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Sample records for blood loss prevention

  1. Postoperative blood loss prevention in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samik; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Issa, Kimona; McElroy, Mark J; Khanuja, Harpal S; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Blood loss is a serious concern during lower extremity total joint arthroplasty with the estimated reduction in hemoglobin concentration known to vary between 2 and 4 g/dL after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Allogeneic transfusions are commonly used to treat the acute blood loss and postoperative anemia to diminish the potential cardiovascular risks in up to 50% of such cases with a high volume of blood loss. However, these transfusions are associated with the risks of immunologic reactions, immunosuppression, and infection transmission. Multiple blood-saving strategies have been developed to minimize blood loss, to reduce transfusion rates, to decrease complications, and to improve outcomes in the postoperative period. Currently, there are no clear guidelines on the blood management strategies adopted to lessen the blood loss associated with TKA. The aim of this study was to review the literature and provide a broad summary of the efficacy and complications associated with several blood-saving measures that are currently used in the postoperative period. Evidence suggests that simple techniques such as limb elevation, cryotherapy, compression dressings, and drain clamping may reduce external drainage, however, whether these techniques lead to less allogeneic transfusions is currently debatable. Further research on using a combination of these strategies and their cost-effectiveness are needed.

  2. Tranexamic Acid in a Multimodal Blood Loss Prevention Protocol to Decrease Blood Loss in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andreu, Miguel; Talavera, Gloria; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma G.; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Figueredo-Galve, Reyes; Rodriguez-Merchán, Carlos E.; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify if blood loss and transfusion requirements can be decreased in revision knee surgery through a multimodal blood loss approach with tranexamic acid (TXA) Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was designed in 87 knees (79 patients) that received a knee revision between 2007 and 2013. To avoid heterogeneity in the surgical technique, only revisions with one single implant system were included. A treatment series of 44 knees that received TXA and other techniques in a multimodal blood loss protocol was compared to a control series of 43 knees that received neither TXA nor the rest of the multimodal blood loss protocol. No differences in the complexity of surgeries or case severity were detected. Results: A significant decrease was observed from 58% transfusion rate in the control group to 5% in the treated group. The postoperative haemoglobin drop was also significantly different. Although the use of a blood loss prevention approach including TXA was the most relevant factor in the transfusion risk (OR=15), longer surgical time also associated an increased risk of transfusion (OR=1.15). Conclusion: This study supports the use of a two-dose intravenous TXA under a multimodal blood loss prevention approach in revision knee replacement with significant reduction in the transfusion rate, postoperative blood loss and haemoglobin drop. PMID:27708740

  3. Complete prevention of blood loss with self-sealing haemostatic needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyung; Park, Sung-Gurl; Oh, Byung-Chang; Kim, Keumyeon; Jo, Seongyeon; Lee, Moon Sue; Oh, Seok Song; Hong, Seon-Hui; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kang, Sun-Woong; Lee, Haeshin

    2017-01-01

    Bleeding is largely unavoidable following syringe needle puncture of biological tissues and, while inconvenient, this typically causes little or no harm in healthy individuals. However, there are certain circumstances where syringe injections can have more significant side effects, such as uncontrolled bleeding in those with haemophilia, coagulopathy, or the transmission of infectious diseases through contaminated blood. Herein, we present a haemostatic hypodermic needle able to prevent bleeding following tissue puncture. The surface of the needle is coated with partially crosslinked catechol-functionalized chitosan that undergoes a solid-to-gel phase transition in situ to seal punctured tissues. Testing the capabilities of these haemostatic needles, we report complete prevention of blood loss following intravenous and intramuscular injections in animal models, and 100% survival in haemophiliac mice following syringe puncture of the jugular vein. Such self-sealing haemostatic needles and adhesive coatings may therefore help to prevent complications associated with bleeding in more clinical settings.

  4. Blood loss in coronary artery bypass surgery : etiology, diagnosis and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, C.

    2016-01-01

    Blood loss requiring transfusions, and, in some cases even surgical re-exploration, is relatively common after cardiac surgery. There are several factors associated with this blood loss that can be separated into bleeding complications with a surgical origin (bleeding vessel, anastomosis or other su

  5. Intravenous 1 gram tranexamic acid for prevention of blood loss and blood transfusion during caesarean section: a randomized case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Ramani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of current study was to determine the effect of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after C-section. Methods: All women undergoing LSCS were divided in two groups viz study and control group. All were requested for pre-op and post-op Hb%, PCV and TRBC. Intravenous tranexamic acid one gm was given to study group (not to control group 10 min prior to skin incision and blood loss in both groups was calculated by weighing prewieghed pads soaked in blood. Results: Post-op blood loss was significantly lower in study group (P = 0.020. Hb% changes in post-op period is significant in control group (P = 0.037. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid is safe and effective in preventing post-partum hemorrhage after caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 366-369

  6. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  7. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  8. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  9. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  10. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of blood clots. Heparin is recommended to treat DVT and PE for the first five to ten days, as well as for preventing blood clots ... risk of bleeding. For patients who develop a deep vein thrombosis, and/or a ... blood clot prevention will be included in your overall treatment plan, ...

  11. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  12. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA for corrective spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Kenneth M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Methods/Design Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS, and adult deformity (AD via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. Discussion The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581

  13. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Algadiem; Aleisa; Alsubaie; Buhlaiqah; Algadeeb; Alsneini

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common su...

  14. [Prognosis and intensive care for massive obstetric blood loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadchikov, D V; Marshalov, D V

    2005-01-01

    The study covered 235 obstetric patients having varying blood loss (1.8 to 55.7%) at labor. Their constitutional, history, clinical, functional, and biochemical data were studied, which allowed the authors to develop a strategic and tactic line of prediction of the development of massive blood loss at labor. The algorithm of preventive intensive care, developed on the basis of predictive criteria, was found to significantly improve the results of treatment and to reduce the frequency and severity of obstetric hemorrhagic complications.

  15. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-24

    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  16. Uncovering effective strategies for hearing loss prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C; Meinke, Deanna

    2016-04-01

    Occupational health agencies, researchers and policy makers have recognized the need for evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce or prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. While many workplaces comply with legal or obligatory requirements and implement recommended interventions, few publications exist documenting the effectiveness of these actions. Additionally, some workplaces have discovered through their own processes, novel ways to reduce the risk of injury. Peer-reviewed information on the effectiveness of the many strategies and approaches currently in use could help correct weaknesses, or further encourage their adoption and expansion. The evaluation of intervention effectiveness would certainly contribute to improved worker health and safety. This need is particularly relevant regarding noise exposure in the workplace and hearing loss prevention interventions. In a 2006 review of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research Program, the independent National Academies of Sciences recommended that NIOSH place greater emphasis on identifying the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention measures on the basis of outcomes that are as closely related as possible to reducing noise exposure and work related hearing loss (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11721). NIOSH used two different approaches to address that recommendation: the first one was to conduct research, including broad systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The second was to create an award program, the Safe-In-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award™, to identify and honor excellent real-world examples of noise control and other hearing loss prevention practices and innovations.

  17. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries ... Your doctor will outline a program to help prevent the development of blood clots after your surgery. ...

  18. Management of major blood loss: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    the early control of the cause of bleeding by non-definitive means, while haemostatic control resuscitation seeks early control of coagulopathy. Haemostatic resuscitation provides transfusions with plasma and platelets in addition to red blood cells (RBCs) in an immediate and sustained manner as part...... of the transfusion protocol for massively bleeding patients. Transfusion of RBCs, plasma and platelets in a similar proportion as in whole blood prevents both hypovolaemia and coagulopathy. Although an early and effective reversal of coagulopathy is documented, the most effective means of preventing coagulopathy....... Furthermore, viscoelastic whole blood assays, such as thrombelastography (TEG)/rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM), appear advantageous for identifying coagulopathy in patients with severe haemorrhage, as opposed to conventional coagulation assays. In our view, patients with uncontrolled bleeding, regardless...

  19. Prevent and cure disuse bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Webster S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Anabolic agents like parathyroid hormone and postagladin E-like substances were studied in dogs and rats to determine their effectiveness in the prevention and cure of bone loss due to immobilization. It was determined that postagladin E2 administration prevented immobilization while at the same time it added extra bone in a dose responsive manner. Although bone mass returns, poor trabecular architecture remains after normal ambulation recovery from immobilization. Disuse related bone loss and poor trabecular architecture were cured by post-immobilization postagladin E2 treatment.

  20. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    reduce the fluid burden of hemorrhage. Based on group -to- group comparisons, ITPR had limited effect on improving mean arterial pressure and other...between the two groups . Mean arterial pressure showed a steady decrease from the beginning of the study until device placement, but showed no difference...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0006 Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss Richard D. Branson, RRT University of Cincinnati

  1. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  2. Vitamin C prevents hypogonadal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, we show that the ingestion of vitamin C prevents the low-turnover bone loss following ovariectomy in mice. We show that this prevention in areal bone mineral density and micro-CT parameters results from the stimulation of bone formation, demonstrable in vivo by histomorphometry, bone marker measurements, and quantitative PCR. Notably, the reductions in the bone formation rate, plasma osteocalcin levels, and ex vivo osteoblast gene expression 8 weeks post-ovariectomy are all returned to levels of sham-operated controls. The study establishes vitamin C as a skeletal anabolic agent.

  3. Hidden blood loss after surgery for hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kehlet, H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the total blood loss associated with surgery for fracture of the hip and to identify risk factors for increased blood loss. We prospectively studied 546 patients with hip fracture. The total blood loss was calculated on the basis of the haemoglobin difference, the number ...

  4. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  5. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  6. Hidden blood loss after surgery for hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N B; Kehlet, H

    2006-01-01

    with aspirin, intra-operative hypotension and gastro-intestinal bleeding or ulceration were all independent predictors of blood loss. We conclude that total blood loss after surgery for hip fracture is much greater than that observed intra-operatively. Frequent post-operative measurements of haemoglobin...

  7. Factors influencing intraoperative blood loss in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thastum, M; Andersen, K; Rude, K; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify factors of importance for intraoperative blood loss relative to total blood volume in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. The study included 356 patients treated consecutively at a Danish university hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years and (2) patient undergoing a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, or a combination of the two. The patient-specific relative blood loss was calculated as a percentage by dividing the intraoperative blood loss by the estimated preoperative total blood volume, and then correlated with body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operating time, and treatment modality in a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. Operating time (Psurgery, a prolonged operating time, and reduced BMI significantly increase the intraoperative relative blood loss in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

  8. Intraoperative blood loss and gestational age at pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano; Thomas; Lapinski; Balwan; Patel

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To establish the relationship of measured intraoperative blood loss to gestational age at pregnancy termination, and to determine which factors, if any, affect the risk of bleeding.Methods: A single-operator series of 363 consecutive women undergoing pregnancy termination between 5 and 24 weeks gestational age, as dated by ultrasound, was prospectively evaluated. All pregnancies under 13 weeks gestation were terminated by mechanical dilation and suction curettage without preoperative cervical ripening. All pregnancies between 13 and 24 weeks gestation were terminated by preoperative osmotic cervical dilation with laminaria tents and subsequent uterine evacuation by a combination of suction curettage, sharp curettage, and Bierer forceps extraction. All patients over 12 weeks gestation received a postoperative oxytocin infusion. Whenever possible, amniotic fluid and blood were collected and measured separately. Patients were excluded from the data analysis for pregnancy demise, PPROM, Potter's syndrome, or inability to separate blood establish their relationship. After adjustment for gestational age, the results were analyzed to determine if blood loss was related to maternal age, smoking history, body habitus, or operative indication.Results: A curvilinear relationship between blood loss and gestational age was observed. Mean blood loss at 24 weeks exceeded 800 mL. After adjustment for gestational age, no factors significantly affected blood loss at dilation and aspiration of first trimester pregnancies. In those patients undergoing dilation and evacuation in the second trimester, both simple and stepwise regression analyses showed obesity (BMI >/=32.3) to be significantly associated with increased blood loss (P cesarean section, nor smoking history were significantly associated with increased blood loss at dilation and evacuation.Conclusions: With advancing gestational age, intraoperative blood loss increases in curvilinear fashion. Termination providers

  9. 76 FR 62093 - Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY... invites interested parties to participate in an informal stakeholder meeting on preventing occupational... stakeholder meeting as part of its commitment to work with stakeholders on approaches to...

  10. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children: Preventing the Silent Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Hal Martin; Judith Sobel; Susan E. Griest; Linda Howarth; SHI Yongbing

    2006-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss and related tinnitus are often unrecognized problems, especially in non-occupational settings. Research indicates that increasing numbers of children and adolescents have or are acquiring noise induced hearing losses. Noise induced hearing loss can almost completely be prevented with simple precautionary measures. Educational programs rarely exist outside of those mandated in occupational settings.Health Communication theory can be applied to hearing health for developing effective loss prevention programs.Dangerous Decibels(R) is one example of an effective multi-disciplinary effort to develop and disseminated prevention strategies.

  11. Managing anemia and blood loss in elective gynecologic surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, W A; Meeks, G R

    2001-05-01

    Hysterectomy is the second-most-common surgical procedure among premenopausal women. The conditions that lead to the need for a hysterectomy often are accompanied by chronic blood loss that can lead to anemia. Moreover, hysterectomy and myomectomy may result in significant blood loss, which exacerbates the anemia. The presence of fatigue associated with anemia has a substantially negative impact on quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Options for alleviating perioperative anemia include minimizing surgical blood loss, blood transfusion, supplementation with hematinics, such as iron and folic acid, and treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin. Treating preoperative anemia is expected to help correct anemia prior to surgery and may have a positive impact on anemia-related symptoms and surgical outcomes.

  12. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  13. Effect of autologous blood donation on the central venous pressure, blood loss and blood transfusion during living donor left hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Jawan; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-Chi Tseng; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung-Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng; Po-Ping Liu; King-Wah Chiu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Autologous blood donation (ABD) is mainly used to reduce the use of banked blood. In fact, ABD can be regarded as acute blood loss. Would ABD 2-3 d before operation affect the CVP level and subsequently result in less blood loss during liver resection was to be determined.METHODS: Eighty-four patients undergoing living donor left hepatectomy were retrospectively divided as group Ⅰ (GⅠ)and group Ⅱ (GⅡ) according to have donated 250-300 mL blood 2-3 d before living donor hepatectomy or not. The changes of the intraoperative CVP, surgical blood loss,blood products used and the changes of perioperative hemoglobin (Hb) between groups were analyzed and compared by using Mann-Whitney Utest.RESULTS: The results show that the intraoperative CVP changes between GⅠ (n = 35) and GⅡ (n = 49) up to graft procurement were the same, subsequently the blood loss,but ABD resulted in significantly lower perioperative Hb levels in GⅠ.CONCLUSION: Since none of the patients required any blood products perioperatively, all the predonated bloods were discarded after the patients were discharged from the hospital, It indicates that ABD in current series had no any beneficial effects, in term of cost, lowering the CVP, blood loss and reduce the use of banked blood products, but resulted in significant lower Hb in perioperative period.

  14. 50例剖腹产术中出血的临床分析与预防措施%50 Cases Clinical Analysis of Blood Loss During Caesarean Section and Preventive Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青建; 刘彩萍

    2013-01-01

    preventive measures.Result:In 50 cases of cesarean bleeding,11 patients due to placental factors occur in patients with bleeding,accounting for 22.0%;9 patients with coagulation disorders occur due to blood loss,accounting for 18.0%;17 cases of patients with uterine inertia occurred intraoperative bleeding,accounting for 34.0%;six cases occurred in patients with bleeding due to uterine fibroids,accounting for 12.0%,seven patients because of bleeding laceration occurred,accounting for 14.0%.Caesarean section for all patients bleeding after giving symptomatic treatment of patients with stable vital signs,no deaths.Conclusion:Placental factors,coagulation disorders,uterine inertia,uterine fibroids,bleeding laceration caesarean section is the main reason,in the clinical treatment should be based on the patient's condition,analyze the causes of bleeding,combined with medical conditions,formulate caesarean bleeding hemostasis scientific programs to ensure the safety of mother and child.

  15. [Blood loss in dialysis in repeatedly used capillary dialysators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U; Senf, L; Kleinert, P; Thieler, H; Marx, M

    1980-11-01

    The blood losses increase to the twofold to threefold by capillary dialysators C-DAK 4 and C-DAK 5 are about 6.8 ml and 26 ml, respectively, in the first use. In repeated use of the C-DAK 4 the blood losses by the C-DAK 5, however, are so high that it is not to be advised to use them manifold under our conditions of dialysis. By an increase of the reperfusion quantity from 150 to 250 ml of electrolyte solution for one C-DAK 4 blood losses may considerably be reduced. In a parallel switching of two C-DAK 4 each exemplar should be perfused individually.

  16. Study on the Prevention of Rabbit Hair from Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世春; 张华鹏; 姚穆

    2001-01-01

    A new method is presented to solve the problem of loss of rabbit hair by using ES fiber blending with rabbit hair. ES fiber is used to bond the rabbit hair to prevent the rabbit hair from losing after heat setting. The factors affecting hair loss are heat setting temperature, rabbit hair/ES fiber blend ratio, fabric heating setting, twistsof yarn, etc. Temperature of heat setting and ES fiber content are the two key factors This method has almost no detrimental effect on the coziness of the fabric, which is better than other hair loss prevention methods.

  17. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most ... per day, and women only 1. Not smoking. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you ...

  18. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  19. Perioperative blood loss and diclofenac in major arthroplastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gvozdenović

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contemporary literature indicates precaution over the perioperative use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, since they can potentially increase perioperative blood loss related to their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on perioperative blood loss undergoing hip arthroplasty and its correlation with general and regional anesthesia.Methods: This prospective study included 120 patients who had undergone elective unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Patients were allocated into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 were pretreated with diclofenac and operated in general and regional anesthesia. Group 3 and 4 weren’t pretreated with any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and were, as well, operated in general and regional anesthesia. Diclofenac was administered orally two times a day 75 mg (total 150 mg and also as intramuscular injection (75 mg preoperatively and 12 hours later on a day of surgery.Results: The perioperative blood loss in the rst 24 hours showed an increase of 29.4% in the diclofenac group operated in general anesthesia and increase of 26.8% in patients operated in regional anesthesia (P < 0.05 compared to control group. Statistical data evaluation of patients operated in general anesthesia compared to regional anesthesia, the overall blood loss in the rst 24 h after surgery, showed an increase of 6.4% in the diclofenac group and increase of 3.6% in placebo group. This was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Pretreatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac before elective unilateral total hip arthroplasty increases the perioperative blood loss signficantly. Early discontinuation of non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is advised.

  20. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  1. Intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Fabris, André Luis Silva; Polo, Tárik Ocon Braga; Poli, Guilherme Henrique Souza; Pastori, Cláudio Maldonado; Marzola, Clóvis; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Garcia-Júnior, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-09-01

    Procedures for the surgical correction of dentofacial deformities may produce important complications, whether due to the potential for vascular injury or to prolonged surgery, both of which may lead to severe blood loss. Fluid replacement with crystalloid, colloid, or even blood products may be required. The aim of this study was to assess blood loss and transfusion requirements in 45 patients (18 males and 27 females; mean age 29.29 years, range 16-52 years) undergoing orthognathic surgery, assigned to one of two groups according to procedure type-rapid maxillary expansion or double-jaw orthognathic surgery. Preoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and intraoperative blood loss were measured. There was a substantial individual variation in pre- and postoperative hemoglobin values (10.3-17 and 8.8-15.4 g/dL, respectively; p surgery and follow meticulous protocols to minimize the risks.

  2. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and blood transfusion requirements following peri-acetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, G I; Perka, C; Janz, V; Krämer, M; Renner, L

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of using tranexamic acid (TXA) during peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) on peri-operative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. In addition we analysed whether the use of TXA was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following this procedure. A consecutive series of 96 PAOs, performed by a single surgeon, were reviewed. A total of 48 patients received TXA and 48 did not. The TXA group received a continuous infusion of TXA at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. The primary outcome measure was the requirement for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss, the decrease in the level of haemoglobin in the blood, the length of hospital stay, and the complications of this treatment. The mean rate of transfusion was significantly lower in the TXA group (62.5% vs 12.5%, p transfusion after PAO significantly, without adverse effects such as an increased rate of VTE.

  3. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ankle Neck & Back Health Centers Broken Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries ...

  4. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foot & Ankle Neck & Back Health Centers Broken Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & ...

  5. The prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert V

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, our acoustic environment is filled with amplified sound sources (e.g., MP3 players, video game stations, and sports/entertainment venues). There is serious concern and also some controversy about the risks of acoustic trauma in children. This overview provides some basic information on the physiological mechanisms that lead to noise induced hearing loss, a survey of various studies that, on balance, indicates that there is cause for concern, and finally a discussion on measures that can help to prevent noise induced hearing loss in children. This paper is designed for public health and other healthcare professions (ENT, audiologists, family doctors, and pediatricians) who should understand the risks of noise induced hearing loss and its prevention.

  6. The Prevention of Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Harrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our acoustic environment is filled with amplified sound sources (e.g., MP3 players, video game stations, and sports/entertainment venues. There is serious concern and also some controversy about the risks of acoustic trauma in children. This overview provides some basic information on the physiological mechanisms that lead to noise induced hearing loss, a survey of various studies that, on balance, indicates that there is cause for concern, and finally a discussion on measures that can help to prevent noise induced hearing loss in children. This paper is designed for public health and other healthcare professions (ENT, audiologists, family doctors, and pediatricians who should understand the risks of noise induced hearing loss and its prevention.

  7. Lifestyle strategies for the prevention of vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C

    2010-01-01

    As the baby boom generation ages, it is anticipated that half a million cases per year will be added to the 19 to 21 million Americans not living in institutions or serving in the military who have low vision or blindness. The 4 major causes of vision loss and blindness in the United States are cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. All 4 diseases involve change in the microcirculation in eye structures. Holistic approaches to health incorporate attention to individuals' lifestyle choices. Relevant research literature was reviewed to identify strategies for lifestyle modification that nurses can use to prevent or slow progression of these diseases. Prevention strategies in general are those that promote avoidance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Because vision loss has been shown to be associated with diminished quality of life and increased mortality, lifestyle changes that prevent or moderate the impact of these diseases are an important focus of nursing care.

  8. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a blood clot within a deep vein. It commonly occurs in the thigh or calf. Deep ... breaks free and travels through the veins. If it reaches the lungs, it can block the flow ...

  9. Metastasis and bone loss: advancing treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G David; Guise, Theresa A; Boyce, Brendon F; Brufsky, Adam M; Clézardin, Philippe; Croucher, Peter I; Gralow, Julie R; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R; Smith, Matthew R; Suva, Larry J

    2010-12-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced bone loss have recently reported exciting and intriguing results. A multidisciplinary consensus conference convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess gaps in current knowledge and prioritize recommendations to advance research over the next 5 years. The program addressed three topics: advancing understanding of metastasis prevention in the context of bone pathophysiology; developing therapeutic approaches to prevent metastasis and defining strategies to prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss. Several priorities were identified: (1) further investigate the effects of bone-targeted therapies on tumor and immune cell interactions within the bone microenvironment; (2) utilize and further develop preclinical models to study combination therapies; (3) conduct clinical studies of bone-targeted therapies with radiation and chemotherapy across a range of solid tumors; (4) develop biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from bone-targeted therapies; (5) educate physicians on bone loss and fracture risk; (6) define optimal endpoints and new measures of efficacy for future clinical trials; and (7) define the optimum type, dose and schedule of adjuvant bone-targeted therapy.

  10. Metastasis and bone loss: Advancing treatment and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Guise, Theresa A.; Boyce, Brendon F.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Clézardin, Philippe; Croucher, Peter I.; Gralow, Julie R.; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R.; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced bone loss have recently reported exciting and intriguing results. A multidisciplinary consensus conference convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess gaps in current knowledge and prioritize recommendations to advance research over the next 5 years. The program addressed three topics: advancing understanding of metastasis prevention in the context of bone pathophysiology; developing therapeutic approaches to prevent metastasis and defining strategies to prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss. Several priorities were identified: (1) further investigate the effects of bone-targeted therapies on tumor and immune cell interactions within the bone microenvironment; (2) utilize and further develop preclinical models to study combination therapies; (3) conduct clinical studies of bone-targeted therapies with radiation and chemotherapy across a range of solid tumors; (4) develop biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from bone-targeted therapies; (5) educate physicians on bone loss and fracture risk; (6) define optimal endpoints and new measures of efficacy for future clinical trials; and (7) define the optimum type, dose and schedule of adjuvant bone-targeted therapy. PMID:20478658

  11. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Thigh Knee & Lower Leg Foot & Ankle Neck & Back Health Centers Broken Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries Joint Replacement Rehabilitation ...

  12. Analysis on hidden blood loss of total knee arthroplasty in treating knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hui-liang; LI Zheng; FENG Ming-li; CAO Guang-le

    2011-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an important therapy for the treatment of various late-stage knee diseases. However, it has been observed that patients have lower hemoglobin (HB) counts postoperatively, which are significantly inconsistent with the measured blood loss. Although the concept of hidden blood loss has been presented in 2000, very little clinical attention has been paid since then. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and influential factor of hidden blood loss after TKA in treating knee osteoarthritis.Methods One hundred and eight patients, with 42 males and 66 females, were retrospectively analyzed. The perioperative blood loss and the hidden blood loss following TKA were calculated by Gross formula. Potential factors affecting perioperative and hidden blood loss included gender, surgical time, tourniquet time, hemostasis (during operation with deflating tourniquet), and reinfusion of salvaged blood.Results The average perioperative blood loss was found to be (1553±356) ml and the average hidden blood loss was (793±223) ml. The hidden blood loss of the male was significantly higher than that of the female, and was reduced by hemostasis during the operation with a deflating tourniquet. Hidden blood loss was not affected by postoperative blood salvage and reinfusion, surgical time, or tourniquet time.Conclusions When calculating the value of hidden blood loss by Gross formula, the lowest value of hematocrit should be chosen as the parameter so that hidden blood loss would not be underestimated. No significant differences could be found in hidden blood loss for males compared to females. Hidden blood loss can be reduced by hemostasis during operation with a deflating tourniquet. Although reinfusion of salvaged blood could not reduce the perioperative blood loss or hidden blood loss, it was still an effective method to reduce transfusion rate.

  13. Phytoestrogens in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagari, Violet S; Levis, Silvina

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a condition associated with low bone mass resulting from the increased bone resorption that occurs following a decline in estrogen levels. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that have affinity to the estrogen receptor and are able to act as either estrogen agonists or antagonists. Because of their structural similarity to 17-beta-estradiol, they have been studied extensively for their role in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. An extensive number of studies employing different types of isoflavone preparations (including soy foods, soy-enriched foods, and soy isoflavone tablets) have been conducted in a wide range of populations, including Western and Asian women. Although there is considerable variability in study design and duration, study population, type of soy isoflavone employed in the intervention, and study outcomes, the evidence points to a lack of a protective role of soy isoflavones in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss.

  14. Design of a vehicle based system to prevent ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Matthew D.; Eby, Steven C.; Ireland, Glen J.; Mcwithey, Michael C.; Schneider, Mark S.; Youngblood, Daniel L.; Johnson, Matt; Taylor, Chris

    1994-01-01

    This project is designed to be completed over a three year period. Overall project goals are: (1) to understand the processes that contribute to stratospheric ozone loss; (2) to determine the best scheme to prevent ozone loss; and (3) to design a vehicle based system to carry out the prevention scheme. The 1993/1994 design objectives included: (1) to review the results of the 1992/1993 design team, including a reevaluation of the key assumptions used; (2) to develop a matrix of baseline vehicle concepts as candidates for the delivery vehicle; and (3) to develop a selection criteria and perform quantitative trade studies to use in the selection of the specific vehicle concept.

  15. Hearing loss in veterans and the need for hearing loss prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Griest, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there are more than 445,000 veterans receiving compensation for hearing loss associated with military service, and 395,000 receiving compensation for service-related tinnitus. In addition to compensation payments, service-related hearing disorders cost the US Department of Veterans Affairs in terms of provision of hearing aids, hearing aid-related services, and clinical services at its 220 facilities nationwide. It is imperative that hearing conservation among military personnel and veterans be addressed. In this paper, we describe the rationale for and the development of a multimedia Hearing Loss Prevention Program aimed at preventing the progression of hearing loss among veterans associated with social, recreational, and nonmilitary occupational noise exposure. The program was developed based on the principles outlined in the Health Belief Model of Rosenstock (1966) and the Health Promotion Model of Pender et al. (2002).

  16. Isoflavones prevent bone loss following ovariectomy in young adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li-Ting

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soy protein, a rich source of phytoestrogens, exhibit estrogen-type bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine if ingestion of isoflavones before ovariectomy can prevent bone loss following ovariectomy. Twenty-four nulliparous Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. In the normal diet groups, a sham operation was performed on Group A, while ovariectomy was performed on Group B. For Groups C and D, all rats were fed with an isoflavone-rich (25 mg/day diet for one month, then bilateral ovariectomy were performed. In the rats in Group C, a normal diet was begun following the ovariectomy. The rats in Groups D continued to receive the isoflavone-rich diet for two additional months postoperatively. All rats were sacrificed 60 days after surgery. The weight of bone ash of the long bones and whole lumbar spine were determined. A histological study of cancellous bone was done and biochemical indices of skeletal metabolism were performed and analyzed. The markers of bone metabolism exhibited no significant changes. When compared with the sham-operated rats fed a normal diet, the bone mass of ovariectomized rats decreased significantly; pre-ovariectomy ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet did not prevent bone loss. The bone mass of rats treated with an isoflavone-rich diet for three months was higher than controls two months after ovariectomy. Dietary isoflavones did not prevent the development of post-ovariectomy bone loss, but long-term ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet increased the bone mineral contents after ovariectomy in young rats.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V.; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  18. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  19. On preventive blood pressure self-monitoring at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Gronvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    -called Quantified Self). In this article, we explore socio-technical complexities that may occur when introducing preventive health-measurement technologies into older adults’ daily routines and everyday lives. In particular, the original study investigated blood pressure (BP) measurement in non-clinical settings...

  20. Tanshinone prevents cancellous bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao CUI; Tie WU; Yu-yu LIU; Yi-feng DENG; Chun-mei AI; Huai-qing CHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the skeletal effects of total tanshinone in ovariectomized rats by analyzing cancellous bone histomorphometry of fourth lumbar vertebrae (LV4) and proximal tibial metaphyses (PTM). METHODS: Fourmonth-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were sham-operated and treated with vehicle or ovariectomized and treated with either vehicle, total tanshinone (200 mg.kg-1.d-1, equivalent to 35 μg.kg-1.d-1 of tanshinone II A and 16 mg.kg-1.d-1 of gery for 10 weeks. Double in vivo fiuorochrome labeling was administered to all rats. The undecalcified longitudinal LV4 and PTM sections were cut and stained with Goldner's Trichrome (4-μm thickness) or unstained (8-μm thickness) for the bone histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: A significant decrease in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant increase in osteoclast surface (OCS/BS) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) were found in both LV and PTM of vehicle-treated OVX rats compared with sham controls.Tanshinone completely prevented the decreases in BV/TV and Tb.N and the increase in OCS/BS in the LV4, and partially prevented the decreases in BV/TV and Tb.N in the PTM of OVX rats. In addition, tanshinone increased trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) whereas it did not alter MS/BS. Moreover, tanshinone had no effect on uterine weight and body weight of OVX rats. Estrogen treatment increased BV/TV and Tb.N and decreased OCS/BS, but, also markedly decreased MS/BS and increased uterine weight in OVX rats. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that the adequate supply of tanshinone prevented OVX-induced cancellous bone loss in rats through inhibition of elevated bone resorption.

  1. The impact of restorative treatment on tooth loss prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldas Junior Arnaldo de França

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze tooth loss resulting from caries in relation to the number of times the extracted tooth had been restored, the type of caries diagnosed (primary or secondary, and socioeconomic indicators of patients from the city of Recife, Brazil. Ten public health centres and ten centres associated with health insurance companies were randomly selected. The size of the sample was calculated using a standard error of 2.5%. A confidence interval of 95% and a 50% prevalence of reasons for extractions were used for calculating the sample. The minimum size of the sample for meeting these requirements was 381 patients. Patients were randomly selected from the list of adults registered at each centre. A total of 410 patients were invited to take part in the study. The response rate was 100%, but 6 patients were excluded due to incompleteness of data in the questionnaire applied. An assessment was made to obtain the number of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT index and the reasons for extraction. The results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001 relationship between the number of times the tooth indicated for extraction had been restored and the reason for extraction being caries. Furthermore, the majority of teeth extracted due to caries had been restored two or more times. A highly statistically significant association was also observed between one indicator of use of dental services (F/DMFT and extraction due to caries (p < 0.001. The findings questioned the belief that tooth loss can be prevented in the general population by merely providing restorative treatment.

  2. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.

  3. [Workshop for the prevention of blood exposure accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti-Begue, Simone; de Gaillande, Ludovic

    2014-03-01

    In the framework of the Stop Risk programme, presented by the centre for the coordination of the fight against hospital-acquired infections (CClin) in the south east of France, a workshop on the prevention of accidents through exposure to blood combined with improvement actions was offered to the nursing staff of Sartène general hospital. This approach is based on existing programmes and encourages the application of standard precautions.

  4. Pictorial estimation of blood loss in a birthing pool--an aide memoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anushia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article is to share some photographic images to help midwives visually estimate blood loss at water births. PubMed, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched for relevant research. There is little evidence to inform the practice of visually estimating blood loss in water, as discussed further on in the article. This article outlines a simulation where varying amounts of blood were poured into a birthing pool, captured by photo images. Photo images of key amounts like 150mls, 300mls and 450mls can be useful visual markers when estimating blood loss at water births. The speed of spread across the pool may be a significant factor in assessing blood loss. The author recommends that midwives and educators embark on similar simulations to inform their skill in estimating blood loss at water births.

  5. Safe surgery: how accurate are we at predicting intra-operative blood loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Introduction Preoperative estimation of intra-operative blood loss by both anaesthetist and operating surgeon is a criterion of the World Health Organization\\'s surgical safety checklist. The checklist requires specific preoperative planning when anticipated blood loss is greater than 500 mL. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of surgeons and anaesthetists at predicting intra-operative blood loss. Methods A 6-week prospective study of intermediate and major operations in an academic medical centre was performed. An independent observer interviewed surgical and anaesthetic consultants and registrars, preoperatively asking each to predict expected blood loss in millilitre. Intra-operative blood loss was measured and compared with these predictions. Parameters including the use of anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy as well as intra-operative hypothermia and hypotension were recorded. Results One hundred sixty-eight operations were included in the study, including 142 elective and 26 emergency operations. Blood loss was predicted to within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of cases. Consultant surgeons tended to underestimate blood loss, doing so in 43% of all cases, while consultant anaesthetists were more likely to overestimate (60% of all operations). Twelve patients (7%) had underestimation of blood loss of more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. Thirty per cent (n = 6\\/20) of patients requiring transfusion of a blood product within 24 hours of surgery had blood loss underestimated by more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. There was no significant difference in prediction between patients on anti-platelet or anticoagulation therapy preoperatively and those not on the said therapies. Conclusion Predicted intra-operative blood loss was within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of operations. In 30% of patients who ultimately receive a blood transfusion, both the surgeon and anaesthetist significantly underestimate

  6. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1% presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential.

  7. Nicotinamide prevents ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohong; Halliday, Gary M; Surjana, Devita; Damian, Diona L

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation is carcinogenic by causing mutations in the skin and also by suppressing cutaneous antitumor immunity. We previously found nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to be highly effective at reducing UV-induced immunosuppression in human volunteers, with microarray studies on in vivo irradiated human skin suggesting that nicotinamide normalizes subsets of apoptosis, immune function and energy metabolism-related genes that are downregulated by UV exposure. Using human adult low calcium temperature keratinocytes, we further investigated nicotinamide's effects on cellular energy metabolism. We found that nicotinamide prevented UV-induced cellular ATP loss and protected against UV-induced glycolytic blockade. To determine whether nicotinamide alters the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress posttranslationally, we also measured UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotinamide had no effect on ROS formation, and at the low UV doses used in these studies, equivalent to ambient daily sun exposure, there was no evidence of apoptosis. Hence, nicotinamide appears to exert its UV protective effects on the skin via its role in cellular energy pathways.

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-centre plac...

  9. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention: Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recommended amount of exposure time. Facts and Statistics Four million workers go to work each day ... Hearing Loss DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010-136 Statistics on hearing loss in the manufacturing industry. Surveys ...

  10. A Novel Therapeutic for the Treatment and Prevention of Hearing Loss from Acoustic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0077 TITLE: A NOVEL THERAPEUTIC FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS FROM ACOUSTIC TRAUMA PRINCIPAL...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Novel Therapeutic for the Treatment and Prevention of Hearing Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER: Loss from Acoustic Trauma WB l XW...Quad Chart is submitted as an appendix. 9. APPENDICES Quad Chart 6 A Novel Therapeutic for the Treatment and Prevention of Hearing Loss from

  11. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C; Johansson, Pär I; Secher, Niels H

    2014-09-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P coagulation, and this is further accentuated when blood loss is 900 ml.

  12. Surgeons often underestimate the amount of blood loss in replacement surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Ganesan Ganesan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective:To assess the accuracy of the clinically estimated blood loss (EBL when compared with the actual blood loss (ABL in replacement surgeries. Methods: This prospective study was done in Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre from April 2011 to April 2013. Altogether 140 patients undergoing total hip replacement or total knee replacement were included with the inclusion criteria being patients with haemoglobin higher than 100 g/ml and coagulation profile within normal limits. Exclusion criteria were intake of antiplatelet drug or anti-coagulant, bleeding disorders, thrombotic episode, and haematological disorders. There were 65 men and 75 women. In this study, the consultants were free to use any clinical method to estimate the blood loss, including counting the blood-soaked mops and gauze pieces (estimating the volume of blood carried in all the mops and gauzes, measuring blood lost to suction bottles and blood in and around the operative field. The ABL was calculated based on a modification of the Gross’s formula using haematocrit values. Results: In 42 of the 140 cases, the EBL exceeded the ABL. These cases had a negative difference in blood loss (or DIFF-BL<0 and were included in the overestimation group, which accounted for 30% of the study population. Of the remaining 98 cases (70%, the ABL exceeded the EBL. Therefore they were put into the underestimation group who had a positive difference in blood loss (DIFF-BL>0. We found that when the average blood loss was small, the accuracy of estimation was high. But when the average blood loss exceeded 500 ml, the accuracy rate decreased significantly. This suggested that clinical estimation is inaccurate with the increase of blood loss. Conclusion:This study has shown that using clinical estimation alone to guide blood transfusion is inadequate. In this study, 70% of patients had their blood loss underestimated, proving that surgeons often underestimate blood loss in replacement

  13. Plasmalemma Vesicle-Associated Protein Has a Key Role in Blood-Retinal Barrier Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Kruk, Joanna; van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; van Veen, Henk A; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Vogels, Ilse M C; Versteeg, Danielle; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Klaassen, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Loss of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) properties induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other factors is an important cause of diabetic macular edema. Previously, we found that the presence of plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein (PLVAP) in retinal capillaries associates with loss of BRB properties and correlates with increased vascular permeability in diabetic macular edema. In this study, we investigated whether absence of PLVAP protects the BRB from VEGF-induced permeability. We used lentiviral-delivered shRNA or siRNA to inhibit PLVAP expression. The barrier properties of in vitro BRB models were assessed by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance, permeability of differently sized tracers, and the presence of endothelial junction complexes. The effect of VEGF on caveolae formation was studied in human retinal explants. BRB loss in vivo was studied in the mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy model. The inhibition of PLVAP expression resulted in decreased VEGF-induced BRB permeability of fluorescent tracers, both in vivo and in vitro. PLVAP inhibition attenuated transendothelial electrical resistance reduction induced by VEGF in BRB models in vitro and significantly increased transendothelial electrical resistance of the nonbarrier human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, PLVAP knockdown prevented VEGF-induced caveolae formation in retinal explants but did not rescue VEGF-induced alterations in endothelial junction complexes. In conclusion, PLVAP is an essential cofactor in VEGF-induced BRB permeability and may become an interesting novel target for diabetic macular edema therapy.

  14. Tamoxifen in the rat prevents estrogen-deficiency bone loss elicited with the LHRH agonist buserelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, A; Gold, E; Feng, W

    1992-08-01

    In young women chronic use of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists such as buserelin to treat endometriosis leads to estrogen-deficiency bone loss. Tamoxifen citrate is an estrogen agonist/antagonist which protects the skeleton from osteopenia when ovarian hormones are depleted. The present study was undertaken to determine whether tamoxifen citrate (20 mg/kg body wt/week s.c.) could prevent the osteopenic effect of buserelin (25 micrograms/kg body wt/day s.c.). Four groups of rats with 45Ca-labelled bones were studied for 4 weeks: group A--placebo controls; group B--buserelin; Group C--tamoxifen; group D--buserelin+tamoxifen. Bone resorption was monitored by measuring the urinary excretion of 45Ca and hydroxyproline. Interestingly buserelin lowered both blood 17 beta-estradiol values and uterine weights in the presence and absence of tamoxifen. However, tamoxifen slowed bone breakdown and inhibited the bone-thinning effects of buserelin. Total body calcium values (mg; means +/- S.D.) were: 2227 +/- 137; 1926 +/- 124; 2233 +/- 94 and 2268 +/- 163, in groups A to D respectively. Osteopenia was thus present only in group B (P less than 0.001). Because tamoxifen inhibits estrogen-deficiency bone loss in buserelin-treated rats without depressing the hypoestrogenic actions of this LHRH-agonist, we suggest that use of tamoxifen to protect the skeleton during LHRH-agonist therapy in young women should be explored. Tamoxifen citrate might also help to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  15. Surgeons often underestimate the amount of blood loss in replacement surgeries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganesan Ganesan Ram; Perumal Suresh; Phagal Varthi Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the accuracy of the clinically estimated blood loss (EBL) when compared with the actual blood loss (ABL) in replacement surgeries.Methods:This prospective study was done in Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre from April 2011 to April 2013.Altogether 140 patients undergoing total hip replacement or total knee replacement were included with the inclusion criteria being patients with haemoglobin higher than 100 g/ml and coagulation profile within normal limits.Exclusion criteria were intake of antiplatelet drug or anti-coagulant,bleeding disorders,thrombotic episode,and haematological disorders.There were 65 men and 75 women.In this study,the consultants were free to use any clinical method to estimate the blood loss,including counting the blood-soaked mops and gauze pieces (estimating the volume of blood carded in all the mops and gauzes),measuring blood lost to suction bottles and blood in and around the operative field.The ABL was calculated based on a modification of the Gross's formula using haematocrit values.Results:In 42 of the 140 cases,the EBL exceeded the ABL.These cases had a negative difference in blood loss (or DIFF-BL<0) and were included in the overestimation group,which accounted for 30% of the study population.Of the remaining 98 cases (70%),the ABL exceeded the EBL.Therefore they were put into the underestimation group who had a positive difference in blood loss (DIFF-BL>0).We found that when the average blood loss was small,the accuracy of estimation was high.But when the average blood loss exceeded 500 ml,the accuracy rate decreased significantly.This suggested that clinical estimation is inaccurate with the increase of blood loss.Conclusion:This study has shown that using clinical estimation alone to guide blood transfusion is inadequate.In this study,70% of patients had their blood loss underestimated,proving that surgeons often underestimate blood loss in replacement surgeries.

