: 0.03 to 3.41 ng/ml), and in healthy controls the median OTA was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.3; range: 0.04 to 1.24 ng/ml). The OTA levels found in the Pakistanian cohorts were comparable to those reported previously for the general population in the European Union. In conclusion, OTA is not likely to play a major role in the etiology of bladder cancer in the Karachi cohort, at least as the sole risk factor.

  2. Validade de um monitor digital de pulso para mensuração de pressão arterial em comparação com um esfigmomanômetro de mercúrio Validity of a wrist digital monitor for blood pressure measurement in comparison to a mercury sphygmomanometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. B. Menezes

    2010-03-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a wrist digital monitor for measuring blood pressure among adolescents in comparison to a mercury sphygmomanometer. METHODS: A validation study was carried out in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Blood pressure was measured twice using two different sphygmomanometers; an OMRON wrist digital and a desktop BD mercury one. Half of the sample was measured first with the digital manometer and subsequently with the mercury one, whereas the remaining half was evaluated in the opposite order. Agreement between both measures was evaluated using the Bland and Altman method. RESULTS: 120 adolescents aged 14 to 15 years were included (50% of each sex. Mean systolic blood pressure among boys was 113.7 mmHg (SD 14.2 when using the mercury manometer and 115.5 mmHg (SD 15.2 when using the digital one. Equivalent values for diastolic blood pressure were 61.5 mmHg (SD 9.9 and 69.6 mmHg (10.2, respectively. Among girls, the mean systolic blood pressure was 104.7 mmHg (SD 10.1 when using the mercury manometer and 102.4 mmHg (SD 11.9 when using the digital device. Values for diastolic blood pressure were 60.0 mmHg (SD 10.4 and 65.7 mmHg (SD 7.7, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The digital device showed a high level of agreement with the mercury manometer when measuring systolic blood pressure. The level of agreement was lower for diastolic blood pressure. The use of correction equations may be an alternative for studies using this wrist digital monitor in adolescent patients.

  3. Blood lipid levels associate with childhood asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Rebecca K; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of children's blood lipid profiles in relation to asthma are few, and the results are ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether the lipid profile is associated with concurrent asthma, altered lung function, and allergic sensitization in children. METHODS: High...... with assessments of lung function, bronchial responsiveness, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and allergic sensitization. Associations between lipid levels and clinical outcomes were adjusted for sex, passive smoking, and body mass index. RESULTS: High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were...... of increased Feno levels (aβ coefficient, 0.14 log-ppb; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.30 log-ppb; P = .08). CONCLUSION: The blood lipid profile is associated with asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial responsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization in 7-year-old children. These findings suggest that asthma and allergy...

  4. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; Esterman, A; Lewis, M; Roder, D; Calder, I

    1986-01-01

    This survey included 1,239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's "level of concern." There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members who worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.

  5. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  6. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  7. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs.

  8. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...... to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters....

  9. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  10. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  11. High Blood caffeine levels in MCI linked to lack of progression to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Loewenstein, David A; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Li; Duara, Ranjan; Wu, Yougui; Giannini, Alessandra; Bai, Ge; Cai, Jianfeng; Greig, Maria; Schofield, Elizabeth; Ashok, Raj; Small, Brent; Potter, Huntington; Arendash, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Although both human epidemiologic and animal model studies have suggested that caffeine/coffee protects against Alzheimer's disease, direct human evidence for this premise has been lacking. In the present case-control study, two separate cohorts consisting of 124 total individuals (65-88 years old) were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for caffeine/biomarker analysis. Subjects were then monitored for cognitive status over the ensuing 2-4 year period to determine the extent to which initial plasma caffeine/biomarkers levels would be predictive of changes in cognitive status. Plasma caffeine levels at study onset were substantially lower (-51%) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects who later progressed to dementia (MCI→DEM) compared to levels in stable MCI subjects (MCI→MCI). Moreover, none of the MCI→DEM subjects had initial blood caffeine levels that were above a critical level of 1200 ng/ml, while half of stable MCI→MCI subjects had blood caffeine levels higher than that critical level. Thus, plasma caffeine levels greater than 1200 ng/ml (≈6 μM) in MCI subjects were associated with no conversion to dementia during the ensuing 2-4 year follow-up period. Among the 11 cytokines measured in plasma, three of them (GCSF, IL-10, and IL-6) were decreased in MCI→DEM subjects, but not in stable MCI→MCI subjects with high plasma caffeine levels. Coffee would appear to be the major or perhaps only source of caffeine for such stable MCI patients. This case-control study provides the first direct evidence that caffeine/coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of dementia or delayed onset, particularly for those who already have MCI.