  16. Four Methods for Calculating Blood-loss after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Qiang Gao; Zi-Jian Li; Ke Zhang; Wei Sun; Hong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Currently,various calculation methods for evaluating blood-loss in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are applied in clinical practice.However,different methods may yield different results.The purpose of this study was to determine the most reliable method for calculating blood-loss after primary TKA.Methods:We compared blood-loss in 245 patients who underwent primary unilateral TKA from February 2010 to August 2011.We calculated blood-loss using four methods:Gross equation,hemoglobin (Hb) balance,the Orthopedic Surgery Transfusion Hemoglobin European Overview (OSTHEO) formula,and Hb-dilution.We determined Pearson's correlation coefficients for the four methods.Results:There were large differences in the calculated blood-loss obtained by the four methods.In descending order of combined correlation coefficient based on calculated blood-loss,the methods were Hb-balance,OSTHEO formula,Hb-dilution,and Gross equation.Conclusions:The Hb-balance method may be the most reliable method of estimating blood-loss after TKA.

  17. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required.

  18. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Dominic J; Ripper, Richard M; Fettiplace, Michael R; Weinberg, Guy L; Vitello, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study's purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student's unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed P = 0.2269 and R (2) = 0.03154. The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression R (2) value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The R (2) value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water.

  19. The Effects of Climate Change Perceptions on Willingness to Fund the Prevention of Wetland Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Ross G.; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Kim, Tae-Goun

    2010-01-01

    Using contingent valuation, we estimate willingness to pay for prevention of wetland loss in coastal Louisiana, and indentify the factors that influence respondent choice, specifically climate change perceptions. Eighty two percent of respondents were willing to pay for some form of wetland loss prevention.

  20. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  1. A systematic review of the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Carvalho Pacagnella

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This systematic review examines the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs and explores its use to trigger clinical interventions in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out using a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies presenting data on the relationship of clinical signs & symptoms and blood loss. Methodological quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist and the general guidelines of MOOSE. RESULTS: 30 studies were included and five were performed in women with pregnancy-related haemorrhage (other studies were carried in non-obstetric populations. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP and shock index were the parameters most frequently studied. An association between blood loss and HR changes was observed in 22 out of 24 studies, and between blood loss and SBP was observed in 17 out of 23 studies. An association was found in all papers reporting on the relationship of shock index and blood loss. Seven studies have used Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves to determine the accuracy of clinical signs in predicting blood loss. In those studies the AUC ranged from 0.56 to 0.74 for HR, from 0.56 to 0.79 for SBP and from 0.77 to 0.84 for shock index. In some studies, HR, SBP and shock index were associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: We found a substantial variability in the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs, making it difficult to establish specific cut-off points for clinical signs that could be used as triggers for clinical interventions. However, the shock index can be an accurate indicator of compensatory changes in the cardiovascular system due to blood loss. Considering that most of the evidence included in this systematic review is derived from studies in non-obstetric populations, further research on the use of the shock index in obstetric populations is needed.

  2. Incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with neuromuscular scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Li, Na; Xu, Bi-Yun; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Xiao-ping; Ma, Zheng-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Factors influencing massive blood loss for neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) patients. Despite advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques, scoliosis surgery is still associated with intraoperative massive blood loss, which can result in postoperative mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with NMS. A retrospective review of adolescents who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for NMS was performed. Perioperative variables and data were recorded. Massive blood loss was defined as an estimated blood loss that exceeds 30% of total blood volume. We obtained data for 114 patients, of whom 63 (55%) had intraoperative massive blood loss. Compared with those without, patients with massive blood loss were more likely to be older, have lower body mass indexes (BMIs), larger Cobb angles, more fused levels, more osteotomy procedures, and prolonged duration of operation. Logistic regression analysis identified the number of fused levels to be more than 12 (P = 0.003, odds ratio = 6.614, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.891–23.131), BMI lower than 16.8 kg/m2 (P = 0.025, odds ratio = 3.293, 95% CI: 1.159–9.357), age greater than 15 years (P = 0.014, odds ratio = 3.505, 95% CI: 1.259–9.761), and duration of operation longer than 4.4 hours (P = 0.016, odds ratio = 3.746, 95% CI: 1.428–9.822) as influencing factors. Patients with massive blood loss are associated with more intraoperative colloids infusion and blood transfusions (red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma), as well as postoperative drainage volume. In adolescents with NMS who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion operations, intraoperative massive blood loss is common. The number of fused levels, BMI, age, and duration of operation are factors influencing intraoperative massive blood loss. PMID:28296737

  3. Evidence-based practices for the prevention of weight loss in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Mary J; Schumacher, Julie Raeder

    2011-03-01

    Weight loss is common among nursing home residents. Food intake is often inadequate for elderly residents but is only one of several factors contributing to potential weight loss. Three common issues resulting in weight loss include starvation (or wasting), cachexia, and sarcopenia. Significant weight loss leads to increased mortality, increased morbidity, and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this article is to discuss the geriatric syndrome of weight loss in elderly nursing home residents and provide recommendations to decrease and prevent weight loss. A list of available evidence-based protocols related to weight loss issues is provided.

  4. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  5. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C;

    2014-01-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation...... and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood...... cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P blood cell count (4...

  6. Research in Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0031 TITLE: Research in Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) PRINCIPAL...Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). An oral antioxidant that could prevent permanent NIHL could allow more military personnel to be redeployed, to...1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Research in Prevention and Treatment of Noise Induced 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. Plummer-Vinson syndrome associated with chronic blood loss anemia and large diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Dordaneh; Cameron, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    The coexistence of large diaphragmatic hernia and Plummer-Vinson syndrome in two patients is described. It is proposed that the hernias caused chronic blood loss anemia, and that iron deficiency then resulted in postcricoid web formation.

  8. Comparision of blood loss between computer assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Kumar Mohanlal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that there is no significant difference in blood loss in CAS TKA and conventional TKA. This study also highlights the heterogeneity of methods used in studies related to CAS TKA. We believe that there is a need for a large multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to be performed before a consensus can be reached on the influence of CAS techniques on blood loss during primary TKA.

  9. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose......-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...

  10. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. BACKGROUND: Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Freseniu...

  11. Minimizing blood loss in liver transplantation : Progress through research and evolution of techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, MT; Molenaar, IQ; Hendriks, HGD; Slooff, MJH; Porte, RJ

    2005-01-01

    Blood loss during liver transplantation has long been recognized as an important cause of morbidity and, especially in the early days, also mortality. It is well known that blood transfusions are associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications, such as infections, pulmonary complica

  12. Doppler Assessment of Uterine Blood Flow in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent spontaneous abortion affects 2%-5% of"ncouples. Uterine perfusion is considered as one of the"nfactors that influences the success of implantation."nDuring the normal menstrual cycle, the impedance"nto uterine artery blood flow diminishes progressively"nduring the luteal phase, reaching the lowest values"nin the period coinciding with the implantation time."nImpedance of uterine arteries is a good indicator of"nthe possibility of a subsequent pregnancy. High blood"nflow resistance is associated with a reduced conception"nrate and women with lower pulsatility index values"nhave the highest possibility of becoming pregnant. An"nimpaired uterine perfusion could play a major role in"nthe pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion. In"nthis study, we examined sixty women with recurrent"nspontaneous abortion and a control group including"nthirty normal women with at least one previous"nuncomplicated pregnancy and without history of any"nabortion. Transvaginal sonography associated with"nDoppler flow measurement was performed during"nthe midluteal phase of a cycle in all women. The"nmeasurement of the ascending branch of both right"nand left uterine arteries was taken lateral to the cervix"nat the level of the internal os. The pulsatility and"nresistance index of both uterine arteries were calculated"nand compared in both groups. In this presentation we"nreport our finding in two groups. We also explain the"nexact method of study and present some interesting"ncases

  13. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  14. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  15. Anesthetic management of a patient with 10 l of blood loss during operation for a retroperitoneal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqin Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding is a common problem during resection of a retroperitoneal mass. Massive bleeding may occur in case of injury of an adjacent major vessel or organ. This case report describes a successful anesthetic management of a patient with 10 l of blood loss within three hours surgery. A 44-year-old woman who underwent an operation for resection of a retroperitoneal mass, went to a hypovolemic shock, due to acute life-threatening intra-operative bleeding, and was successfully rescued with a combination of measures, including control of surgical bleeding, supportive treatment with rapid fluid infusion, massive transfusion of blood products and administration of intravenous vasoactive agents for maintaining tissue perfusion and oxygenation, utilizing intraoperative autologous blood salvaged via cell saver, as well as prevention and treatment of complications. The patient received a total of 22 units of Packet Red Blood Cells (PRBCs, 18 units of Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP, 10 units of cryoprecipitate, 3750 ml of her own salvage blood. Postoperatively, she was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU with mechanical ventilator support, where she received another 5.4 units of FFP, 10 units of cryoprecipitate. The patient developed features of early acute lung injury such as fever and hypoxemia, and was managed successfully with mechanical ventilator support for a few days. At a three-month follow-up, the patient was doing very well. This paper explores the pathogenesia, implications, prevention and treatment of the transfusion-associated complications such as acidosis, hypothermia, electrolyte abnormalities, and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI. Particular attention is given to the prevention of secondary coagulopathy of the patient requiring massive blood transfusion. This case study presents a good reference for similar anesthetic scenario in the future.

  16. Tranexamic acid reduces perioperative blood loss of posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Houyin; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. The routine usage of TA in spinal surgery is controversial. Only a few studies have focused on patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis, although a large clinical cohort exists in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of TA in reducing perioperative blood loss in posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. Methods: 100 eligible patients out of 126 were randomized to receive either a bolus dose of 30 mg/kg TA i.v, a maintenance dosage of 2 mg/kg/h TA, or an equivalent volume of normal saline. The pedicle screw system was used for fixing in all the patients, followed by decompression and posterior lumbar interbody fusion. The primary outcomes were intraoperative estimated blood loss and total blood loss. The secondary outcomes were receiving packed red blood cells and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Results: In total, 4 patients were excluded from the analyses, 50 patients were in the TA group, and 46 in the placebo group. The demographic and baseline data between the groups were not statistically different. The intraoperative estimated blood loss and the total blood loss were 33% and 41% lower in the TA group than the placebo group, respectively. The blood transfusion rate did not vary significantly (P = 0.191). Except a patient with a dural tear in the placebo group, no other complications were observed. Conclusion: TA significantly reduced the perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. PMID:28072709

  17. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Tourniquets do not increase the total blood loss or re-amputation risk in transtibial amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Holm, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    with sagittal flaps. The pneumatic tourniquet, when used, was inflated around the femur to a pressure of 100 mmHg above the systolic blood pressure. The number of blood transfusions within the first four postoperative days was recorded. The intraoperative blood loss (OBL), which is defined as the volume...... portion, which equals 55 g/L of haemoglobin. The TBL during the first four postoperative days was calculated based on the haemoglobin level and the estimated blood volume. The re-amputation rate was evaluated within 30 d. RESULTS: Seventy-four out of 86 consecutive patients who underwent TTA within...

  19. Growth hormone prevents neuronal loss in the aged rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcoitia, Iñigo; Perez-Martin, Margarita; Salazar, Veronica; Castillo, Carmen; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-05-01

    Decline of growth hormone (GH) with aging is associated to memory and cognitive alterations. In this study, the number of neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus has been assessed in male and female Wistar rats at 3, 6, 12, 14, 18, 22 and 24 months of age, using the optical fractionator method. Male rats had more neurons than females at all the ages studied. Significant neuronal loss was observed in both sexes between 22 and 24 months of age. In a second experiment, 22 month-old male and female rats were treated for 10 weeks with 2 mg/kg/day of GH or saline. At 24 months of age, animals treated with GH had more neurons in the hilus than animals treated with saline. These findings indicate that GH is neuroprotective in old animals and that its administration may ameliorate neuronal alterations associated to aging.

  20. Clinical effects of applying a tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty on blood loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-jiang; XIAO Yu; LIU Ya-bin; TIAN Xu; GAO Zhi-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Tourniquets used during total knee arthroplasty may lead to many complications. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative blood loss and its clinical relevance in total knee replacement surgery after applying a tourniquet.Methods From June 2009 to October 2009, 60 consecutive patients who underwent routine total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with or without a tourniquet (30 patients/group). There were no significant differences in patient baseline characteristics between the two groups. We compared the two groups of patients in terms of intra- and postoperative bleeding, invisible or visible bleeding, and total blood loss.Results None of the patients showed poor wound healing, lower extremity deep venous thrombosis or other complications. The amount of blood loss during surgery was lower in the tourniquet group than in the control group (P<0.01). However, postoperative visible bleeding (P <0.05) and occult bleeding (P <0.05) were significantly greater in the toumiquet group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups (P >0.05).Conclusions Tourniquet can reduce bleeding during total knee replacement surgery, but is associated with greater visible and invisible blood loss.

  1. Effect of Desmopressin on Platelet Aggregation and Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Valvular Heart Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Hong-Wen Ji

    2015-01-01

    Background:Blood loss after cardiac surgery can be caused by impaired platelet (PLT) function after cardiopulmonary bypass.Desmopressin or 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) is a synthetic analog of vasopressin.DDAVP can increase the level of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor Ⅷ,thus it may enhance PLT function and improve coagulation.In this study,we assessed the effects of DDAVP on PLT aggregation and blood loss in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Methods:A total of 102 patients undergoing valvular heart surgery (from October 2010 to June 2011) were divided into DDAVP group (n =52) and control group (n =50).A dose of DDAVP (0.3 μtg/kg) was administered to the patients intravenously when they were being re-warmed.At the same time,an equal volume of saline was given to the patients in the control group.PLT aggregation rate was measured with the AggRAM four-way PLT aggregation measurement instrument.The blood loss and transfusion,hemoglobin levels,PLT counts,and urine outputs at different time were recorded and compared.Results:The postoperative blood loss in the first 6 h was significantly reduced in DDAVP group (202 ± 119 ml vs.258 ± 143 ml,P =0.023).The incidence of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion was decreased postoperatively in DDAVP group (3.8% vs.12%,P =0.015).There was no significant difference in the PLT aggregation,urine volumes,red blood cell transfusions and blood loss after 24 h between two groups.Conclusions:A single dose of DDAVP can reduce the first 6 h blood loss and FFP transfusion postoperatively in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery,but has no effect on PLT aggregation.

  2. Effectiveness of Earplugs in Preventing Recreational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Geerte G J; Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Cattani, Guido; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of hearing loss has risen in past years. Attendance at music festivals and concerts may contribute to this increasing problem. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of earplugs in preventing temporary hearing loss immediately following music exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND

  3. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  4. Leukocytic Response and Peripheral Venous Blood Lymphocyte Apoptosis as a Marker of Tissue Ischemia in Acute Massive Blood Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Borovkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the level of peripheral venous blood lymphocyte apoptosis and intraoperative hypoxia in victims with acute massive blood loss. Subjects and methods. Twenty-two patients with open and close chest and abdominal traumas complicated by acute massive blood loss were examined. All the patients were emergently operated on to stop bleeding. Tissue metabolism was evaluated from gases, acid-base parameters, and plasma lactate, glucose, potassium, and sodium levels. Apoptosis of mononuclear cells was studied and dead leukocytes were counted using flow cytometry. Results. Preoperatively, the victims were found to have venous hypoxemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperglycemia, moderate leukocytosis, and higher dead leukocyte counts. There were also raised counts of lymphocytes coming into the process of apoptosis. A significant relationship was found between monocyte counts and hypoxia values. At the end of surgery, oxygen balance values became stable and exerted an effect on the count of leukocytes, the relative level of granulocytes, the relative and absolute counts of dead and damaged leukocytes, and the concentration of lymphocytes in the victims’ venous blood during the early stages of apoptosis, as evidenced by nonlinear regression models. Conclusion. The indicators of immunocompetent cell apoptosis and the count of venous blood dead leukocytes along with lactate levels and venous hypoxemia parameters reflect the degree of tissue hypoxia and may be used as specific markers.

  5. Radiochromium (chromium-51) evaluation of gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A.; LeBel, E.

    1987-10-30

    Gastrointestinal blood loss is one of the most serious clinical events induced by drugs. To date, almost no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been shown to be devoid of that side effect in a strictly controlled study. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively, by use of radioactive chromium (chromium-51)-labeled red blood cells, gastrointestinal blood loss associated with nabumetone (1000 mg daily), aspirin (3.6 g daily), and placebo. A total of 37 normal subjects, divided among the three treatment groups and a fourth group that received no treatment, were assessed clinically and quantitatively for gastrointestinal blood loss over a period of 28 days of active treatment. The results with chromium-51, analyzed on a logarithmic scale, revealed no statistically significant differences between the nabumetone, placebo, and control groups. Gastrointestinal blood loss in the aspirin group, however, was elevated when compared with all other groups at a high level of statistical significance (p less than 0.001). It is concluded that, under conditions in which aspirin causes substantial gastrointestinal microbleeding, nabumetone is not significantly different from placebo.

  6. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  7. Hysterography and menstrual blood loss in women using the T Cu 200 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F; Hamed, A F; Younis, N; El-sheikha, Z; Sherif, H

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted using 32 women who had Copper T 200 IUDs inserted at the family planning clinic at Al-Ashar University Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. The study was conducted to determine the association between menstrual blood loss following IUD insertion, the shape and size of the uterine cavity, and the position and orientation of the IUD within the uterus. A preinsertion measurement of blood loss was used as a control. Hysterographic measurement was then done for the 1st 3 cycles postinsertion and at the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles. Additionally, X-ray measurement was done after the 12th cycle. All findings are tabulated, graphed, diagrammed, and/or pictured. 1 group of women was found to have had no increase in menstrual loss; the other had an increase. Almost 95% of the women with increased blood loss had a large uterine cavity as compared to only 61.5% of the group with no increase. This difference, however, was not statistically significant. The group having conical uterine cavities with medium fundus had a statistically significant greater blood loss than women with conical narrow fundus. Increased bleeding had no relation to the orientation or displacement of the IUD within the uterine cavity or to the presence or absence of anchorage.

  8. Research opportunities in loss of red blood cell mass in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, J. M.; Fisher, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Decreases of red blood cell mass and plasma volume have been observed consistently following manned space flights. Losses of red cell mass by United States astronauts have averaged 10 to 15% (range: 2 to 21%). Based on postflight estimates of total hemoglobin, Soviet cosmonauts engaged in space missions lasting from 1 to 7 months have exhibited somewhat greater losses. Restoration of red cell mass requires from 4 to 6 weeks following return to Earth, regardless of the duration of space flight.

  9. Reducing intraoperative lower segment blood loss in placenta previa with Ashok Anand stitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok R. Anand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To avoid the need for blood transfusions and reducing complications in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section delivery by a new simple innovative technique developed by Dr ASHOK ANAND known as Ashok Anand’s stitch. Methods: This stitch is based on the reasoning that taking the stitch bilaterally occludes the collaterals supplying the lower segment. As these are end arteries, their occlusion causes hemostasis in the lower segment. Sample size: 20 cases in each study group. Blood loss was estimated by standardized visual method (fixed container and mop. Results: By applying this technique in 20 cases, there was significant reduction in the blood loss compared to the control group, thereby reducing the need for blood transfusion (p value <0.05. Conclusions: Ashok Anand’s stitch is a simple and effective technique in controlling lower segment bleeding in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section thus avoiding the need for blood transfusions for operative blood loss and obstetric hysterectomy. The technique is easy to apply, less invasive and does not require any special instruments. It can be life-saving. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 135-140

  10. The Design and Screening of Drugs to Prevent Acquired Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Sheehan, Kelly E; Kaur, Tejbeer; Ramkumar, Vickram; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheth, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sensorineural hearing loss affects a high percentage of the population. Ototoxicity is a serious and pervasive problem in patients treated with cisplatin. Strategies to ameliorate ototoxicity without compromising on antitumor activity of treatments are urgently needed. Similar problems occur with aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy for infections. Noise-induced hearing loss affects a large number of people. The use of ear protection is not always possible or effective. The prevention of hearing loss with drug therapy would have a huge impact in reducing the number of persons with hearing loss from these major causes. Areas covered This review discusses significant research findings dealing with the use of protective agents against hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise trauma. The efficacy in animal studies and the application of these protective agents in clinical trials that are ongoing are presented. Expert opinion The reader will gain new insights into current and projected future strategies to prevent sensorineural hearing loss from cisplatin chemotherapy, aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy and noise exposure. The future appears to offer numerous agents to prevent hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise. Novel delivery systems will provide ways to guide these protective agents to the desired target areas in the inner ear and will circumvent problems with therapeutic interference of anti-tumor and antibiotics agents and will minimize undesired side effects. PMID:22646075

  11. Significant reduction in blood loss in patients undergoing minimal extracorporeal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W. B.; van Boven, W. J.; Smelt, M.; Morshuis, W. J.; van Dongen, H. P.; Haas, F. J.; Aarts, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown differences in blood loss and allogeneic transfusion requirements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recently a new concept, the mini-extracorporeal circulation, was introduced to minimize the side effects of extracorporeal circulat

  12. ROLE OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN REDUCING POSTOPERATIVE BLOOD LOSS AND TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENT IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwant

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to assess the effects of tranexamic acid (TA in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgeries. OBJECTIVE: Assess the effects of tranexamic acid on prevention of bleeding and requirement of blood transfusion after major lower limb orthopedic surgeries. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 90 patients ASA grade I & II undergoing elective surgery for femoral fracture like open reduction internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, total hip replacement (THR under anaesthesia were taken. Patients were classified randomly into 2 groups (forty five patients in each group. Group T: Patients received inj. TA 10 mg/kg body weight. Group P: Patients received normal saline 1 ml/kg body weight 15 min before surgery. Postoperative hemoglobin concentration (on day 0 and day 2 and volume of blood in the drain were measured. The number of units of packed red cells transfused during the hospital stay was recorded and any thromboembolic and other complications were documented. RESULT: Analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the patients with respect to age, sex, duration and type of surgery and preoperative mean hemoglobin concentration. Neither heart rate nor MABP has statistically significant difference or results (P>0.05. The drains were removed in the evening of the first postoperative day. Mean volume of blood in the drain compared to placebo group showing a highly significant reduction in postoperative blood loss (P=0.01. Mean fall in hemoglobin at day 0 and day 2 was 2 less in the study group as compared to the placebo that has P value 0.01 making it significant finding. CONCLUSION: the present paired study demonstrated that the administration of TA given preoperatively reduces the blood loss in the first 24 h by a highly significant degree as well it causes a significant reduction in postoperative anemia and need for transfusion among these patients.

  13. ATLS Hypovolemic Shock Classification by Prediction of Blood Loss in Rats Using Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Choi, Joon Yul; Park, Jee Soo; Kim, Deok Won

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, our input data set consisted of 78 rats, the blood loss in percent as a dependent variable, and 11 independent variables (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, respiration rate, temperature, perfusion index, lactate concentration, shock index, and new index (lactate concentration/perfusion)). The machine learning methods for multicategory classification were applied to a rat model in acute hemorrhage to predict the four Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) hypovolemic shock classes for triage in our previous study. However, multicategory classification is much more difficult and complicated than binary classification. We introduce a simple approach for classifying ATLS hypovolaemic shock class by predicting blood loss in percent using support vector regression and multivariate linear regression (MLR). We also compared the performance of the classification models using absolute and relative vital signs. The accuracies of support vector regression and MLR models with relative values by predicting blood loss in percent were 88.5% and 84.6%, respectively. These were better than the best accuracy of 80.8% of the direct multicategory classification using the support vector machine one-versus-one model in our previous study for the same validation data set. Moreover, the simple MLR models with both absolute and relative values could provide possibility of the future clinical decision support system for ATLS classification. The perfusion index and new index were more appropriate with relative changes than absolute values.

  14. Intraoperative blood loss in orthotopic liver transplantation:The predictive factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation has been associated with massiveblood loss and considerable transfusion requirements.Bleeding in orthotopic liver transplantation is multifactorial.Technical difficulties inherent to this complex surgicalprocedure and pre operative derangements of the primaryand secondary coagulation system are thought tobe the principal causes of perioperative hemorrhage.Intraoperative practices such as massive fluid resuscitationand resulting hypothermia and hypocalcemia secondaryto citrate toxicity further aggravate the preexistingcoagulopathy and worsen the perioperative bleeding.Excessive blood loss and transfusion during orthotopicliver transplant are correlated with diminished graftsurvival and increased septic episodes and prolongedICU stay. With improvements in surgical skills, anesthetictechnique, graft preservation, use of intraoperative cellsavers and overall perioperative management, orthotopicliver transplant is now associated with decreased intraoperative blood losses. The purpose of this review isto discuss the risk factors predictive of increased intraoperative bleeding in patients undergoing orthotopic livertransplant.

  15. High fibrinogen in peripheral blood correlates with poorer hearing recovery in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. METHODS: Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients' initial visit to our clinic. RESULTS: In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. CONCLUSIONS: High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset.

  16. Design of a Vehicle Based Intervention System to Prevent Ozone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robin; Fisher, Daniel; Meade, Matt; Neel, James; Olson, Kristin; Pittman, Andrew; Valdivia, Anne; Wibisono, Aria; Mason, William H.; Kirschbaum, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    This project was designed to be completed over a period of three years. Overall project goals were: (1) To understand the processes that contribute to stratospheric ozone loss; (2) To determine the best prevention scheme for loss; (3) To design a delivery vehicle to accomplish the prevention scheme. The 1994-1995 design objectives included: (1) To review the results of the 1993-1994 design team, including a reevaluation of the major assumptions and criteria selected to choose a vehicle; (2) To evaluate preliminary vehicle concepts and perform quantitative trade studies to select the optimal vehicle concept.

  17. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  18. 骨科手术隐性失血的研究进展%Progress on Hidden Blood Loss Following Orthopedic Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小东; 姜保国; 张殿英; 王天兵

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedics operations in perioperative period often have serious hidden blood loss, which could lead to anemia and aggravate the risk and then influence prognosis. Hidden blood loss is large in clinic, but because of its concealment, it is easy to be ignored. We need to reorganize the importance of hidden blood loss and prevent and treat the adverse effects of hidden blood loss, which will contribute to promoting rehabilitation, improving prognosis, and decreasing mortality. In this paper, we will summarize the research history, calculation method, mechanism, and influence factors of the hidden blood.%骨科手术围手术期常存在严重的隐性失血,导致贫血,加重风险并影响预后。由于其隐蔽性,临床上很容易忽视,而隐性失血量却很大。重视隐性失血,防治隐性失血带来的不利影响,有助于促进康复,改善预后,降低死亡率。本文就隐性失血的研究历史、计算方法、发生机制、影响因素等进行综述,为临床提供相关资料。

  19. The effect of nasal application of cocaine/adrenaline on blood loss in Le Fort I osteotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, J.; Baas, E.M.; Horsthuis, R.B.G.; Booij, A.

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine is a very potent vasoconstrictor that is used by ENT specialists to reduce blood loss and enhance visibility during nasal surgery. In orthognathic surgery, especially Le Fort I procedures, excessive blood loss is a relatively frequent complication. In this study, a prospective randomized cli

  20. Influence of curve magnitude and other variables on operative time, blood loss and transfusion requirements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2015-05-03

    Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) typically requires lengthy operating time and may be associated with significant blood loss and subsequent transfusion. This study aimed to identify factors predictive of duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in an Irish AIS cohort.

  1. Longitudinal changes in blood pressure during weight loss and regain of weight in obese boys and girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Neland, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain.......To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain....

  2. Effectiveness of the new polyfunctional infusion solution of blood substitutes on the activity of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection of heart in acute fatal blood loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Ruziev

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The infusion of a new multifunctional blood substitute during acute fatal blood loss leads to a more effective delay of LPO processes and restoration of AOS in heart, in comparison with the use of reosorbilact. The use of a new multifunctional blood substitute during acute lethal hemorrhage in rats, compared with infusion of reosorbilact, leads to a more pronounced recovery of hemodynamic parameters, biochemical parameters of blood and ABS.

  3. [Influence of some anesthesiologic methods on blood loss in procedures for voluntary termination of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, F S; Granese, D; Fattori, A

    1980-03-01

    120 patients in good health, aged 25-38, all in the first trimester of pregnancy, and requesting interruption of pregnancy, were divided into 4 groups and given different types of anesthesia; 1) general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics; 2) general anesthesia without volatile anesthetics; 3) dissociated anesthesia with Ketamin; and, 4) paracervical block with Mepivacain 1%. All interventions were done through curettage, and lasted 7-18 minutes; in all cases blood loss was carefully collected and measured. Minimum amount of bleeding was noted with paracervical block; maximum amount with volatile anesthetics such as ethrane. For every type of anesthesia blood loss increased with age of pregnancy. There were no postoperative complications. As confirmed by the published literature anesthesia by paracervical block is an easy, uncomplicated method, which requires little preparation time and which can be done at low cost.

  4. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge......-only administration of TXA. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of two interventions. The TXA IV and IA group received combined administration of TXA consisting of 1 g administered intravenously preoperatively......, the additional benefit of IA administration of TXA when combined with IV administration, without the use of a tourniquet, has not been previously investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined IV and IA administration of TXA reduced total blood loss compared with IV...

  5. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  6. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth w

  7. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  8. Systemic blood loss affects NF-kappa B regulatory mechanisms in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moine, P; Shenkar, R; Kaneko, D; Le Tulzo, Y; Abraham, E

    1997-07-01

    The nuclear regulatory factor (NF)-kappa B is activated in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In experimental models of acute lung injury, activation of NF-kappa B contributes to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in the lungs. Because of the important role that NF-kappa B activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappa B counterregulatory mechanisms in lung mononuclear cells, using a murine model in which inflammatory lung injury develops after blood loss. Sustained activation of NF-kappa B was present in lung mononuclear cells over the 4-h period after blood loss. The activation of NF-kappa B after hemorrhage was accompanied by alterations in levels of the NF-kappa B regulatory proteins I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha were increased and nuclear Bcl-3 was decreased during the first hour after blood loss, but, by 4 h posthemorrhage, cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha levels were decreased and nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were increased. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity in otherwise unmanipulated unhemorrhaged mice resulted in increased levels of I kappa B alpha and decreased amounts of Bcl-3 in nuclear extracts from lung mononuclear cells. No changes in the levels of nuclear I kappa B alpha or Bcl-3 occurred after hemorrhage when xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited. These results demonstrate that blood loss, at least partly through xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanisms, produces alterations in the levels of both I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3 in lung mononuclear cell populations. The effects of hemorrhage on proteins that regulate activation of NF-kappa B may contribute to the frequent development of inflammatory lung injury in this setting.

  9. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Detection of low-volume blood loss: Compensatory reserve versus traditional vital signs Camille L. Stewart, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic... Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V. A., Moulton S. L., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...Jane Mulligan (own ership), Greg Z. Grudic (ownership), and Steven L. Moulton (owner ship). This work is supported by the US Army Medical Research and

  10. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Cancellous Bone Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Mei; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2, (PGE2) can prevent ovariectomy induced cancellous bone loss. Thirty-five 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the first group were ovariectomized (OVX) while the others received sham operation (sham-OVX). The OVX group was further divided into three treatment groups. The daily doses for the three groups were 0,1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg for 90 days. Bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). We confirmed that OVX induces massive cancellous bone loss (-80%) and a higher bone turnover (+143%). The new findings from the present study demonstrate that bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency can be prevented by a low-dose (1 mg) daily administration of PGE2. Furthermore, a higher-dose (6 mg) daily administration of PGE2 not only prevents bone loss but also adds extra bone to the proximal tibial metaphyses. PGE, at the 1-mg dose level significantly increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, ratio of node to free end, and thus significantly decreased trabecular separation from OVX controls. At this dose level, these same parameters did not differ significantly from sham-OVX controls. However, at the 6-mg dose level PGE2, there were significant increases in trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, and ratio of node to free end, while there was significant decrease in trabecular separation from both OVX and sham-operated controls. The changes in indices of trabecular bone microanatomical structure indicated that PGE2 prevented bone loss as well as the disconnection of existing trabeculae. In summary, PGE2, administration to OVX rats decreased bone turnover and increased bone formation parameters resulting in a positive bone balance that prevented bone loss (in both lower and higher

  11. Using Mindfulness to Develop Health Education Strategies for Blood Borne Virus Prevention in Injecting Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Laybutt, Becky; Carruthers, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Prevention education has had limited success in reducing transmission of blood borne virus among people who inject drugs. Innovative approaches to prevention education are required. Method: This study used video recordings of injecting episodes and interviews with participants reviewing their video recordings to explore the concept of…

  12. Preventive effect of zinc acexamate administration in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: Restoration of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi

    2003-11-01

    The preventive effect of zinc compounds on bone loss in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats was investigated. Rats received a single subcutaneous administration of STZ (6.0 mg/100 g body weight), and 7, 14 or 21 days later the animals were sacrificed by bleeding. STZ administration caused a significant decrease in body weight and a significant increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels, indicating diabetic condition. Femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contents were significantly decreased by STZ administration, showing that diabetic condition causes bone loss. Zinc sulfate (2.5 mg Zn/100 g) or zinc acexamate (2.5 mg Zn/100 g) was orally administered once daily for 14 days to rats received a single subcutaneous administration of STZ (6.0 mg/100 g). STZ administration-induced increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels and decrease in body weight, femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and calcium contents were significantly prevented by the administration of zinc acexamate. The preventive effect of zinc sulfate on bone components was not seen. The present results demonstrate that the administration of zinc acexamate has a preventive effect on bone loss in STZ-diabetic rats in vivo.

  13. [The strategy for preventing HIV/AIDS transmission via the blood and its derivatives in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Amor, J; del Río-Zolezzi, A; Valdespino-Gómez, J L; García-García, M de L; Velázquez-Velázquez, L; Volkow, P

    1995-01-01

    This study presents blood-associated AIDS epidemic trends in Mexico, including cases due to blood transfusions, cases in professional blood donors and hemophiliacs. We present also an overview of preventive measures--both legal and educative--undertaken to prevent this type of transmission and its effects on the epidemic. The first blood-associated AIDS cases in Mexico were reported in 1985, since then and up to July 1, 1994 a total of 1,728 adult cases and 116 pediatric cases have been reported (12.3% and 25% of the total cases, respectively). As in many other parts in the world, in Mexico women were markedly affected by this form of transmission; the women to men morbidity ratio is 1.35. Another group particularly affected by AIDS in Mexico are professional blood donors, who were infected because of improper management and recycling of blood transfusion centers bank materials such as plasmapheresis sets, in some blood transfusion centers in our country. Blood screening is mandatory for all blood donors in Mexico since May, 1986. A year later blood commercialization was banned because of the extremely high HIV infection prevalences found in some professional blood donors (7.2%). Since that time a whole set of preventive measures has been implemented in our country, including blood quality and safety control as well as educative interventions. Results of these measures began to become evident by the end of 1991, when newly reported blood associated AIDS cases started to decrease, as opposed to their continuous growth seen in previous years. Up to July 1, 1994 we estimate that a total of 2,750 AIDS cases have been prevented through these measures, recovering an average of 36 years of potential life for each of them. Although blood transmission preventive measures have rendered significant achievements, we still have to face some very complex challenges such as potential ruralization of the epidemic and its impact on HIV infection prevalences among potential blood

  14. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preventing bone loss associated with menopause and aging and maintaining the normal micro-architecture of bone provide important opportunities for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate......, for preventing postmenopausal bone loss. DESIGN: 3-year double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: 15 osteoporosis centers throughout the world. PARTICIPANTS: 447 women who had recently experienced menopause (6 to 36 months before study entry). INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned...

  15. Comparing efficacy and safety of 2 methods of tranexamic acid administration in reducing blood loss following total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Shi, Zhigang; Han, Bing; Ye, Yong; You, Tao; Jing, Juehua; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were to gather data to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) versus intravenous (IV) TXA for blood loss after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: Electronic databases: Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and Embase from inception to June 2016 were searched. RCTs that comparing topical with IV TXA for blood loss control in patients prepared for TKA were included in this meta-analysis. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to appraise risk of bias. The primary outcomes were needed for transfusion, total blood loss, and blood loss in drainage. Secondary outcomes are hemoglobin (Hb) value at 24-hour post TKA and complication (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and infection). The efficacy of blood loss was tested by total blood loss, drainage volume, Hb drop, and the Hb value at 24 hours after TKA. The safety was measured by the occurrence of DVT and infection. Continuous outcomes were expressed as the mean difference with the respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Discontinuous outcomes were expressed as the relative risk with 95% CIs. Stata 12.0 software (Stata Corp., College Station, TX) was used for the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 14 articles involving 1390 patients were finally included for this meta-analysis. The pooled results revealed that there were no significant difference between the need for transfusion, total blood loss, blood loss in drainage, Hb value at 24-hour post TKA, the occurrence of complications (infection and DVT) between topical administration of TXA and IV TXA. Conclusion: Topical TXA has similar efficacy for blood loss control to IV TXA without sacrificing safety in TKA. However, the dose of topical TXA and IV TXA is different, thus, optimal timing and dose of TXA are still needed to explore the maximum effect of TXA. PMID:27977593

  16. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption and preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Matsumoto, K; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effects of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), a mixture of galactosyl oligosaccharides formed from lactose by the transgalactosyl reaction of beta-D-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans, on calcium absorption and prevention of bone loss were examined in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Rats fed on a diet containing GOS absorbed calcium more efficiently than those on the control diet after 8-10 days and 18-20 days, and the bone (femur and tibia) ash weight and tibia calcium content of OVX rats fed on the GOS diet were significantly higher than those of the control animals. Although the serum total cholesterol of the ovariectomized rats was significantly elevated, GOS produced a significant hypocholesterolemic effect in the OVX rats. GOS, which is fermented by bacteria in the lower part of the intestine, enhanced volatile fatty acid production, and thus prevented bone loss and lower serum total cholesterol concentration in the ovariectomized rats.

  17. Challenges and successes in recruiting firefighters for hearing loss prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Fiola, Lauren Ann; Feld, Jamie

    2013-06-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant occupational health problem in the United States, affecting more than 1 million firefighters. Noise hazards include vehicles, sirens, and power tools. Additionally, firefighters are commonly exposed to ototoxic chemicals. Because the use of hearing protection is not universally required for firefighters, firefighters must be educated about NIHL to ensure they take personal responsibility for hearing loss prevention. This study discusses challenges associated with recruiting firefighters to participate in a randomized, controlled trial testing a web-based hearing protection training program. Successful recruitment strategies included collaboration with key stakeholders, a flexible and convenient computer-based intervention, expansion to multiple recruitment sites, and interactive outreach to potential participants. Future research should use quantitative methods to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of specific recruitment strategies to facilitate firefighter enrollment in research studies. Developing and testing effective hearing protection interventions for firefighters is a crucial first step toward preventing NIHL in this population.

  18. EFFECT OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN CONTROL OF PERIOPERATIVE BLOOD LOSS ASSOCIATE WITH TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Costs of allogenic blood transfusions and the associated risks mandate strategies to reduce blood loss in surgery. The objective of this study was to asse ss the efficacy of antifibrinolytic treatment in reducing perioperative blood loss during total knee replacement. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A prospective study was carried out on 148patients undergoing total knee replacement. 88pts received tranexamic acid 10 mg kg −1 i.v. just before the cementation, 3hours post op and 6 hrs later.60 patients did not receive tranexamic acid. External perioperative blood loss was measured by post op amount of drain, and Hb levels and Hematocrit. The number of patients transfuse d and number of packed red cell (PRC units transfused was recorded and possible postoperative thrombo embolic complications were studied clinically. RESULTS : Amongst 78 pts who were given Cyclokapron, only 10(12.8% were given blood transfusions and the a verage transfusions were 3.9 units and Amongst 70 pts who were not given Cyclokapron, 20(28.5% were given blood transfusions and the average transfusions were 8.7 units. The average blood loss in the group of patients who were given cyclokapron was 1004ml while in the groups which were not given the average blood loss was 1507ml. Clinical assessment did not reveal any thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSIONS : Antifibrinolytic agents produce a significant decrease in blood loss in patients undergoing total knee replacement, reflected in a reduction in the number of blood transfusions required. Based on this study we can conclude that three doses of IV tranexamic acid of 10mg/kg, can be used in TKR procedures with proven effectiveness and efficiency to decre ase postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing TKR.

  19. Preventing Mitochondrial Fission Impairs Mitochondrial Function and Leads to Loss of Mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Parone, Philippe A.; Sandrine Da Cruz; Daniel Tondera; Yves Mattenberger; James, Dominic I.; Pierre Maechler; François Barja; Jean-Claude Martinou

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria form a highly dynamic tubular network, the morphology of which is regulated by frequent fission and fusion events. However, the role of mitochondrial fission in homeostasis of the organelle is still unknown. Here we report that preventing mitochondrial fission, by down-regulating expression of Drp1 in mammalian cells leads to a loss of mitochondrial DNA and a decrease of mitochondrial respiration coupled to an increase in the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). At t...

  20. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  1. [Cytogenetic changes of the bone marrow in massive blood loss and their correction with mexidol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhura, V L; Tlatova, T A; Kondakova, N V; Sakharova, V V; Ripa, N V

    2003-01-01

    The citogenetic lesions were evaluated in the marrow erythroblasts of 45 anesthetized white nonlinear male rats, weight--200-300 g who were subjected to an acute blood loss with a 1-hour arterial hypotension (ABR = 40 mm Hg); the micronucleus tests was made use of. Two stages of the increase of polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei in the marrow of the animals, who underwent a massive blood loss, were registered: stage 1--an incomplete marrow ischemia with a subsequent arterial hypotension and with a reliably confirmed formation of cytogenetic lesions in the marrow polychromatophilic erythrocytes; stage 2--the reperfusion period contributed to a 1.7-fold increase of polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei versus the previous stage. Mexidole, when used at 50 mg/kg prior to blood reinfusion, decreased the quantity of polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei to the basic level, which is indicative of reversibility and instability of cytogenetics impairments in the marrow cells of animals observed in the early post-resuscitation period.

  2. Design of a Vehicle-Based Intervention System to Prevent Ozone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William H.; Kirchbaum, Nathan; Kay, Jacob; Benoliel, Alexander M.; Lynn, Sean R.; Bunker, Deborah; Hesbach, Thomas D., Jr.; Howerton, Everett B.; Hreinsson, Gudbjoern; Mistr, E. Kirk

    1993-01-01

    Reduced quantities of ozone in the atmosphere allow greater levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to reach the earth's surface. The 1992/1993 project goals for the Virginia Tech Senior Design Team were to 1) understand the processes which contribute to stratospheric ozone loss, 2) examine ways to prevent ozone loss, and 3) define the requirements for an implementation vehicle to carry out the prevention scheme. A scheme proposed by R.J. Cicerone, el al late in 1991 was selected because of its supporting research and economic feasibility. This scheme uses hydrocarbon injected into the Antarctic ozone hole to form stable compounds with free chlorine, thus reducing ozone depletion. A study of the hydrocarbon injection requirements determined that 130 aircraft traveling Mach 2.4 at a maximum altitude of 66,000 ft. would provide the most economic approach to preventing ozone loss. Each aircraft would require an 8,000 nm. range and be able to carry 35,000 lbs. of propane. The propane would be stored in a three-tank high pressure system. Modularity and multi-role functionality were selected to be key design features. Missions originate from airports located in South America and Australia.

  3. The effect of aprotinin, tranexamic acid, and aminocaproic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in major pediatric surgery : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Esther S.; van de Pol, Alma C.; Schouten, Anton N. J.; Turner, Nigel M.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aprotinin reduces the blood loss and transfusion of blood products in children undergoing major surgery. Aprotinin has been associated with severe side effects in adults, and tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid have been found to be safer alternatives in adults. This systematic review a

  4. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed...

  5. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2003-01-01

    = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  6. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    , and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p test). However, intratympanic steroid significantly increased the number of viable neurons...... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  7. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p neurons...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  8. Zonisamide prevents olanzapine-associated hyperphagia, weight gain, and elevated blood glucose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Nicholas M; Sinnayah, Puspha; Bymaster, Frank P; Gadde, Kishore M; Krishnan, Ranga K; McKinney, Anthony A; Landbloom, Ronald P; Tollefson, Gary D; Cowley, Michael A

    2008-11-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), one of the second-generation atypical antipsychotics (SGAs), has shown relative advantages in patient adherence and outcomes. However, OLZ has also been associated with a higher incidence of weight gain than most other SGAs. Excessive weight gain may in turn contribute to long-term health concerns for some individuals. Zonisamide (ZNS), a medication approved in the United States as an adjunct in the management of epilepsy, has a diverse pharmacological profile, including sodium channel blockade, monoamine enhancement, and inhibition of carbonic anhydrase. ZNS has also been reported to cause weight loss in both humans and rodents. We hypothesized that this profile might be beneficial when co-administered with OLZ. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of OLZ on body weight, as well as the pathways known to regulate feeding behavior and arousal in the Sprague-Dawley rat. As indicated via c-Fos expression, we found an OLZ-induced activation in the nucleus accumbens and orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. An OLZ-associated development of hyperphagia, weight gain and elevated blood glucose in the rat was also found. These outcomes were attenuated and reversed in the presence of concomitant ZNS. These results suggest the hypothesis that ZNS may effectively treat or prevent weight gain or metabolic changes associated with the SGAs. Future studies of this combination in patients through appropriately designed human clinical studies are encouraged.

  9. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yiping; CHEN Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  10. Pharmacological agents used for treatment and prevention in noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Bercin, Sami

    2016-12-01

    Noise is a stress factor that causes auditory, psychological and physiological effects. The realization that sudden loud noises or chronic exposure to noise in social and working environments can cause hearing loss has led to increased interest in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The best means of preventing primary damage is protection against noise. Since this protection is not always possible for various reasons, the use of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat NIHL should also be considered. The purpose of this study is to discuss current pharmacological protection and treatment options in the light of the literature, since no such extensive reviews have been performed to date, including agents used for protection against and treatment of NIHL. We reviewed both animal and clinical studies, and these are discussed separately for ease of comprehension. For each agent, first animal studies, then clinical studies, if available, are discussed. We also performed a two-step search of the literature. In the first step, we searched the terms "noise induced hearing loss", "treatment" and "protection" in Pubmed. Based on the results obtained, we identified the agents used for the treatment of and protection against NIHL. In the second step, we searched the names of the agents identified in the first step, together with the term "noise induced hearing loss," and reviewed the results.

  11. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  12. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  13. Extended interferon-alpha therapy accelerates telomere length loss in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M O'Bryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin treatment and were subsequently randomized to either a no additional therapy group or a maintenance dose pegylated-IFNα group for an additional 3.5 years. Significant telomere loss in naïve T cells occurred in the first 21 months in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere losses were similar in both groups during the final two years. Expansion of CD8(+CD45RA(+CD57(+ memory T cells and an inverse correlation of alanine aminotransferase levels with naïve CD8(+ T cell telomere loss were observed in the control group but not in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere length at screening inversely correlated with Hepatitis-C viral load and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sustained interferon-alpha treatment increased telomere loss in naïve T cells, and inhibited the accumulation of T cell memory expansions. The durability of this effect and consequences for immune senescence need to be defined.

  14. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  15. Prestorage leukofiltration of whole blood and SAGM blood prevents extracellular bioactive substance accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjaer, E; Reimert, C M;

    1999-01-01

    unfiltered) were stored at + 4 degrees C for further 34 days. Samples were collected from all 40 half blood units on day 1, 21 and 35. Total content and extracellular concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), histamine and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1...

  16. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  17. Risk factors for the effect of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaoka, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kodaira, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    To examine the effect of oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures and to identify the risk factors associated with perioperative blood loss.Retrospective cross-sectional study.In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we treated 334 consecutive patients with proximal femoral fractures (100 who received anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs and 234 who did not) and an overall mean age of 85.5 years (standard deviation 8.2 years). We performed retrospective multivariate analysis to determine the independent factors related to perioperative decreases in the hemoglobin (Hb) level, a proxy for blood loss.Multivariate analysis confirmed that anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs significantly affected decreases in the Hb level (regression coefficient [RC], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.08; P = 0.01). In addition to anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs, multivariate analysis confirmed that the fracture type (Orthopedic Trauma Association classification A2: RC, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.71-1.67; P anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is an independent risk factor for perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures. Fracture type, platelet count, and operative time also affect perioperative blood loss. The fracture type was the greatest contributing factor to perioperative blood loss.Level of evidence grade: Prognostic level III.

  18. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients.

  19. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  20. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  1. Population red blood cell folate concentrations for prevention of neural tube defects: bayesian model

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLOY, ANNE

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED OBJECTIVE: To determine an optimal population red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration for the prevention of neural tube birth defects. DESIGN: Bayesian model. SETTING: Data from two population based studies in China. PARTICIPANTS: 247,831 participants in a prospective community intervention project in China (1993-95) to prevent neural tube defects with 400 μg/day folic acid supplementation and 1194 participants in a population based randomized trial (20...

  2. Statewide collaboration to evaluate the effects of blood loss and transfusion on surgical site infection after hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather; Berumen, Crystal; Knepper, Bryan; Miller, Amber; Silverman, Morgan; Gilmartin, Heather; Wodrich, Elizabeth; Alexander, Sandy; Price, Connie S

    2012-01-01

    We used mandatory public reporting as an impetus to perform a statewide study to define risk factors for surgical site infection. Among women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy, blood transfusion was a significant risk factor for surgical site infection in patients who experienced blood loss of less than 500 mL.

  3. Coagulation is more affected by quick than slow bleeding in patients with massive blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Yang, Dejuan; Zheng, Dongyou

    2017-03-01

    Profuse blood loss affects blood coagulation to various degrees. However, whether bleeding speed affects coagulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bleeding speed on coagulation function. A total of 141 patients in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of our hospital were evaluated between January 2007 and February 2014. There are two groups of patients, those who received decortication for chronic encapsulated empyema were called the slow-bleeding group, and those who received thoracoscopic upper lobectomy were called the fast bleeding group; each group was further subdivided into three: group A, 1000 ml ≤ bleeding amount coagulation function was assessed in all patients before and during surgery and at 1, 2, and 24 h after surgery, measuring prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets. Bleeding duration was overtly longer in the slow-bleeding group than that in quick bleeding individuals (2.3 ± 0.25 h vs. 0.41 ± 0.13 h, P coagulation indices at each time point and bleeding amounts had significant differences in the quick bleeding group.Increased consumption of coagulation factors in quick bleeding may have greater impact on coagulation function.

  4. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01). Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion. PMID:23339456

  5. Blood pressure reduction combining baroreflex restoration for stroke prevention in hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Song

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure reduction is an important and effective strategy in stroke prevention in hypertensives. Recently, we found that baroreflex restoration was also crucial in stroke prevention. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for stroke prevention. In Experiment 1, the effects of ketanserin (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, amlodipine (0.3, 1, 2, 3 mg/kg and their combination (1+0.3, 1+1, 1+2, 1+3 mg/kg on blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were determined under conscious state. It was found that both amlodipine and ketanserin decreased blood pressure dose-dependently. Ketanserin enfanced BRS from a very small dose but amlodipine enfanced BRS only at largest dose used. At the dose of 1 + 2 mg/kg (ketanserin + amlodipine, the combination possessed the largest synergism on blood pressure reduction. In Experiments 2 and 3, SHR-SP and two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C renovascular hypertensive rats received life-long treatments with ketanserin (1 mg/kg and amlodipine (2 mg/kg or their combination (0.5+1, 1+2, 2+4 mg/kg. The survival time was recorded and the brain lesion was examined. It was found that all kinds of treatments prolonged the survival time of SHR-SP and 2K2C rats. The combination possessed a significantly better effect on stroke prevention than mono-therapies. In conclusion, combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  6. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D

    1999-01-01

    States and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: 1609 postmenopausal women 45 to 59 years of age. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral alendronate, 5 mg/d or 2.5 mg/d; placebo; or open-label estrogen-progestin. Women in the alendronate groups received alendronate for the first 2 years...... alendronate to placebo than in those who continuously received placebo. In years 3 and 4, bone loss in participants who switched from alendronate to placebo was similar to that seen during years 1 and 2 in those who continuously received placebo. Compared with 5 mg of alendronate per day, estrogen......-medroxyprogesterone acetate produced similar increases in bone mineral density and estradiol-norethisterone acetate produced increases that were substantially greater. CONCLUSIONS: Four years of treatment with alendronate or estrogen-progestin prevented postmenopausal bone loss. A residual effect was seen 2 years after...

  7. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... effects against muscle fatigue and ultrastructural damages, preventing or reducing the loss in mechanical muscle function after running. Subjects were tested before and after IERT protocol for maximal isometric, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extensor strength (60° and 180° s(-1)). In a second...... session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...

  8. Ultrasonic homogenization of expressed human milk to prevent fat loss during tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F E; Desai, I D; Davidson, A G; Nakai, S; Radcliffe, A

    1987-01-01

    Effective use of expressed human milk in infant feeding requires proper handling, processing, storage, and administration in order to maintain its unique nutritional properties. One of the problems with expressed human milk is the separation of fat during processing, storage, and administration to the infant. Administration by continuous nasogastric infusion, either by intermittent gravity flow or by continuous mechanical pump, resulted in significant loss of fat and variation in the constitution of the milk delivered. Homogenization by ultrasonic treatment prevented changes in fat concentration during infusion and essentially eliminated loss of this nutrient during administration. The conditions necessary to achieve fat dispersion and stabilization of fat particles in human milk by ultrasonic treatment are described.

  9. Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zil Hayatullina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx, and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO. Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  10. Virgin coconut oil supplementation prevents bone loss in osteoporosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatullina, Zil; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  11. Stabilizing control system preventing loss of synchronism from extension and its actual operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, K.; Yanagihashi, K.; Tsukita, J. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan); Sato, M.; Nakamura, T.; Takeuchi, A.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents a stabilizing control system that was implemented to the power system of Tokyo Electric Power Company and worked successfully, shedding the minimum number of generators and preventing the extension of loss of synchronism to the other generators when a severe fault occurred on May 22, 1992. The stabilizing control system measures voltage and current at the rate of 600 Hz, predicts the change of phase angles of generators and decides the minimum number of generators to be shed for stabilization when instability is predicted and sheds them.

  12. Mercury antagonists: loss of photoactive response in the brine shrimp Artemia and its prevention by thiamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaeger, E.; Siegel, B.Z.; Siegel, S.M.; Lasconia, M.; Correal, T.

    1986-01-01

    The positive photoatactic behavior of Artemia was disturbed when larvae cultured in 0.25 M NaCl were introduced into 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -5/ M HgCl/sub 2/. At 10/sup -8/ M, and in controls, Hg had no effect either on orientation or mortality, and 65% of the larvae were collected at the light source in 30 min or less. In contrast, at 10/sup -6/ M, only 29% were able to do so. The presence of 10/sup -4/ M thiamine hydrochloride in the excystment medium prevented fully the loss of light-sensitivity.

  13. Can we stop bone loss and prevent hip fractures in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, P J; Chapuy, M C; Arlot, M E; Delmas, P D; Duboeuf, F

    1994-01-01

    The two main determinants of hip fractures are falls and bone loss leading to an intrinsic femoral fragility. Substantial femoral bone loss continues throughout old age, with a continuous and exponential increase in the risk of hip fracture; thus any reduction or arrest of this loss will induce an important reduction in the incidence of hip fracture. Preventive measures may be achieved during childhood by increasing peak bone mass with calcium and exercise, by using long-term estrogen replacement therapy after menopause, but also by using vitamin D and calcium supplements for late prevention in the elderly. Vitamin D insufficiency and a deficit in calcium intake are very common in the elderly living either in institutions or at home and the cumulative response to these deficits is a negative calcium balance which stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion. This senile secondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the determinants of femoral bone loss and can be reversed by calcium and vitamin D supplements. We have shown in a 3-year controlled prospective study that the daily use of supplements (1.2 g calcium and 800 IU vitamin D3) given in a large population of 3270 elderly ambulatory women living in nursing homes reduced the number of hip fractures by 23% (intention-to-treat analysis). In parallel, serum parathyroid hormone concentrations were reduced by 28% and low baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration returned to normal values. After 18 months of treatment the bone density of the total proximal femoral region had increased by 2.7% in the vitamin D3-calcium group and decreased by 4.6% in the placebo group (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Effects of preoperative β-blocker on blood loss and blood transfusion during spinal surgeries with sodium nitroprusside-controlled hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Mohamed Amr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study sought to determine whether premedication with oral β-blocker before hypotensive anesthesia with sodium nitroprusside could improve the quality of surgical field, decrease the blood loss, and decrease the need for homologous blood transfusion and duration of surgery. Methods: Eighty patients scheduled for spinal fixation surgery were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I received oral atenolol 50 mg twice one day before surgery; and Group II received placebo tablets identical in appearance to atenolol tablets for the same period and interval. All patients in both the groups received intraoperative sodium nitroprusside (SNP as a hypotensive agent. Hemodynamic variables, amount of sodium nitroprusside used, quality of surgical field, and the amount of homologous blood transfusion and blood loss were compared between groups. Results: Heart rate and amount of SNP used were significantly less (P<0.0001 in the atenolol group, but no significant difference was found in intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure (MABP between the two groups. The time of surgeries was significantly shorter in Group I than in Group II (185±15.21 vs 225±12.61 min, P<0.0001. The quality of surgical field was better in Group I than in Group II in all times of measurements, P<0.0001. The amount of blood loss and the amount of packed red blood cells transfused were significantly less in Group I than in Group II, P<0.0001. No clinically significant complications were observed in either group. Conclusion: Premedication with oral atenolol 50 mg twice/day for one day before hypotensive anesthesia with SNP during spinal surgeries seems to be clinically safe and effective to reduce heart rate, amount of SNP used, amount of blood loss, and amount of blood transfused with better quality of surgical field.

  15. Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis c transmission through donor blood and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chechetkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of organizational aspects of preventing the transmission of hepatitis C virus with donor blood and its components.Materials and methods. An activity of the blood service establishments in Russia for the prevention of HCV infection through transfusion of blood and its components on the basis of the analysis of sectoral statistical surveys was studied.Results. The frequency of detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors and its components during 2009–2013 decreased by more than 1,5 times. The percentage of donors who have identified markers of hepatitis C virus was significantly different in different regions: from 0,51% to 1,36%. The activity of the blood service implemented method of plasma quarantine resulting annually rejected from 0,32% to 0,23% as a result of the identified markers of HCV. Pathogen inactivated plasma volume increased in 3 times, the platelet concentrate in 3,2 times.Conclusion. To ensure the safety of donated blood and its components in the blood service effectively the modern technology use for to prevention transmission of the HCV: quarantine of plasma, donor selection and development, inactivation of pathogens. The degree of implementation in practice of nonpaid voluntary blood transfusions significantly increased and is characterized by regional features in recent years .

  16. Baseline albuminuria predicts the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering drugs in preventing cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, C.; Postma, M.J.; Visser, S.T.; Atthobari, J.; de Jong, P.E.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Gansevoort, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Albuminuria has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular (CV) events in specific patient populations, but also in the general population. This study aimed to investigate whether the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering agents in preventing CV events depends on baseline urinary albumin ex

  17. Understanding Challenges and Opportunities of Preventive Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    The herein presented study explores socio-technical complexities that may occur when introducing preventive health-measurement technologies in older adults’ daily routines and everyday lives. Using mainly blood pressure measurements in private homes, the study applied qualitative and quantitative...

  18. Blood Components Prevent Sulfide Poisoning of Respiration of the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mar A.; Somero, George N.

    1983-01-01

    Respiration of plume tissue of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila is insensitive to sulfide poisoning in contrast to tissues of animals that do not inhabit vents. Permeability barriers may not be responsible for this insensitivity since plume homogenates are also resistant to sulfide poisoning. Cytochrome c oxidase of plume, however, is strongly inhibited by sulfide at concentrations less than 10 μ M. Factors present in blood, but not in cytosol, prevent sulfide from inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Avoidance of sulfide poisoning of respiration in Riftia pachyptila thus appears to involve a blood-borne factor having a higher sulfide affinity than that of cytochrome c oxidase, with the result that appreciable amounts of free sulfide are prevented from accumulating in the blood and entering the intracellular compartment.

  19. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  20. Preventing bone loss and weight gain with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Ambati, Suresh; Lewis, Richard D; Hamrick, Mark W; Hartzell, Diane L; Baile, Clifton A

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin D and certain natural compounds have been shown to regulate both lipid metabolism and bone formation. Treatments that prevent or reverse age-related increase in bone marrow adiposity could both increase new bone formation and inhibit bone destruction. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals inhibits bone loss and decreases adiposity to a greater extent than control or vitamin D-alone diets. Aged ovariectomized female rats (12 months old, n=50, initial body weight=240 g) were given control (AIN-93M diet), vitamin D (2,400 IU/kg), or vitamin D plus resveratrol (16, 80, or 400 mg/kg of diet [low, medium, and high dose, respectively]), quercetin (80, 400, or 2,000 mg/kg of diet), and genistein (64, 256, or 1,040 mg/kg of diet) for 8 weeks. The high-dose treatment (vitamin D+400 mg/kg resveratrol+2,000 mg/kg quercetin+1,040 mg/kg genistein) reduced body weight gain (P<.05) and the fat pad weights (P<.05). This treatment also increased the serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (P<.05) and the bone mineral content of the femur. Micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the high-dose treatment prevented loss of trabecular bone (P<.05) and reduced marrow adipocytes (P<.001) and osteoclasts (P<.05) compared with the control and vitamin D alone (P<.05). We conclude that aged ovariectomized female rats supplemented with vitamin D combined with genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol had improved bone mineral density and reduced body weight gain and a significant decrease in bone marrow adipocytes. The synergistic effects of a combination of phytochemicals with vitamin D may be effective in reducing bone loss and weight gain after menopause.

  1. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham‑operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.

  2. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios.

  3. Eliminating microglia in Alzheimer's mice prevents neuronal loss without modulating amyloid-β pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Elizabeth E; Lee, Rafael J; Najafi, Allison R; Rice, Rachel A; Elmore, Monica R P; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2016-04-01

    In addition to amyloid-β plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation is considered a key feature of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounding amyloid plaques, implicating their role in disease pathogenesis. Microglia in the healthy adult mouse depend on colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signalling for survival, and pharmacological inhibition of this receptor results in rapid elimination of nearly all of the microglia in the central nervous system. In this study, we set out to determine if chronically activated microglia in the Alzheimer's disease brain are also dependent on CSF1R signalling, and if so, how these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis. Ten-month-old 5xfAD mice were treated with a selective CSF1R inhibitor for 1 month, resulting in the elimination of ∼80% of microglia. Chronic microglial elimination does not alter amyloid-β levels or plaque load; however, it does rescue dendritic spine loss and prevent neuronal loss in 5xfAD mice, as well as reduce overall neuroinflammation. Importantly, behavioural testing revealed improvements in contextual memory. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglia contribute to neuronal loss, as well as memory impairments in 5xfAD mice, but do not mediate or protect from amyloid pathology.

  4. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents hearing loss and hair cell death in Cdh23(erl/erl) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Xu, M; Yuan, J; Li, B; Entenman, S; Yu, H; Zheng, Q Y

    2016-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has long been the subject of experimental and clinical research for many years. The recently identified novel mutation of the Cadherin23 (Cdh23) gene, Cdh23(erl/erl), was proven to be a mouse model of human autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB12). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a taurine-conjugated bile acid, has been used in experimental research and clinical applications related to liver disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases associated with apoptosis. Because hair cell apoptosis was implied to be the cellular mechanism leading to hearing loss in Cdh23(erl/erl) mice (erl mice), this study investigated TUDCA's otoprotective effects in erl mice: preventing hearing impairment and protecting against hair cell death. Our results showed that systemic treatment with TUDCA significantly alleviated hearing loss and suppressed hair cell death in erl mice. Additionally, TUDCA inhibited apoptotic genes and caspase-3 activation in erl mouse cochleae. The data suggest that TUDCA could be a potential therapeutic agent for human DFNB12.

  5. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  6. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Detects Meckel’s Diverticulum in a Child with Unexplained Intestinal Blood Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Xinias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Meckel’s diverticulum (MD is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, affecting about 2% of the population. Most cases of Meckel’s diverticula are asymptomatic. The diagnosis of symptomatic MD is often difficult to make. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with GI bleeding due to MD. The diagnostic difficulties after an initial negative endoscopic evaluation and the diagnostic value of the various endoscopic procedures are discussed. The patient had suffered from bright red stools for 20 h before hospital admission. GI scintigraphy with 99mTc-Na-pertechnetate was negative for heterotopic gastric tissue in the small bowel area. Colonoscopy performed in order to exclude Crohn’s disease was also negative. He was placed on ranitidine at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight twice daily. The patient remained asymptomatic over a period of 6 months before he was readmitted due to macroscopic rectal bleeding. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy used to investigate the source of bleeding showed normal macroscopic findings. Radiolabeling of blood constituents with 99mTc on delayed imaging showed radionucleotide concentration in the ascending and transverse colon suggestive of a lesion in the ileocecal area. Further investigation with the use of wireless capsule endoscopy revealed a MD. Wireless capsule endoscopy may thus be indicated for patients with GI blood loss when other diagnostic methods, such as upper and lower endoscopy and colonoscopy, have failed to identify the source of bleeding.

  7. Loss of blood group A in acute leukemia. Morphologic and biochemical studies of red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J B; Tanley, P C; Wallas, C H

    1987-01-01

    A patient with blood type A had acute myelomonocytic leukemia; his red cells (RBCs) typed as O and his serum had anti-B. RBC membranes were isolated from the patient as well as from controls with group A and O red cells. The membranes were incubated with uridine diphosphate (UDP)-N-acetyl-D-14C galactosamine in plasma from the patient and controls with group A and O red cells. RBC membranes from the patient behaved normally in that they incorporated the terminal carbohydrate responsible for blood group A activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the patient's RBCs had striking morphologic changes, with marked crenation and numerous knisocytes and dacryocytes. It was concluded that loss of the A antigen in this patient was not due to an abnormality of the enzyme required to convert H substance to A substance. It was postulated that weakening of the A antigen in some patients with leukemia may be related to a steric modification associated with abnormal red cell morphology.

  8. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE ON ESTIMATED BLOOD LOSS DURING ENDOSCOPIC SINUS SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W Williams

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current practice of lowering mean arterial pressure (MAP during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS is common, but unproven with regard to peer reviewed literature. The controlled hypotension induced is aimed for improved surgical field and lower the blood loss. Lower mean arterial pressures especially for prolonged surgeries may result in end organ hypoperfusion. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery for the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 at Memorial Hermann Hospital – Texas Medical Centre. We individually reviewed case sheets of every patient and documented blood loss as recorded on the anaesthesia record or in the surgical procedure note, among other variables. A total of 326 patients were included in this study. The median estimated blood loss (EBL was found to be 50 ml. The multivariate regression analysis between these three groups showed that EBL was higher in MAP 75 group. The average of EBL in MAP75 group and the average of EBL in MAP 65-70 group is 42% higher than that in MAP>75 group when other variables were fixed. Hence we found the trend toward higher blood loss with lower MAP. The authors conclude that lower MAP does not result in lower EBL in endoscopic sinus surgery. Furthermore, increases in BMI and crystalloid administered during an aesthetic management of these cases correlates with increased estimate blood loss.

  9. Coagulation changes during lower body negative pressure and blood loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helmond, Noud; Johnson, Blair D; Curry, Timothy B; Cap, Andrew P; Convertino, Victor A; Joyner, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that markers of coagulation activation are greater during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) than those obtained during blood loss (BL). We assessed coagulation using both standard clinical tests and thrombelastography (TEG) in 12 men who performed a LBNP and BL protocol in a randomized order. LBNP consisted of 5-min stages at 0, -15, -30, and -45 mmHg of suction. BL included 5 min at baseline and following three stages of 333 ml of blood removal (up to 1,000 ml total). Arterial blood draws were performed at baseline and after the last stage of each protocol. We found that LBNP to -45 mmHg is a greater central hypovolemic stimulus versus BL; therefore, the coagulation markers were plotted against central venous pressure (CVP) to obtain stimulus-response relationships using the linear regression line slopes for both protocols. Paired t-tests were used to determine whether the slopes of these regression lines fell on similar trajectories for each protocol. Mean regression line slopes for coagulation markers versus CVP fell on similar trajectories during both protocols, except for TEG α° angle (-0.42 ± 0.96 during LBNP vs. -2.41 ± 1.13°/mmHg during BL; P coagulation was accelerated as evidenced by shortened R-times (LBNP, 9.9 ± 2.4 to 6.2 ± 1.1; BL, 8.7 ± 1.3 to 6.4 ± 0.4 min; both P coagulation markers observed during BL.

  10. Prevention of alveolar bone loss in an osteoporotic animal model via interference of semaphorin 4d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wei, L; Miron, R J; Zhang, Q; Bian, Z

    2014-11-01

    Semaphorin 4d (Sema4d) has been proposed as a novel target gene for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recently, we fabricated a site-specific bone-targeting system from polymeric nanoparticles that demonstrates an ability to prevent bone loss in an osteoporotic model by interfering with Sema4d gene expression using small interference RNA (siRNA) molecules. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this targeting system on the periodontium, an area of high bone turnover. We demonstrated, by single photon emission computed tomography, that intravenous injection of this molecule in ovariectomized Balb/C mice is able to target alveolar bone peaking 4 hr post-injection. We then compared, by histological analysis, the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), alveolar bone height loss, immunohistochemical expression of Sema4d, and total number of osteoclasts in mandibular alveolar bone. Four treatment modalities were compared as follows: (1) sham-operated, (2) OVX-operated, (3) OVX+estrogen replacement therapy, and (4) OVX+siRNA-Sema4d animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that an osteoporotic condition significantly increases alveolar bone height loss, and that the therapeutic effects via bone-targeting systems featuring interference of Sema4d are able to partly counteract alveolar bone loss caused by osteoporosis. While the future therapeutic demand for the large number of patients suffering from osteoporosis faces many challenges, we demonstrate within the present study an effective drug-delivery moiety with anabolic effects on the bone remodeling cycle able to locate and target alveolar bone regeneration.

  11. Nonpharmacological, blood conservation techniques for preventing neonatal anemia--effective and promising strategies for reducing transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patrick D; Widness, John A

    2012-08-01

    The development of anemia after birth in very premature, critically ill newborn infants is a universal well-described phenomenon. Although preventing anemia in this population, along with efforts to establish optimal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and pharmacologic therapy continue to be actively investigated, the present review focuses exclusively on nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of neonatal anemia. We begin with an overview of topics relevant to nonpharmacological techniques. These topics include neonatal and fetoplacental hemoglobin levels and blood volumes, clinical and laboratory practices applied in critically ill neonates, and current RBC transfusion practice guidelines. This is followed by a discussion of the most effective and promising nonpharmacological blood conservation strategies and techniques. Fortunately, many of these techniques are feasible in most neonatal intensive care units. When applied together, these techniques are more effective than existing pharmacotherapies in significantly decreasing neonatal RBC transfusions. They include increasing hemoglobin endowment and circulating blood volume at birth; removing less blood for laboratory testing; and optimizing nutrition.

  12. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  13. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure.

  14. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

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    Sohrab Keyhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg, topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. Results: The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P

  15. Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients.

  16. No Effect of a Bipolar Sealer on Total Blood Loss or Blood Transfusion in Nonseptic Revision Knee Arthroplasty-A Prospective Study With Matched Retrospective Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Gromov, Kirill; Jans, Øivind;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative anemia is frequent after revision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with reported transfusion rates up to 83%. Despite increased efforts of reducing blood loss and enhancing fast recovery within the fast-track setup, a considerable transfusion rate is still evident. The a...

  17. Military aircrew and noise-induced hearing loss: prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajguru, Renu

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day high performance aircraft are more powerful, more efficient, and, unfortunately, frequently produce high noise levels, resulting in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in military aircrew. Military pilots are required to perform many flight duties correctly in the midst of many challenges that may affect mission completion as well as aircraft and aircrew safety. NIHL can interfere with successful mission completion. NIHL may also require aircrew to be downgraded from flying duties, with the incumbent re-training costs for downgraded personnel and training costs for new/replacement aircrew. As it is not possible to control the source of the noise without compromising the efficiency of the engine and aircraft, protecting the aircrew from hazards of excessive noise and treating NIHL are of extreme importance. In this article we discuss various personal hearing protection devices and their efficacy, and pharmacological agents for prevention and management of NIHL.

  18. Preventing mitochondrial fission impairs mitochondrial function and leads to loss of mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe A Parone

    Full Text Available Mitochondria form a highly dynamic tubular network, the morphology of which is regulated by frequent fission and fusion events. However, the role of mitochondrial fission in homeostasis of the organelle is still unknown. Here we report that preventing mitochondrial fission, by down-regulating expression of Drp1 in mammalian cells leads to a loss of mitochondrial DNA and a decrease of mitochondrial respiration coupled to an increase in the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. At the cellular level, mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the lack of fission leads to a drop in the levels of cellular ATP, an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in autophagy. In conclusion, we propose that mitochondrial fission is required for preservation of mitochondrial function and thereby for maintenance of cellular homeostasis.

  19. Role of Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Peritrochanteric Fracture Surgery in the Elderly Population

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    Virani SR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritrochanteric fractures are common injuries occurring in elderly patients. Surgeries for these fractures are associated with significant blood loss. Intravenous tranexamic acid has a proven track record in many orthopaedic surgeries including trauma, arthroplasty and spine surgeries. Objective: To study the effect of local subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and the requirement for blood transfusion in intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Study Design: Single centre prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients above 65 years of age were included in the study, divided into two groups: the intervention group received subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of 2g tranexamic acid before wound closure and the control group of alternate patients did not receive any tranexamic acid infiltration. The postoperative drain output was recorded, as well as the haemoglobin level and the patients needing blood transfusion. Results and Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin values were recorded. The mean preoperative haemoglobin was 10.9% and 10.8% (p=0.79 in the trial and control groups respectively. The mean postoperative haemoglobin was 9.5gm% and 9.2gm% (p=0.36 in the two groups. The total postoperative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group and the control group was 190.3ml and 204.3ml respectively (p=0.25. Ten patients (14.9% in the intervention group and 12 patients (17.1% in the control group required blood transfusion. We conclude that tranexamic acid does not play a significant role in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion when used locally in peritochanteric fracture surgery. However a larger double blinded study comparing various modalities of use of tranexamic acid is needed to conclusively establish its role.

  20. Acid-sensitive channel inhibition prevents fetal alcohol spectrum disorders cerebellar Purkinje cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Lunde, Emilie R; Ouyang, Nengtai; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Cudd, Timothy A

    2008-08-01

    Ethanol is now considered the most common human teratogen. Educational campaigns have not reduced the incidence of ethanol-mediated teratogenesis, leading to a growing interest in the development of therapeutic prevention or mitigation strategies. On the basis of the observation that maternal ethanol consumption reduces maternal and fetal pH, we hypothesized that a pH-sensitive pathway involving the TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channels (TASKs) is implicated in ethanol-induced injury to the fetal cerebellum, one of the most sensitive targets of prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant ewes were intravenously infused with ethanol (258+/-10 mg/dl peak blood ethanol concentration) or saline in a "3 days/wk binge" pattern throughout the third trimester. Quantitative stereological analysis demonstrated that ethanol resulted in a 45% reduction in the total number of fetal cerebellar Purkinje cells, the cell type most sensitive to developmental ethanol exposure. Extracellular pH manipulation to create the same degree and pattern of pH fall caused by ethanol (manipulations large enough to inhibit TASK 1 channels), resulted in a 24% decrease in Purkinje cell number. We determined immunohistochemically that TASK 1 channels are expressed in Purkinje cells and that the TASK 3 isoform is expressed in granule cells of the ovine fetal cerebellum. Pharmacological blockade of both TASK 1 and TASK 3 channels simultaneous with ethanol effectively prevented any reduction in fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell number. These results demonstrate for the first time functional significance of fetal cerebellar two-pore domain pH-sensitive channels and establishes them as a potential therapeutic target for prevention of ethanol teratogenesis.

  1. Preventive Effects of Collagen Peptide from Deer Sinew on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

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    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer sinew (DS has been used traditionally for various illnesses, and the major active constituent is collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of collagen peptide from DS on bone loss in the ovariectomized rats. Wister female rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham-operated (SHAM, ovariectomized control (OVX, OVX given 1.0 mg/kg/week nylestriol (OVX + N, OVX given 0.4 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OVX + H, OVX given 0.2 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + M, and OVX given 0.1 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + L, respectively. After 13 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and the effects of collagen peptide on body weight, uterine weight, bone mineral density (BMD, serum biochemical indicators, bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanics were observed. The data showed that BMD and concentration of serum hydroxyproline were significantly increased and the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased. Besides, histomorphometric parameters and mechanical indicators were improved. However, collagen peptide of DS has no effect on estradiol level, body weight, and uterine weight. Therefore, these results suggest that the collagen peptide supplementation may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  2. Cotinine prevents memory loss and diminishes Alzheimer's disease-like pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Charry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD affects millions of people around the world and currently there are no effective therapies. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to be neuroprotective, prevent memory loss and reduce amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in transgenic AD mice. The beneficial effect that cotinine has on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β. These pro-apoptotic factors promote neuronal survival and the synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in the hippocampus and cortex of wild type and AD mice. Cotinine has also shown to diminish depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed mice. Additionally, the use of this compound in studies has resulted in an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices. It can be observed in multiple studies, that daily treatment of mice with cotinine reduced Aβ levels and plaque formation compared with vehicle treated mice, which had higher memory loss and depressive behavior. The beneficial effects of cotinine on brain function and good safety profile, suggest that it may be a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

  3. The 'new genetics' in blood and cardiovascular research: applications to prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-11-01

    Genetic approaches have become an important component of both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Certain diseases of the blood--the hemoglobinopathies--have been elucidated by the spectacular methods of molecular genetics. Some of these advances have already been incorporated in disease management. Often, common conditions such as coronary heart disease and hypertension show familial aggregation. Genetic analysis of these diseases together with biochemical and molecular methods are likely to be useful for further understanding and ultimate prevention and control.

  4. Axonal loss and blood flow disturbances in the natural course of indirect traumatic optic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei; WANG Huai-zhou; SONG Wei-xian; YANG Wen-li; LI Wei-ye; WANG Ning-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve associated with severe visual dysfunction,which may be a result of secondary mechanical injury and vascular disorder of the optic nerve due to trauma.We analyzed the natural course of axonal loss and blood flow disturbances in patients with indirect TON to find a possible therapeutic window.Methods A cohort of 54 patients with indirect TON recruited between October 2008 and October 2010 at Beijing Tongren Hospital was retrospectively analyzed.The patients were divided into no light perception group (NLP) and better than NLP (btNLP) group.Specifically,the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT),and hemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery (OA),central retinal artery (CRA) and posterior ciliary artery (PCA) were determined.Results Two weeks after injury,there was a statistically significant decrease in the thickness of RNFL in the btNLP group as compared with the fellow control eyes (P <0.05).In contrast,in the NLP group,RNFL thickness slightly increased for 2 weeks following injury,then overtly reduced after 4 weeks (P <0.05).Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of CRA was significantly decreased 4 weeks after injury (P <0.05) in both the NLP group and btNLP group (P <0.05).The thickness of RNFL in the NLP group was negatively correlated with PSV of CRA after 1 week of injury (P <0.05,r=-0.962).Conclusions SD-OCT is a useful supplement in detecting the axonal loss in TON.The dynamic change of the thickness of RNFL appears to correlate with the hemodynamic disturbances in the natural course of TON.The first 2 weeks following an injury is critical and should be considered as the therapeutic window for TON patients.

  5. [The concept of loss of chance: A major evolution in the definition of damage or how to prevent litigation for loss of chance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T-D

    2016-07-01

    The concept of medical error in responsibility litigation was based until the past last years on a necessary direct and definite causal link between fault and injury. In France, since the 1960s and increasingly during the last decade, the idea of loss of chance arose, considered as a new and genuine prejudice (practically, a fixable damage); it became the subject of several legal precedents from the Cour de cassation and the Conseil d'État. Thus, plaintiffs may currently demand a compensation for a loss of chance even though a doubt exists on the causal link between the fault and the observed damage. The most frequent litigation circumstances implying a loss of chance are lack of information, lack or delay in diagnosis, delay in action, and default in medical assessment. Based on practical cases, the author presents the most propitious situations where litigation for loss of chance may occur and discusses possible preventive measures.

  6. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  7. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  8. Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H

    2014-02-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of αSMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  9. Effects of Three Types of Long-acting Contraceptive Implants on Menstrual Blood Loss in 89 Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽晖; 范慧民; 龚泉; 谢争; 孟凡; 洪玉凤; 王文娟

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of three types of contraceptive implants: the domestic No I , No I implants and Norplant on menstrual blood loss (MBL). Method: Eighty-nine healthy subjects were randomly allocated to three groups.Menstrual blood loss was measured before implanting and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Results: MBL of the three groups prior to the use of implant were 43. 3±6. 9ml,48.9±4. 3 ml, and 43.7±5. 5ml respectively, and decreased significantly at all post-implantation periods. MBLs were 32. 8±13. 2ml, 24. 8±5. 5ml, and 19. 7±9.3ml at the 3rd month after implantation and 23. 9±5. 9 ml, 40. 8±10. 4 ml, 25. 9±6. 0 ml at the 12th month after implantation respectively, sigmficantly less than before implantation(P<0. 05~0. 01). A tendency was seen in increase of hemoglobin concentraition. Conclusion: Long-acting contraceptive implants decreased menstrual blood loss and elevates hemoglobin concentration. They are applicable to women as a contraceptive method without blood loss effects.

  10. Effect of antifibrinolytic drugs on transfusion requirement and blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation: Results from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, activation of the fibrinolytic system can contribute significantly to perioperative bleeding. Prophylactic administration of antifibrinolytic agents has been shown to reduce blood loss and the need for allogenic transfusion. Objective: To study the effect of antifibrinolytics on requirement of blood components, blood loss and operative time during OLT in patients with end stage liver disease, reporting to a single centre. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent OLT at this centre during the period February 2003-October 2007 were the subjects of this study. Based on the individual anesthesiologist′s preference, patients were assigned to receive either two million units of aprotinin (AP as a bolus followed by 5,00,000 units/hour or 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid (TAas a bolus followed by 10 mg/kg every six to eight hours, administered from the induction till the end of the surgery. Transfusion policy was standardized in all patients. Intraoperative red cell salvage was done wherever possible. The effect of these two antifibrinolytic drugs on transfusion requirement was evaluated as a whole and in a sub group of patients from each treatment group and compared with a concurrent control group that did not receive antifibrinolytic drugs. Results: Fifty patients (40 M / 10 F, 44 adults, 6 pediatric patients underwent OLT in the study period. Fourteen patients were given AP, 25 patients were given TA and 11 patients did not receive any of the agents(control group. The median volume of total blood components transfused in antifibrinolytic group (n=39 was 4540 ml(0-19,200ml, blood loss 5 l(0.7-35l and operative time 9h (4.5-17h and that of control group(n=11 was 5700 ml(0-15,500ml, 10 l(0.6-25 l and 9h (6.4-15.8h respectively. The median volume of blood transfusions, blood loss and operative time was lesser in AP group(n=14 than that of TA group(n=25. Conclusion: There is definite

  11. EFFICACY OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CAESAREAN SECTION: A RANDOMIZED CASE CONTROL PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: To reduce maternal mortality and morbidity caused by bleeding, it is important to reduce the amount of bleeding during and after lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. Tranexamic acid helps to reduce bleeding during and after LSCS. OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy and safety of Tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after Lower segment Caesarean Section (LSCS. METHODS: A randomized case controlled prospective study was conducted on 200 women undergoing lower segment cesarean section. Hundreds of them that were given tranexamic acid immediately before LSCS were compared to hundred others to whom tranexamic acid was not given. Blood loss was collected and measured during the two periods, from plancental delivery to end of LSCS and second from end of LSCS to two hours postpartum. RESULTS: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to end of LSCS, 202.25ml in the study group vs392.20 ml in the control group (p<0.001; from the end of LSCS, to 2 hours postpartum 3.80ml in the study group versus 112.25ml in the control group (p<0.001; In totality, it significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to two hours postpartum i.e. 27.05ml in the study group versus 510.45ml in the control group (p < 0.001. No complications or side effects were noted. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the amount of blood loss during and after LSCS. Tranexamic acid can be used prophylactically; moreover it is safer and effective in women undergoing LSCS.