  12. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  13. Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some

  14. [Use of urine lead level as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to verify whether there are statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of lead in blood (Pb-B) and urine (Pb-U). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. Venous blood and spot urine were collected from workers occupationally exposed (95), adults (130) and children up to 15 years old (22) environmentally exposed. After a test showing significant differences between Pb-U and the three categories previously determined, cutting points for Pb-U were established to predict Pb-B values by the ROC curve. Thus, it is expected that Pb-B is lower than 10 microg.dL-(1) with Pb-U up to 0.55 microg.dL-(1), whereas lead levels in blood below 27.6 microg.dL-(1) are expected when the amount of the metal in urine is lower than 2.05 microg.dL-(1). So, urine can be used to replace blood for the assessment of the occupational exposure to lead. However, caution is advised in the case of environmental exposure, since urinary lead should be used just as an estimation of the metal content in blood.

  15. The relation between serum vitamin D levels and blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ardeshir Larijani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as an associating factor with increased blood pressure. We studied the relationship between serum vitamin D and blood pressure in a large representative sample of Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, based on the data of 2508 adults (aged between 20 and 70 years from the Iran Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS, the association between serum vitamin D and blood pressure was investigated. There was a significant difference between mean (±SD vitamin D levels of the individuals with stage I hypertension and that of the three other groups (Normal: 32.9 (±27.5; Prehypertension: 34.4 (±27.2; Stage-I: 38.7 (±29.2; Stage-II: 34.7 (±24.0 ng/ml; P<0.05. In multivariate regression models, the weak positive association of vitamin D and systolic blood pressure values disappeared after age and Body Mass Index (BMI adjustment. We found a statistically positive but weak association between vitamin D serum concentration and systolic blood pressure. Considering the difference noted between our results and previous studies, further research is needed to assess the potential effect of ethnicity and genetic factors on these findings.

  16. The relation between serum vitamin D levels and blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshir Larijani, Fatemeh; Kalantar Motamedi, Seyed Mohammad; Keshtkar, Abbas Ali; Khashayar, Patricia; Koleini, Zahra; Rahim, Fakher; Larijani, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as an associating factor with increased blood pressure. We studied the relationship between serum vitamin D and blood pressure in a large representative sample of Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, based on the data of 2508 adults (aged between 20 and 70 years) from the Iran Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS), the association between serum vitamin D and blood pressure was investigated. There was a significant difference between mean (±SD) vitamin D levels of the individuals with stage I hypertension and that of the three other groups (Normal: 32.9 (±27.5); Prehypertension: 34.4 (±27.2); Stage-I: 38.7 (±29.2); Stage-II: 34.7 (±24.0) ng/ml; P<0.05. In multivariate regression models, the weak positive association of vitamin D and systolic blood pressure values disappeared after age and Body Mass Index (BMI) adjustment. We found a statistically positive but weak association between vitamin D serum concentration and systolic blood pressure. Considering the difference noted between our results and previous studies, further research is needed to assess the potential effect of ethnicity and genetic factors on these findings.

  17. Neuropsychological assessment at school-age and prenatal low-level exposure to mercury through fish consumption in an Italian birth cohort living near a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroma, L; Parpinel, M; Tognin, V; Channoufi, L; Tratnik, J; Horvat, M; Valent, F; Barbone, F

    2013-07-01

    The relative effects of prenatal and postnatal low-level mercury exposure and fish intake on child neurodevelopment are still controversial. Limited evidence is available from Mediterranean populations. In this prospective study, we measured the Verbal and Performance IQ in Italian children at school-age who were resident in an area declared as a National contaminated site because of mercury pollution, taking into account the possible beneficial effect of fish consumption and potential confounders. A mother-child cohort made up of 242 children was established at birth in Northeastern Italy in 2001. Their mothers were interviewed approximately 2 months after delivery to determine type, quantity, and origin of fish consumed during pregnancy and about a number of mother, child and family characteristics. Total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were assessed in maternal hair and breast milk and in the child's hair. When children reached 7-9 years of age, 154 (63.6%) parents gave consent to participate in a follow-up evaluation. On that occasion, a child's hair sample was collected to determine the current concentration of THg, mothers were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and children underwent neuropsychological testing. Verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ were measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III) administered by psychologists at school or local health centers. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle information, medical information of the child's family and the child's dietary habits were collected using a questionnaire filled in by mothers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal THg exposure through fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy and children's IQ after adjustment for possible confounders such as fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy, child's fish consumption at follow-up, child's birthweight, maternal cigarette smoking during