  12. Prevention of Bone Loss with Risedronate in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Susan L.; Vujevich, Karen T.; Brufsky, Adam; Lembersky, Barry C.; van Londen, G.J.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Puhalla, Shannon L.; Rastogi, Priya; Perera, Subashan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, are associated with bone loss and fractures. Our objectives were to determine if 1) oral bisphosphonate therapy can prevent bone loss in women on an AI and, 2) early changes in bone turnover markers (BTM) can predict later changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We conducted a 2 year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in 109 postmenopausal women with low bone mass on an aromatase inhibitor (AI-anastrozole, letrozole, or exemestane) for hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Participants were randomized to once weekly risedronate 35 mg or placebo and all received calcium plus vitamin D. The main outcome measures included BMD, BTM [carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] and safety. Results Eighty-seven percent completed 24 months. BMD increased more in the active treatment group compared to placebo with an adjusted difference at 24 months of 3.9 ± 0.7 percentage points at the spine and 3.2 ± 0.5 percentage points at the hip (both p<0.05). The adjusted difference between the active treatment and placebo groups were 0.09 ± 0.04 nmol/LBCE for CTX and 23.3 ± 4.8 µg/mL for P1NP (both p<0.05). Women with greater 12-month decreases in CTX and P1NP in the active treatment group had a greater 24-month increase in spinal BMD (p<0.05). The oral therapy was safe and well tolerated. Conclusion In postmenopausal women with low bone mass and breast cancer on an AI, the oral bisphosphonate risedronate maintained skeletal health. PMID:25792492

  13. The effects of different exercise modes for preventing endothelial dysfunction of arteries and bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park,Jonghoon; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there are positive correlations between vascular disorders and bone loss in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different types of exercise (e.g., climbing and swimming) for preventing endothelial dysfunction of arteries and bone loss in ovariectomized rats. [Methods] Twenty Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: ovariectomy (OVX) plus treatment with vitami...

  14. Blood loss in major liposuction procedures: a comparison study using suction-assisted versus ultrasonically assisted lipoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmo, F R; Milan, M F; Silbergleit, A

    2001-07-01

    The blood loss that accompanies liposuction procedures has always been a concern. Tumescent injection of the targeted area of liposuction with dilute lidocaine and epinephrine solution has minimized intraoperative blood loss. Proponents of a newer ultrasonically assisted lipoplasty technique have claimed many benefits over traditional suction-assisted lipoplasty. However, few quantitative data are available on the intraoperative blood loss and the significance of postoperative anemia using the ultrasonic method. A prospective clinical observational design was used to investigate 38 patients undergoing suction-assisted lipoplasty and 37 patients undergoing ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty in whom the liposuction aspirate was expected to be more than 1000 ml. These patients were investigated with preoperative measurement of hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and postoperative measurement of hemoglobin on the seventh postoperative day. In addition, hemoglobin concentration and whole blood volume were calculated from the infranatant portion of the liposuction aspirate. The mean +/- SD volume of the liposuction aspirate was 2901 +/- 1471 ml for suction-assisted compared with 2741 +/- 1086 ml for ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty. The mean +/- SD of whole blood volume in liposuction aspirate per case was 36 +/- 50.82 ml for suction-assisted lipoplasty and 36 +/- 28.62 ml for ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty. The mean +/- SD of the preoperative hemoglobin concentration was 13.93 +/- 0.99 g/dl for suction-assisted lipoplasty and 14.05 +/- 1.16 g/dl for ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty, whereas the mean +/- SD of the postoperative hemoglobin concentration was 13 +/- 1.42 g/dl for suction-assisted lipoplasty and 13.05 +/- 1.32 g/dl for ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty. The mean decrease in hemoglobin on the seventh postoperative day was 0.93 +/- 0.92 g/dl for suction-assisted lipoplasty and 1 +/- 0.64 g/dl for ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty. The

  15. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  16. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  17. Preventive effects of raloxifene treatment on agerelated weight loss in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Tomohiko; Shiraki, Masataka; Kuroda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Shiro; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Decline of body weight and body mass index (BMI) with aging is a major risk factor for osteoporosis and fracture, suggesting that treatment for osteoporosis may affect body composition. However, the effects of treatment for osteoporosis on body composition are not well known. The present study aimed to identify the relationship between raloxifene treatment and body composition markers. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and bone remodeling markers in 236 Japanese postmenopausal women with raloxifene treatment (N = 50) and without treatment by any osteoporosis drug (N = 186) for 5 years and analyzed the relationship of these with BMD, BMI, body weight, and biochemical markers. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 65.5 (9.3) years. Percent-changes in body weight and BMI were significantly different between women taking raloxifene and those not taking any osteoporosis drugs (P = 0.03 and 0.048, respectively). Raloxifene treatment was a significant independent determinant of body weight and BMI. Long-term treatment with raloxifene prevents age-related weight loss.

  18. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss ...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise.......AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss...... on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...

  19. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting.

  20. Percutaneous blood exposure among Danish doctors: exposure mechanisms and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the mechanisms of percutaneous blood exposure (PCE) among doctors and discuss rational strategies for prevention. Data were obtained as part of a nation-wide questionnaire survey of occupational blood exposure among hospital employed doctors in Denmark.......5% of all PCE. Use of fingers rather than instruments was a major cause of injury in surgical specialities and was a contributing cause of 36.9% PCE on suture needles. Common contributing causes when fingers were used (n = 199) were poor space in (30.2%) or view of (18.6%) the operation field. It was often...... and 'acute situation' were common, especially in the case of PCE on i.v.-catheter-stylets. It is concluded that the exposure mechanisms of PCE reflect both unsafe routines, difficult working conditions and unsafe devices. Education in safer working routines are needed in all specialties. Introduction...

  1. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Han-Yueh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yen-Jean, Mei-Chu [Division of Family Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Taiwan, ROC 1, E-Da Rd., Jiau-Shu Tsuen, Yan-Chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Da-Shu Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jung-Der, E-mail: jdwang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC No. 1, Chang-Teh St., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2009-12-15

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 {mu}g/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p < 0.05 {approx} p < 0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 {mu}g/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  2. [The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of early stages of cerebral blood flow insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Iu S; Girich, T I; Kuntsevich, G I; Sokov, E L; Malkova, E V; Borisova, N F; Nozdriukhina, N V; Shuvakhina, N A

    1998-01-01

    Biomicroscopy of bulbar conjuctiva as well as oencephalography were quite informative for discovery of subclinical manifestations of disorders of cerebral circulation (DCC). That conclusion resulted from the observation of 133 patients with early forms of vascular pathology of brain. Besides, to find the early signs, it was also worth while to perform some biochemical studies (coagulogram, studies of both rheologic properties and lipids of blood). In order to establish discirculatory encephalopathy it was also expedient to use ultrasonic dopplerography and electroencephalography. Efficiency of some medical-prophylactic measures (normalization of the diet, weight, muscular activity, administration of antiatherosclerotic drugs) that prevented the progression of aorta's stenosis was also demonstrated.

  3. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Penn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial cohorts: to analyse T2D incidence, sustained weight loss and utility of risk predictors. METHODS: We analysed data on 749 adults with impaired glucose tolerance (278 men and 471 women, mean age 56 years, mean BMI 31 kgm(-2 recruited between 1993 and 2003, and randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (I or lifestyle advice control (C. The intervention aimed to increase physical activity, modify diet, and promote weight loss≥5%. Using Cox-regression survival analysis, we assessed T2D incidence and the impact on T2D incidence of sustained weight loss, and of baseline cut-point values of FINDRISC score, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and HbA1c. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 3.1 years. T2D was diagnosed in 139 participants (I = 45/379, C = 94/370. Cumulative T2D incidence was 57% lower in the intervention compared with the control group (HR 0.42 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.60 P<0.001. Participants with ≥5% weight loss at one year had 65% lower T2D incidence (HR 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.56 P<0.001; maintaining ≥5% weight loss for two and three years further reduced T2D incidence. Recommended cut-points to identify those at high risk for T2D would have identified different proportions of European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS participants with similar hazard-ratios for intervention effect. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled analysis of EDIPS trial data reinforces evidence for T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention. Analysis showed the preventive effect of ≥5% weight loss, especially if maintained long term, which has utility for intervention monitoring. Analysis of proposed cut-points demonstrates difficulties in balancing risk and benefit, to

  4. Brazilian situation of blood component irradiation practice for the prevention of transfusion associated Graft-versus-Host disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G.; Borges, J.C. [EE/COPPE-UFRJ (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Faculdade deMedicina-USP-RP (Brazil); Motta, I. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer- Rio deJaneiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a usually complication of transfusion of blood component containing T lymphocytes what recently has also involved immunocompetent patient. Gamma irradiation of cellular blood components has been the mainstay against TA-GVHD, nevertheless there is little information in the literature about current transfusion medicine practices regarding gamma irradiation of blood products. This work presents an overview of the Brazilian reality and suggests policies to optimize TA-GVHD prevention. (Author)

  5. Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Model-Predictive Automatic Recovery System to Prevent Vehicle Loss of Control on Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Liu, Yuan; Sowers, Thomas S.; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  6. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control (sham OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle, and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  7. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg(-1)∙day(-1), respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section:A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr H Yehia; Magdy H Koleib; Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Ahmed Atik

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reduction of blood loss during and after cesarean section.Methods:Women included in the current double blinded, randomized, controlled trial were recruited from women attending for elective cesarean section and randomized into two groups; study group: received tranexamic acid with induction of anesthesia plus10IU of oxytocin injection after delivery of the baby.Control group: received only oxytocin 10IU injection after delivery of the baby.Results:Twenty four hours post-operative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in study group(11.2±1.5 mg/dL) compared to control(9.6±1.2 mg/dL), also24 hours post-operative hematocrit was significantly higher in study group(30.2±6.6) compared to control(29.2±2.8).Calculated total blood loss from placental delivery till end of cesarean section was significantly less in study group compared to control(369.5±198.0 versus606.8±193.0 mL; respectively), also, calculated vaginal bleeding during first6 hours post-operative was significantly less in study group compared to control(85.0±30.7 mL versus130.8±49.3 mL, respectively).The incidence of post-partum hemorrhage was significantly less in study group compared to control(31.1% versus63.2%; respectively), also the need for iron replacement therapy was significantly less frequent in study group compared to control(0.9% versus6.6%, respectively). Conclusions:Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  9. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Quaranta; Valentina Squeo; Moris Sangineto; Giusi Graziano; Carlo Sabbà

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present ...

  10. Loss of autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue in juvenile diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Kastrup, J; Parving, H H;

    1984-01-01

    and retinopathy. The blood flow remained constant in all normal subjects, when the arterial perfusion pressure was varied between 70 and 150 mm Hg. All diabetics had impaired or reduced autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow. The blood flow increased and decreased almost linearly with the changes...... in arterial perfusion pressure. The mechanism underlying the defect autoregulation of blood flow in diabetics is uncertain; possibilities include structural changes of the arterioles and/or alterations of local metabolic factors.......The autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue was investigated at the level of the lateral malleolus by the local 133Xenon washout technique. We have investigated eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetics and seven healthy controls. All diabetics had moderate diabetic nephropathy...

  11. The Role of the Nonpneumatic Antishock Garment in Reducing Blood Loss and Mortality Associated with Post-Abortion Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Shila; El Ayadi, Alison M; Butrick, Elizabeth; Hosang, Robert; Miller, Suellen

    2015-09-01

    Maternal mortality attributable to post-abortion hemorrhage is often associated with delays in reaching or receiving definitive care. The nonpneumatic antishock garment (NASG), a low-technology first-aid device, has been shown to decrease blood loss and mortality among women experiencing hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage etiologies. Women experiencing post-abortion hemorrhage face longer delays in receiving definitive treatment as a result of abortion-related stigma and lack of access to quality abortion care; thus the NASG has the potential to make an even greater impact within this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in Egypt, Nigeria, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in NASG trials, limiting our analytic sample to women who experienced post-abortion hemorrhage (n = 953). Blood loss significantly decreased when the NASG was added to standard hemorrhage management during the intervention phase, and there was a large, although not statistically significant, 52 percent decrease in mortality during the NASG phase. The results indicate that adding the NASG to post-abortion care among women experiencing severe hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock would decrease blood loss and mortality.

  12. Propitious Therapeutic Modulators to Prevent Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption in Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Ropper, Alexander E; Lee, Soo-Hong; Han, Inbo

    2016-05-18

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a specialized protective barrier that regulates the movement of molecules between blood vessels and the spinal cord parenchyma. Analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis and internal environmental stability of the central nervous system (CNS). After spinal cord injury (SCI), BSCB disruption leads to inflammatory cell invasion such as neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to permanent neurological disability. In this review, we focus on the major proteins mediating the BSCB disruption or BSCB repair after SCI. This review is composed of three parts. Section 1. SCI and the BSCB of the review describes critical events involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and their correlation with BSCB integrity/disruption. Section 2. Major proteins involved in BSCB disruption in SCI focuses on the actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), angiopoietins (Angs), bradykinin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelins (ETs) in BSCB disruption and repair. Section 3. Therapeutic approaches discusses the major therapeutic compounds utilized to date for the prevention of BSCB disruption in animal model of SCI through modulation of several proteins.

  13. Blood-borne phagocytes internalize urate microaggregates and prevent intravascular NETosis by urate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Elmar; Jeremic, Ivica; Czegley, Christine; Weidner, Daniela; Biermann, Mona H.C.; Veissi, Susan; Maueröder, Christian; Schauer, Christine; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Dumych, Tetiana; Hoffmann, Markus; Munoz, Luis E.; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Schett, Georg; van der Vlag, Johan; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to cardiovascular complications including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In individuals with hyperuricemia, needle-shaped monosodium urate crystals (nsMSU) frequently form within joints or urine, giving rise to gouty arthritis or renal calculi, respectively. These nsMSU are potent instigators of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Little is known on the mechanism(s) that prevent nsMSU formation within hyperuricemic blood, which would potentially cause detrimental consequences for the host. Here, we report that complement proteins and fetuins facilitate the continuous clearance by blood-borne phagocytes and resident macrophages of small urate microaggregates (UMA; <1 μm in size) that initially form in hyperuricemic blood. If this clearance fails, UMA exhibit bipolar growth to form typical full-sized nsMSU with a size up to 100 μm. In contrast to UMA, nsMSU stimulated neutrophils to release NETs. Under conditions of flow, nsMSU and NETs formed densely packed DNase I-resistant tophus-like structures with a high obstructive potential, highlighting the importance of an adequate and rapid removal of UMA from the circulation. Under pathological conditions, intravascularly formed nsMSU may hold the key to the incompletely understood association between NET-driven cardiovascular disease and hyperuricemia. PMID:27917897

  14. Vitamin E prevents deleterious effects of di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate, a plasticizer used in PVC blood storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, C R; Gayathri, N S; Mithra, K; Nair, K V Neelakantan; Kurup, P A

    2004-09-01

    Vitamin E administration prevented DEHP induced deleterious effects like (i) degenerative changes in the brain and thyroid, (ii) decrease in the activity of neuronal membrane Na+ - K+ ATPase, (iii) decrease in the concentration of insulin, cortisol and TSH, and (iv) the increase in T3 and T4 in female Albino rats. The results suggest use of vitamin E to prevent harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood as in thalassemia patient. The possibility of using vitamin E to prevent the harmful effects of repeated transfusion of DEHP containing blood, as in thalassemia patients, is discussed.

  15. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment...... with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone......% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low calorie-diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent....

  16. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  17. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merry Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  18. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: part 1 - using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Carol Merry; Stephenson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  19. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  20. Rilmenidine prevents blood pressure increase in rats with compromised nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária GEROV(A); Jozef T(O)R(O)K; Ol'ga PECH(A)(O)OV(A); Jana MATU(S)KOV(A)

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To search tools of high blood pressure in the model of nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertension, and the study focused on the effect of rilmenidine, agonist of imidazoline receptors, which was suggested to modulate central sympathetic outflow. METHODS: Three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 rats, were used: (Ⅰ) rats with inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 4 weeks in drinking water, (Ⅱ) rats with inhibited NOS as in group Ⅰ, plus agonist of imidazoline receptors rilmenidine 3mg.kg-1·d-1 for 4 weeks by gavage, and (Ⅲ) control rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly noninvasively.At the end of experiment aortic ring isometric tension was followed, NOS expression (aorta, left ventricle), and NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) were determined. RESULTS: In the group Ⅰ systolic blood pressure increased significantly, aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly attenuated. Rilmenidine administered simultaneously with L-NAME (group Ⅱ) prevented the increase of blood pressure which did not differ significantly from control values; aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine did not differ from control. No change in NOS expression (aorta and left ventricle) was found in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Significant decline in NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) was found in groups Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ. CONCLUSION: Rilmenidine has a remarkable role in NO-defective hypertension,possibly by inhibiting central sympathetic outflow and by affecting receptors in vascular smooth muscle also. The prime cause of hypertension in this experimental model - the compromised production of NO due to inhibition of NOS - was not affected by rilmenidine.

  1. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Edward J; Manson, Spero M; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A; Gutilla, Margaret J; Knepper, Stephanie L; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  2. Considerations of blood properties, outlet boundary conditions and energy loss approaches in computational fluid dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Woo; Lee, Joon Sang

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research, analysis of computational fluid dynamics of cerebral vessels has several limitations. Although blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, velocity and pressure fields were computed under the assumptions of incompressible, laminar, steady-state flows and Newtonian fluid dynamics. The pulsatile nature of blood flow is not properly applied in inlet and outlet boundaries. Therefore, we present these technical limitations and discuss the possible solution by comparing the theoretical and computational studies.

  3. Preventing loss of independence through exercise (PLIE: a pilot clinical trial in older adults with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E Barnes

    Full Text Available Current dementia medications have small effect sizes, many adverse effects and do not change the disease course. Therefore, it is critically important to study alternative treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to pilot-test a novel, integrative group exercise program for individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia called Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ, which focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection.We performed a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial to compare PLIÉ with usual care (UC at an adult day program for individuals with dementia in San Francisco, CA. Assessments of physical performance, cognitive function, physical function, dementia-related behaviors, quality of life and caregiver burden were performed by blinded assessors at baseline, 18 weeks (cross-over and 36 weeks. Our primary outcomes were effect sizes based on between-group comparisons of change from baseline to 18 weeks; secondary outcomes were within-group comparisons of change before and after cross-over.Twelve individuals enrolled (7 PLIÉ, 5 UC and 2 withdrew (1 PLIÉ, 18 weeks; 1 UC, 36 weeks. Participants were 82% women (mean age, 84 ± 4 years; caregivers were 82% daughters (mean age, 56 ± 13 years. Effect sizes were not statistically significant but suggested potentially clinically meaningful (≥ 0.25 SDs improvement with PLIÉ versus UC for physical performance (Cohen's D: 0.34 SDs, cognitive function (0.76 SDs and quality of life (0.83 SDs as well as for caregiver measures of participant's quality of life (0.33 SDs and caregiver burden (0.49 SDs. Results were similar when within-group comparisons were made before and after cross-over.PLIÉ is a novel, integrative exercise program that shows promise for improving physical function, cognitive function, quality of life and caregiver burden in individuals with

  4. Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit: a community health worker program to prevent vision loss and blindness among people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammary-Risch, Neyal J; Aguilar, Marcela; Goodman, Laura Saunders; Quiroz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic eye disease is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness in the United States and disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos. This article provides an overview of the Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit, a culturally and linguistically appropriate resource designed for community health workers to educate people with diabetes about eye health complications. The toolkit provides science-based, easy-to-understand information that can be used to conduct interactive, educational sessions about diabetes and eye health, the importance of comprehensive dilated eye examinations at least once a year for people with diabetes, and other ways to prevent vision loss and blindness.

  5. First Trimester Pregnancy Loss and the Expression of alternatively spliced NKp30 isoforms in Maternal Blood and Placental Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishai eShemesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate whether first trimester pregnancy loss is associated with differences in expression of NKp30 splice variants (isoforms in maternal peripheral blood or placental tissue. We conducted a prospective case-control study; a total of 33 women undergoing dilation and curettage due to first trimester pregnancy loss were further subdivided into groups with sporadic or recurrent pregnancy loss. The control group was comprised of women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. The qPCR approach was employed to assess the relative expression of NKp30 isoforms as well as the total expression of NKp30 and NKp46 receptors between the selected groups. Results show that in both PBMC and placental tissue, NKp46 and NKp30 expression was mildly elevated in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. In particular, NKp46 elevation was significant. Moreover, expression analysis of NKp30 isoforms manifested a different profile between PBMC and the placenta. NKp30-a and NKp30-b isoforms in the placental tissue, but not in PBMC, showed a significant increase in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. Placental expression of NKp30 activating isoforms -a and -b in the pregnancy loss groups was negatively correlated with PLGF expression. In contrast, placental expression of these isoforms in the elective group was positively correlated with TNFα, IL-10 and VEGF-A expression. The altered expression of NKp30 activating isoforms in placental tissue from patients with pregnancy loss compared to the elective group and the different correlations with cytokine expression point to the involvement of NKp30-mediated function in pregnancy loss.

  6. Theories and Practice in Prevention and Treatment Principles in Relation to Chinese Herbal Medicine and Bone Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu 徐红; David LAWSON

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a world wide problem that is increasing in significance as the global population both increases and ages. While osteoporosis has been extensively studied in recent years, the utilization of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine for the prevention and treatment of this condition have seldom been examined in the Western world. This paper reviews the theories and the literature that relate to prevention and treatment of bone loss at the time of menopause according to the principles of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine. Practical developments in these areas are also illustrated in this paper based on the authors' research findings in recent studies.

  7. Screening, prevention and management of osteoporosis and bone loss in adult and pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClune, B L; Polgreen, L E; Burmeister, L A; Blaes, A H; Mulrooney, D A; Burns, L J; Majhail, N S

    2011-01-01

    Long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent osteoporosis. There is a lack of clear guidelines for the screening, prevention and treatment of bone loss after HCT. We reviewed the prevailing literature and provide guidelines developed by our center for the screening and management of this complication. Bone loss occurs predominantly within the first 6-12 months after autologous and allogeneic HCT. Recovery first occurs in the lumbar spine and is followed by a slower recovery of BMD in the femoral neck. BMD may not return to baseline levels in patients with continuing exposure to corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. All HCT recipients should be advised general interventions to reduce fracture risk including adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. We recommend screening all adult allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 1 year after transplantation. Patients at high risk for bone loss (for example, patients receiving ≥ 5 mg of prednisone equivalent daily for > 3 months) can be screened earlier (for example, 3-6 months after HCT). Where indicated, bisphosphonates or other anti-resorptive agents (for example, calcitonin) can be used for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis in adult HCT recipients. Pediatric HCT recipients should be referred to a pediatric endocrinologist for evaluation and treatment of bone loss. There remain several areas of uncertainty that need further research in adult and pediatric HCT recipients, such as the optimal timing and frequency of screening for loss of bone mineral density, relationship of bone loss with risk of fractures, selection of appropriate patients for pharmacologic therapy, and optimal dosing schedule and duration of therapy with anti-resorptive agents.

  8. Development of stabilizing control systems for preventing expansion of loss of synchronism; Denryoku keito anteika system no gijutsu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Hirokawa, T.; Tsukui, R. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    The size and complexity of electric power systems has been increasing as a result of the construction of new generators, subsections, and lines to meet the steady growth in load demand. Electricity is an essential form of energy that supports society, and utilities are required to ensure high-quality electricity supplies without interruption. However, faults such as lightning may cause loss of synchronism among generators, leading to a blackout. In order to prevent such an expansion of loss of synchronism, many systems based on the latest technologies have been developed and applied. This paper outlines various types of disturbances that occur in electric power systems, and describes approaches and systems for preventing blackouts. In addition, a description is given of new functions that will be required in the near future in order to maintain the stability of electric power networks. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. High-throughput sequencing of microRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: identification of potential weight loss biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín I Milagro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are being increasingly studied in relation to energy metabolism and body composition homeostasis. Indeed, the quantitative analysis of miRNAs expression in different adiposity conditions may contribute to understand the intimate mechanisms participating in body weight control and to find new biomarkers with diagnostic or prognostic value in obesity management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was the search for miRNAs in blood cells whose expression could be used as prognostic biomarkers of weight loss. METHODS: Ten Caucasian obese women were selected among the participants in a weight-loss trial that consisted in following an energy-restricted treatment. Weight loss was considered unsuccessful when 5% (responders. At baseline, total miRNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was sequenced with SOLiD v4. The miRNA sequencing data were validated by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Differential baseline expression of several miRNAs was found between responders and non-responders. Two miRNAs were up-regulated in the non-responder group (mir-935 and mir-4772 and three others were down-regulated (mir-223, mir-224 and mir-376b. Both mir-935 and mir-4772 showed relevant associations with the magnitude of weight loss, although the expression of other transcripts (mir-874, mir-199b, mir-766, mir-589 and mir-148b also correlated with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: This research addresses the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies in the search for miRNA expression biomarkers in obesity, by determining the miRNA transcriptome of PBMC. Basal expression of different miRNAs, particularly mir-935 and mir-4772, could be prognostic biomarkers and may forecast the response to a hypocaloric diet.

  10. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, I.; Alshryda, S.; Somanchi, B.; Morakis, E.; Foster, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA) was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.). More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized. PMID:26664830

  11. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.. More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized.

  12. Medical image of the week: pneumatosis intestinalis secondary to massive acute blood loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assar S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a 32 year-old male with a past medical history significant for end stage liver disease secondary to severe alcoholism who was found with an altered mental status. In the emergency department, the patient divulged he had been throwing up blood clots in the preceding days. Shortly into his presentation he began throwing up voluminous bright red blood. Initial hemoglobin concentration was 2.8 mg/dL. CT scan of the abdomen revealed pneumatosis within the ascending colon, small bowel, and mesenteric veins. Despite massive transfusion efforts and two episodes of successful cardiac resuscitation the patient expired.

  13. Hyperacute Corticosteroid Treatment of Optic Neuritis at the Onset of Pain May Prevent Visual Loss: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Plant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To show that high-dose corticosteroids may prevent visual loss in patients with optic neuritis (ON treated at the prodromal, hyperacute, phase of retrobulbar pain. Method. Prospective case series: patients were recruited with a history of ON associated with pain. The patients were advised to report immediately to the investigators should the pain recur in either eye. Where possible, orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed to confirm a recurrence of ON and treatment with high-dose corticosteroids was commenced. Visual function and the patient’s subjective account were monitored. Results. Eight patients (including cases of MS, CRION and NMO presented in the hyperacute phase. MRI confirmed optic nerve inflammation in 5/5. Treatment was commenced immediately, and, in all cases, no visual loss ensued. Conclusion. MRI can be used to confirm acute optic neuritis prior to visual loss in the hyperacute phase. We suggest that treatment with high-dose corticosteroids may abort the attack and prevent loss of vision in patients with ON who are treated at the onset of pain. This has potential implications for the management of acute ON and also for our understanding of the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets in the neuroinflammatory conditions associated with ON.

  14. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  15. Preventing Staphylococcus aureus sepsis through the inhibition of its agglutination in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdow, Molly; Kim, Hwan Keun; Dedent, Andrea C; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique M

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is a frequent cause of sepsis in humans, a disease associated with high mortality and without specific intervention. When suspended in human or animal plasma, staphylococci are known to agglutinate, however the bacterial factors responsible for agglutination and their possible contribution to disease pathogenesis have not yet been revealed. Using a mouse model for S. aureus sepsis, we report here that staphylococcal agglutination in blood was associated with a lethal outcome of this disease. Three secreted products of staphylococci--coagulase (Coa), von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp) and clumping factor (ClfA)--were required for agglutination. Coa and vWbp activate prothrombin to cleave fibrinogen, whereas ClfA allowed staphylococci to associate with the resulting fibrin cables. All three virulence genes promoted the formation of thromboembolic lesions in heart tissues. S. aureus agglutination could be disrupted and the lethal outcome of sepsis could be prevented by combining dabigatran-etexilate treatment, which blocked Coa and vWbp activity, with antibodies specific for ClfA. Together these results suggest that the combined administration of direct thrombin inhibitors and ClfA-antibodies that block S. aureus agglutination with fibrin may be useful for the prevention of staphylococcal sepsis in humans.

  16. (−)-Epicatechin Prevents Blood Pressure Increase and Reduces Locomotor Hyperactivity in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenyiova, A.; Drobna, M.; Lukac, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of subchronic (−)-epicatechin (Epi) treatment on locomotor activity and hypertension development in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Epi was administered in drinking water (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Epi significantly prevented the development of hypertension (138 ± 2 versus 169 ± 5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and reduced total distance traveled in the open-field test (22 ± 2 versus 35 ± 4 m, p < 0.01). In blood, Epi significantly enhanced erythrocyte deformability, increased total antioxidant capacity, and decreased nitrotyrosine concentration. In the aorta, Epi significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity and elevated the NO-dependent vasorelaxation. In the left heart ventricle, Epi increased NOS activity without altering gene expressions of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS. Moreover, Epi reduced superoxide production in the left heart ventricle and the aorta. In the brain, Epi increased nNOS gene expression (in the brainstem and cerebellum) and eNOS expression (in the cerebellum) but had no effect on overall NOS activity. In conclusion, Epi prevented the development of hypertension and reduced locomotor hyperactivity in young SHR. These effects resulted from improved cardiovascular NO bioavailability concurrently with increased erythrocyte deformability, without changes in NO production in the brain. PMID:27885334

  17. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  18. Effect of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Wu, Y; Cheskin, L J; Wilson, R F; Wang, Y

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of childhood obesity prevention programmes on blood lipids in high-income countries. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL®, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library up to 22 April 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments published in English. Studies were included if they implemented diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) with ≥1 year follow-up (or ≥6 months for school-based intervention studies) in 2-18-year-olds, and were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese children, or those with a pre-existing medical condition. Seventeen studies were finally included. For total cholesterol, the pooled intervention effect was -0.97 mg dL(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): -3.26, 1.32; P = 0.408]; for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), -6.06 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: -11.09, -1.02; P = 0.018); for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 1.87 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: 0.39, 3.34; P = 0.013); and for triglycerides, -1.95 mg dL(-1) (95% CI: -4.94, 1.04; P = 0.202). Most interventions (70%) showed similar significant or no effects on adiposity- and lipids outcomes: 15% interventions improved both adiposity- and lipids outcomes; 55% had no significant effects on either. Childhood obesity prevention programmes had a significant desirable effect on LDL-C and HDL-C. Two-thirds of interventions showed similar significant or no effects in adiposity- and lipids outcomes. Assessing lipids outcomes provide additional useful information on obesity prevention programme benefits.

  19. Intraoperative blood loss in female patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority of AIS patients who require surgical intervention are women. Blood loss is a major concern during the operation. METHODS: The medical records of all female AIS patients who underwent posterior correction and fusion operations using the all-pedicle screw system from January 2012 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patients with irregular menstruation; underwent osteotomy; use coagulants were excluded from the study. The remaining patients were divided into 4 groups according to the operation date in the menstrual cycle (A: premenstrual group, 24-30 d; B: follicle group, 6-11 d; C: ovulatory group, 12-17 d; D: luteal group, 18-23 d. The information of patients from the 4 groups was reviewed. The data was analyzed using analysis of variance, the Student-Newman-Keels test and Kruskal-Wallis Test. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were included in this study. There were 40 patients included in group A, 38 patients in group B, 41 patients in group C and 42 patients in group D. The 4 groups were matched in age (P = 0.238, body height (P = 0.291, body weight (P = 0.756, Risser sign (P = 0.576, mean curve Cobb angle (P = 0.520, and bending flexibility index (P = 0.547, the number of levels fused (P = 0.397. The activated partial thromboplastin time (P = 0.235 and prothrombin time (P = 0.074 tended to be higher in group A, but the difference was not statistically significant. The fibrinogen level was lower in group B than the other 3 groups (P = 0.039. Blood loss and normalized intraoperative blood loss (NBL was significantly higher in group A than the other 3 groups (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The hemostatic function tended to be lower in the premenstrual phase. The fibrinogen level was lowest in the mid-follicle phase. Female AIS patients tended to endure more intraoperative blood loss when the operation was performed in the premenstrual phase during the menstrual cycle.

  20. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016.

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for adults.

  2. COMPARISON OF HAEMODYNAMICS AND BLOOD LOSS IN URETHROPLASTY SURGERIES DONE UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA WITH AND WITHOUT CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 2–5 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urethroplasty surgery is a painful procedure demanding high doses of analgesics, which may be associated with adverse effects and associated with significant blood loss. Caudal blockade provides good analgesia and hemodynamic stability and is probably a useful supplement in these surgeries. OBJECTIVES To compare the heart rate, blood pressure response to surgical stimuli and the incidence of blood transfusion rate post-operatively between 2 groups – A General Anaesthesia only. B General Anaesthesia with caudal block. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Study was conducted in 100 children, randomly divided into two groups A and B. Only ASA grade 1 patients aged 2-5yrs. undergoing urethroplasty for hypospadias were included. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1ml/kg of 0.125% bupivacaine was used for caudal blockade in group B (GA+CAUDAL and compared with group A (Only GA. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded for every 5 min. Blood loss and requirement of blood transfusions were recorded at the end of the surgery. RESULTS There were statistically significant haemodynamic changes and blood transfusion requirement during surgery in group A. In Group B haemodynamic parameters were stable (P value 0 and blood transfusion requirement was also less (p value 0.00054 (P<0.01. CONCLUSION Caudal blockade when supplemented with general anaesthesia reduces blood loss, decreases requirement for blood transfusion and maintains haemodynamic stability.

  3. [Position-holders in the prevention of consequences of premature loss of primary teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranić, I

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of secondary crowding in the mandible consequential to premature loss of primary teeth in the region canine-first molar are described. Therapy aimed at providing the space lost was performed by fixed orthodontic treatment and lasted for about a year.

  4. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, G.J. de; Spaans, P.; Jansen, B.; Riet, J.P. van 't

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents’ intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequence

  5. Risky Business: Risk Management, Loss Prevention and Insurance Procurement for Colleges and Universities. NACUA Publication Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Barbara

    No matter what type of insurance or how much actual coverage an individual college or university obtains, it will always pay for its own losses one way or another. This pamphlet is intended to assist colleges and universities to meet that challenge by providing administrators with a structure for analyzing and managing risks and determining the…

  6. Prevention of Adolescents' Music-Induced Hearing Loss due to Discotheque Attendance: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Van der Ploeg, C. P. B.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular leisure activities of young people. Only a few…

  7. Genetic and Pharmacological Intervention for Treatment/Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotanche, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago it was first demonstrated that birds could regenerate their cochlear hair cells following noise damage or aminoglycoside treatment. An understanding of how this structural and functional regeneration occurred might lead to the development of therapies for treatment of sensorineural hearing loss in humans. Recent experiments have…

  8. Testing the Effects of a Message Framing Intervention on Intentions towards Hearing Loss Prevention in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume…

  9. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, G.J. de; Spaans, P.; Jansen, B.; Riet, J.P. van 't

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents’ intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of li

  10. Prevention of adolescents' music-induced hearing loss due to discotheque attendance: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, van der C.P.B.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular

  11. Coblation tonsillectomy versus dissection tonsillectomy: a comparison of intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izny Hafiz, Z; Rosdan, S; Mohd Khairi, M D

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain between coblation tonsillectomy and cold tonsillectomy in the same patient. A prospective single blind control trial was carried out on 34 patients whom underwent tonsillectomy. The patients with known bleeding disorder, history of unilateral peritonsillar abscess and unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy were excluded. Operations were done by a single surgeon using cold dissection tonsillectomy in one side while coblation tonsillectomy in the other. Intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain during the first 3 days were compared between the two methods. Results showed that the intraoperative time was significantly shorter (pcoblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. Post operative pain score was significantly less at 6 hours post operation (pcoblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. However, there were no differences in the post operative pain scores on day 1, 2 and 3. In conclusion, coblation tonsillectomy does have superiority in improving intraoperative efficiency in term of intraoperative time and bleeding compared to cold dissection tonsillectomy. The patient will benefit with minimal post operative pain in the immediate post surgery duration.

  12. [Intravenous laser irradiation of blood for the combined treatment of patients presenting with chronic sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the treatment of chronic sensorineural hearing loss (CSNHL) is proposed that includes administration of trental followed by intravenous laser irradiation of blood (IVLBI). The study included 81 patients at the age from 20 to more than 60 years presenting with CSNHL. They were allocated to three groups; the patients in group 1 (n=32) were given trental intravenously followed by intravenous laser irradiation of blood, those of group 2 (n=24) were treated with IVLBI alone while patients of group 3 (n=25) received "traditional" treatment. Audiometric examination and rheoencephalography were carried out before and after therapy. The hearing improved to 18-20 dB in group 1, to 10-15 dB in group 2, and to 10 dB in group 3. The improvement of rheoencephalographic characteristics was documented in the patients of all groups but was especially pronounced in group 1. It is concluded that the proposed method significantly increases the efficiency of treatment of chronic sensorineural hearing loss.

  13. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  14. Effectiveness of videos improving cancer prevention knowledge in people with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2012-06-01

    Deaf persons have a poorer understanding of cancer prevention, which is felt to be partly due to communication barriers. One hundred ninety-seven d/Deaf persons completed a survey and video on cancer prevention. Half viewed a spoken English program designed for hearing persons (control group); the other half viewed an amended program that had American Sign Language, captions, and printed English options added (experimental group). Knowledge was measured before and after the video, including 1 and 6 months later. Respondents were primarily Caucasian, had low incomes, lost hearing at young ages, and had d/Deaf spouses. Although overall knowledge improved after viewing the video, the presence of culture-specific communications (American Sign Language, captions) did not improve scores compared to the control group, either immediately after the intervention or over time. Moreover, percentage correct on all pretest, and almost all post-test, questions was prevention knowledge in this d/Deaf population, and overall knowledge remained low. More study is needed to determine the best way to increase cancer prevention knowledge in this population.

  15. Abdominal insufflation decreases blood loss without worsening the inflammatory response: implications for prehospital control of internal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, George C; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Tabbara, Malek; Duggan, Michael; Li, Yongqing; De Moya, Marc; Alam, Hasan B

    2008-04-01

    Abdominal insufflation (AI) by carbon dioxide has been shown to decrease the rate of bleeding in different swine models of abdominal organ injuries. With development of appropriate tools, AI could be used to control bleeding temporarily in the prehospital setting. Concerns have been raised about the inflammatory response to AI, which could damage organs at a later stage despite initial hemostasis. We hypothesized that AI controls bleeding without inducing an unfavorable inflammatory response. An experimental splenic injury was caused in 28 Yorkshire pigs, which were randomized to: 1) standard resuscitation (n = 14) with crystalloids to a mean arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg, or 2) standard resuscitation and AI (n = 14) to an abdominal pressure of 20 cmH2O. The experiment lasted for 30 minutes, and intra-abdominal blood loss was measured. Blood serum interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor beta1, and lung tissue heat shock protein 70 gene expression were measured at 0, 15, and 30 minutes, as markers of the inflammatory response. All animals survived to the end of the experiment. Total blood loss was significantly less in the AI group compared with the other standard resuscitation animals (733 +/- 76 vs 1094 +/- 153 mL, P = 0.049). The pH at the end of the experiment was significantly lower in the AI group (7.28 +/- 0.02 vs 7.44 +/- 0.05, P < 0.01) but there was no difference in lactate levels (1.5 +/- 0.4 vs 1.7 +/- 0.3, P = 0.7). Similarly, there was no difference in IL-1beta, transforming growth factor beta1, or lung tissue heat shock protein 70 gene expression between the two groups at any time point, although there was a trend towards lower IL-1beta levels in the AI group. Our conclusion is that AI reduces blood loss from splenic injury without a measurable effect on the early inflammatory response in a clinically relevant animal model.

  16. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hansen-Turton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6% of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7% of the 628 control children (p = 0.1. Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4 months versus 23.6 (3.1 months (P = 0.6. Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4. The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes.

  17. Comparison between effects of intravenous lidocaine and sublingual nifedipine on preventing blood pressure increase in laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohseni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gholamreza Mohseni1, Azam Kolyaei2, Morteza Farshchian3, Mansour Rezaei4, Negin Ghadami51Anesthesiologist, assistant professor, 2Anesthetist, 3Orthopedist, assistant professor, 4Biostatistician, assistant professor, 5General practitioner, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranIntroduction: Arrhythmia during surgery most frequently occurs during laryngoscopy and intratracheal intubation. Many surgical procedures require intratracheal intubation, which results in hemodynamic changes. These changes in ill patients and patients with limited coronary flow reserve are associated with serious events.Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was performed on 124 healthy patients who were elective surgery candidates at Taleghani hospital in Kermanshah. Patients were allocated randomly to each equal group of 62 patients with 95% significance and 90% power of test-retest for sample size. The patients had no history of disease or use of special medications. Drugs commonly used for laryngoscopy and intubation to prevent hemodynamic complications, intravenous lidocaine and sublingual nifedipine, were compared with independent and paired t-tests.Results: This comparison suggested that while the mean age, weight, and sex distribution in our two groups were the same, mean changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increases in the lidocaine group were 12.6%, 7.5%, and 16.5%, and in the nifedipine group, 17.7%, 11.0%, and 23.5% (P value = 0.0052, 0.189, and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, intravenous lidocaine is more effective than sublingual nifedipine for preventing hemodynamic changes while performing laryngoscopy or intratracheal intubation.Keywords: hemodynamic changes, laryngoscopy

  18. MRI confirms loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Lizak, Martin J; Nayak, Debasis; McGavern, Dorian B; Roberts, David D

    2013-09-01

    Disseminated candidiasis primarily targets the kidneys and brain in mice and humans. Damage to these critical organs leads to the high mortality associated with such infections, and invasion across the blood-brain barrier can result in fungal meningoencephalitis. Candida albicans can penetrate a brain endothelial cell barrier in vitro through transcellular migration, but this mechanism has not been confirmed in vivo. MRI using the extracellular vascular contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid demonstrated that integrity of the blood-brain barrier is lost during C. albicans invasion. Intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy was used to provide the first real-time demonstration of C. albicans colonizing the living brain, where both yeast and filamentous forms of the pathogen were found. Furthermore, we adapted a previously described method utilizing MRI to monitor inflammatory cell recruitment into infected tissues in mice. Macrophages and other phagocytes were visualized in kidney and brain by the administration of ultrasmall iron oxide particles. In addition to obtaining new insights into the passage of C. albicans across the brain microvasculature, these imaging methods provide useful tools to study further the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections, to define the roles of Candida virulence genes in kidney versus brain infection and to assess new therapeutic measures for drug development.

  19. [Changes of physiological and biochemical characteristics of rat erythrocytes after blood loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, M N; Kazennov, A M; Katiukhin, L N; Novozhilov, A V; Skverchinskaia, E A; Tavrovskaia, T V

    2007-01-01

    In experiments of Wistar male rats, changes are studied of erythrocyte hematological, biochemical (activitities of transport ATPases), and rheological properties (capability for aggregation and deformability) 7 days after bloodletting of 12-15 % of the total blood mass. It has been shown that alongside with an elevation of erythrocyte volume and of the number of immature cells - reticulocytes, there was a statistically significant increase of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase activities in the whole erythrocytes and their membrane preparations - ghosts, the increment of activity in the case of Na,K-ATPase being essentially higher in the whole cells. This indicates the appearance of an enzyme activator inside the erythrocytes. There are also revealed a decrease of firmness of erythrocyte aggregates, a deceleration of spontaneous aggregation, and an increase of index of erythrocyte deformability. The conclusion is made that changes of erythrocyte rheological properties are interconnected with changes of the Na,K-ATPase activity and are directed to optimization of blood circulation in large vessels and capillary network.

  20. Leg crossing with muscle tensing, a physical counter-manoeuvre to prevent syncope, enhances leg blood flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Dijk, N. van; Woerds, W. ter; Wieling, W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2007-01-01

    In patients with orthostatic intolerance, the mechanisms to maintain BP (blood pressure) fail. A physical counter-manoeuvre to postpone or even prevent orthostatic intolerance in these patients is leg crossing combined with muscle tensing. Although the central haemodynamic effects of physical counte

  1. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss: the DiOGenes randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Larsen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss i

  2. Biomarkers, mechanisms, and potential prevention of catecholamine neuron loss in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is on biomarkers, mechanisms, and potential treatment of catecholamine neuron loss in Parkinson disease (PD). PD is characterized by a movement disorder from loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. An intense search is going on for biomarkers of the disease process. Theoretically, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the deaminated DA metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), should be superior to other neurochemical indices of loss of central dopamine. CSF DOPAC is low in PD-even in patients with recent onset of Parkinsonism. Cardiac norepinephrine depletion is as severe as the loss of putamen dopamine. PD importantly involves nonmotor manifestations, including anosmia, dementia, REM behavior disorder, and orthostatic hypotension, and all of these nonmotor features are associated with neuroimaging evidence for cardiac sympathetic denervation, which seems to occur independently of the movement disorder and striatal dopaminergic lesion. Analogy to a bank robber's getaway car conveys the catecholaldehyde hypothesis, according to which buildup of the dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), the immediate product of the action of monoamine oxidase on cytosolic dopamine, causes or contributes to the death of dopamine neurons. Decreased vesicular uptake of dopamine and decreased DOPAL detoxification by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) determine this buildup. Vesicular uptake is also markedly decreased in the heart in PD. Multiple factors influence vesicular uptake and ALDH activity. Evidence is accruing for aging-related induction of positive feedback loops and an autotoxic final common pathway in the death of catecholamine neurons, mediated by metabolites produced continuously in neuronal life. The catecholaldehyde hypothesis also leads to testable experimental therapeutic ideas.

  3. Loss of Bmx Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Prevents Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Bmx non-receptor tyrosine kinase has an established role in endothelial and lymphocyte signaling, however its role in the heart is unknown. To determine whether Bmx participates in cardiac growth, we subjected mice deficient in the molecule (Bmx KO mice) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In comparison to WT mice, which progressively developed massive hypertrophy following TAC, Bmx KO mice were resistant to TAC-induced cardiac growth at the organ and cell level. Loss of Bmx preserved ca...

  4. Caffeine treatment prevented from weight regain after calorie shifting diet induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day and 4 hours intervals. Significant weight and fat loss were observed after 4-weeks of CSD (5.7 ± 1.24 Kg and 4.84 ± 1.53 Kg) or CSD+Caffeine (7.57 ± 2.33 Kg and 5.24 ± 2.07 Kg) which was consistent for one month of the follow-up (CSD: 5.24 ± 1.83 Kg and 4.3 ± 1.62 Kg, CSD+Caffeine: 12.11 ± 2.31 Kg and 9.85 ± 1.6 Kg, p Caffeine treatments, significantly decreased plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (p after 4-weeks of CSD (p after week 7 (p caffeine treatment with CSD could be an effective alternative approach to weight and fat loss with small changes in RMR and improved tolerance of subjects to the new diet.

  5. Prevention and treatment of bone loss in patients with nonmetastatic breast or prostate cancer who receive hormonal ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Connie; Maxwell, Cathy; Mautner, Beatrice

    2014-04-01

    Hormone ablation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. However, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used in postmenopausal women with breast cancer and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) used in men with prostate cancer contribute to substantial bone loss, thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Evidence-based guidelines, therefore, urge oncology practices to screen these patients for bone loss and, if needed, provide treatment to maintain bone health. In addition to lifestyle modification and calcium or vitamin D supplementation, bone protection strategies include treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against RANK ligand. Identification of patients at greater risk for bone loss and fracture and proper interventions can reduce fracture rates. Oncology nurses can play an important role in screening these patients. The purpose of this article is to inform oncology nurses about the effects of cancer treatment on bone health, review current prevention and treatment options for cancer treatment-induced bone loss, and discuss recommendations for identifying high-risk individuals.

  6. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  7. Prevention of diabetic microangiopathy by prophylactic transplant of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Xiao-cang CAO; Zhi-hong FANG; Cui-lin ZHENG; Zhi-bo HAN; He REN; Man-chiu POON; Zhong-chao HAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the prophylactic local delivery of mobilized periph-eral blood mononuclear cells (M-PBMNC) could prevent peripheral microangio-pathy in diabetic nude mice. Methods: Diabetic nude mice were induced with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. With the time course of diabetes, we detected the capillary and arteriole density of mice adductor muscles by immuno-histopathy. In situ apoptosis was detected by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. M-PBMNC were labeled and locally delivered to the adductor muscles. Mononuclear cells were also isolated and cultured in vitro for the detection and counting of endothelial progenitor cells(EPC). Results: Rarefication of capillaries and arterioles, enhanced apoptosis in adductor muscles,and reduced circulating EPC in diabetic nude mice. Prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC halted the progression of microvascular rarefaction in hind-limb skel-etal muscles by inhibiting apoptosis. We detected the survival, migration and incorporation of transplanted M-PBMNC into the murine vasculature in vivo. In addition, more EPC were available from M-PBMNC than non-mobilized cells.Conclusion: These results suggested that the prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC may represent a novel approach for the treatment of microvascular complications in diabetics.

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  9. Acid-sensitive channel inhibition prevents fetal alcohol spectrum disorders cerebellar Purkinje cell loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Lunde, Emilie R.; Ouyang, Nengtai; Chen, Wei-Jung A.; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is now considered the most common human teratogen. Educational campaigns have not reduced the incidence of ethanol-mediated teratogenesis, leading to a growing interest in the development of therapeutic prevention or mitigation strategies. On the basis of the observation that maternal ethanol consumption reduces maternal and fetal pH, we hypothesized that a pH-sensitive pathway involving the TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channels (TASKs) is implicated in ethanol-induced injury...

  10. Hemostatic strategies for minimizing mortality in surgery with major blood loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    receiving a high fresh frozen plasma (FFP):RBC or platelet:RBC ratio have improved survival, with patients receiving both high FFP:RBC and platelet:RBC ratios exhibiting the highest survival rate. When whole blood thrombelastography is used to guide transfusion therapy in massively bleeding patients......, an increase in FFP and platelet to RBC ratio is also seen, and this is associated with improved survival. This indicates that thrombelastography is better than conventional coagulation assays to monitor coagulopathy and predict transfusion requirements in massive bleeders. SUMMARY: Implementation of more...... aggressive hemostatic resuscitation strategies in massively bleeding patients seems reasonable, and optimally, thrombelastography should be used to monitor coagulopathy and guide FFP and platelet transfusions....

  11. The 2015 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabi, Doreen M; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Nerenberg, Kara; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; McKay, Donald W; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Ramesh Prasad, G V; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Brian Penner, S; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Fournier, Anne; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Harris, Kevin C; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program reviews the hypertension literature annually and provides detailed recommendations regarding hypertension diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment. This report provides the updated evidence-based recommendations for 2015. This year, 4 new recommendations were added and 2 existing recommendations were modified. A revised algorithm for the diagnosis of hypertension is presented. Two major changes are proposed: (1) measurement using validated electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices is preferred over auscultation for accurate office blood pressure measurement; (2) if the visit 1 mean blood pressure is increased but blood pressure measurements using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (preferably) or home blood pressure monitoring should be performed before visit 2 to rule out white coat hypertension, for which pharmacologic treatment is not recommended. A standardized ambulatory blood pressure monitoring protocol and an update on automated office blood pressure are also presented. Several other recommendations on accurate measurement of blood pressure and criteria for diagnosis of hypertension have been reorganized. Two other new recommendations refer to smoking cessation: (1) tobacco use status should be updated regularly and advice to quit smoking should be provided; and (2) advice in combination with pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be offered to all smokers. The following recommendations were modified: (1) renal artery stenosis should be primarily managed medically; and (2) renal artery angioplasty and stenting could be considered for patients with renal artery stenosis and complicated, uncontrolled hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed.

  12. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  13. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and last updated in 2013. Objectives To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease for primary and secondary stroke prevention (excluding silent cerebral infarcts). Search methods We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 04 April 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 25 April 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusions as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or standard treatment. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results We included five trials (660 participants) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of these trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of sickle cell disease. Three trials compared regular red cell transfusions to standard care in primary prevention of stroke: two in children with no previous long-term transfusions; and one in children and adolescents on long-term transfusion. Two trials compared the drug

  14. Common Carotid Artery Ligation to Minimize Blood Loss During Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alice E; Goodman, Andrew R

    2016-09-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery in veterinary medicine carries the risk of severe hemorrhage due to the great vascular supply of the head. Temporary hemostasis can be achieved with the application of pressure or hemostatic agents, but more definitive treatment may be needed to ensure bleeding will not resume once the patient is awake and normotensive. (1 , 2) Actively bleeding vessels encountered during maxillofacial surgery may be inaccessible, and vessels may recoil into bone, sometimes preventing definitive ligation. These scenarios may require ligation of the common carotid artery. (1) The purpose of this paper is to describe how to perform ligation of the common carotid artery in a step-by-step fashion. Both temporary and permanent ligation techniques are described.

  15. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  16. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Hansen, B; Lee, B S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on non-pharmacological prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. All identified papers were read by title, abstract and full-length article when...... relevant. Hand search of the articles' sources identified additional papers. For included studies, the level of evidence was determined. RESULTS: No studies conclusively showed an effective intervention. However, there are few randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and those that exist assess interventions...

  17. A Minimally-invasive Blood-derived Biomarker of Oligodendrocyte Cell-loss in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, John A; Kenna, Lauren A; Tipon, Regine C; Spelios, Michael G; Stecker, Mark M; Akirav, Eitan M

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Minimally invasive biomarkers of MS are required for disease diagnosis and treatment. Differentially methylated circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) is a useful biomarker for disease diagnosis and prognosis, and may offer to be a viable approach for understanding MS. Here, methylation-specific primers and quantitative real-time PCR were used to study methylation patterns of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene, which is expressed primarily in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (ODCs). MOG-DNA was demethylated in O4(+) ODCs in mice and in DNA from human oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) when compared with other cell types. In the cuprizone-fed mouse model of demyelination, ODC derived demethylated MOG cfDNA was increased in serum and was associated with tissue-wide demyelination, demonstrating the utility of demethylated MOG cfDNA as a biomarker of ODC death. Collected sera from patients with active (symptomatic) relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) demonstrated a higher signature of demethylated MOG cfDNA when compared with patients with inactive disease and healthy controls. Taken together, these results offer a minimally invasive approach to measuring ODC death in the blood of MS patients that may be used to monitor disease progression.

  18. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Katyal, Sunil; Yamin, Mohammad; Singh, Amandip

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total knee replacement (TKR) is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV), half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student's paired ‘t’ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD), and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001). The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001). The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing

  19. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshotam Lal Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Total knee replacement (TKR is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV, half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student′s paired ′t′ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD, and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001. The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001. The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in

  20. Prevention of clinical outcome after impacted third molar surgery in correlation with blood fibriolytic activity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate how impacted third molar surgery, as psychophysical and operative trauma; influence the response of blood fibrinolytic system. Examined group included 50 healthy subjects with impacted third molars and 45 subjects, blood donors, as a control group. Influence of the operative interventions over parameters of blood fibrinolytic system (t-Pa and PAI-1) were examined prior the procedures and immediately after. Values of blood pressure and pulse were notified to evident ...

  1. TCF7L2 polymorphism, weight loss and proinsulin:insulin ratio in the diabetes prevention program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available TCF7L2 variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI, and deficits in proinsulin processing and insulin secretion. Here we sought to test whether these effects were apparent in high-risk individuals and modify treatment responses.We examined the potential role of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant in predicting resistance to weight loss or a lack of improvement of proinsulin processing during 2.5-years of follow-up participants (N = 2,994 from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, a randomized controlled trial designed to prevent or delay diabetes in high-risk adults.We observed no difference in the degree of weight loss by rs7903146 genotypes. However, the T allele (conferring higher risk of diabetes at rs7903146 was associated with higher fasting proinsulin at baseline (P<0.001, higher baseline proinsulin:insulin ratio (p<0.0001 and increased proinsulin:insulin ratio over a median of 2.5 years of follow-up (P = 0.003. Effects were comparable across treatment arms.The combination of a lack of impact of the TCF7L2 genotypes on the ability to lose weight, but the presence of a consistent effect on the proinsulin:insulin ratio over the course of DPP, suggests that high-risk genotype carriers at this locus can successfully lose weight to counter diabetes risk despite persistent deficits in insulin production.

  2. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  3. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-11

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  4. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  5. The reason and prevention of blood adverse reaction%献血不良反应原因及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing reasons of donating blood adverse reaction, including mental reasons, piercing pain, faint at the sight of puppy blood and treatment reasons, lack of fasting blood donation, lack of blood donation knowledge and environmental reasons, the reasonable effective prevention methods were found, including: completing the propaganda work of blood donation knowledge, strict examination, improving the blood donation site environment, improving the level of blood business knowledge and professional technical personnel, and so on, so as to control the incidence of blood donation reaction, and reduce the fear of blood donors, then the unpaid blood donation team would get stronger.%目的:通过对献血不良反应的发生原因进行分析,包括精神原因、穿刺疼痛原因、晕血和晕针原因、空腹献血、献血者献血知识缺乏以及献血环境原因等,找到合理有效的预防方法,包括做好献血知识的宣传工作、严格的体格检查、改善献血场所环境、提高采血人员业务知识及专业技术水平等,从而控制献血反应的发生率,减少献血者的恐惧心理,使无偿献血队伍得到壮大。

  6. Comparative gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone as assessed by radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A.; Davis, A.; Lussier, Y.; Lebel, E.

    1989-03-01

    Nabumetone differs from most other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is presented to the gut as a nonacidic prodrug, and is metabolized to its active form after absorption. Studies in animals and humans suggest it is less irritating to the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study compared the gastrointestinal microbleeding induced by nabumetone to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), and placebo in a double blind parallel study using chromium /sup 51/Cr labelled red cells to quantitate fecal blood loss (FBL) in healthy volunteers. Thirty subjects were randomized to treatment with nabumetone (2000 mg), ASA (3.6 g) or placebo for 21 days following a 7 day placebo period. Six subjects served as untreated controls. FBL in nabumetone treated subjects was not significantly different to placebo or untreated subjects. In contrast, ASA-treated subjects exhibited significantly increased FBL than the other 3 groups (P less than .0001).

  7. Loss of Bmx nonreceptor tyrosine kinase prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Jordan, Scherise A; Holopainen, Tanja; Ren, Shuxun; Wang, Sujing; Warburton, Sarah; Zhang, Michael J; Alitalo, Kari; Wang, Yibin; Vondriska, Thomas M

    2008-12-05

    Bmx nonreceptor tyrosine kinase has an established role in endothelial and lymphocyte signaling; however, its role in the heart is unknown. To determine whether Bmx participates in cardiac growth, we subjected mice deficient in the molecule (Bmx knockout mice) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In comparison with wild-type mice, which progressively developed massive hypertrophy following TAC, Bmx knockout mice were resistant to TAC-induced cardiac growth at the organ and cell level. Loss of Bmx preserved cardiac ejection fraction and decreased mortality following TAC. These findings are the first to demonstrate a necessary role for the Tec family of tyrosine kinases in the heart and reveal a novel regulator (Bmx) of pressure overload-induced hypertrophic growth.

  8. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 - evaluation of the effect of evidence based patient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Guido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient information (EBPI has been recognised as important tool for informed choice in particular in the matter of preventive options. An objective, on the best scientific evidence-based consumer information about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and primary prevention of diabetes, is not available yet. Thus we developed a web-based EBPI and aim to evaluate its effects on informed decision making in people 50 years or older. Methods/Design We conduct a web-based randomised-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of information about elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention on five specific outcomes: (i knowledge of elevated blood glucose level-related issues (primary outcome; (ii attitudes to a metabolic testing; (iii intention to undergo a metabolic testing; (iv decision conflict; (v satisfaction with the information. The intervention group receives a specially developed EBPI about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention, the control group information about this topic, available in the internet. The study population consists of people between 50 and 69 years of age without known diabetes. Participants will be recruited via the internet page of the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse (TK, and the internet page of the German Diabetes Centre. Outcomes will be measured through online questionnaires. We expect better informed participants in the intervention group. Discussion The design of this study may be a prototype for other web-based prevention information and their evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN22060616.

  9. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  10. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss: six-year results from the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, Michael R; Wasnich, Richard D; Hosking, David J;

    2004-01-01

    We report the effect of continuous treatment with alendronate for 6 yr vs. placebo in the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort study. A total of 1609 healthy, early postmenopausal women were recruited; we describe results for the 585 women who received continuous placebo or alendronate (2.5 o.......5 mg alendronate, or 5 mg alendronate daily, respectively. Therapy with alendronate is an effective and promising strategy for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.......We report the effect of continuous treatment with alendronate for 6 yr vs. placebo in the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort study. A total of 1609 healthy, early postmenopausal women were recruited; we describe results for the 585 women who received continuous placebo or alendronate (2...

  11. Can we prevent blood dyscrasia (leucopenia, thrombocytopenia) and epileptic seizures induced by clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Miroslav; Muzinić, Lana; Jukić, Vlado

    2010-03-01

    Clozapine is associated with various haematological adverse effects, including leukopenia, neutropenia, agarnulocytosis, leukocytosis, anaemia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia and thrombocythaemia. Recognition and treatment of clozapine-related seizures also will become increasingly important as clozapine use grows in the 1990s. The decision to stop clozapine as a result of haematological adverse effects or seizures is a frustrating one for the clinician, and frequently disastrous for the patient. Cessation of treatment results in relapse. In case that patient is unresponsive to other antipsychotic, restarting clozapine should be consider, despite the risk involved. As the risk of a second agranulocytosis is much higher in those patients, various methods of militating against repeat blood dyscrasias have been treated, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and lithium. The decision to restart clozapine should be taken on case-by-case basis and should take into account the likely risks and benefits of restarting. Prior response to clozapine and magnitude of patient deterioration on stopping treatment are important factors to take into this consideration. Clozapine-related seizures did not preclude successful treatment with clozapine. A strategy that has been proposed to reduce the occurrence of seizures is the addition of an anticonvulsant agent. However, clozapine does induce a variety of adverse effects, most of which are of limited duration and either preventable or manageable if a number of simple clinical procedures are followed. With careful haematologyc control, the risk of agranulocytosis can be minimized and in case of clozapine related seizures recommendations include dose reduction, electroencephalogram (EEG), plasma-level monitoring and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. Re-exposure to clozapine may rarely be attempted where there are facilities for very close and frequent monitoring.

  12. Caffeine administration prevents retinal neuroinflammation and loss of retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Maria H.; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Nadal-Nícolas, Francisco; Ambrósio, António F.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, being characterized by progressive optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), accompanied by increased inflammatory response involving retinal microglial cells. The etiology of glaucoma is still unknown, and despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) being a major risk factor, the exact mechanisms responsible for RGC degeneration remain unknown. Caffeine, which is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Several evidences suggest that caffeine can attenuate the neuroinflammatory responses and afford protection upon central nervous system (CNS) injury. We took advantage of a well characterized animal model of glaucoma to investigate whether caffeine administration controls neuroinflammation and elicits neuroprotection. Caffeine or water were administered ad libitum and ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by laser photocoagulation of the limbal veins in Sprague Dawley rats. Herein, we show that caffeine is able to partially decrease the IOP in ocular hypertensive animals. More importantly, we found that drinking caffeine prevented retinal microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response and attenuated the loss of RGCs in animals with ocular hypertension (OHT). This study opens the possibility that caffeine or adenosine receptor antagonists might be a therapeutic option to manage RGC loss in glaucoma. PMID:27270337

  13. 临产凝血四项检测与产时失血量的相关性研究%Research on the Relationship Between the Detection of 4 Indicators of Blood Coagulation and Blood Loss in Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁荣伟; 兰枝; 杨善业; 刘新雄; 宁儒凤

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation and blood loss of pregnant women during the labor. [Methods]Totally 2000 pregnant women in obstetric department of our hospital were selected and divided into natural delivery group and cesarean section group with 1000 cases in each group. Prenatal automated coagulation analyzer was used to detect 4 indicators of blood coagulation. Maternal bleeding volume of parturients at labor was estimated by obstetricians. The relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation and blood loss was analyzed. [Results] There was no relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation at labor and blood loss during natural delivery and cesarean section( P >0. 05) , while the abnormal rate of 4 prenatal indicators of blood coagulation had obvious relation with intrapartum hemorrhage( P 0.05),而产前凝血四项结果异常率与产时出血量多少有明显的相关性(P<0.05);同一孕妇四项结果异常项目越多产程大出血的几率越高.[结论]产前凝血四项结果异常率与产时出血量有一定的相关性,同一孕妇四项结果异常率与出血量明显相关,临床应给予高度重视.

  14. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in posterior lumbar spine surgery for degenerative spinal stenosis with instability: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Stefan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative spinal stenosis and instability requiring multilevel spine surgery has been associated with large blood losses. Factors that affect perioperative blood loss include time of surgery, surgical procedure, patient height, combined anterior/posterior approaches, number of levels fused, blood salvage techniques, and the use of anti-fibrinolytic medications. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in spine surgery. Methods This retrospective case control study includes 97 patients who had to undergo surgery because of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and instability. All operations included spinal decompression, interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation (4-5 segments. Forty-six patients received 1 g tranexamic acid intravenous, preoperative and six hours and twelve hours postoperative; 51 patients without tranexamic acid administration were evaluated as a control group. Based on the records, the intra- and postoperative blood losses were measured by evaluating the drainage and cell saver systems 6, 12 and 24 hours post operation. Additionally, hemoglobin concentration and platelet concentration were reviewed. Furthermore, the number of red cell transfusions given and complications associated with tranexamic acid were assessed. Results The postoperative hemoglobin concentration demonstrated a statistically significant difference with a p value of 0.0130 showing superiority for tranexamic acid use (tranexamic acid group: 11.08 g/dl, SD: 1.68; control group: 10.29 g/dl, SD: 1.39. The intraoperative cell saver volume and drainage volume after 24 h demonstrated a significant difference as well, which indicates a less blood loss in the tranexamic acid group than the control group. The postoperative drainage volume at12 hours showed no significant differences; nor did the platelet concentration Allogenic blood transfusion (two red cell units was needed for eight patients

  15. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities.

  16. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Squeo, Valentina; Sangineto, Moris; Graziano, Giusi; Sabbà, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03). None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  17. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Quaranta

    Full Text Available Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03. None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  18. Meditation effects on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow in subjects with memory loss: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Andrew B; Wintering, Nancy; Khalsa, Dharma S; Roggenkamp, Hannah; Waldman, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary study determined if subjects with memory loss problems demonstrate changes in memory and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after a simple 8-week meditation program. Fourteen subjects with memory problems had an IV inserted and were injected with 250 MBq of Tc-99m ECD while listening to a neutral stimulus CD. They then underwent a pre-program baseline SPECT scan. Then subjects were guided through their first meditation session with a CD, during which they received an injection of 925 MBq ECD, and underwent a pre-program meditation scan. Subjects completed an 8-week meditation program and underwent the same scanning protocol resulting in a post-program baseline and meditation scan. A region of interest (ROI) template obtained counts in each ROI normalized to whole brain to provide a CBF ratio. Baseline and meditation scans and neuropsychological testing were compared before and after the program. The meditation program resulted in significant increases (pmemory showed improvements after training. This preliminary study evaluated whether an 8-week meditation program resulted in improvements in neuropsychological function and differences in CBF in subjects with memory loss. While the findings are encouraging, there are a number of limitations that can be addressed in future studies with more participants and more detailed analyses.

  19. 全髋关节置换修复髋关节骨性关节炎和股骨颈骨折:隐性失血的对比%Total hip arthroplasty for hip osteoarthritis and femoral neck fracture:comparison of hidden blood loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史高龙; 董启榕; 陈明; 佘昶

    2015-01-01

    intervention should be conducted for a particular cause? OBJECTIVE:To compare and analyze the hidden blood loss of patients with hip osteoarthritis and femoral neck fracture after total hip replacement. METHODS:The clinical data of 150 patients who received the unilateral total hip arthroplasty treatment from June 2013 to January 2015 were colected and analyzed, including 54 patients with hip osteoarthritis (30 male cases and 24 female cases ), 96 patients with femoral neck fracture (41 male cases and 55 female cases). The pre-and post-operative blood routine and intro-and post-operative blood loss and transfusion were recorded, and hidden blood loss during pen-operation period was evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Total blood loss was (1 616±216) mL, hidden blood loss was (699±102) mL, and hidden blood loss accounted for 43.3% of the total blood loss. The total blood loss was (1 742±254) mL in the hip osteoarthritis group, hidden blood loss was (758±127) mL, hidden blood loss accounted for 44.6% of the total blood loss; The average total blood loss was (1 470±189) mL in the femoral neck fracture group, hidden blood loss was (625±98) mL, hidden blood loss accounts for 42.1% of the total blood loss. The total blood loss and hidden blood loss in hip osteoarthritis group were significantly higher than those in the femoral neck fracture group (P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference on the hidden blood loss accounts for the proportion of the total blood loss between two groups (P=0.419 3). These results suggest that the total blood loss and hidden blood loss are different for the patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty in the premise of both pathogenesis. Therefore, before the total hip arthroplasty, we should fuly take into account the primary cause of patients and estimate the total blood loss and hidden blood loss, so as to take appropriate preventive measures in time to ensure the safety of the replacement process.

  20. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control remains the leading contributor to aviation accident fatalities, with stall upsets being the leading causal factor. The February 12, 2009. Colgan Air, Inc., Continental Express flight 3407 accident outside Buffalo, New York, brought this issue to the forefront of public consciousness and resulted in recommendations from the National Transportation Safety Board to conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and develop simulator standards to support such training. In 2010, Congress responded to this accident with Public Law 11-216 (Section 208), which mandates full stall training for Part 121 flight operations. Efforts are currently in progress to develop recommendations on implementation of stall training for airline pilots. The International Committee on Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) is currently defining simulator fidelity standards that will be necessary for effective stall training. These recommendations will apply to all civil transport aircraft including straight-wing turboprop aircraft. Government-funded research over the previous decade provides a strong foundation for stall/post-stall simulation for swept-wing, conventional tail jets to respond to this mandate, but turboprops present additional and unique modeling challenges. First among these challenges is the effect of power, which can provide enhanced flow attachment behind the propellers. Furthermore, turboprops tend to operate for longer periods in an environment more susceptible to ice. As a result, there have been a significant number of turboprop accidents as a result of the early (lower angle of attack) stalls in icing. The vulnerability of turboprop configurations to icing has led to studies on ice accumulation and the resulting effects on flight behavior. Piloted simulations of these effects have highlighted the important training needs for recognition and mitigation of icing effects, including the reduction of stall margins

  1. Predictive molecular profiling in blood of healthy vasospastic individuals: clue to targeted prevention as personalised medicine to effective costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Flammer, Josef; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2010-06-01

    Paradigm change from late interventional approach to predictive diagnostics followed by targeted prevention before manifest pathology, presents innovative concept for advanced healthcare. Preselection of healthy but pathology-predisposed individuals is the primary task in the overall action. Vasospasm is a frequent syndrome defined as an inappropriate constriction or insufficient dilatation in microcirculation. Vasospastic individuals are considered as healthy subpopulation predisposed to several pathologies including neurodegeneration. Clinical observations, subcellular imaging and "gene hunting"-investigations provide evidence for vasospasm as predisposition to glaucoma; development of further related pathologies cannot be excluded. Predictive molecular-profiling in blood can specify individual predisposition for effective prevention.

  2. Low-level laser therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Mizutari, Kunio; Niwa, Katsuki; Kurioka, Takaomi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Shunichi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Satoh, Yasushi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2015-05-19

    Noninvasive low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is neuroprotective, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. In this study, the use of LLLT as a novel treatment for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense noise and their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser at an output power density of 110 or 165mW/cm(2) for a 30min period for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with LLLT compared with the non-treatment group at days 2, 4, 7 and 14 after noise exposure. Morphological observations also revealed a significantly higher outer hair cell survival rate in the LLLT groups. Immunohistochemical analyses for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cleaved caspase-3 were used to examine oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strong immunoreactivities were observed in the inner ear tissues of the non-treatment group, whereas these signals were decreased in the LLLT group at 165mW/cm(2) power density. Our findings suggest that LLLT has cytoprotective effects against NIHL via the inhibition of iNOS expression and apoptosis.

  3. Evaluation in a Dog Model of Three Antimicrobial Glassy Coatings: Prevention of Bone Loss around Implants and Microbial Assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López-Píriz

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a ligature-induced peri-implantitis model, the efficacy of three antimicrobial glassy coatings in the prevention of biofilm formation, intrasulcular bacterial growth and the resulting peri-implant bone loss.Mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from five beagle dogs. Four dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Eight weeks after, one control zirconia abutment and three with different bactericidal coatings (G1n-Ag, ZnO35, G3 were connected. After a plaque control period, bacterial accumulation was allowed and biofilm formation on abutments was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures. Microbial samples and peri-implant crestal bone levels of all implant sites were obtained before, during and after the breakdown period.During experimental induce peri-implantitis: colony forming units counts from intrasulcular microbial samples at implants with G1n-Ag coated abutment remained close to the basal inoculum; G3 and ZnO35 coatings showed similar low counts; and anaerobic bacterias counts at control abutments exhibited a logarithmic increase by more than 2. Bone loss during passive breakdown period was no statistically significant. Additional bone loss occurred during ligature-induce breakdown: 0.71 (SD 0.48 at G3 coating, 0.57 (SD 0.36 at ZnO35 coating, 0.74 (SD 0.47 at G1n-Ag coating, and 1.29 (SD 0.45 at control abutments; and statistically significant differences (p<0.001 were found. The lowest bone loss at the end of the experiment was exhibited by implants dressing G3 coated abutments (mean 2.1; SD 0.42.Antimicrobial glassy coatings could be a useful tool to ward off, diminish or delay peri-implantitis progression.

  4. Branch migration prevents DNA loss during double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S P Mawer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The repair of DNA double-strand breaks must be accurate to avoid genomic rearrangements that can lead to cell death and disease. This can be accomplished by promoting homologous recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes. Here, using a unique system for generating a site-specific DNA double-strand break in one copy of two replicating Escherichia coli sister chromosomes, we analyse the intermediates of sister-sister double-strand break repair. Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we show that when double-strand breaks are formed in the absence of RuvAB, 4-way DNA (Holliday junctions are accumulated in a RecG-dependent manner, arguing against the long-standing view that the redundancy of RuvAB and RecG is in the resolution of Holliday junctions. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we explain the redundancy by showing that branch migration catalysed by RuvAB and RecG is required for stabilising the intermediates of repair as, when branch migration cannot take place, repair is aborted and DNA is lost at the break locus. We demonstrate that in the repair of correctly aligned sister chromosomes, an unstable early intermediate is stabilised by branch migration. This reliance on branch migration may have evolved to help promote recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes to prevent genomic rearrangements.

  5. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  6. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  7. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Bone Loss in Prednisone-Treated Rats through Stimulation of Osteogenesis and Bone Marrow Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liao; Li, Ting; Liu, Yuyu; Zhou, Le; Li, Pinghua; Xu, Bilian; Huang, Lianfang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yanzhi; Tian, Xiaoyan; Jee, Webster S. S.; Wu, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis (GIO) is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1) In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d) not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2) In vitro study: In concentration from 10−6 mol/L to 10−7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin mRNA expression with

  8. Giving blood donors something to drink before donation can prevent fainting symptoms: is there a physiological or psychological reason?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavic, Nataša; Pagliariccio, Antonella; Bulajic, Milica; Dinić, Radovan; Marinozzi, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The vasovagal reaction has been widely studied but its anatomic and physiological nature remains uncertain. The mechanisms underlying vasovagal reaction related to blood donation are not completely understood either. Does its occurrence depend on the blood donors' physical characteristics and health variables or psychological factors? On the basis that a psychological approach considerably prevents donor reactions, the effect of fruit juice ingestion was studied in a group of 1849 first-time high-school students as a simple strategy to avoid systemic reactions at blood donation. The reasons for the psychological effect of this hydration protocol are stressed also in light of previous physiological studies on the hemodynamic effects of water or carbohydrate drinks.

  9. Nimodipine prevents early loss of hippocampal CA1 parvalbumin immunoreactivity after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Z; De Jong, G I; Luiten, P G

    1995-01-01

    The effect of focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion on hippocampal interneurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) was studied in rats. Four hours after the onset of ischemia, a reduced number of PV-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons was observed in the lateral part of the CA1 region, while PV-ir was not altered in the CA2 and CA3 areas. Pretreatment with the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine prevented the ischemia-induced loss of PV-ir in the CA1, suggesting a role for L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels in the mechanism of early neuronal alterations in the hippocampus CA1 region after focal cerebral ischemia.

  10. Weight loss and physical activity for disease prevention in obese older adults: an important role for lifestyle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes.

  11. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  12. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  13. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. RESULTS: Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  14. Effects of dialysis modality on blood loss, bleeding complications and transfusion requirements in critically ill patients with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pschowski, R; Briegel, S; Von Haehling, S; Doehner, W; Bender, T O; Pape, U F; Hasper, D; Jörress, A; Schefold, J C

    2015-11-01

    Blood loss and bleeding complications may often be observed in critically ill patients on renal replacement therapies (RRT). Here we investigate procedural (i.e. RRT-related) and non-procedural blood loss as well as transfusion requirements in regard to the chosen mode of dialysis (i.e. intermittent haemodialysis [IHD] versus continuous veno-venous haemofiltration [CVVH]). Two hundred and fifty-two patients (122 CVVH, 159 male; aged 61.5±13.9 years) with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure were analysed in a sub-analysis of the prospective randomised controlled clinical trial-CONVINT-comparing IHD and CVVH. Bleeding complications including severity of bleeding and RRT-related blood loss were assessed. We observed that 3.6% of patients died related to severe bleeding episodes (between group P=0.94). Major all-cause bleeding complications were observed in 23% IHD versus 26% of CVVH group patients (P=0.95). Under CVVH, the rate of RRT-related blood loss events (57.4% versus 30.4%, P=0.01) and mean total blood volume lost was increased (222.3±291.9 versus 112.5±222.7 ml per patient, P dialysis-dependent acute renal failure in this regard.

  15. Noise-induced hearing loss in agriculture: Creating partnerships to overcome barriers and educate the community on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Ehlers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a common and preventable injury for farmers. Farmers are frequently exposed to excessive noise, ranking among the top three occupations and industries with the highest risk for hearing loss. Use of hearing protection among farmers is not common. Although the age when NIHL begins among farmers is unknown, its prevalence is higher among male adolescents who live and work on farms. The purpose of this paper is to describe how NIOSH created partnerships to promote hearing conservation for this hard-to-reach population. Partnerships included organizations and individuals who were trusted sources of information for the target population, young farmers 14-35 years of age and their families, and those who had linkages in rural communities. NIOSH engaged partners through exhibits and train-the-trainer workshops at state or national conventions. NIOSH workshops included basic information on NIHL as well as information on free or low-lost resources that participants could use in training others at schools and community events. People with hearing conservation expertise have an important role and many opportunities to improve the knowledge and implementation of hearing conservation among those in agriculture.

  16. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Andrade Nunes

    Full Text Available The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd20Lms/2J and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  17. Early and extensive CD55 loss from red blood cells supports a causal role in malarial anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwamaka Moses

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of complement regulatory proteins (CrP on the surface of red blood cells (RBC decrease during severe malarial anaemia and as part of cell ageing process. It remains unclear whether CrP changes seen during malaria contribute to the development of anaemia, or result from an altered RBC age distribution due to suppressive effects of malaria on erythropoiesis. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in the north-east coast of Tanzania to investigate whether the changes in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored complement regulatory proteins (CD55 and CD59 contributes to malaria anaemia. Blood samples were collected from a cohort of children under intensive surveillance for Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and illness. Levels of CD55 and CD59 were measured by flow cytometer and compared between anaemic (8.08 g/dl and non- anaemic children (11.42 g/dl. Results Levels of CD55 and CD59 decreased with increased RBC age. CD55 levels were lower in anaemic children and the difference was seen in RBC of all ages. Levels of CD59 were lower in anaemic children, but these differences were not significant. CD55, but not CD59, levels correlated positively with the level of haemoglobin in anaemic children. Conclusion The extent of CD55 loss from RBC of all ages early in the course of malarial anaemia and the correlation of CD55 with haemoglobin levels support the hypothesis that CD55 may play a causal role in this disorder.

  18. Survival of Treponema pallidum in banked blood for prevention of Syphilis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu O Adegoke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year, millions of people are exposed to avoidable, life-threatening risks through the trans-fusion of unsafe blood. Aim : To determine the survival time of Treponema pallidum in banked donor blood. Material and Methods : Two groups of male Wistar rats (group A and B were inoculated intratesticularly with 0.5ml of artificially infected donor blood (final density of Nichols treponemes: 5x10 5 /ml stored at 4 o C for various periods of time. In group A, a pair each of the rats was injected every 12 hours, starting at 0 hr, up to a maximal storage time of 96 hr. In group B, the rats were injected after 72, 120, 192 and 336 hours of storage of the treponemes-blood mixture. Group C which is a control group was injected with blood only, while group D rats were injected with heat-killed treponemes suspended in blood every 12 hours. The detection of Treponema pallidum IgG/IgM was based on the principle of double antigen sandwich immunoassay, in which purified recombinant antigens are employed sufficiently to identify antibodies to Syphilis. The outcomes of interest included the proportion of Syphilis positive rats and the maximal survival hours of T. pallidum in banked blood. Results : 14 rats (77.8% out of the 18 rats that were involved in group A developed orchitis and positive serology up to 72 hours of storage time, p<0.05. 2 rats (25% in group B developed orchitis after 72hrs of storage time. All the 18 rats (100% in the control group C and D showed neither clinical nor serological changes. Conclusion : It was concluded that the survival time of T. pallidum in banked donor blood lies between 72-120hrs in this study. Regardless of blood banking temperature, T. pallidum and other transfusion transmissible infections should be screened for prior to allogeneic transfusion.

  19. Prevention of non-immune mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury; from blood bank to patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe form of pulmonary insufficiency induced by transfusion. TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related death, and is caused by the infusion of either anti-leukocyte antibodies in plasma containing blood products or neutrophil priming substances that accumulate during storage of cellular blood products. Among these neutrophil priming substances are bioactive lipids, such as lyso-phosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) and arachidonic acid, soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and possibly other, as yet unidentified substances. The accumulation of these substances during cellular blood product storage and their role in the induction of "non-immune mediated" TRALI pathogenesis are highly relevant for the current debate of the use of longer vs. shorter stored blood products. In this review, the accumulation of these different substances during storage, as well as their mode of action in inducing TRALI are discussed. In addition, different improvements in current blood banking procedures to prevent TRALI due to these non-immune mediators will be proposed.

  20. The 2014 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Quinn, Robert R; Zarnke, Kelly B; Rabi, Doreen M; Ravani, Pietro; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabkin, Simon W; Trudeau, Luc; Feldman, Ross D; Cloutier, Lyne; Prebtani, Ally; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Gilbert, Richard E; Ruzicka, Marcel; McKay, Donald W; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Bolli, Peter; Wilson, Thomas W; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Gelfer, Mark; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; McLean, Donna; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Burns, Kevin D; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Tremblay, Guy; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Carruthers, S George; Pylypchuk, George B; Burgess, Ellen; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Penner, S Brian; Hegele, Robert A; McFarlane, Philip A; Khara, Milan; Pipe, Andrew; Oh, Paul; Selby, Peter; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra J; Tobe, Sheldon W; Padwal, Raj S; Poirier, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Herein, updated evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in Canadian adults are detailed. For 2014, 3 existing recommendations were modified and 2 new recommendations were added. The following recommendations were modified: (1) the recommended sodium intake threshold was changed from ≤ 1500 mg (3.75 g of salt) to approximately 2000 mg (5 g of salt) per day; (2) a pharmacotherapy treatment initiation systolic blood pressure threshold of ≥ 160 mm Hg was added in very elderly (age ≥ 80 years) patients who do not have diabetes or target organ damage (systolic blood pressure target in this population remains at hypertension to only those ≥ 50 years of age. The 2 new recommendations are: (1) advice to be cautious when lowering systolic blood pressure to target levels in patients with established coronary artery disease if diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 60 mm Hg because of concerns that myocardial ischemia might be exacerbated; and (2) the addition of glycated hemoglobin (A1c) in the diagnostic work-up of patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed. In addition, emerging data on blood pressure targets in stroke patients are discussed; these data did not lead to recommendation changes at this time. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations will continue to be updated annually.