  18. Effects of aging on cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood oxygenation level dependent responses to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M; Liang, Christine L; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Fleisher, Adam S; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    Calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive technique to assess functional metabolic changes associated with normal aging. We simultaneously measured both the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses in the visual cortex for separate conditions of mild hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) and a simple checkerboard stimulus in healthy younger (n = 10, mean: 28-years-old) and older (n = 10, mean: 53-years-old) adults. From these data we derived baseline CBF, the BOLD scaling parameter M, the fractional change in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) with activation, and the coupling ratio n of the fractional changes in CBF and CMRO(2). For the functional activation paradigm, the magnitude of the BOLD response was significantly lower for the older group (0.57 +/- 0.07%) compared to the younger group (0.95 +/- 0.14%), despite the finding that the fractional CBF and CMRO(2) changes were similar for both groups. The weaker BOLD response for the older group was due to a reduction in the parameter M, which was significantly lower for older (4.6 +/- 0.4%) than younger subjects (6.5 +/- 0.8%), most likely reflecting a reduction in baseline CBF for older (41.7 +/- 4.8 mL/100 mL/min) compared to younger (59.6 +/- 9.1 mL/100 mL/min) subjects. In addition to these primary responses, for both groups the BOLD response exhibited a post-stimulus undershoot with no significant difference in this magnitude. However, the post-undershoot period of the CBF response was significantly greater for older compared to younger subjects. We conclude that when comparing two populations, the BOLD response can provide misleading reflections of underlying physiological changes. A calibrated approach provides a more quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes than the BOLD response alone.

  19. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  20. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

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    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  1. The relationship between serum lipid levels, high blood pressure and obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kurtuncu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine serum lipid, cholesterol and obesity levels in healthy children, and then to explore the relationships between these factors. Methods: The sample group consisted of 103 students at Gelik Elementary School in Zonguldak, Turkey who was willing to participate in the study, had not been medically diagnosed with a chronic ailment, and were not taking regular medications. Results: When the students' mean BMI (Body Mass Index measurements were considered, it was found that mean BMI at 13 years of age (21.03 ± 0.23 was higher than at 14 years (20.05 ± 0.20 and that this difference was strongly significant (p=0.002. When the relationships between the students' height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein measurements were considered, it was seen that there was a positive significant relationship between height-weight (r=0.472; p<0.001, height-blood pressure (r=0.432; p<0.001, and height-FBS (r=0.332; p=0.001. Conclusions: The conclusion drawn was that monitoring blood pressure, cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels in childhood medical examinations is not only important in terms of identifying obesity, but also in identifying nutritional mistakes and deficiencies at an early stage.

  2. Effect of visible laser light on ATP level of anaemic red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, Nursakinah; Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Mustafa, Mohd Zulkifli; Ali, Zalila

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present influence of visible laser light on ATP level and viability of anaemic red blood cell (RBC). The visible laser lights used in this work are 460nm and 532nm. The responses of ATP level in anaemic and normal RBC before and after laser irradiation at different exposure time (30, 40, 50 and 60s) were observed. Three aliquots were prepared from the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood sample. One served as a control (untreated) and another two were irradiated with 460nm and 560nm lasers. Packed RBC was prepared to study ATP level in the RBC using CellTiter-GloLuminescent cell Viability Assay kit. The assay generates a glow type signal produced by luciferase reaction, which is proportional to the amount of ATP present in RBCs. Paired t-test were done to analyse ATP level before and after laser irradiation. The results revealed laser irradiation improve level of ATP in anaemic RBC. Effect of laser light on anaemic RBCs were significant over different exposure time for both 460nm (p=0.000) and 532nm (p=0.003). The result of ATP level is further used as marker for RBC viability. The influence of ATP level and viability were studied. Optical densities obtained from the data were used to determine cell viability of the samples. Results showed that laser irradiation increased viability of anaemic RBC compared to normal RBC.