  1. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  2. Weight loss in obese older adults increases serum sclerostin and impairs hip geometry but both are prevented by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Sadler, Corinn; Napoli, Nicola; Shah, Krupa; Chode, Suresh; Sinacore, David R; Qualls, Clifford; Villareal, Dennis T

    2012-05-01

    We reported that weight loss induces bone loss which is prevented by exercise training; however, the mechanism for this observation remains unclear. Sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation, has been found to increase in states of unloading and may mediate the changes in bone metabolism associated with weight loss and exercise. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of lifestyle intervention in obese older adults on sclerostin levels, and on hip geometry parameters. A total of 107 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) older (≥65 years) adults were randomly assigned to control, diet, exercise, and combined diet-exercise for 1 year. Sclerostin levels were measured by ELISA at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, while hip geometry parameters were obtained from bone mineral density (BMD) images done by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using hip structure analysis at baseline and 12 months. Both the diet and diet-exercise groups had significant decreases in body weight (-9.6% and -9.4%, respectively), whereas weight was stable in the exercise and control groups. Sclerostin levels increased significantly and progressively in the diet group (6.6% ± 1.7% and 10.5% ± 1.9% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, all p exercise group (0.7% ± 1.6% and 0.4% ± 1.7% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, all p = 0.05). Hip geometry parameters showed significant decreases in cross-sectional area, cortical thickness, and BMD; and increases in buckling ratio at the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft. These negative changes on bone geometry were not observed in the diet-exercise group. Significant correlations between changes in sclerostin and changes in certain hip geometry parameters were also observed (p exercise may partly mediate the negative effects of weight loss on bone metabolism and the osteoprotective effect of exercise training.

  3. Preventive activity of olive oil phenolic compounds on alkene epoxides induced oxidative DNA damage on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuccelli, Raffaela; Sepporta, Maria Vittoria; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Morozzi, Guido; Servili, Maurizio; Fabiani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of epoxides of styrene (styrene-7,8-oxide; SO) and 1,3-butadiene (3,4-epoxy-1-butene; 1,2:3,4:-diepoxybutane) to cause oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and whether a complex mixture of olive oil phenols (OOPE) could prevent these effects. The DNA damage was measured by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay). We found that the DNA damage induced by alkene epoxides could be prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine (10 mM) and catalase (100 U/ml). Alkene epoxides caused a significant (P DNA glycosylase (FPG)- and Endonuclease III (ENDO III)-sensitive sites in PBMCs, demonstrating the presence of oxidized bases. OOPE (1 μg of total phenols/ml) was able to prevent the alkene epoxide induced DNA damage both after 2 and 24 h of incubation. In addition, OOPE completely inhibited the SO-induced intracellular peroxide accumulation in PBMCs and prevented the oxidative DNA damage induced by SO, as evidenced by the disappearance of both FPG- and ENDO III-sensitive sites. This is the first study demonstrating the ability of OOPE to prevent the DNA damage induced by alkene epoxides providing additional information about the chemopreventive properties of olive oil.

  4. 成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响%The acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion on acute blood loss patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜楠; 洪澄英; 温隽珉; 周志强; 赖旭春

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响.方法:对88例急性失血患者进行输血前及输血后定时血气分析监测,根据血气监测结果分析成分输血对酸碱平衡的影响.结果:观察期间14例患者存在其他影响酸碱平衡因素退出.纳入分析的74例中,44例输血前存在不同程度代谢性酸中毒的患者输血后26例酸中毒消失,17例减轻,1例略加重.74例患者中输血后发生输血相关性碱中毒24例,其24 h内新鲜冰冻血浆(FFP)平均用量2 063 ml,明显高于非碱中毒患者.输血相关性碱中毒的病例未使用酸性药物进行治疗,停止输血后13~48 h自动恢复.结论:急性失血患者输血前大部分存在程度不同的代谢性酸中毒,经有效止血、输血后多能缓解.成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响主要表现为代谢性碱中毒,代谢性酸中毒罕见.输血相关性碱中毒一般为自限性,停止输血后可自行恢复.%Objective:To investigate the acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion on acute blood loss patients. Methods:We detected the blood gas analysis of 88 acute blood loss patients before and after blood component transfusion, to analyze the acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion according to the blood gas analysis. Results:Fourteen patients were quit for the acid-base balance influence of other factors during the observation, Seventy-four patients were bring into the acid-base balance analysis; Among the forty-four patients with different degree acidosis before, Twenty-six patient's acidosis vanished after blood component transfusion,Seventeen patient's acidosis alleviated af-ter blood componenttransfusion, One patient's acidosis aggravated slightly after blood component transfusion;Twenty-four patients had blood transfusion relevent alkalosis in all seventy-four patients after transfusion, And their average usage amount of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was 2 063

  5. Bone mass loss is associated with systolic blood pressure in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes in Tibet: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Song, J; Yang, S; Meng, S; Lv, X; Yue, J; Mina, A; Puchi, B; Geng, Y; Yang, L

    2017-02-02

    We conducted an observational cross-section study to investigate the status of bone mineral mass of Tibetan postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and the possible predictors for osteoporosis. We found that prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.0% and blood pressure was an independent risk factor for bone mass loss.

  6. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Coradi Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM.Methods:This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points, 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points, or 'inadequate' (<50 points. The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points, 'clinical screening' (40 points, 'laboratory screening' (40 points and 'hemovigilance' (15 points.Results:The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78. Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32. The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32. Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.Conclusion:Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with.

  7. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  8. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  9. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i control (basal diet, (ii VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral, (iii five-times-heated palm oil (15% (5HPO, and (iv five-times-heated palm oil (15% and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral (5HPO + VCO. Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  10. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  11. Efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine in prevention of noise induced hearing loss: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopke, Richard; Slade, Martin D; Jackson, Ronald; Hammill, Tanisha; Fausti, Stephen; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda; Sanderson, Alicia; Dreisbach, Laura; Rabinowitz, Peter; Torre, Peter; Balough, Ben

    2015-05-01

    Despite a robust hearing conservation program, military personnel continue to be at high risk for noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). For more than a decade, a number of laboratories have investigated the use of antioxidants as a safe and effective adjunct to hearing conservation programs. Of the antioxidants that have been investigated, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has consistently reduced permanent NIHL in the laboratory, but its clinical efficacy is still controversial. This study provides a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the safety profile and the efficacy of NAC to prevent hearing loss in a military population after weapons training. Of the 566 total study subjects, 277 received NAC while 289 were given placebo. The null hypothesis for the rate of STS was not rejected based on the measured results. While no significant differences were found for the primary outcome, rate of threshold shifts, the right ear threshold shift rate difference did approach significance (p = 0.0562). No significant difference was found in the second primary outcome, percentage of subjects experiencing an adverse event between placebo and NAC groups (26.7% and 27.4%, respectively, p = 0.4465). Results for the secondary outcome, STS rate in the trigger hand ear, did show a significant difference (34.98% for placebo-treated, 27.14% for NAC-treated, p-value = 0.0288). Additionally, post-hoc analysis showed significant differences in threshold shift rates when handedness was taken into account. While the secondary outcomes and post-hoc analysis suggest that NAC treatment is superior to the placebo, the present study design failed to confirm this. The lack of significant differences in overall hearing loss between the treatment and placebo groups may be due to a number of factors, including suboptimal dosing, premature post-exposure audiograms, or differences in risk between ears or subjects. Based on secondary outcomes and post hoc

  12. Blood borne infections in sport: risks of transmission, methods of prevention, and recommendations for hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, R; Wallace, W A

    2004-12-01

    Athletes are at risk of blood borne infections through bleeding injuries or injection of drugs with contaminated syringes. Prevention should focus on reducing non-sport associated risky behaviour, as well as dealing appropriately with bleeding injuries. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus is particularly high in athletes in contact and collision sports, those who live in or travel to endemic regions, injecting drug abusers, and those who practice first aid when there is no healthcare practitioner available. It is recommended that such athletes, and also adolescent athletes, should be vaccinated against the virus as a routine.

  13. 洗涤式自体血回输在外科急性失血手术中的应用价值%The study of abstergent autologous blood transfusion on the value of surgical acute blood loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自华; 陈祥青

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the application value of autologous blood transfusion in major cardiac operation. Methods:Autologous blood transfusion in operation of 100 patients with surgery using domestic Z-2000A blood back to the conveyor to intraoperative autologous blood doping washing type,monitoring patients perioperative Hemoglobin(HB),red blood cells deposited(HCT),platelet(PCLS),activated partial thrombin time(APTT),as a result,compare analysis. Results:The 100 cases with acute blood loss of the communist party of China to recycle the original 233352 ml of blood, and each patient after recovery machine wash for enrichment of red blood cells of 915 ml. All of the patients appeared no autologous blood transfusion complications chills,fever,such as hemolytic reactions. Conclusion:Autologous blood doping can effectively reduce the recycling type surgical acute bleeding heavily intraoperative blood loss,no value,in turn,de-crease library blood infusion,save blood,blood shortages. Particularly in HIV/ AIDS,laggard high incidence of infectious diseases in private higher value.%目的:探讨洗涤式自体血回输在外科急症失血手术中的应用价值。方法对100例手术患者采用国产Z-2000A 血液回输机进行手术中洗涤式自体血回输,监测患者围手术期血红蛋白(HB)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血小板(PCL)、活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)等结果,进行比对分析。结果100急性失血患者术中共回收原血233352 ml,经回收机洗涤后每例患者获得浓缩红细胞为915 ml。所有患者无一例出现回输血并发症:寒战、发热、溶血等反应。结论自体回收式血液回输能有效减少外科急性大失血术中血液无价值丢失,进而减少库血输注量,节省血源,应对血荒。尤其是在爱滋病、传染病落后国家高发地似有更高价值。

  14. Blood soluble drag-reducing polymers prevent lethality from hemorrhagic shock in acute animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, Marina V; Wu, Zhongjun J; Uraysh, Arkady; Repko, Brandon; Litwak, Kenneth N; Billiar, Timothy R; Fink, Mitchell P; Simmons, Richard L; Griffith, Bartley P; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, blood-soluble drag reducing polymers (DRPs) have been shown to significantly enhance hemodynamics in various animal models when added to blood at nanomolar concentrations. In the present study, the effects of the DRPs on blood circulation were tested in anesthetized rats exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock. The animals were acutely resuscitated either with a 2.5% dextran solution (Control) or using the same solution containing 0.0005% or 5 parts per million (ppm) concentration of one of two blood soluble DRPs: high molecular weight (MW=3500 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG-3500) or a DRP extracted from Aloe vera (AVP). An additional group of animals was resuscitated with 0.0075% (75 ppm) polyethylene glycol of molecular weight of 200 kDa (PEG-200), which possesses no drag-reducing ability. All of the animals were observed for two hours following the initiation of fluid resuscitation or until they expired. We found that infusion of the DRP solutions significantly improved tissue perfusion, tissue oxygenation, and two-hour survival rate, the latter from 19% (Control) and 14% (PEG-200) to 100% (AVP) and 100% (PEG-3500). Furthermore, the Control and PEG-200 animals that survived required three times more fluid to maintain their blood pressure than the AVP and PEG-3500 animals. Several hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these observed beneficial hemodynamic effects of DRPs are discussed. Our findings suggest that the drag-reducing polymers warrant further investigation as a potential clinical treatment for hemorrhagic shock and possibly other microcirculatory disorders.

  15. The strength of the biotic compartment to retain nitrogen additions prevents nitrogen losses from a Mediterranean maquis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the nutrients most limiting to ecosystem productivity. However, N availability is increasing globally, which may affect ecosystem functions and stability. To understand the role of each ecosystem compartment in the cycling of increased N, we studied the initial response of a nutrient-poor ecosystem, a Mediterranean maquis, to increased N. N availability (dose and forms was modified by three N additions along the year (spring, summer and middle autumn/winter. Soil inorganic N pools (nitrate in particular strongly reflected the N additions in autumn, almost matching the total N added along the three additions. Cistus ladanifer, the dominant plant species, responded to the increased N (cover and N concentration in leaves and litter, and given that leaf shedding occurs in the summer, the importance of this N pool returning to the soil through litter decomposition on the total soil inorganic N in autumn was investigated. Data suggest that living plants and litter have a crucial role in preventing N losses from Mediterranean maquis. This is the first integrated field study on how European Mediterranean ecosystems retain increased N of different forms and doses, however longer-term studies are needed to explore the generality of this study's observations.

  16. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss.

  17. Correlation between the coverage percentage of prosthesis and postoperative hidden blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Fuqiang; Guo Wanshou; Sun Wei; Li Zirong; Wang Weiguo; Wang Bailiang; Cheng Liming

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between prosthesis coverage and postoperative hidden blood loss (HBL) in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).Methods A total of 120 patients who had undergone unilateral TKA from August 2012 to May 2013 were retrospectively studied.The Gross formula was used to calculate the amount of HBL.Routine standard anteroposterior (AP) and lateral x-ray films of the knee joint were taken postoperatively and used to measure the percentages of coronal femoral and of coronal and sagittal tibial prosthetic coverage.Then Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to assess the correlations between the percentages of prosthetic coverage for each AP and lateral position and HBL on the first and third postoperative days.Results The volumes of HBL on the first and third postoperative days after TKA were (786.5±191.6) ml and (1 256.6±205.1) ml,respectively,and lateral x-ray film measurements of percentages of coronal femoral,tibial coronal,and sagittal prosthetic coverage were (87.9±2.5)%,(88.5±2.2)%,and (89.1±2.3)%,respectively.Pearson's correlation analysis showed statistically significant correlations between percentages of total knee prosthetic coverage for each AP and lateral position and volumes of HBL on the first and third postoperative days (P <0.05).Conclusions HBL after TKA correlates with degree of prosthetic coverage.To some extent,the size of the surfaces exposed by osteotomy determines the amount of HBL.Choice of the appropriate prosthesis can significantly reduce postoperative HBL.Designing individualized prostheses would be a worthwhile development in joint replacement surgery.

  18. 82例剖宫产术中出血的临床分析%Section of the treatment of blood loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘光华

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨剖宫产手术中出血的原因、治疗方法及预防措施.方法 回顾性分析我院自2000年5月-2007年5月82例剖宫产术中出血的原因、治疗方法及预防措施.结果 应用缩宫素等促子宫收缩的药物,可有效减少剖宫产手术中出血.行宫腔填纱条止血,操作简单,效果肯定,适用范围广.子宫动脉上行支结扎术加背带式缝合,对宫缩乏力性出血有效,但要求技术水平较高.子宫切除术是在其它方法无效,为抢救产妇生命的最有效的措施.结论 剖宫产术中出血的治疗方案的选择应根据患者病情、出血原因及本院实际医疗水平来进行选择.%Objective To investigate the cause of the bleeding hands of cesarean section,treatment and preventive measures.Methods Retrospective analysis of the hospital from May 2000 to May 2007 for section 82 cases of patients with bleeding hands of the reasons,treatment and preventive measures.Results The application of oxytocin,and so promote uterine contraction drugs can be effective in reducing blood loss section hand.Bank cavity filled gauze to stop bleeding,simple effects for a wide range.Uterine artery ligation plus up support straps suture,the lack of uterine bleeding and effective,but require a higher level of technology.Hysterectomy is not valid in other ways,in order to save the lives of women the most effective measures.Conclusion The section of the bleeding treatment should be based on the choice of patients,bleeding and the reasons for the Court to carry out the actual level of health care choices.

  19. Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

  20. Elcatonin prevents bone loss caused by skeletal unloading by inhibiting preosteoclast fusion through the unloading-induced high expression of calcitonin receptors in bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Manabu; Menuki, Kunitaka; Murai, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Takada, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether elcatonin (EL) has a preventive action on bone dynamics in skeletal unloading. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with either ground control (GC) or tail suspension (TS) were administered EL 20U/kg or a vehicle (veh) three times per week and assigned to one of the following four groups: GCEL, GCveh, TSEL, and TSveh. Blood samples and bilateral femurs and tibias of the mice were obtained for analysis. After 7days of unloading, the trabecular bone mineral density in the distal femur obtained via peripheral quantitative computed tomography and the trabecular bone volume were significantly higher in the TSEL group than in the TSveh group. The bone resorption histomorphometric parameters, such as the osteoclast surface and osteoclast number, were significantly suppressed in the TSEL mice, whereas the number of preosteoclasts was significantly increased. The plasma level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) was significantly lower in the TSEL group than in all other groups. In the bone marrow cell culture, the number of TRACP-positive (TRACP(+)) multinucleated cells was significantly lower in the TSEL mice than in the TSveh mice, whereas the number of TRACP(+) mononucleated cells was higher in the TSEL mice. On day 4, the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V0 domain (ATP6V0D2) mRNA in the bone marrow cells in the TSEL mice was suppressed, and the expression of calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA on day 1 and Calcr antigen on day 4 were significantly higher in the TSveh mice than in the GCveh mice. EL prevented the unloading-induced bone loss associated with the high expression of Calcr in the bone marrow cells of mouse hindlimbs after tail suspension, and it suppressed osteoclast development from preosteoclasts to mature osteoclasts through bone-resorbing activity. This study of EL-treated unloaded mice provides the

  1. The Effect of Silver Nanofibers on the Deformation Properties of Blood Vessels: Towards the Development of New Nanotechnologies to Prevent Rupture of Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An aneurysm is the result of a widening or ballooning of a portion of a blood vessel. The rupture of an aneurysm occurs when the mechanical stress acting on the inner wall exceeds the failure strength of the blood vessel. We propose an innovative approach to prevent the rupture of an aneurysm based on the use of nanotechnology to improve the strength of the blood vessel. We present results on the effect of silver nanofibers on the resistance toward deformation of blood vessels. The silver nanofibers are grown on the surface of the blood vessels. The nanofibers are 120±30 nm in diameter and 2.7±0.8 μm in length. The deformation per applied force of blood vessels was found to decrease from 0.15 m/N in control blood vessels to 0.003 m/N in blood vessels treated with the nanofibers. This represents an increase in the resistance towards deformation of a factor of 50. The increase in the resistance towards deformation is clinically significant since blood pressure increases by factors slightly larger than one in the human body. Treatment of blood vessels with silver nanofibers is a potential translational clinical tool for preventing rupture of aneurysms in a clinical setting.

  2. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-05

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone.

  3. Prevention of bone loss by injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 after sciatic neurectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai-biao; CHEN Jun-chang

    2013-01-01

    Injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can prevent bone loss in sciatic nerve transaction rats.We try to investigate the action mechanism of IGF-1 on bone formation.Methods:A total of 40 adult male Spragne-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (experimental group and control group) with 20 animals in each.Sciatic neurectomy was performed to model disuse osteoporosis in all rats.IGF-1was administered in experimental group with the dose of 100 μg/kg per day for 3 days.Meanwhile,the rats in control group were treated with saline.Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy respectively.Expression of Osterix and Runx2 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.Results:There was a significant increase in the bone mineral density of experimental group compared with control group.There was a significant decrease in the level of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B-ligand but an increase in the level of osteoprotegerin 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy in the experimental group compared with control one.The expression of Osterix and Runx2 was up-regulated in the bone marrow of experimental group compared with control group.Conclusion:IGF-1 can increase bone formation by stimulation of osteoblast number and activity,and reduce bone resorption by restriction of differentiation of osteoclast,suggesting that IGF-1 may improve the therapeutic efficacy for disuse osteoporosis.

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borghi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega- 6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasocostrincting rather than vasodilating and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE activity, angiotensin II formation, TGF-beta expression, enhance eNO generation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The final result is improved vasodilation and arterial compliance of both small and large arteries. Preliminary clinical trials involving dyslipidemic patients, diabetics and elderly subjects, as well as normotensive and hypertensive subjects confirm this working hypothesis. Future research will clarify if PUFA supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Wang; Xin-Feng Zheng; Lei-Sheng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate. Objective To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar) in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrosp...

  6. 瘢痕子宫产妇剖宫产术出血量分析%Analysis of clinical data of blood loss during and after cesarean section in women with scarred uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂青; 夏敏; 徐爱群

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinic value of blood loss during and after cesarean section in women with scarred uterus. Methods From July 2007 to December 2008, thirty-six women with scarred uterus received weighing methods to evaluate the actual blood loss during and after cesarean section in Yuhuangding hospital, while 98 cases without pregnant complications were chosen as control. Results In women with scarred uterus, the blood loss during operation Was (372.4 ± 180.0) ml, and the total amount after 2 hours and 24 hours were (444.7± 228.2) ml and (527.4 ±251.6) ml respectively, which were higher than corresponding values in control group (P 0. 05). Conclusions Scarred uterus may be one of the important reasons which lead to postpartum hemorrhage. The clinical treatment of pregnant women with scarred uterus should focus on the prevention of blood loss during the cesarean section.%目的 观察剖宫产术的瘢痕子宫产妇术中、术后出血量的变化.方法 对36例剖宫产分娩的瘢痕子宫产妇,采用称重法精确测量术中、术后出血量,同期选取98例剖宫产分娩的正常产妇作为对照.结果 瘢痕子宫组术中出血量为(372.4±180.0)ml,术后2 h内总出血量为(444.7±228.2)ml,术后24 h内总出血量为(527.4±251.6)ml,均高于对照组(P0.05).结论 瘢痕子宫是导致剖宫产产后出血增加的重要原因,临床处理需加强剖宫产术中失血的防治.

  7. Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gillian; Heath Wallace, Rachel; Cameron, Amy; Emrah Ozel, Rifat; Hongay, Cintia F; Baral, Reshica; Andreescu, Silvana; Wallace, Kenneth N

    2013-04-15

    The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This choice has previously been demonstrated to involve Notch signaling as well as Atonal and Her transcription factors in both embryogenesis and adults. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the atoh1 in mammals, ascl1a is responsible for formation of secretory cells in zebrafish. ascl1a-/- embryos lack all intestinal epithelial secretory cells and instead differentiate into enterocytes. ascl1a-/- embryos also fail to induce intestinal epithelial expression of deltaD suggesting that ascl1a plays a role in initiation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling increases the number of ascl1a and deltaD expressing intestinal epithelial cells as well as the number of developing secretory cells during two specific time periods: between 30 and 34hpf and again between 64 and 74hpf. Loss of enteroendocrine products results in loss of anterograde motility in ascl1a-/- embryos. 5HT produced by enterochromaffin cells is critical in motility and secretion within the intestine. We find that addition of exogenous 5HT to ascl1a-/- embryos at near physiological levels (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) induce anterograde motility at similar levels to wild type velocity, distance, and frequency. Removal or doubling the concentration of 5HT in WT embryos does not significantly affect anterograde motility, suggesting that the loss of additional enteroendocrine products in ascl1a-/- embryos also contributes to intestinal motility. Thus, zebrafish intestinal epithelial cells appear to have a common secretory progenitor from which all subtypes form. Loss of enteroendocrine cells reveals the critical need for enteroendocrine products in maintenance of normal intestinal motility.

  8. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels of less than 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J; Campbell, Carla; Brown, Mary Jean

    2007-11-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead exposure is a preventable risk that exists in all areas of the United States. In children, lead is associated with impaired cognitive, motor, behavioral, and physical abilities. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined the blood lead level that should prompt public health actions as 10 microg/dL. Concurrently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also recognized that a blood lead level of 10 microg/dL did not define a threshold for the harmful effects of lead. Research conducted since 1991 has strengthened the evidence that children's physical and mental development can be affected at blood lead levels of children they examine, provide families with lead-prevention counseling, and follow blood lead screening recommendations established for their areas. As circumstances permit, clinicians should consider referral to developmental programs for children at high risk for exposure to lead and more frequent rescreening of children with blood lead levels approaching 10 microg/dL. In addition, clinicians should direct parents to agencies and sources of information that will help them establish a lead-safe environment for their children. For these preventive strategies to succeed, partnerships between health care providers, families, and local public health and housing programs should be strengthened.

  9. Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, D; Eslin, R; Porter, E S; Musgrave, K; Vereault, D; Patton, C; Kessenich, C; Mohan, S; Chen, T; Holick, M F; Rosen, C J

    1998-11-01

    Elderly women are at increased risk for bone loss and fractures. In previous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of women residing in northern latitudes, bone loss was most pronounced during winter months and in those consuming less than 1 g calcium per day. In this study we sought to test the hypothesis that calcium supplementation by either calcium carbonate or dietary means would prevent seasonal bone loss and preserve bone mass. Sixty older postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were randomized to one of three treatment arms: Dietary milk supplementation (D-4 glasses of milk/day), Calcium carbonate (CaCO3-1000 mg/day in two divided doses), or placebo (P). After 2 yr, placebo-treated women consumed a mean of 683 mg/day of calcium and lost 3.0% of their greater trochanteric (GT) bone mineral density (BMD) (P intake of 1028 mg/day and sustained minimal loss from the GT (-1.5%; P = 0.30), whereas CaCO3-treated women (total Ca intake, 1633 mg/day) suffered no bone loss from the GT and showed a significant increase in spinal and femoral neck BMD (P vitamin D declined by more than 20% (P intake was the strongest predictor of bone loss from the hip. Urinary N-telopeptide also closely correlated with GT BMD but only during winter (P = 0.003). We conclude that calcium supplementation prevents bone loss in elderly women by suppressing bone turnover during the winter when serum 25-OH vitamin D declines and serum PTH increases. The precise amount of calcium necessary to preserve BMD in elderly women requires further studies, although in this study, at least 1000 mg/day of supplemental calcium was adequate prophylaxis against femoral bone loss.

  10. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth

    2016-04-06

    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention.

  11. 血站非检测不合格血液报废的原因与预防措施%Causes and preventive measures ofdetecting unqualified blood scrapped blood non

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚卢清

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze and evaluate the blood non detecting unqualified blood scrap reason, summing up the relevant preventive measures, in order to reduce the blood bank blood unqualiifed rate and disability rate.Method: select 2013 2014 I stand with the collected blood were 8000 bags and 9000 bags, reasons for detecting unqualiifed blood discarding statistical non, calculate the unqualiifed blood scrap rate.Results: a total of 5062 bags of blood due to the non detecting unqualiifed due to scrap its reasons, including insufifcient blood, blood fat, blood bag, color abnormal blood clots, etc..Conclusion: according to the blood bank blood discarding non unqualiifed phenomenon, blood bank should develop and implement feasible preventive measures, fundamentally reduce unnecessary blood scrap, so as to improve the utilization rate of blood, to ensure that our blood work smoothly.%目的:分析和探讨血站非检测不合格血液报废的原因,总结相关预防措施,以此降低血站所采血液不合格率与报废率。方法选取我站2013年与2014年所采集的血液分别24300袋与25600袋,统计非检测不合格血液报废的原因,计算出不合格血液报废率。结果共有3800袋血液由于非检测不合格导致报废,其原因包括采血量不足、脂肪血、采血袋破损、颜色异常、血凝块等。结论针对血站非检测不合格血液报废现象,血站应制定并实施切实可行的预防措施,从根本上降低不必要的血液报废,从而提高血液利用率,确保我国血站工作顺利进行。

  12. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  13. MODIFICATION OF THE NUSS PROCEDURE-PREVENTION OF INJURIES OF THE HEART AND MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Žganjer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Nuss procedure is a widely accepted technique for correcting pectus excavatum. Unfortunately, fatal complications such as cardiac perforation and injury of the great blood vessels have been noticed in a few patients.We modified original Nuss technique to be simpler and lessdangerous.Methods: We modified Nuss procedure with the sternal elevation to improve sternal depression. Modified Nuss procedure was carried out by applying metal lifter raise sterum until the patient starts to raise from the operating table. The space behind sternum is now wider, and surgeryhas become safer with less probability of injuries intrathoracic organs. We compared 46 patients operated by the original Nuss method (taking into account the data from the literature on complications of the original method on a large series of patients with 54 patients operated by a modified Nuss method.Results: Before lifting the sternum depth of the deformity was between 2.9 and 6.2 cm (mean 5.4 cm, and the increase were between 1.5 and 4.0 cm (mean 2.8 cm. The difference of 2.6 cm is large enough, and the width of introducer and bars are about 3 mm for securely passed along the chest.Conclusions: A modified method of treating pectus excavatum is safer, better and with fewer complications than the original method of Nuss.

  14. Capsaicin pretreatment prevents disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bynke, G.

    1983-06-01

    Capsaicin, the irritating agent of red pepper, produces ocular inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism. The present study is concerned with the long-term effects of capsaicin pretreatment on the capacity of the eye to respond to different inflammatory stimuli. Following retrobulbar injection of capsaicin to rabbits the aqueous flare response induced by subsequent infrared irradiation (IR) of the iris, subcutaneously administered alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and exogenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was reduced greatly. In the case of IR and alpha-MSH the reduced responsiveness was manifest for several weeks after capsaicin pretreatment, involving first the capsaicin-treated eye, but later also the contralateral control eye. After 2-3 months the aqueous flare response was normal in both eyes. In the case of PGE2 the responsiveness was reduced for a shorter time; after 3 weeks the response was normal in both eyes. The results indicate that all three stimuli tested are at least partly dependent upon an intact sensory innervation to disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier, but that the mechanism of action of PGE2 is different from that of IR and alpha-MSH.

  15. Genetic influences on blood lipids and cardiovascular disease risk: tools for primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas, José M

    2009-05-01

    Genetic polymorphism in human populations is part of the evolutionary process that results from the interaction between the environment and the human genome. Recent changes in diet have upset this equilibrium, potentially influencing the risk of most common morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Reduction of these conditions is a major public health concern, and such a reduction could be achieved by improving our ability to detect disease predisposition early in life and by providing more personalized behavioral recommendations for successful primary prevention. In terms of cardiovascular diseases, polymorphisms at multiple genes have been associated with differential effects in terms of lipid metabolism; however, the connection with cardiovascular disease has been more elusive, and considerable heterogeneity exists among studies regarding the predictive value of genetic markers. This may be because of experimental limitations, the intrinsic complexity of the phenotypes, and the aforementioned interactions with environmental factors. The integration of genetic and environmental complexity into current and future research will drive the field toward the implementation of clinical tools aimed at providing dietary advice optimized for the individual's genome. This may imply that dietary changes are implemented early in life to gain maximum benefit. However, it is important to highlight that most reported studies have focused on adult populations and to extrapolate these findings to children and adolescents may not be justified until proper studies have been carried out in these populations and until the ethical and legal issues associated with this new field are adequately addressed.

  16. Blood flow restriction prevents muscle damage but not protein synthesis signaling following eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Mizuki; Ando, Soichi; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that resistance training exercise combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases muscle size and strength in humans. Eccentric contraction (ECC) frequently induces severe muscle damage. However, it is not known whether and to what extent muscle damage occurs following ECC + BFR due to the difficulty of conducting definitive invasive studies. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle fiber damage following ECC + BFR at the cellular level. High-intensity ECC was purposefully selected to maximize the opportunity for muscle damage and hypertrophic signaling in our novel in vivo animal model. Male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to the following groups: ECC and ECC + BFR at varying levels of occlusion pressure (140, 160, and 200 Torr). In all conditions, electrical stimulation was applied to the dorsiflexor muscles simultaneously with electromotor-induced plantar flexion. We observed severe histochemical muscle fiber damage (area of damaged fibers/total fiber area analyzed) following ECC (26.4 ± 4.0%). Surprisingly, however, muscle damage was negligible following ECC + BFR140 (2.6 ± 1.2%), ECC+BFR160 (3.0 ± 0.5%), and ECC + BFR200 (0.2 ± 0.1%). Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, a downstream target of rapamycin (mTOR)-phosphorylation kinase, increased following ECC + BFR200 as well as ECC. In contrast, S6K1 phosphorylation was not altered by BFR alone. The present findings suggest that ECC combined with BFR, even at high exercise intensities, may enhance muscle protein synthesis without appreciable muscle fiber damage.

  17. Preventive effects of the plant isoflavones, daidzin and genistin, on bone loss in ovariectomized rats fed a calcium-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, H; Uesugi, T; Hirai, K; Toda, T; Nukaya, H; Yokotsuka, K; Tsuji, K

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the plant isoflavones, daidzin and genistin, on bone loss in ovariectomized (ovx) rats fed a calcium-deficient diet were investigated. Daidzin and genistin were orally administered to ovx rats for 4 weeks. The femurs of these rats showed significantly lower density, strength (breaking forces), ash weight and calcium and phosphorus content (pdaidzin or genistin for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d and in animals receiving subcutaneous estrone (7.5 microg/kg/d) as a positive control. Ovariectomy caused atrophy of the uterus and increased the ratio of the urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline to endogenous creatinine excretion. This was prevented by administration of daidzin or estrone, but, interestingly, not genistin. The preventive effect of daidzin treatment on bone loss in ovariectomized rats appears to be due to suppression of bone turnover. Genistin has a different mechanism of action from daidzin.

  18. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  19. Preventive administration of cromakalim reduces aquaporin-4 expression and blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shilei Wang; Yanting Wang; Yan Jiang; Qingxian Chang; Peng Wang; Shiduan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Cromakalim, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, exhibits protective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, there is controversy as to whether this effect is associated with aquaporin-4 and blood-brain barrier permeability. Immunohistochemistry results show that preventive administration of cromakalim decreased aquaporin-4 and IgG protein expression in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury; it also reduced blood-brain barrier permeability, and alleviated brain edema, ultimately providing neuroprotection.

  20. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  1. Genetic Predisposition to Weight Loss and Regain With Lifestyle Intervention: Analyses From the Diabetes Prevention Program and the Look AHEAD Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandonatos, George D; Pan, Qing; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Delahanty, Linda M; Peter, Inga; Erar, Bahar; Ahmad, Shafqat; Harden, Maegan; Chen, Ling; Fontanillas, Pierre; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kahn, Steven E; Wing, Rena R; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Huggins, Gordon S; Knowler, William C; Florez, Jose C; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Franks, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    Clinically relevant weight loss is achievable through lifestyle modification, but unintentional weight regain is common. We investigated whether recently discovered genetic variants affect weight loss and/or weight regain during behavioral intervention. Participants at high-risk of type 2 diabetes (Diabetes Prevention Program [DPP]; N = 917/907 intervention/comparison) or with type 2 diabetes (Look AHEAD [Action for Health in Diabetes]; N = 2,014/1,892 intervention/comparison) were from two parallel arm (lifestyle vs. comparison) randomized controlled trials. The associations of 91 established obesity-predisposing loci with weight loss across 4 years and with weight regain across years 2-4 after a minimum of 3% weight loss were tested. Each copy of the minor G allele of MTIF3 rs1885988 was consistently associated with greater weight loss following lifestyle intervention over 4 years across the DPP and Look AHEAD. No such effect was observed across comparison arms, leading to a nominally significant single nucleotide polymorphism×treatment interaction (P = 4.3 × 10(-3)). However, this effect was not significant at a study-wise significance level (Bonferroni threshold P loss or regain within the DPP and Look AHEAD trials, directly or via interactions with lifestyle.

  2. 防止兔毛掉毛方法及机理研究%METHORD AND RESEARCH ON THE MECHANISM TO PREVENT RABBIT HAIR LOSS FORM FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建伟; 李天恒; 张丽霞

    2000-01-01

    解决兔毛织物掉毛是目前世界性难题.本研究在保证兔毛风格前题下,找到了解决掉毛问题的关键,并分析了兔毛掉落的机理和防止掉毛的重要因素.从而提出一种新的防掉毛方法,即热熔粘合法,为兔毛生产打通了一条新的途径.%At present, the solution of rabbit hair loss form fabric is a difficult problem in the world[1]. On the basis of keeping rabbit hair style, a new method of thermo-bonding process to prevent rabbit hair loss was presented. and the rabbit hair loss can be reduced greatly by over 50%.

  3. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberink, M F; Geleijnse, J M; Bakker, S J L

    2015-01-01

     Hg (-6.1, 0.4), P=0.11). Adjustment for 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and potassium did not change the results. Diastolic BP yielded similar results. These findings suggest that a BP reduction after weight loss is better maintained when the intake of protein is increased at the expense...

  4. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  5. Efficacy of a Meal-Replacement Program for Promoting Blood Lipid Changes and Weight and Body Fat Loss in US Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    381 All volunteersa Weight (kg) 56 99.114.1 98.314.3 BMI 56 33.12.9 32.03.0 Body fat (%), CIRC 56 31.66.2 30.76.4 Body fat (%), DEXA 56 31.14.5...with and without meal eplacements for improving blood lipids, and to promote eight and body fat loss in overweight US Army soldiers. oldiers (n113... body fat (1.0%0.4%), nd fat mass (0.80.4 kg) compared to Weigh to Stay olunteers (P0.05). Our findings suggest that meal re- lacement use can be

  6. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven....... The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were...

  7. Reduction of blood loss with the use of a new combined intra-operative and post-operative autologous blood transfusion system compared with no drainage in primary total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, W G; Swierstra, M J; Ohanis, D; Castelein, R M; Kollen, B J; Verheyen, C C P M

    2013-05-01

    Autologous retransfusion and no-drainage are both blood-saving measures in total hip replacement (THR). A new combined intra- and post-operative autotransfusion filter system has been developed especially for primary THR, and we conducted a randomised controlled blinded study comparing this with no-drainage. A total of 204 THR patients were randomised to autologous blood transfusion (ABT) (n = 102) or no-drainage (n = 102). In the ABT group, a mean of 488 ml (sd 252) of blood was retransfused. The mean lowest post-operative haemoglobin level during the hospital stay was higher in the autotransfusion group (10.6 g/dl (7.8 to 13.9) vs 10.2 g/dl (7.5 to 13.3); p = 0.01). The mean haemoglobin levels for the ABT and no-drainage groups were not significantly different on the first day (11.3 g/dl (7.8 to 13.9) vs 11.0 g/dl (8.1 to 13.4); p = 0.07), the second day (11.1 g/dl (8.2 to 13.8) vs 10.8 g/dl (7.5 to 13.3); p = 0.09) or the third day (10.8 g/dl (8.0 to 13.0) vs 10.6 g/dl (7.5 to 14.1); p = 0.15). The mean total peri-operative net blood loss was 1464 ml (sd 505) in the ABT group and 1654 ml (sd 553) in the no-drainage group (p = 0.01). Homologous blood transfusions were needed in four patients (3.9%) in the ABT group and nine (8.8%) in the no-drainage group (p = 0.15). No statistically significant difference in adverse events was found between the groups. The use of a new intra- and post-operative autologous blood transfusion filter system results in less total blood loss and a smaller maximum decrease in haemoglobin levels than no-drainage following primary THR.

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  9. Fish oil combined with SCFA synergistically prevent tissue accumulation of NEFA during weight loss in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    (2·5w%) for 4 weeks, the source of fat being either FO, a lard–safflower oil mix (control), or both types combined with SCFA. Weight, fasting insulin, tissue and serum lipid concentrations, as well as mRNA amount of genes related to adipose inflammation and hepatic fat oxidation were determined. All......Based on their proposed metabolic effects, we examined whether fish oil (FO) and SCFA, alone or in combination, accelerate weight loss and the resultant metabolic improvements. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by high-energy feeding for 10 weeks. The mice were transferred to a low-fat diet...... groups lost weight and showed reduced fasting insulin concentrations and reduced liver TAG. However, weight loss on the control-fat diet caused significant increase in hepatic and cardiac NEFA. Substituting 20 % of the fat with SCFA increased weight loss by 48 % and reduced fasting insulin 1·5-fold more...

  10. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  11. Prevention of Paclitaxel-induced allodynia by Minocycline: Effect on loss of peripheral nerve fibers and infiltration of macrophages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen-Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although paclitaxel is a frontline antineoplastic agent for treatment of solid tumors, the paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is a serious problem for patients. There is currently no valid drug to prevent or treat the paclitaxel-induced allodynia, partly due to lack of understanding regarding the cellular mechanism. Studies have shown that minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia/macrophage, prevented neuropathic pain and promoted neuronal survival in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, Cata et al also reported that minocycline inhibited allodynia induced by low-dose paclitaxel (2 mg/kg in rats, but the mechanism is still unclear. Results Here, we investigate by immunohistochemistry the change of intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin, expression of macrophage and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 in DRG at different time points after moderate-dose paclitaxel treatment (cumulative dose 24 mg/kg; 3 × 8 mg/kg in rats. Moreover, we observe the effect of minocycline on the IENF, macrophages and ATF3. The results showed that moderate-dose paclitaxel induced a persisted, gradual mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by the loss of IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin and up-regulation of macrophages and ATF3 in DRG in rats. The expressions of ATF3 mainly focus on the NF200-positive cells. More importantly, we observed that pretreatment of minocycline at dose of 30 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, prevented paclitaxel-evoked allodynia. The evidence from immunohistochemistry showed that 30 mg/kg minocycline rescued the degeneration of IENF, attenuated infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 induced by paclitaxel treatment in rats. Conclusions Minocycline prevents paclitaxel-evoked allodynia, likely due to its inhibition on loss of IENF, infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 in rats. The finding might provide potential target for preventing paclitaxel

  12. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  13. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  14. The 2013 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackam, Daniel G; Quinn, Robert R; Ravani, Pietro; Rabi, Doreen M; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Khan, Nadia A; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Cloutier, Lyne; Dawes, Martin; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Ruzicka, Marcel; McKay, Donald W; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Bolli, Peter; Wilson, Thomas W; Feldman, Ross D; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Gelfer, Mark; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; McLean, Donna; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Godwin, Marshall; Tremblay, Guy; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Carruthers, S George; Pylypchuk, George B; Burgess, Ellen; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Penner, S Brian; Hegele, Robert A; McFarlane, Philip A; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra J; Tobe, Sheldon W; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S

    2013-05-01

    We updated the evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults for 2013. This year's update includes 2 new recommendations. First, among nonhypertensive or stage 1 hypertensive individuals, the use of resistance or weight training exercise does not adversely influence blood pressure (BP) (Grade D). Thus, such patients need not avoid this type of exercise for fear of increasing BP. Second, and separately, for very elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension (age 80 years or older), the target for systolic BP should be patients. We also discuss 2 additional topics at length (the pharmacological treatment of mild hypertension and the possibility of a diastolic J curve in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease). In light of several methodological limitations, a recent systematic review of 4 trials in patients with stage 1 uncomplicated hypertension did not lead to changes in management recommendations. In addition, because of a lack of prospective randomized data assessing diastolic BP thresholds in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension, no recommendation to set a selective diastolic cut point for such patients could be affirmed. However, both of these issues will be examined on an ongoing basis, in particular as new evidence emerges.

  15. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  16. Melatonin prevents cisplatin-induced primordial follicle loss via suppression of PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a pathway activation in the mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hoon; Lee, Ok-Hee; Lee, Youngeun; Yoon, Hyemin; Chang, Eun Mi; Park, Miseon; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Hong, Kwonho; Kim, Jung Oh; Kim, Nam Keun; Ko, Jung Jae; Lee, Dong Ryul; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik; Choi, Youngsok

    2016-04-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a major side effect of chemotherapy in young cancer patients. To develop pharmaceutical agents for preserving fertility, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced follicle loss. Here, we show that treatment with cisplatin, a widely used anticancer drug, depleted the dormant follicle pool in mouse ovaries by excessive activation of the primordial follicles, without inducing follicular apoptosis. Moreover, we show that co-treatment with the antioxidant melatonin prevented cisplatin-induced disruption of the follicle reserve. We quantified the various stages of growing follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and antral, to demonstrate that cisplatin treatment alone significantly decreased, whereas melatonin co-treatment preserved, the number of primordial follicles in the ovary. Importantly, analysis of the PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a pathway demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased the cisplatin-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of PTEN, a key negative regulator of dormant follicle activation. Moreover, melatonin prevented the cisplatin-induced activating phosphorylation of AKT, GSK3β, and FOXO3a, all of which trigger follicle activation. Additionally, we show that melatonin inhibited the cisplatin-induced inhibitory phosphorylation and nuclear export of FOXO3a, which is required in the nucleus to maintain dormancy of the primordial follicles. These findings demonstrate that melatonin attenuates cisplatin-induced follicle loss by preventing the phosphorylation of PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a pathway members; thus, melatonin is a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian protection and fertility preservation during chemotherapy in female cancer patients.

  17. Caffeine prevents sleep loss-induced deficits in long-term potentiation and related signaling molecules in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2010-04-01

    We have previously reported that caffeine prevented sleep deprivation-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) of area CA1 as well as hippocampus-dependent learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze. In this report we examined the impact of long-term (4-week) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on synaptic plasticity (Alhaider et al., 2010) deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) area of acutely sleep-deprived rats. The sleep deprivation and caffeine/sleep deprivation groups were sleep-deprived for 24 h by using the columns-in-water technique. We tested the effect of caffeine and/or sleep deprivation on LTP and measured the basal levels as well as stimulated levels of LTP-related molecules in the DG. The results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented the impairment of early-phase LTP (E-LTP) in the DG of sleep-deprived rats. Additionally, chronic caffeine treatment prevented the sleep deprivation-associated decreases in the basal levels of the phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as in the stimulated levels of P-CaMKII in the DG area. The results suggest that chronic use of caffeine prevented anomalous changes in the basal levels of P-CaMKII and BDNF associated with sleep deprivation and as a result contributes to the revival of LTP in the DG region.

  18. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  19. The effect of oral clonidine premedication on blood loss and the quality of the surgical field during endoscopic sinus surgery: a placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masood; Ebneshahidi, Amin

    2011-08-01

    Bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) remains a challenge for both surgeons and anesthesiologists despite several modalities available for improving the surgical field. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral clonidine premedication on blood loss and the quality of the surgical field in FESS. In a placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total of 84 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis were randomly allocated to receive either oral clonidine 0.2 mg or identical-looking placebo tablets 90 min before arrival at the operating room. Blood loss in the clonidine group was 214 ± 67 ml on average and that in the placebo group was 276 ± 78 ml (mean ± SD, p clonidine group was significantly lower than that in the placebo group (2 (1-3) vs. 2.5 (2-4), p clonidine group than with that in the placebo group (median score, 4 (3-5) vs. 3 (1-5), p premedication with oral clonidine 0.2 mg can effectively reduce bleeding during FESS.

  20. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group – its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Salih Jaff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. Blood and saliva from 762 randomly selected apparently healthy adult individuals (480 men and 282 women were examined to determine their ABO and Rhesus blood groups by standard conventional methods, and their secretor status by using Lewis blood grouping and/or hemagglutination inhibition test of saliva. Results showed that 76.1% of the study population were ABH blood group antigens secretors and 23.9% were nonsecretors. The frequencies of secretor status in different ABO blood groups were 70.1% in group A, 67.8% in group B, 67.9% in group AB, and 88.3% in group O. In conclusion, blood group O individuals have significantly higher frequency of secretor status than non-O blood group individuals. This finding would be beneficial to them, protecting them, at least partially, from certain malignancies or allowing them to have less aggressive disease, and this finding might be useful in enhancing further studies and research in this direction.Keywords: blood group O, ABO blood groups, secretor phenotype, frequency, malignancies, prevention and/or treatment

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    Full Text Available Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate.To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs, retrospective case-control studies, and retrospective cohort studies on the use of antifibrinolytic agents in scoliosis surgery by searching in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials of papers published from January 1980 through July 2014. Safety of the antifibrinolytic agents was evaluated in all included studies, while efficacy was evaluated in RCTs.Eighteen papers with a total of 1,158 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Among them, 8 RCTs with 450 patients were included for evaluation of pharmacologic efficacy (1 RCT was excluded because of a lack of standard deviation data. Mean blood loss was reduced in patients with perioperative use of antifibrinolytic agents by 409.25 ml intraoperatively (95% confidence interval [CI], 196.57-621.94 ml, 250.30 ml postoperatively (95% CI, 35.31-465.30, and 601.40 ml overall (95% CI, 306.64-896.16 ml. The mean volume of blood transfusion was reduced by 474.98 ml (95% CI, 195.30-754.67 ml. The transfusion rate was 44.6% (108/242 in the patients with antifibrinolytic agents and 68.3% (142/208 in the patients with placebo. (OR 0.38; 95% CI; 0.25-0.58; P<0.00001, I2 = 9%. All studies were included for evaluation of safety, with a total of 8 adverse events reported overall (4 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group.The systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that aprotinin, TXA, and EACA all significantly reduced perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements

  2. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or "no added salt." Look for the sodium content in milligrams and the Percent Daily Value. Aim for foods that are less than 5 percent of the Daily Value of sodium. Foods with 20 percent or more Daily Value of sodium are considered high. To learn more about reading nutrition labels, see ...

  3. Loss of T Follicular Helper Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, David A; Wang, Hongbo; Aurora, Mukta; MacMillan, Margaret L; Holtan, Shernan G; Bergerson, Rachel; Cao, Qing; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Cooley, Sarah; Brunstein, Claudio; Miller, Jeffery S; Wagner, John E; Blazar, Bruce R; Verneris, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    B cell antihost antibody production plays a central role in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). T follicular helper (TFH) cells drive B cell responses and are implicated in this process. Given differences in cGVHD incidence between umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult donor transplant recipients, we evaluated TFH cell reconstitution kinetics to define graft source differences and their potential pathogenic role in cGVHD. Although we observed significantly fewer TFH cells in the blood of UCB recipients (versus matched related donors [MRD]) early after transplantation, by 1 year the numbers of TFH cells were similar. Additionally, at both early (day 60) and late (1 year) time points, TFH cell phenotype was predominantly central memory cells in both cohorts. TFH cells were functional and able to produce multiple cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-21) after stimulation. In contrast to mouse models, where an enhanced frequency of splenic TFH cells contributes to cGVHD, patients with cGVHD showed significantly depleted circulating TFH cells after both UCB and MRD transplantation. Low numbers of TFH cells early after UCB transplantation could directly contribute to less cGVHD in this cohort. Additionally, systemic therapy (including steroids and calcineurin inhibitors) may contribute to decreases in TFH cells in patients with cGVHD. These data provide further evidence supporting the importance of TFH cells in cGVHD pathogenesis.

  4. Prevention of Defective Placentation and Pregnancy Loss by Blocking Innate Immune Pathways in a Syngeneic Model of Placental Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Shari E; Brent, Elyssa; Redecha, Patricia; Perino, Giorgio; Tomlinson, Stephen; Davisson, Robin L; Salmon, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    Defective placentation and subsequent placental insufficiency lead to maternal and fetal adverse pregnancy outcome, but their pathologic mechanisms are unclear, and treatment remains elusive. The mildly hypertensive BPH/5 mouse recapitulates many features of human adverse pregnancy outcome, with pregnancies characterized by fetal loss, growth restriction, abnormal placental development, and defects in maternal decidual arteries. Using this model, we show that recruitment of neutrophils triggered by complement activation at the maternal/fetal interface leads to elevation in local TNF-α levels, reduction of the essential angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, and, ultimately, abnormal placentation and fetal death. Blockade of complement with inhibitors specifically targeted to sites of complement activation, depletion of neutrophils, or blockade of TNF-α improves spiral artery remodeling and rescues pregnancies. These data underscore the importance of innate immune system activation in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and identify novel methods for treatment of pregnancy loss mediated by abnormal placentation.

  5. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes...

  6. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery.

  7. Effects of the platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist BN 52021 on hematologic variables and blood loss during and after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, N; Mercury, P; Denizot, Y; Cornu, E; Laskar, M; Arnoux, B; Feiss, P

    1994-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia is augmented after heparin reversal of protamine. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) might be implicated in these disorders. To evaluate the effects of PAF on the hematologic disorders and blood loss during and after CPB, patients were pretreated with BN 52021, a PAF receptor antagonist, or a placebo. BN 52021 (120 mg) (n = 13) or placebo (n = 15) were infused intravenously before vascular cannulation and before cross-clamp release. Platelet and leukocyte counts were assessed in venous blood before and after the first dose of BN 52021 or placebo, 2 min after the beginning of CPB (at the entry of the oxygenator), at the end of CPB, 1, 15, and 30 min after protamine infusion, and 6 and 24 h after CPB. The decrease in platelet and leukocyte counts were the same between groups during and after CPB and after protamine infusion. Bleeding times were not modified by the pretreatment of patients with BN 52021. During surgery, blood loss reached 1660 +/- 297 mL in the BN 52021 group and 1599 +/- 283 mL in the placebo group (P > 0.05). Forty-eight hours postoperatively, the chest tube outputs were not different between groups (1460 +/- 418 mL vs 1640 +/- 362 mL in the BN 52021 and placebo groups, respectively). This study shows that BN 52021 infusion did not change the hematologic variables studied. Moreover, a PAF antagonist pretreatment did not protect the patients against CPB- or protamine-induced hematologic changes.

  8. Research progress of studies on blood lipid and blood rheology in patients with sudden hearing ;loss%突发性聋患者血脂及血液流变学变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华; 钟时勋

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common otological emergency. Microcirculatory disorder of inner ear is considered to be one of the important factors related to its pathogenesis. The present paper summarizes the recent research progresses of studies on blood lipid and blood rheology in patients with sudden hearing loss and discusses their roles in pathogenesis of SSNHL.%突发性聋是突然发生的感音神经性听力损失,为耳科学的常见急症,内耳微循环障碍目前被认为是其发病的重要原因。本文将从血脂和血流变学两方面阐述与突发性聋的相关性。但是目前没有客观的诊断标准可以有效的评估突发性聋患者的耳蜗微循环水平,很难说明血浆黏度的变化是否为高脂血症及血流变学异常引起,并与突发性聋的发生和预后有关。

  9. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  10. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (pHawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  11. Brg1 loss attenuates aberrant wnt-signalling and prevents wnt-dependent tumourigenesis in the murine small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei Z Holik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumourigenesis within the intestine is potently driven by deregulation of the Wnt pathway, a process epigenetically regulated by the chromatin remodelling factor Brg1. We aimed to investigate this interdependency in an in vivo setting and assess the viability of Brg1 as a potential therapeutic target. Using a range of transgenic approaches, we deleted Brg1 in the context of Wnt-activated murine small intestinal epithelium. Pan-epithelial loss of Brg1 using VillinCreERT2 and AhCreERT transgenes attenuated expression of Wnt target genes, including a subset of stem cell-specific genes and suppressed Wnt-driven tumourigenesis improving animal survival. A similar increase in survival was observed when Wnt activation and Brg1 loss were restricted to the Lgr5 expressing intestinal stem cell population. We propose a mechanism whereby Brg1 function is required for aberrant Wnt signalling and ultimately for the maintenance of the tumour initiating cell compartment, such that loss of Brg1 in an Apc-deficient context suppresses adenoma formation. Our results highlight potential therapeutic value of targeting Brg1 and serve as a proof of concept that targeting the cells of origin of cancer may be of therapeutic relevance.

  12. Revisiting multiple models of progression of β-cell loss of function in type 1 diabetes: Significance for prevention and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Cheng, Jin; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from a chronic autoimmune process that leads to β-cell destruction and exogenous insulin dependence. The natural history of T1D proposed by Eisenbarth suggested six relatively independent stages over the course of the entire disease process, which was considered to be linear and chronic. Based on this classical theory, immunotherapies aim to prevent or reverse all these periods of β-cell loss. Over the past 30 years, much novel information about the pathogenesis of T1D proved that there are complex metabolic changes occurring throughout the entire disease process. Therefore, new possible models for the natural history of the disease have been proposed; these models, in turn, may help facilitate fresh avenues for the prevention and cure of T1D. Herein, we briefly review recent findings in this field of research, with the aim of providing a better theoretical basis for clinical practice.

  13. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS......: We studied the effect of 2.5 mg or 5 mg of alendronate per day or placebo on bone mineral density in 1174 postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. An additional 435 women who were prepared to receive a combination of estrogen and progestin were randomly assigned to one of the above treatments...... or open-label estrogen-progestin. The main outcome measure was the change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, hip, distal forearm, and total body measured annually for two years by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The women who received placebo lost bone mineral density at all measured...

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of FTY720 Do Not Prevent Neuronal Cell Loss in a Rat Model of Optic Neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Christian R.; Hein, Katharina; Sättler, Muriel B.; Kretzschmar, Benedikt; Hillgruber, Carina; McRae, Bradford L.; Diem, Ricarda; Bähr, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis, long-term disability is caused by axonal and neuronal damage. Established therapies target primarily the inflammatory component of the disease, but fail to prevent neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (codenamed FTY720) is an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator with promising results in phase II trials in multiple sclerosis patients and is under further development as a novel treatment for multiple sclerosis. To evaluate whether FTY720 has neuroprotective properties, we tested this drug in a rat model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced optic neuritis. FTY720 exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects during optic neuritis and reduced inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage; however, FTY720 treatment did not prevent apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that form the axons of the optic nerve. Consistent with this lack of effect on RGC survival, FTY720 treatment did not improve visual function, nor did it prevent apoptosis of RGCs in vitro. We observed a persistent activation of apoptotic signaling pathways in RGCs under FTY720 treatment, a possible underlying mechanism for the lack of neuroprotection in the presence of strong anti-inflammatory effects, Furthermore, FTY720 shifted the remaining inflammation in the optic nerve toward neurotoxicity by modest up-regulation of potential neurotoxic cytokines. We conclude that FTY720-induced anti-inflammation and axon protection did not of itself protect neurons from apoptotic cell death. PMID:21406175

  15. Cocoa-rich diet attenuates beta cell mass loss and function in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats by preventing oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Ramos, Sonia; Escrivá, Fernando; Alvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Angeles

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that cocoa flavanols may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. In this work, we investigated if a cocoa-rich diet is able to preserve beta-cell mass and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding during the prediabetic state attenuates hyperglycaemia, reduces insulin resistant, and increases beta cell mass and function in obese Zucker diabetic rats. At the molecular level, cocoa-rich diet prevented beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-xL and decreasing Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Cocoa diet enhanced the activity of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mainly glutathione peroxidase, preventing thus oxidative injury induced by the pre-diabetic condition and leading to apoptosis prevention. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may delay the loss of functional beta-cell mass and delay the progression of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress and beta-cell apoptosis.

  16. A perda da visão: estratégias de prevenção Visual loss: prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edméa Rita Temporini

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A perda visual representa conseqüências adversas para o indivíduo e sociedade. O aumento da população mundial, com proporção maior de idosos, acarreta aumento de indivíduos com perda visual. A identificação e tratamento precoces de distúrbios oculares na infância constituem prioridades de programas de prevenção da cegueira. Medidas preventivas para doenças oculares devem ser planejadas e estabelecidas. COMENTÁRIOS: Apresentam-se estimativas referentes à prevalência da cegueira e de baixa visão realizadas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Discutem-se aspectos relacionados à problemática e estratégias com vistas ao planejamento de programas preventivos. Ressalta-se a necessidade de realizar pesquisas epidemiológicas e operacionais para conhecimento da realidade, formação de recursos humanos e aperfeiçoamento da infra-estrutura de serviços especializados. Destaca-se a importância de identificar fatores psicossocioculturais para direcionar tais intervenções.INTRODUCTION: Visual loss represents an adversity for the affected person and society as a whole. As the world's population increases and as a greater proportion survives into late adulthood, the number of people with visual loss will inexorably rise. The control of blindness in children is a priority within any blindness prevention programme. Preventive measures have to be planned and established. COMMENTS: The World Health Organization estimates on blindness and low vision are discussed and some strategies and planning of preventive programs are pointed out. Epidemiological and operational researches would contribute to health system needs, assessment and program management. Identifying social and cultural factors would better direct interventional efforts of blindness prevention.

  17. Achieved Blood Pressures in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) Study: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Pablo E.; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Talbert, Robert; del Brutto, Oscar; Castellanos, Mar; Graves, John W.; Matamala, Gonzalo; Pretell, Edwin Javier; Yee, Jerry; Rebello, Rosario; Zhang, Yu; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lowering blood pressure (BP) after stroke remains a challenge, even in the context of clinical trials. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) BP protocol, BP management during the study, and achieved BPs are described here. METHODS Patients with recent symptomatic lacunar stroke were randomized to 1 of 2 levels of systolic BP (SBP) targets: lower: <130mm Hg, or higher: 130–149mm Hg. SBP management over the course of the trial was examined by race/ethnicity and other baseline conditions. RESULTS Mean SBP decreased for both groups from baseline to the last follow-up, from 142.4 to 126.7mm Hg for the lower SBP target group and from 143.6 to 137.4mm Hg for the higher SBP target group. At baseline, participants in both groups used an average of 1.7±1.2 antihypertensive medications, which increased to a mean of 2.4±1.4 (lower group) and 1.8±1.4 (higher group) by the end-study visit. It took an average of 6 months for patients to reach their SBP target, sustained to the last follow-up. Black participants had the highest proportion of SBP ≥150mm Hg at both study entry (40%) and end-study visit (17%), as compared with whites (9%) and Hispanics (11%). CONCLUSIONS These results show that it is possible to safely lower BP even to a SBP goal <130mm Hg in a variety of patients and settings, including private and academic centers in multiple countries. This provides further support for protocol-driven care in lowering BP and consequently reducing the burden of stroke. PMID:24610884

  18. Trimegestone in a low-dose, continuous-combined hormone therapy regimen prevents bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Spielman, Danièle

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of estrogen + progestogen therapy with 1 mg 17beta-estradiol and 0.125 mg trimegestone in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: For this study, 360 healthy, postmenopausal women with osteopenia [lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) between -1...... bone-specific alkaline phosphatase revealed a more retarded decrease of 40% and 33%, respectively. Of the women receiving hormone therapy, 75% had amenorrhea from the first cycle, and 5% withdrew prematurely due to metrorrhagia or mastalgia. CONCLUSION: This new estrogen + progestogen therapy...

  19. Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss through reducing reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Niwa, Katsuki; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that form in the inner ear play an important role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Recent studies have revealed that molecular hydrogen (H2) has great potential for reducing ROS. In this study, we examined the potential of hydrogen gas to protect against NIHL. We tested this hypothesis in guinea pigs with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% H2 inhalation in air for 5h a day after noise exposure, for five consecutive days. All animals underwent measurements for auditory brainstem response after the noise exposure; the results revealed that there was a better improvement in the threshold shift for the 1.0% and 1.5% H2-treated groups than the non-treated group. Furthermore, outer hair cell (OHC) loss was examined 7 days after noise exposure. A significantly higher survival rate of OHCs was observed in the 1.0% and 1.5% H2-treated group as compared to that of the non-treated group in the basal turn. Immunohistochemical analyses for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were performed to examine the amount of oxidative DNA damage. While strong immunoreactivities against 8-OHdG were observed of the non-treated group, the H2-treated group showed decreased immunoreactivity for 8-OHdG. These findings strongly suggest that inhaled hydrogen gas protects against NIHL.

  20. Preventing and Reversing Vacuum-Induced Optical Losses in High-Finesse Tantalum (V) Oxide Mirror Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Gangloff, Dorian; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenković, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO$_2$ passivating the Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

  1. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miin Roh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC caused intraocular pressure (IOP to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH. Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ocular hypertension (OHT triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.

  2. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation.

  3. BRCA1 loss pre-existing in small subpopulations of prostate cancer is associated with advanced disease and metastatic spread to lymph nodes and peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, Natalia; Eltze, Elke; Semjonow, Axel; Rink, Michael; Andreas, Antje; Mulder, Lennart; Hannemann, Juliane; Fisch, Margit; Pantel, Klaus; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Brandt, Burkhard

    2010-03-19

    A recent study concluded that serum prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based screening is beneficial for reducing the lethality of PCa, but was also associated with a high risk of 'overdiagnosis'. Nevertheless, also PCa patients who suffered from organ confined tumors and had negative bone scans succumb to distant metastases after complete tumor resection. It is reasonable to assume that those tumors spread to other organs long before the overt manifestation of metastases. Our current results confirm that prostate tumors are highly heterogeneous. Even a small subpopulation of cells bearing BRCA1 losses can initiate PCa cell regional and distant dissemination indicating those patients which might be at high risk of metastasis. A preliminary study performed on a small cohort of multifocal prostate cancer (PCa) detected BRCA1 allelic imbalances (AI) among circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The present analysis was aimed to elucidate the biological and clinical role of BRCA1 losses on metastatic spread and tumor progression in prostate cancer patients. Experimental Design: To map molecular progression in PCa outgrowth we used FISH analysis of tissue microarrays (TMA), lymph node sections and CTC from peripheral blood. We found that 14% of 133 tested patients carried monoallelic BRCA1 loss in at least one tumor focus. Extended molecular analysis of chr17q revealed that this aberration was often a part of larger cytogenetic rearrangement involving chr17q21 accompanied by AI of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and lack of the BRCA1 promoter methylation. The BRCA1 losses correlated with advanced T stage (p < 0.05), invasion to pelvic lymph nodes (LN, p < 0.05) as well as BR (p < 0.01). Their prevalence was twice as high within 62 LN metastases (LNMs) as in primary tumors (27%, p < 0.01). The analysis of 11 matched primary PCa-LNM pairs confirmed the suspected transmission of genetic abnormalities between those two sites. In 4 of 7 patients with metastatic disease, BRCA1

  4. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments.

  5. Protein kinase C inhibition prevents upregulation of vascular ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptors and reverses cerebral blood flow reduction after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beg, Saema S; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob A; Vikman, Petter J;

    2007-01-01

    type 1B (5-HT(1B)) receptor upregulation and prevent the associated cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction. The PKC inhibitor RO-31-7549 or vehicle was injected intracisternally after the induced SAH in rats (n=3 to 10 in each groups for each method). The involvement of the PKC isoforms was investigated...... by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Administration of RO-31-7549 prevented the upregulated contraction elicited by application of ET-1 and 5-CT in cerebral arteries and kept the ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA and protein levels at pre-SAH levels. Regional...

  6. Hidden blood loss in total knee arthroplasty under high negative pressure drainage%全膝关节置换后高负压引流下的隐性失血

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻长纯; 杨明路; 杜兴升

    2013-01-01

    背景:通常评价关节置换患者出血量主要是记录置换中的出血量和置换后的引流量,这些只是显性失血量,研究表明隐性失血量可达到并超过总量的50%。  目的:比较全膝关节置换高负压引流和普通负压引流失血量,评价高负压引流对全膝关节置换隐性失血的影响。  方法:60例单侧全膝人工关节置换患者根据置换后采用的负压吸引不同分为高负压引流组和普通负压引流组(对照组),每组30例。通过Gross方程推算,对膝关节置换后总失血量(显性失血量+隐性失血最)和输血量进行分析,并对两组置换后并发症及功能恢复状况进行比较。  结果与结论:高负压引流组患者总失血量为(646±184) mL,隐性失血量为(215±128) mL;对照组患者总失血量为(867±296) mL,隐性失血量(457±268) mL;高负压引流组总失血量及隐性失血量均明显少于对照组(P METHODS:A total of 60 patients undergoing lateral total knee arthroplasty were equal y divided into high negative pressure drainage group and conventional drainage group (control group). We calculated the total blood loss (dominant blood loss and hidden blood loss) and blood transfusion amount with the Gross equation. The recovery after surgery and complications were compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:In high negative pressure drainage group, the total blood loss was (646±184) mL and the hidden blood loss was (215±128) mL. In the control group, the total blood loss was (867±296) mL and the hidden blood loss was (457±268) mL. The total blood loss and hidden blood loss in the high negative pressure drainage group were significantly less than those in the control group (P<0.05). The average blood transfusion amount was 224 mL in the high negative pressure drainage group and 467 mL in the control group. Fol owing unilateral total knee arthroplasty, total blood loss, hidden blood loss and blood transfusion

  7. Protected areas in South Asia have not prevented habitat loss: a study using historical models of land-use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie E; Boakes, Elizabeth H; McGowan, Philip J K; Mace, Georgina M; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system.

  8. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Brown, Michael; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall Torfi; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Gislason, David; Gislason, Thorarinn; Ludviksson, Bjorn Runar; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Boezen, H. Marike; Heinzmann, Andrea; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Waage, Johannes; Backer, Vibeke; Deichmann, Klaus A.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Johnston, James A.; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-genome sequencing and imputation into the Icelandic population, we found a rare variant in IL33 (NM_001199640:exon7:c.487-1G>C (rs146597587-C), allele frequency = 0.65%) that disrupts a canonical splice acceptor site before the last coding exon. It is also found at low frequency in European populations. rs146597587-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10–16, N = 103,104), and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10–4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977). Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non-carriers and allele-specific analysis based on RNA sequencing and phased genotypes shows that only 20% of the total expression is from the mutated chromosome. In half of those transcripts the mutation causes retention of the last intron, predicted to result in a premature stop codon that leads to truncation of 66 amino acids. The truncated IL-33 has normal intracellular localization but neither binds IL-33R/ST2 nor activates ST2-expressing cells. Together these data demonstrate that rs146597587-C is a loss of function mutation and support the hypothesis that IL-33 haploinsufficiency protects against asthma. PMID:28273074

  9. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  10. Morphological dependency of cutaneous blood flow and sweating during compensable heat stress when heat-loss requirements are matched across participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-07-01

    Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm(2)/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1°C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W/m(2); moderate, ∼200 W/m(2)). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r = 0.63 and r = 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P principles governing heat transfer.

  11. Protected areas in South Asia have not prevented habitat loss: a study using historical models of land-use change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E Clark

    Full Text Available Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system.

  12. Selective loss of TGFbeta Smad-dependent signalling prevents cell cycle arrest and promotes invasion in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Onwuegbusi

    Full Text Available In cancer, Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta increases proliferation and promotes invasion via selective loss of signalling pathways. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett's oesophagus, progresses rapidly and is usually fatal. The contribution of perturbed TGFbeta signalling in the promotion of metastasis in this disease has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated the role of TGFbeta in Barrett's associated oesophageal adenocarcinoma using a panel of cell lines (OE33, TE7, SEG, BIC, FLO. 4/5 adenocarcinoma cell lines failed to cell cycle arrest, down-regulate c-Myc or induce p21 in response to TGFbeta, and modulation of a Smad3/4 specific promoter was inhibited. These hyperproliferative adenocarcinoma cell lines displayed a TGFbeta induced increase in the expression of the extracellular matrix degrading proteinases, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, which correlated with an invasive cell phenotype as measured by in vitro migration, invasion and cell scattering assays. Inhibiting ERK and JNK pathways significantly reduced PAI and uPA induction and inhibited the invasive cell phenotype. These results suggest that TGFbeta Smad-dependent signalling is perturbed in Barrett's carcinogenesis, resulting in failure of growth-arrest. However, TGFbeta can promote PAI and uPA expression and invasion through MAPK pathways. These data would support a dual role for TGFbeta in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  13. Auditoria dos programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas em Curitiba (PPPA Hearing loss prevention programs control of Curitiba (HLPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C.M. Cavalli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo examinar se medidas práticas de prevenção de perdas auditivas, adotadas por indústrias de Curitiba e região metropolitana, atendem às exigências da legislação trabalhista vigente e recomendações científicas que abordam este tema. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um questionário elaborado pelo instituto americano National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH em 1996, para auditoria de programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas (PPPA, nos serviu de instrumento para a coleta de dados. O instrumento original possui 89 questões divididas em oito temas relacionados à prática dos programas: treinamento e educação, envolvimento do supervisor, medição do ruído, controle de Engenharia e Administrativo, monitoração audiométrica e manutenção dos registros, encaminhamentos, equipamento de proteção individual e questões administrativas. A coleta de dados foi realizada com Médicos do Trabalho, Engenheiros e/ou Técnicos de Segurança das indústrias. As empresas foram divididas em dois grupos: o das empresas que possuem um PPPA e o das que não possuem. CONCLUSÃO: Com base nos dados obtidos concluímos que não houve diferença significativa de conduta entre os grupos e que ambos cumprem parcialmente a legislação trabalhista relacionada à prevenção dos efeitos do ruído. Quanto às questões que abordam aspectos que se excedem às exigências legais, concluímos que as empresas que possuem PPPA dedicam maiores esforços à prevenção de perdas auditivas. Com estes dados identificamos pontos fortes e fracos das medidas que vêm sendo adotadas pelas indústrias da região, os quais poderão nos direcionar à elaboração de medidas preventivas mais efetivas e de propostas para revisão da legislação vigente.AIM: The objective of this study is to examine if the hearing loss prevention practices in industries located in the greater

  14. 肥胖对半髋关节置换术围手术期失血的影响%The influence of obesity to perioperative blood loss following hemi-hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涛; 黄伟杰; 吴伟; 华筠毅; 洪成

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To explore the influence of obesity to perioperative blood loss following hemi-hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture and its mechanism. [ Method] We retrospectively analysised 69 cases performed hemi-hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2010, including 33 males and 36 females, aged 80.4 ± 3.4 years (ranging 75 ~ 92 years), 30 with left and 39 with right Obesity group ( BMI >30) had 36 cases and normal group ( BMI≤30) had 33 cases. According to Garden classification, there were 32 cases of type HI, 37 cases of type IV. All the patients were fresh femoral neck fracture following primary hemi-hip arthroplasty,the total influsion volume were less than 2000 ml. According to Cross formulae,we calculated the total blood loss with the patients' height,weight and Hct. The perioperative blood loss after surgery including observed blood loss and occult blood loss were analyzed. [Result]The mean total blood loss was 962 ml,the mean observed blood loss was 308 ml,the mean occult blood loss was 654 ml,each accounted for 32% and 68% in total blood loss,hidden blood loss was much more than observed blood loss. In obesity group the mean total blood loss was 1079 ml,observed blood loss was 349 ml and hidden blood loss was 730 ml,while in the normal group it was 865 ml,271 ml,594 ml each. There were significant difference between the obesity group and normal group. There were more total blood loss and hidden blood loss in obesity group. [ Conclusion ] Hidden blood loss is the major part of total blood loss after hemi-arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture. It is very important to supplement the blood volume during perioperative period. The obesity in advanced age is a risk factor for increased blood loss, special attention is in need.%[目的]探讨肥胖对股骨颈骨折患者行人工半髋关节置换术围手术期失血的影响和相关机制.[方法]回顾性研究2008年1月~2010年12月,我科

  15. Pregnancy high blood pressure and postpartum hemorrhage of prevention and cure disease%妊娠期高血压疾病并发产后出血的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包柳红

    2012-01-01

    目的分析探讨防治妊娠期高血压疾病并发产后出血患者的临床效果.方法选取2007年3月到2011年3月期间,在我院治疗的换油妊娠期高血压疾病的孕妇226例,随机将患者分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者给予缩宫素注射治疗,观察组患者给予米索前列醇治疗,分别分析两组患者出血发生率、血压变化及出血量的情况.结果和对照组相比,观察组患者剖宫产和阴道分娩出血发生率和出血量均明显降低,差异显著具有统计学意义(P0.05).结论米索列醇对于治疗妊娠期高血压疾病并发产后出血具有显著的疗效,同时操作简单、安全可靠,值得推广.%objective: to analysis and prevention and control of pregnancy hypertension disease and postpartum hemorrhage patients for clinical effect. Methods: select from March 2007 to March 2011, during the treatment in our hospital in pregnancy high blood pressure of the oil disease pregnant women 226 cases were randomly divided the patients into the control group and the observation group, patients given oxytocin injections, the observation group patients given misoprostol treatment, two groups were studied respectively incidence, blood pressure change and bleeding amount of blood loss. Results: compared with controls, the observation group patients cesarean section and vaginal delivery incidence and bleeding were significantly reduce the amount of blood loss, a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). Conclusion: rice suo column for the treatment of pregnancy alcohol high blood pressure and postpartum hemorrhage disease has remarkable curative effect, at the same time, the operation is simple, safe, reliable, and is worth promoting.

  16. Hypertension Canada's 2016 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurement, Diagnosis, Assessment of Risk, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander A; Nerenberg, Kara; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; McBrien, Kerry; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Penner, S Brian; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Lear, Scott A; Moullec, Gregory; Gupta, Milan; Magee, Laura A; Logan, Alexander G; Harris, Kevin C; Dionne, Janis; Fournier, Anne; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S; Rabi, Doreen M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force provides annually updated, evidence-based recommendations to guide the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. This year, we present 4 new recommendations, as well as revisions to 2 previous recommendations. In the diagnosis and assessment of hypertension, automated office blood pressure, taken without patient-health provider interaction, is now recommended as the preferred method of measuring in-office blood pressure. Also, although a serum lipid panel remains part of the routine laboratory testing for patients with hypertension, fasting and nonfasting collections are now considered acceptable. For individuals with secondary hypertension arising from primary hyperaldosteronism, adrenal vein sampling is recommended for those who are candidates for potential adrenalectomy. With respect to the treatment of hypertension, a new recommendation that has been added is for increasing dietary potassium to reduce blood pressure in those who are not at high risk for hyperkalemia. Furthermore, in selected high-risk patients, intensive blood pressure reduction to a target systolic blood pressure ≤ 120 mm Hg should be considered to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in hypertensive individuals with uncomplicated, stable angina pectoris, either a β-blocker or calcium channel blocker may be considered for initial therapy. The specific evidence and rationale underlying each of these recommendations are discussed. Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force will continue to provide annual updates.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA A1555G mutation screening using a testing kit method and its significance in preventing aminoglycoside-related hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; YANG Weiyan; HAN Dongyi; JIN Zhengce; GUAN Minxin; DAI Pu; HUANG Deliang; YUAN Huijun; LI Weiming; YU Fei; ZHANG Xin; KANG Dongyang; CAO Juyang

    2006-01-01

    To report a new screening method for mitochondrial DNA 1555A→G mutation and the results of genotype analysis in 19 maternal inherited deafness pedigrees. Method Five hundred and forty-six non-syndromic neuro-sensory hearing loss patients were tested for 1555A→G mutation using a new compact testing kit, which allows clear distinction between wild type and 1555 A→G mutated mtDNAs. Results Nineteen subjects among the 546 patients (3.48%) were found to carry mtDNA A1555G mutation. The results were confirmed by sequencing in an ABI 3100 Avant sequencer. Conclusions Maternal inherited deafness families are a frequently seen in outpatient group. The detection ofmtDNA 1555 A→G mutation with a low cost, ready to use detection kit is needed and suitable in China for large scale screening and preventive testing before usage of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  18. 人工关节置换术隐性失血量及其相关因素分析%Hidden blood loss after artificial joint replacement and its correlation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪飞; 吕德成; 张卫国; 张羽飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To calculate the volume and to study the correlated risk factors of hidden blood loss after artificial hip or knee joint replacement. Methods From July to November in 2008, 38patients with age of (65.11±13.51) years old were treated with artificial hip or knee joint replacement, and were divided by age into four groups. Using Gross formula, total blood loss was calculated depending on height, weight and pre- and post-operation hematocrit, and the hidden blood loss was acquired by subtracting the visible blood loss from the total blood loss. The correlation between age,body mass index( BMI),gender and hidden blood blood loss was observed. Differences of hidden blood loss of artificial hip or knee joint replacement were compared. Results The total blood loss of all arthroplasties was ( 1563.52 ± 693.10) ml,and the hidden blood loss was (538.70 ± 529.77) ml,the percentage of hidden blood loss was 33%. The hidden blood loss was inversely related to age (P< 0.05 ). There was no correlation between BMI and hidden blood loss (P>0.05). The percentage of hidden blood loss in total blood loss in woman was significantly higher than that in man. With age and gender paired, the percentage of hidden blood loss in total blood loss in artificial hip joint replacement was significantly higher than that in artificial knee joint replacement (P<0.05 ). Conclusions Both of age and gender are risk factors influencing hidden blood loss after artificial hip or knee joint replacement. And compared with artificial knee joint replacement, the percentage of hidden blood loss in artificial hip joint replacement is higher.%目的 通过计算人工髋关节置换术和人工膝关节置换术隐性失血量,分析其相关的危险因素,并探讨其发生机制.方法 2008年7-11月行人工关节置换术38例,年龄(65.11±13.51)岁,其中人工髋关节置换术25例,人工膝关节置换术13例.根据身高、体质指数和手术前后的红细胞压积计算总失血

  19. Effects of combination therapy with atenolol and amlodipine on blood pressure control and stroke prevention in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LING; Ai-jun LIU; Fu-ming SHEN; Guo-jun CAI; Jian-guo LIU; Ding-feng SU

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To test the effects of atenolol and amlodipine,either alone or in combination,on blood pressure,blood pressure variability (BPV),baroreflex sensitivity (BRS),and the prevalence of stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP). Methods:In the first set of the study,24 8-month-old,female SHR-SP rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Blood pressure,heart period,and BRS were determined before and after the intragastric administration of atenolol (10 mg/kg) and amlodipine (1.0 mg/kg),either alone or in combination. In the second set of the study,40 male and 40 female rats were randomly assigned to 1 of the and both (10 male and 10 female in each group). The stroke incident and survival time were recorded. Results:Atenolol and amlodipine,either alone or in combination,significantly decreased blood pressure,with the exception of the amlodipine-induced effect on diastolic blood pressure. Meanwhile,only the combination treatment significantly decreased the BPV levels for the same period.The q-values calculated by the probability sum analysis were 1.17 and 2.67 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure,respectively,and were 2.48 and 2.10 for systolic and diastolic BPV,respectively,following administration. Neither drug exhibited any significant effect on BRS. Atenolol and amlodipine,either alone or in combination,significantly increased the lifespan of SHR-SP,with the best effeet elicited by the combination therapy. Conclusion:A significant synergism exists between atenolol and amlodipine in lowering and stabilizing blood pressure in SHR-SP. Combination therapy may be an optimal strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  20. Research and Development of Nutrient Accumulation and Loss Prevention Fertilizers%腐植酸聚失肥的研制与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广武; 刘峰; 冯尚喜; 林凡光; 李晓冰

    2013-01-01

    利用黄腐酸为载体研制开发腐植酸聚失肥是在低碳经济、可持续农业、有机农业、生态农业大环境下发展的新肥源和新型肥料产业.该肥料的主要特点和功能:聚合土壤中养分,控制养分流失;提高肥料利用率,补充化肥的不足;改良土壤,增强作物抗逆性;提高作物产量,改善产品品质;科技含量高,生产工艺先进.%The research and development of humic acid nutrient accumulation and loss prevention fertilizers, which use fulvic acid as carrier, is the development of new fertilizer source and also is an emerging fertilizer industry in an environment of low carbon economy, sustainable agriculture, organic agriculture and ecological agriculture. The main features and functions of the fertilizers are; gathering together nutrient in soil, controlling loss of nutrient; increasing use rate of fertilizer, supplying insufficient chemical fertilizer; improving soil, enhancing stress resistance of crops; increasing yield of crops, improving product quality; having high scientific and technological content and advanced production process.

  1. Reasons for loss to follow-up among mothers registered in a prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission program in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwirire, L D; Fitzgerald, M; Zachariah, R; Chikafa, V; Massaquoi, M; Moens, M; Kamoto, K; Schouten, E J

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify reasons for a high and progressive loss to follow-up among HIV-positive mothers within a prevention-of-mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) program in a rural district hospital in Malawi. Three focus group discussions were conducted among a total of 25 antenatal and post-natal mothers as well as nurse midwives (median age 39 years, range 22-55 years). The main reasons for loss to follow-up included: (1) not being prepared for HIV testing and its implications before the antenatal clinic (ANC) visit; (2) fear of stigma, discrimination, household conflict and even divorce on disclosure of HIV status; (3) lack of support from husbands who do not want to undergo HIV testing; (4) the feeling that one is obliged to rely on artificial feeding, which is associated with social and cultural taboos; (5) long waiting times at the ANC; and (6) inability to afford transport costs related to the long distances to the hospital. This study reveals a number of community- and provider-related operational and cultural barriers hindering the overall acceptability of PMTCT that need to be addressed urgently. Mothers attending antenatal services need to be better informed and supported, at both community and health-provider level.

  2. Harpagoside Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) Signaling Pathway and Prevents Inflammation-Mediated Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Sun-Hyang; Baek, Jong Min; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Min Seuk; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2015-09-25

    Harpagoside (HAR) is a natural compound isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) that is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects; however, these effects have not been investigated in the context of bone development. The current study describes for the first time that HAR inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. HAR also inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner as well as the activity of mature osteoclasts, including filamentous actin (F-actin) ring formation and bone matrix breakdown. This involved a HAR-induced decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) in RANKL-dependent early signaling, as well as the activation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which resulted in the down-regulation of various target genes. Consistent with these in vitro results, HAR blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in an inflammatory osteoporosis model. However, HAR did not prevent ovariectomy-mediated bone erosion in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. These results suggest that HAR is a valuable agent against inflammation-related bone disorders but not osteoporosis induced by hormonal abnormalities.

  3. DHEA prevents bone loss by suppressing the expansion of CD4(+) T cells and TNFa production in the OVX-mouse model for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Tang, Wei; Li, Lisha; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2016-09-05

    Recent studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) might serve as a form of immunomodulatory therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). The current study investigated the effects of DHEA administration on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss and its corresponding immunological changes. Adult OVX mice were treated with DHEA or 17-β-estradiol (E2) for 12 weeks, with or without the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. DHEA improved bone mass after OVX and displayed action like that of E2 with regard to decreasing osteoclast-related parameters. DHEA also suppressed an OVX-induced increase in CD4(+) T cell subsets and TNF-α production. However, DHEA elevated serum E2 levels to a lesser extent than E2. Although letrozole decreased serum E2 levels in OVX mice treated with DHEA, it did not alter DHEA's effects on corresponding immunological changes due to OVX. In conclusion, DHEA may prevent bone loss by suppressing the OVX-induced expansion of CD4(+) T cells and TNF-α production in mice, independent of E2.

  4. Prevention of metabolic disorders with telmisartan and indapamide in a Chinese population with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Zhendong; Wang, Zhihao; Tang, Mengxiong; Zhong, Ming; Lu, Fanghong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    High-normal blood pressure is considered a precursor of stage 1 hypertension that is associated with metabolic disorders. This study aims to investigate whether the pharmacologic treatment of high-normal blood pressure affects metabolism, especially in abdominally obese individuals, and the pharmacoeconomics of two antihypertensive agents, telmisartan and indapamide. Subjects with high-normal blood pressure were randomly assigned to receive telmisartan, indapamide or placebo for 3 years. All the subjects were instructed to modify their lifestyle to reduce blood pressure throughout the study. A total of 221 subjects were randomly assigned to telmisartan, 213 to indapamide and 230 to placebo. After the 3-year intervention, blood pressure was lower in the telmisartan and indapamide groups (P0.05). The percentage of subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in the telmisartan and indapamide groups (Phigh-normal blood pressure with telmisartan and indapamide appeared to be feasible and reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome. Telmisartan was more effective, whereas indapamide had better pharmacoeconomic benefits.

  5. Clinical analysis of 123 neonates with blood loss anemia%新生儿失血性贫血临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新华; 黄成姣; 袁琳; 陈超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the related perinatal factors and clinical characteristics in neonatal blood loss anemia. Methods One hundred and twenty three infants admitted to the department of neonatology in the children's hospital of Fudan University between January 2004 to December 2008 were retrospectively analysed and the associated elements were reviewed carefully. Results Among 123 patients, 118 infants (95.9%) were mainly in the early stage of anemia, and especially 95 of them (80%) were less than 3 days old. The Main corresponding factors and pathogenic causes included:Fetomaternal hemorrhage (69 cases, 56.1%), neonatal intracranial hemorrhage (11 cases, 8.9%), hemorrhagic disease of newborn (8 cases, 6.5%) and twin-twin transfusion syndrome (8 cases, 6. 5% ). Neonatal blood loss anemia mostly presented as severe anemia ( occupied 56. 1% ), with no difference between sex. Furthermore, twin-twin transfusion syndrome occurred commonly among preterm infants. Conclusions Fetomaternal hemorrhage was the main etiological factor resulting in neonatal blood loss anemia, the next factors included neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, the hemorrhagic disease of newborn, and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, etc. The incidence of severe neonatal anemia was quite high. There might be some differences in the etiology between term and preterm infants.%目的 探讨引起新生儿失血性贫血的相关临床因素及临床特点.方法 对我院2004-2008年收治的新生儿失血性贫血病例资料进行分析.结果 123例新生儿失血性贫血中,以早期新生儿贫血(发病日龄<7天)为主,共118例(95.9%),其中<3天的新生儿95例,占80.5%.新生儿失血性贫血的病因及相关因素主要有胎-母输血69例(56.1%),新生儿颅内出血11例(8.9%),新生儿出血症8例(6.5%),胎胎输血综合征8例(6.5%).新生儿失血性贫血以重度失血(56.1%)多见(P<0.05),不同性别差异无统计学意义.胎胎输

  6. Molecular analysis of G202010A mutation in factor II of blood coagulation and its relationship with polymorphism rs5030737 of MBL gene in recurrent pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mohammad Rafiee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Miscarriage means ending a pregnancy at any stage of the fetus. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as two or more loss of pregnancy to be detected continuous or discontinuous before the twentieth week of pregnancy.Mutations in the gene for coagulation factor IIand MBL gene can be involved in miscarriage. Hence, according to importance of this issue, the purpose of this study is to investigate G20210A mutation of coagulation factor IIand its relationship with polymorphism rs5030737 of MBL gene to evaluate on-time diagnosis and treatment of miscarriage. Method: in order to conduct the study, 41 patients with history of miscarriage and 48 healthy women with successful delivery were selected. A questionnaire was fulfilled by them to insert comprehensive information including history of miscarriage, history of miscarriage among relatives, age, weight, blood type, type of marriage and smoking. Then, blood sample of every one was taken. The blood samples were transferred to the laboratory and after extraction of DNA from each of samples, G20210A mutation in coagulation factor IIandtype of polymorphism rs5030737 in MBL gene was determined using PCR method. Finally, analysis of the results and assessment of other important and effective factors in them was done using Epi Info software and using chi square (X2 test. Results: among the patients, frequency of patients with one miscarriage was determined to 29.25%; frequency of patients with two miscarriages to 58.85% and frequency of patients with 3 miscarriages was obtained to 4.9%. In regard with assessing G20210A mutation in coagulation factor II, frequency percent ofheterozygous or carriers were equal to 7.3% among patients and to 2.1% for healthy individuals. Among them, frequency of available genotypes included GG: 92.6%; GA: 7.3%, AA: 0 in patient group and GG: 97.9%, GA: 2.1% and AA: 0 in healthy individuals. On the other hand, frequency of types of polymorphism of MBL included BB: 17%; AB

  7. Genetic rescue of CB1 receptors on medium spiny neurons prevents loss of excitatory striatal synapses but not motor impairment in HD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Alipi V; Sepers, Marja D; Swinney, Katie; Raymond, Lynn A; Palmiter, Richard D; Stella, Nephi

    2014-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in huntingtin protein that disrupts synaptic function in specific neuronal populations and results in characteristic motor, cognitive and affective deficits. Histopathological hallmarks observed in both HD patients and genetic mouse models include the reduced expression of synaptic proteins, reduced medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic spine density and decreased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs). Early down-regulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression on MSN (CB1(MSN)) is thought to participate in HD pathogenesis. Here we present a cell-specific genetic rescue of CB1(MSN) in R6/2 mice and report that treatment prevents the reduction of excitatory synaptic markers in the striatum (synaptophysin, vGLUT1 and vGLUT2), of dendritic spine density on MSNs and of MSN sEPSCs, but does not prevent motor impairment. We conclude that loss of excitatory striatal synapses in HD mice is controlled by CB1(MSN) and can be uncoupled from the motor phenotype.

  8. Effects of mycophenolate mofetil, valsartan and their combined therapy on preventing podocyte loss in early stage of diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; CHEN Bing; HOU Xiang-hua; GUAN Guang-ju; LIU Gang; LIU Hai-ying; LI Xue-gang

    2007-01-01

    Background Podocyte has inflammatory role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an anti-inflammatory agent, can suppress macrophage infiltration and reduce renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker (ARB), another renal protecting agent, can decrease podocyte loss in DN. In this study, we detected the expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and nephrin to evaluate podocyte's role in inflammatory reaction in DN, observe and compare the effect of MMF alone and in combination with valsartan, on preventing podocyte loss in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods Diabetic model was constructed in uninephrectomized male Wistar rats by single peritoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg). The successfully induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups: diabetes without treatment group (DM), valsartan treated group (DMV), MMF treated group (DMM), and combined therapy group (DMVM). Normal rats of the same sibling were chosen as control (NC). At the end of the 8th week, serum biochemistry, 24-hour urinary protein (UP) and the ratio of kidney weight/body weight (RWK/B) were measured. The rats were sacrificed for the observation of renal histomorphology through light and electron microscope. Nephrin, desmin and MCP-1 levels were detected by semi-quantitative immunohistochemical assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of nephrin and MCP-1.Results Compared with group NC, serum glucose level, 24-hour UP and RWK/B in group DM were significantly higher (P<0.01), and the nephrin mRNA level in DM group was significantly lower (P<0.05). The nephrin mRNA expression levels in group DMV, DMM and DMVM were all higher than that of DM group (P<0.05) and no significant differences were found among the three treatment groups (P>0.05). Treatment with MMF, valsartan or their combination could significantly decrease the 24-hour UP and

  9. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  10. Inhibition of osteocyte apoptosis prevents the increase in osteocytic receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) but does not stop bone resorption or the loss of bone induced by unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Lilian I; Gortazar, Arancha R; Davis, Hannah M; Condon, Keith W; Gabilondo, Hugo; Maycas, Marta; Allen, Matthew R; Bellido, Teresita

    2015-07-31

    Apoptosis of osteocytes and osteoblasts precedes bone resorption and bone loss with reduced mechanical stimulation, and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression is increased with unloading in mice. Because osteocytes are major RANKL producers, we hypothesized that apoptotic osteocytes signal to neighboring osteocytes to increase RANKL expression, which, in turn, increases osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The traditional bisphosphonate (BP) alendronate (Aln) or IG9402, a BP analog that does not inhibit resorption, prevented the increase in osteocyte apoptosis and osteocytic RANKL expression. The BPs also inhibited osteoblast apoptosis but did not prevent the increase in osteoblastic RANKL. Unloaded mice exhibited high serum levels of the bone resorption marker C-telopeptide fragments of type I collagen (CTX), elevated osteoclastogenesis, and increased osteoclasts in bone. Aln, but not IG9402, prevented all of these effects. In addition, Aln prevented the reduction in spinal and femoral bone mineral density, spinal bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular thickness, mechanical strength, and material strength induced by unloading. Although IG9402 did not prevent the loss of bone mass, it partially prevented the loss of strength, suggesting a contribution of osteocyte viability to strength independent of bone mass. These results demonstrate that osteocyte apoptosis leads to increased osteocytic RANKL. However, blockade of these events is not sufficient to restrain osteoclast formation, inhibit resorption, or stop bone loss induced by skeletal unloading.

  11. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated human kallikrein gene therapy prevents high-salt diet-induced hypertension without effect on basal blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-tao YAN; Tao WANG; Juan LI; Xiao XIAO; Dao-wen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the expression of human kallikrein (HK) on basal level blood pressure and high-salt diet-induced hypertension. Methods: We delivered the recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV)-mediated HK (rAAV-HK) gene and rAAV-LacZ (as the control) to normal, adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered a normal diet in the first 4 weeks, followed by a high-salt diet. The expression of HK in the rats was assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR. Blood pressure and Na~ and K~ urinary excretion were monitored. Results: Under the normal diet, no obvious changes in blood pressure and Na+ and K+ urinary excretion were observed. When the high-salt diet was administered, sys-tolic blood pressure in the control animals receiving rAAV-LacZ increased from 122.3±1. 13 mmHg to a stable 142.4±1.77 mmHg 8 weeks after the high-salt diet. In contrast, there was no significant increase in the blood pressure in the rAAV-HK-treated group, in which the blood pressure remained at 121.9±1.73 mmHg. In the rAAV-HK-treated group, Na+ and K+ urinary excretion were higher compared to those of the control group. The morphological analysis showed that HK delivery remarkably protected against renal damage induced by a high-salt intake. Conclusion: Our study indicates that rAAV-mediated human tissue kallikrein gene delivery is a potentially safe method for the long-term treatment of hypertension. More importantly, it could be applied in the salt-sensitive population to prevent the occurrence of hypertension.

  12. 一种预防噪声导致失聪的新方法%A New Strategy for the Prevention of Noise-induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.麦尔; T.列纳; M.缇雪; J.M. 米勒

    2009-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an enormous social and economic cost to the country and represents a vital unmet medical need, for which there is now a solution. Currently there are no FDA-approved products for the prevention of NIHL. The protective device market, consisting of earplugs and earmuffs, is $ 243 million (in US), with 75% of sales coming from earplugs. While physical hearing protection can reduce sound pressure levels, they do not adequately prevent NIHL in very noisy environments. In addition, these barrier technologies compromise operation/activity requiring speech communication and hearing for personal safety. The past decade has witnessed a remarkable increase in our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that determine cell survival and cell death with stress, pathology and aging. We have begun to define the apoptotic and necrotic pathways that lead to cell death, their external environmental and endogenous hereditary initiating factors, the genes and transduction factors that regulate these pathways and with that we have begun to define new interventions that attenuate or prevent cell death and cause cell survivaL With this new understanding, now for the first time, we have an opportunity to prevent or treat diseases and disorders previously not possible. One of these disorders that now can he prevented is heating loss.%对一个国家来说,噪声导致的失聪是一种巨大的社会和经济损失,是以前未曾遇到过的医疗卫生问题,现在这个问题有了一种解决办法.美国农业部(FDA)近年来没有批准任何预防噪声导致失聪的新产品.在美国,这类产品(包括耳塞和耳罩)的市场价值大约为2.43亿美元,其中约75%来自耳塞的销售.对听力的物理防护可以降低声压水平,但若噪声过强,这种物理防护并不能完全保证听力不受损害.而且,这类"屏蔽"方法也会损害需要通过听、说进行交流来保证的个人安全性.近十年来

  13. Activation and crosstalk between TNF family receptors in umbilical cord blood cells is not responsible for loss of engraftment capacity following culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Keren; Askenasy, Nadir

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation. Murine and human progenitors are insensitive to apoptotic signaling mediated by the TNF family receptors, however extension of culture over 48 hours is accompanied by severe deterioration in engraftment and hematopoietic reconstituting capacity. In this study we assessed crosstalk between the Fas, TNF and TRAIL receptors, and questioned whether it contributes to increased mortality and decreased activity of UCB progenitors following extended ex vivo culture for 72 hours. The well-characterized TNF-induced expression of Fas is mediated by both TNF receptors, yet the TNF receptors determine survival rather than Fas: superior viability of TNF-R1 progenitors. Additional cross talk includes upregulation of TRAIL-R1 by Fas-ligand, mediated both by fast cycling and inductive crosstalk. These inductive interactions are not accompanied by concomitant sensitization of progenitors to receptor-mediated apoptosis during extended culture, but rather decreased fractional apoptosis in expanded progenitor subsets expressing the receptors. TRAIL upregulates both TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, accompanied by commensurate susceptibility to spontaneous apoptosis. The current data reveal inductive crosstalk between TNF family receptors, which are largely dissociated from the sensitivity of hematopoietic progenitors to apoptosis. Activation of Fas, TNF and TRAIL receptors and excessive apoptosis are not responsible for loss of engraftment and impaired reconstituting activity of UCB progenitors following extended culture.

  14. Risk factors of infections induced by blood transfusion and prevention measures%输血感染的危险因素分析及防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓红

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the related risk factors and causes of the infections induced by the blood transfusion in the blood transfusion department and discuss the prevention countermeasures so as to ensure the safety of the clinical blood transfusion and improve the quality of the medical service.METHODS The medical records of 72 cases of patients who underwent blood transfusion from Jun 2009 to Jun 2011 were retrospectively analyzed,and the risk factors of the blood transfusion infections were analyzed.RESULTS Of 72 cases with the blood transfusion -associated diseases,there were 54 cases with hepatitis B,12 cases with hepatitis C,4 cases with mixed hepatitis B and hepatitis C,and 2 cases with syphilis infections,the incidence of the hepatitis B was the highest (75.00%),followed by the hepatitis C (16.67%),the mixed hepatitis B and hepatitis C (5.55%),and syphilis infection (2.78%) ; the incidence of the blood transfusion-associate diseases varied in the risk factors,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05),the incidence of the blood transfusion-associated diseases induced by the window period was the highest (84.72%).CONCLUSION Only when fully understand the risk factors of the blood transfusion infections can we take the effective prevention measures and reasonably use blood so as to ensure the safety of the blood transfusion.%目的 分析医院输血科发生输血感染的相关危险因素及其原因,并探讨其防范对策,确保临床输血的安全,提高医疗服务质量.方法 采用病历信息回顾性分析2009年6月-2011年6月医院72例输血感染以及不同危险因素导致输血感染相关性疾病的分布.结果 72例输血感染相关性疾病,其中感染乙型肝炎54例,丙型肝炎12例,同时感染乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎4例,感染梅毒2例,感染乙型肝炎的发生率最高为75.00%,其次感染丙型肝炎发生率为16.67%,同时感染乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎发生率为5.55

  15. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 9357 subjects from 11 populations highlights missed opportunities for cardiovascular prevention in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W;

    2011-01-01

    To analyze sex-specific relative and absolute risks associated with blood pressure (BP), we performed conventional and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in 9357 subjects (mean age, 52.8 years; 47% women) recruited from 11 populations. We computed standardized multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios...

  16. Thermochemistry, tool for loss prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomen, R.; Sempere, J. [Llull Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Quimic de Sarria

    1995-03-01

    The general philosophy and a synopsis of experimental techniques and methodologies for risk assessment of synthesis processes are exposed. All of them try to get the maximum information concerning the thermochemistry of the process, including side reactions. The first results of a comparison study involving different european groups open the door to the homologation of methodologies.

  17. Loss of bifurcation patency after cross-over stenting of ostial lesions in superficial femoral artery: possible causes, prevention and reintervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junhao; Chen Bin; Dong Zhihui; Shi Yun; Li Weimiao; Yue Jianing

    2014-01-01

    Background Crossover stenting across the origin of the profunda femoral artery (PFA) and occasionally into the common femoral artery (CFA) is commonly used after suboptimal balloon angioplasty of ostial occlusive lesions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) involving the bifurcation.Late stent occlusion at the bifurcation is not rare and results in severe lower extremity ischemia.Therefore,we tried to assess its possible causes,prevention and reintervention.Methods Using a prospectively maintained single-center database,12-month femoral bifurcation patency was retrospectively compared and lesion and procedural predictors of stent occlusion were determined among 63 patients (64 lesions) who between July 2011 and February 2013 underwent crossover (36 non-jailed and 15 jailed SFA,and 12 distal and 1 complete CFA) stenting of de novo ostial SFA lesions.Results Twelve-month overall patency rate at the femoral bifurcation was 88%,with no significant difference between jailed-ostial SFA (80%) and distal CFA (67%) stenting (P=0.731),and significant differences between either and non-jailed ostial stenting (100%,P=0.035 and 0.002).When PFA ostium was jailed by the stent,patients with preexisting CFA or PFA lesions had a 12-month bifurcation patency rate of 20%,significantly lower than those with simple ostial SFA lesions (83%,P=0.015).Stent induced intimal hyperplasia caused bifurcation occlusion in 6 surgical reintervention cases.Conclusions In crossover stenting of ostial lesions in SFA,bifurcation patency loss was significantly higher in distal CFA and jailed ostial SFA stenting than non-jailed ostial SFA stenting.Preexisting CFA or PFA lesion is a significant risk factor for bifurcation patency loss when PFA ostium is jailed by crossover stenting.

  18. Transfusion of blood and blood products: indications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sharma, Poonam; Tyler, Lisa N

    2011-03-15

    Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient's clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia (causing shortness of breath, dizziness, congestive heart failure, and decreased exercise tolerance), acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. Fresh frozen plasma infusion can be used for reversal of anticoagulant effects. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects. Cryoprecipitate is used in cases of hypofibrinogenemia, which most often occurs in the setting of massive hemorrhage or consumptive coagulopathy. Transfusion-related infections are less common than noninfectious complications. All noninfectious complications of transfusion are classified as noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Acute complications occur within minutes to 24 hours of the transfusion, whereas delayed complications may develop days, months, or even years later.

  19. Estrogen receptor-a in the medial amygdala prevents stress-induced elevations in blood pressure in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychological stress contributes to the development of hypertension in humans. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, has been shown to prevent stress-induced pressor responses in females by unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that the antihypertensive effects of estrogen during stress were blunted in femal...

  20. Comparison of the effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and ginseng in prevention of noise induced hearing loss in male textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosti, Afsaneh; Lotfi, Yones; Moossavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Hoorzad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed the role of antioxidant agents in prevention of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and ginseng on protection of NIHL in textile workers exposed to continuous noise in daily working. In this study, 48 participants were randomly allocated to three groups; Group I received NAC 1200 mg/day, Group II received ginseng 200 mg/day, and Group III (control group) received no supplement. Pure tone audiometry and high frequency audiometry were performed preshift before and after 14 days (on day 15). Linear regression analysis results showed reduced noise-induced temporary threshold shift (TTS) for NAC and ginseng groups at 4, 6 and 16 kHz (P < 0.001) in both ears. Furthermore, the protective effects were more prominent in NAC than ginseng. Our results show that NAC and ginseng can reduce noise induced TTS in workers exposed to occupational noise. Further studies are needed to prove antioxidants benefits in hearing conservation programs.

  1. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  2. Curcumin inhibition of JNKs prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease through suppressing mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.

  3. Diapocynin, a dimer of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, reduces ROS production and prevents force loss in eccentrically contracting dystrophic muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Ismail

    Full Text Available Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches.

  4. Vitamin D prevents hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption via vitamin D receptor-mediated NF-kB signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonmi Won

    Full Text Available Maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity and minimizing neuronal injury are critical components of any therapeutic intervention following ischemic stroke. However, a low level of vitamin D hormone is a risk factor for many vascular diseases including stroke. The neuroprotective effects of 1,25(OH2D3 (vitamin D after ischemic stroke have been studied, but it is not known whether it prevents ischemic injury to brain endothelial cells, a key component of the neurovascular unit. We analyzed the effect of 1,25(OH2D3 on brain endothelial cell barrier integrity and tight junction proteins after hypoxia/reoxygenation in a mouse brain endothelial cell culture model that closely mimics many of the features of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Following hypoxic injury in bEnd.3 cells, 1,25(OH2D3 treatment prevented the decrease in barrier function as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance and permeability of FITC-dextran (40 kDa, the decrease in the expression of the tight junction proteins zonula occludin-1, claudin-5, and occludin, the activation of NF-kB, and the increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. These responses were blocked when the interaction of 1,25(OH 2D3 with the vitamin D receptor (VDR was inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate treatment. Our findings show a direct, VDR-mediated, protective effect of 1,25(OH 2D3 against ischemic injury-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction in cerebral endothelial cells.

  5. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens von Schacky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens von SchackyMedizinische Klinik and Poliklinik Innenstadt, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, cardiovascular prevention, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  6. Assessment of the effect on blood loss and transfusion requirements when adding a polyethylene glycol sealant to the anastomotic closure of aortic procedures: a case–control analysis of 102 patients undergoing Bentall procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natour Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of CoSeal®, a polyethylene glycol sealant, in cardiac and vascular surgery for prevention of anastomotic bleeding has been subject to prior investigations. We analysed our perioperative data to determine the clinical benefit of using polyethylene glycol sealant to inhibit suture line bleeding in aortic surgery. Methods From January 2004 to June 2006, 124 patients underwent aortic surgical procedures such as full root replacements, reconstruction and/or replacement of ascending aorta and aortic arch procedures. A Bentall procedure was employed in 102 of these patients. In 48 of these, a polyethylene glycol sealant was added to the anastomotic closure of the aortic procedure (sealant group and the other 54 patients did not have this additive treatment to the suture line (control group. Results There were no significant between-group differences in the demographic characteristics of the patients undergoing Bentall procedures. Mean EuroSCORES (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation were 13.7 ± 7.7 (sealant group and 14.4 ± 6.2 (control group, p = NS. The polyethylene glycol sealant group had reduced intraoperative and postoperative transfusion requirements (red blood cells: 761 ± 863 versus 1248 ± 1206 ml, p = 0.02; fresh frozen plasma: 413 ± 532 versus 779 ± 834 ml, p = 0.009; and less postoperative drainage loss (985 ± 972 versus 1709 ± 1302 ml, p = 0.002. A trend towards a lower rate of rethoracotomy was observed in the sealant group (1/48 versus 6/54, p = 0.07 and there was significantly less time spent in the intensive care unit or hospital (both p = 0.03. Based on hypothesis-generating calculations, the resulting economic benefit conferred by shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays, reduced transfusion requirements and a potentially lower rethoracotomy rate is estimated at €1,943 per patient in this data analysis

  7. Mechanism and affecting factors of hidden blood loss in total knee arthroplasty%人工全膝关节置换术隐性失血的发生机制及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉镭; 李佩佳; 田敏; 罗永忠; 王东辰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the mechanism of hidden blood loss and risk factors of interaction in TKA. [ Methods ] We studied 80 cases of unilateral TKA in our hospital from January 2008 to March 2010. The amount of hidde blood loss was calculated by the Gross equation. We studied perioperative hidden blood loss difference of TKA in different ages (70 years for the sector) , with or without medical illness (hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease) , gender, tourniquet time, between different diseases and obesity (body mass index BMI 30 kg/m2 for the sector) or not. And we explored the mechanism of hidden blood loss and risk factors of interaction. [Results] In TKA group, the mean actual perioperative blood loss was 1608 ml, hidden blood loss was 828 ml, accounted for 51.5%. The hidden blood loss showed statistically significant difference in age, with or without medical illness, gender and tourniquet time in TKA, while the difference was not statistically significant in different diseases and obesity or not. [ Conclusion ] The hidden blood loss increase in elderly patients, patients with medical illness, male and with longer tourniquet time. Autologous blood transfusion dosen' t fully meet the needs of the body and allogeneic blood is replenished.%[目的]探讨人工全膝关节置换术(total knee arthroplasty,TKA)隐性失血的发生机制及其危险因素作用关系.[方法]对本院2008年1月~2010年3月病例中抽取80例单侧TKA,通过Gross方程计算出隐性失血量.记录不同年龄(以70周岁为界),有无内科疾病(高血压病、糖尿病、冠心病),性别,止血带时间,不同疾病之间,肥胖(BMI 30 kg/m2为界)等情况下围手术期隐性失血量,分析讨论围手术期隐性失血的发生机制和危险因素.[结果] TKA围手术期失血总量平均为1 608ml,隐性失血为828ml,占51.5%.年龄、有无内科疾病、性别、止血带时间在隐性失血的量方面差异有统计学意义,而不同疾病之间、

  8. Therapeutic and recurrence-preventing effects of Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Rong Jiang; Hui-Nan Ge; Guo-Qiang Liang; Liang Zhou; Lu-Rong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic and recurrence-preventing effects of Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. Methods: A total of 138 SD rats were selected to make rat models with gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid (24 rats with sham operation served as sham operation group), and were randomly divided into model group (n=30), western medicine group (n=30), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group (n=24) and combination group (combined western medicine and TCM group, n=30). Western medicine group was gavaged with omeprazole in the morning and with iso-volumetric distilled water in the afternoon; TCM group and TCM sham operation group were gavaged with iso-volumetric distilled water in the morning and with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in the afternoon;combination group was gavaged with omeprazole in the morning and with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in the afternoon; sham operation group and model group were gavaged with iso-volumetric distilled water both in the morning and afternoon. Ulcer indexes and degree of mucosal degree in rats at different time points after gavage were observed. Twenty-eight days after gavage, interleukin (IL)-1β was given to induce ulcer recurrence so as to observethe recurrent severity and rate of ulcer in each group. Results: Compared with model group and western medicine group, treatment in combination group could prominently reduce the ulcer index of rats with peptic ulcer, and increase the healing rate and inhibition rate of peptic ulcer. After IL-1β-induced ulcer recurrence, combination group was significantly superior to modelgroup and western medicine group in ulcer recurrent rate [50% (3/6) vs. 100% (6/6)] and severity. Conclusions: Basic acid-suppression therapy combined with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula can effectually improve the ulcer healing quality and reduce ulcer recurrence.

  9. 微创与传统膝关节置换术失血量比较%Comparative study of blood loss in minimally invasive surgery and conventional total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 黄伟; 梁熙; 胡宁; 徐伟; 林良波; 符纯峰; 程强

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较微创全膝关节置换术(minimally invasive surgery total knee arthroplasty,MIS-TKA)与传统全膝关节置换术(conventional total knee arthroplasty,C-TKA)围术期失血量的差异. 方法 回顾性分析2009年1月-2012年1月收治的84例单侧TKA患者围术期失血量,按手术方式分为微创组(42例)和传统组(42例),计算围术期失血量(显性失血量+隐性失血量),对两组患者的失血量和输血量进行比较. 结果 传统组围术期失血量为(1 466±493)ml,输血量为(223±208)ml;微创组围术期失血量为(1 379±475) ml,输血量为(257±239) ml(P>0.05). 结论 MIS-TKA不能减少围术期失血量.%Objective To compare difference of perioperative blood loss between minimally invasive surgery total knee arthroplasty (MIS-TKA) and conventional TKA (C-TKA).Methods A retrospective study was conducted on perioperative bleeding volume in 84 patients undergone unilateral TKA from January 2009 to January 2012.The patients were divided to minimally invasive group (42 patients) and conventional group (42 patients),according to surgical approaches.Perioperative blood loss (evident + occult hemorrhage) was calculated.Blood loss and blood requirement in the two groups were analyzed and compared as well.Results Mean blood loss was (1 466 ± 493) ml in the conventional group and (1 379 ± 475) ml in the minimally invasive group (P > 0.05).Moreover,mean blood requirement in the two groups was (223 ± 208) ml and (257 ± 239) ml respectively (P > 0.05).Conclusion MIS-TKA can not reduce perioperative blood loss.

  10. Gain-framed messages do not motivate sun protection: a meta-analytic review of randomized trials comparing gain-framed and loss-framed appeals for promoting skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Daniel J; Wu, Daisy

    2012-06-01

    Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain--with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage.

  11. Acetyl-L-Carnitine via Upegulating Dopamine D1 Receptor and Attenuating Microglial Activation Prevents Neuronal Loss and Improves Memory Functions in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonu; Mishra, Akanksha; Srivastava, Neha; Shukla, Rakesh; Shukla, Shubha

    2016-12-14

    Parkinson's disease is accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive impairment, which precede the onset of motor symptoms in patients and are regulated by dopamine (DA) receptors and the mesocorticolimbic pathway. The relative contribution of DA receptors and astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in cognitive functions is largely unexplored. Similarly, whether microglia-derived increased immune response affects cognitive functions and neuronal survival is not yet understood. We have investigated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on cognitive functions and its possible underlying mechanism of action in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats improved memory functions as confirmed by decreased latency time and path length in the Morris water maze test. ALCAR further enhanced D1 receptor levels without altering D2 receptor levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions, suggesting that the D1 receptor is preferentially involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. ALCAR attenuated microglial activation and release of inflammatory mediators through balancing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which subsequently enhanced the survival of mature neurons in the CA1, CA3, and PFC regions and improved cognitive functions in hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment also improved glutathione (GSH) content, while decreasing oxidative stress indices, inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, and astrogliosis resulting in the upregulation of GLT-1 levels. Additionally, ALCAR prevented the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in ventral tagmental area (VTA)/substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) regions of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, thus maintaining the integrity of the nigrostriatal pathway. Together, these results demonstrate that ALCAR treatment in hemiparkinsonian rats ameliorates neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits, hence suggesting its therapeutic potential in

  12. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  13. A randomised controlled trial to prevent hospital readmissions and loss of functional ability in high risk older adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne M

    2011-08-01

    collection is undertaken at baseline within 72 hours of hospital admission, 4 weeks following hospital discharge, 12 weeks following hospital discharge, and 24 weeks following hospital discharge. Outcome assessors are blinded to group allocation. Primary outcomes are emergency hospital readmissions and health service use, functional status, psychosocial well-being and cost effectiveness. Discussion The acute hospital sector comprises the largest component of health care system expenditure in developed countries, and older adults are the most frequent consumers. There are few trials to demonstrate effective models of transitional care to prevent emergency readmissions, loss of functional ability and independence in this population following an acute hospital admission. This study aims to address that gap and provide information for future health service planning which meets client needs and lowers the use of acute care services. Trial Registration No Australian & New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000202369

  14. ACE2 activation by xanthenone prevents leptin-induced increases in blood pressure and proteinuria during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hisham Saleh; Froemming, Gabrielle Ruth Anisah; Omar, Effat; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of ACE2 activation on leptin-induced changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, endothelial activation and ACE2 expression during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats were given subcutaneous injection of either saline, or leptin, or leptin plus xanthenone (ACE2 activator), or xanthenone (XTN) alone. SBP, serum ACE, ACE2, endothelin-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1 levels were estimated; also their gene expressions were determined in the kidney and aorta respectively. Compared to control, SBP was higher in the leptin-only treated group (Pleptin-only treated rats (Pleptin-only treated rats when compared to controls (Pleptin administration during pregnancy significantly increases SBP, proteinuria, endothelial activation, but decreases ACE2 level and expression. These effects are prevented by concurrent administration of xanthenone.

  15. Training traditional birth attendants on the use of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool to prevent postpartum haemorrhage: lessons learnt from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne; Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-03-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs' important role in the community and in home deliveries and

  16. A randomised controlled trial of oxytocin 5IU and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5IU and 30IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section--pilot study. ISRCTN 40302163.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the blood loss at elective lower segment caesarean section with administration of oxytocin 5IU bolus versus oxytocin 5IU bolus and oxytocin 30IU infusion and to establish whether a large multi-centre trial is feasible. STUDY DESIGN: Women booked for an elective caesarean section were recruited to a pilot randomised controlled trial and randomised to either oxytocin 5IU bolus and placebo infusion or oxytocin 5IU bolus and oxytocin 30IU infusion. We wished to establish whether the study design was feasible and acceptable and to establish sample size estimates for a definitive multi-centre trial. The outcome measures were total estimated blood loss at caesarean section and in the immediate postpartum period and the need for an additional uterotonic agent. RESULTS: A total of 115 women were randomised and 110 were suitable for analysis (5 protocol violations). Despite strict exclusion criteria 84% of the target population were considered eligible for study participation and of those approached only 15% declined to participate and 11% delivered prior to the planned date. The total mean estimated blood loss was lower in the oxytocin infusion arm compared to placebo (567 ml versus 624 ml) and fewer women had a major haemorrhage (>1000 ml, 14% versus 17%) or required an additional uterotonic agent (5% versus 11%). A sample size of 1500 in each arm would be required to demonstrate a 3% absolute reduction in major haemorrhage (from baseline 10%) with >80% power. CONCLUSION: An additional oxytocin infusion at elective caesarean section may reduce blood loss and warrants evaluation in a large multi-centre trial.

  17. Ability of the ankaferd blood stopper® to prevent parenchymal bleeding in an experimental hepatic trauma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Bektas, Hasan; Ersoz, Feyzullah; Sari, Serkan; Kaygusuz, Arslan; Huq, Gulben Erdem

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic parenchymal bleeding (HPB) is a major problem following both trauma and elective hepatic procedures. The present study investigated the effect of the Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) on HPB. Method(s): A total of 20 rats were used. After creating a laceration model in the left lateral hepatic lobe, the area was compressed for 3 minutes with the ABS in the rats in group 1 (n=10) and with 0.9% NaCl-soaked gauze in the rats in group 2 (n=10). Results: The mean change in haematocrit levels between baseline and the 24 hour values in group 1 was lower than group 2 (p=0.045). The mean perioperative bleeding in group 1 was lower than group 2 (p=0.003). The histopa-thologic evaluation revealed that there were no differences between the groups with respect to areas of necrosis (p=0.107) or inflammation (p=0.135). Conclusion: Although the ABS does not stop HPB completely, it ensures a statistically significant reduction in HPB. PMID:20827316

  18. Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viruses in Health Care Workers of a Northern District in Pakistan: Risk Factors and Preventive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhaib Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp. as compared to general population (4.7%–38%. The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections.

  19. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  20. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R;

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  1. 术中失血量对手术患者记忆障碍的影响及护理对策%Influence of blood loss during operation on postoperative memory disorders: nursing countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新华; 雷鹏琼; 陈长香; 姚美

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the incidence and the influence of blood loss during operation on postoperative memory disorders. Methods The amount of blood loss during operation in 282 surgical patients was obtained by weighing and measuring. Their memory functions were assessed with the Rivermead Behavior Memory Test II (RBMT-TJ ) 24 hours before and after operation. Results Of the 282 patients, 194(68. 8%) had memory disorders> with mild, moderate and severe memory disorders making up 50. 5%, 47. 9% , and 1.6% respectively. Those with intraoperative blood loss more than 400 mL had high rate of memory disorders which were severer (P<0. 01). Conclusion Blood loss during operation has an impact on memory function of post-operative patients. Therefore, in order to reduce rate of memory disorders measures should be taken to minimize blood loss during operation.%目的 探讨术中失血量对手术患者记忆功能的影响.方法 对282例外科手术患者采用称重法、计量法统计术中出血量,于术前24 h、术后24 h采用行为记忆测验第2版(RBMT-Ⅱ)进行记忆功能的测评.结果 282例患者中,发生术后记忆障碍194例(68.8%),其中轻度98例(50.5%),中度93例(47.9%),重度3例(1.6%);术中失血量>400 mL的患者术后记忆障碍发生率高,且程度重(P<0.01).结论 术中失血量对术后患者的记忆功能有一定的影响,采取积极措施减少术中失血量可降低术后患者记忆障碍的发生率.

  2. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  3. Study on postoperative invisible blood loss in patients with bipolar artificial femoral head replacement surgery%双极人工股骨头置换患者术后隐形失血的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农文海; 宋猛先; 黄毅; 莫金平; 潘文奇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the postoperative invisible blood loss in patients with bipolar artificial femoral head replacement surgery. Methods The clinical data of 62 patients with bipolar artificial femoral head re-placement surgery admitted in our hospital from January 2006 to June 2013 were analyzed. The volume of postopera-tive invisible blood loss, changes in perioperative Hct and variation of invisible blood loss in patients with different age, sex, body mass index (BMI), with or without preoperative chronic diseases, with or without postoperative ve-nous thrombosis in lower limbs and different postoperative anticoagulation protocols were observed and documented. Results The postoperative invisible blood loss was (560.82 ± 89.16) ml, accounting for 62.22% of the total blood loss. 2 days after operation, the Hct reached a minimum value, and it increased steadily in the 3rd postoperative day. The postoperative blood loss volume in patients with BMI>25 kg/m2 was more than those with BMI≤25 kg/m2, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion The postoperative invisible blood loss plays an impor-tant role in prognosis, which is mainly influenced by BMI.%目的:评价初次进行双极人工股骨头置换术患者的隐性失血状况。方法选取2006年1月至2013年6月在我院进行双极人工股骨头置换术的62例患者的临床资料,观察并统计患者术后隐性出血量、围术期血细胞比容(Hct)的变化以及评估在不同年龄、性别、体质量指数、术前是否合并慢性疾病、术后是否下肢静脉血栓及术后抗凝方式患者围术期的隐性出血情况。结果患者术后隐性失血量为(560.82±89.16) ml,占总失血量的62.22%;术后第2天是患者Hct的最低值,在术后第3天以后患者的Hct呈现出平稳上升趋势;患者体质量指数>25 kg/m2的术后隐性失血量明显多于≤25 kg/m2者,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论隐性失血是影响患

  4. Avaliação da perda sanguínea na artroplastia total do joelho com e sem soltura do torniquete Blood loss in total knee arthroplasty with and without tourniquet release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wanderley Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a perda sanguínea em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total cimentada do joelho com e sem soltura trans-operatória do torniquete pneumático para a hemostasia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 72 pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total, num total de 80 joelhos, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 onde se manteve o torniquete pneumático até a sutura e curativo da ferida operatória, e Grupo 2 onde foi realizada a soltura do torniquete pneumático após a cimentação da prótese, com realização de hemostasia direta, antes da sutura e curativo. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto ao sangramento pelo dreno de sucção e à contagem de hemoglobina e hematócrito, considerando os intervalos de duas, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significante entre os dois grupos quanto ao sangramento pós-operatório e decréscimo dos parâmetros hematimétricos. Somente um paciente do Grupo 2 necessitou transfusão de concentrado de hemáceas no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O sangramento pós-operatório na ATJ mostrou-se igual com e sem a soltura do torniquete pneumático para a realização da hemostasia.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood loss in patients submitted to cemented total knee arthroplasty with and without perioperative tourniquet release for hemostasis. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (eighty knees were submitted to total knee arthroplasty, allocated into two groups: in Group 1, in which the pneumatic tourniquet was maintained until suture and dressing of the operated wound, and Group 2, in which the pneumatic tourniquet was released intraoperatively after cementing the prosthesis, with direct hemostasis, before the suture and dressing. The patients were evaluated for blood loss by the suction drain, and hemoglobin and hematocrit counts, at intervals of 2, 24 and 48 hours in the postoperative period tube. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative blood

  5. Blood RNA biomarkers in prodromal PARK4 and REM sleep behavior disorder show role of complexin-1 loss for risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahut, Suna; Gispert, Suzana; Ömür, Özgür; Depboylu, Candan; Seidel, Kay; Domínguez-Bautista, Jorge Antolio; Brehm, Nadine; Tireli, Hülya; Hackmann, Karl; Pirkevi, Caroline; Leube, Barbara; Ries, Vincent; Reim, Kerstin; Brose, Nils; den Dunnen, Wilfred F; Johnson, Madrid; Wolf, Zsuzsanna; Schindewolf, Marc; Schrempf, Wiebke; Reetz, Kathrin; Young, Peter; Vadasz, David; Frangakis, Achilleas S; Schröck, Evelin; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Jendrach, Marina; Rüb, Udo; Başak, Ayşe Nazlı; Oertel, Wolfgang; Auburger, Georg

    2017-01-20

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative process at old age. Accumulation and aggregation of the lipid-binding SNARE complex component alpha-synuclein (SNCA) underlies this vulnerability and defines stages of disease progression. Determinants of SNCA levels and mechanisms of SNCA neurotoxicity are intensely investigated. In view of physiological SNCA roles in blood to modulate vesicle release, we studied blood samples from a new large pedigree with SNCA gene duplication (PARK4 mutation), to identify effects of SNCA gain-of-function as potential disease biomarkers. The expression of other Parkinson's disease gene was not, but complexin-1 (CPLX1) mRNA downregulation was correlated with genotype. In global RNAseq profiling of blood from presymptomatic PARK4, bioinformatics detected significant upregulations for platelet activation, hemostasis, lipoproteins, endocytosis, lysosome, cytokine, toll like receptor signalling and extracellular pathways. In PARK4 platelets, stimulus-triggered degranulation was impaired. Strong SPP1, GZMH, and PLTP mRNA upregulations were validated in PARK4. When analysing cases with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), the most specific known prodromal stage of general PD, only blood CPLX1 levels were altered. Validation experiments confirmed an inverse mutual regulation of SNCA and CPLX1 mRNA levels. In the 3'-UTR of the CPLX1 gene we identified a SNP that is significantly associated with PD risk. In summary, our data define CPLX1 as PD risk factor and provide functional insights into the role and regulation of blood alpha-synuclein levels. The novel blood biomarkers of PARK4 in this Turkish family may become useful for PD prediction.

  6. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too ... conversations when two or more people are talking Difficulty ...