WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood loss prevention

  1. Tranexamic Acid in a Multimodal Blood Loss Prevention Protocol to Decrease Blood Loss in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andreu, Miguel; Talavera, Gloria; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma G.; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Figueredo-Galve, Reyes; Rodriguez-Merchán, Carlos E.; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify if blood loss and transfusion requirements can be decreased in revision knee surgery through a multimodal blood loss approach with tranexamic acid (TXA) Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was designed in 87 knees (79 patients) that received a knee revision between 2007 and 2013. To avoid heterogeneity in the surgical technique, only revisions with one single implant system were included. A treatment series of 44 knees that received TXA and other techniques in a multimodal blood loss protocol was compared to a control series of 43 knees that received neither TXA nor the rest of the multimodal blood loss protocol. No differences in the complexity of surgeries or case severity were detected. Results: A significant decrease was observed from 58% transfusion rate in the control group to 5% in the treated group. The postoperative haemoglobin drop was also significantly different. Although the use of a blood loss prevention approach including TXA was the most relevant factor in the transfusion risk (OR=15), longer surgical time also associated an increased risk of transfusion (OR=1.15). Conclusion: This study supports the use of a two-dose intravenous TXA under a multimodal blood loss prevention approach in revision knee replacement with significant reduction in the transfusion rate, postoperative blood loss and haemoglobin drop.

  2. Intravenous 1 gram tranexamic acid for prevention of blood loss and blood transfusion during caesarean section: a randomized case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Ramani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of current study was to determine the effect of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after C-section. Methods: All women undergoing LSCS were divided in two groups viz study and control group. All were requested for pre-op and post-op Hb%, PCV and TRBC. Intravenous tranexamic acid one gm was given to study group (not to control group 10 min prior to skin incision and blood loss in both groups was calculated by weighing prewieghed pads soaked in blood. Results: Post-op blood loss was significantly lower in study group (P = 0.020. Hb% changes in post-op period is significant in control group (P = 0.037. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid is safe and effective in preventing post-partum hemorrhage after caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 366-369

  3. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  4. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  5. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Twitter Noise Manufacturing Construction SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  6. Measuring and communicating blood loss during obstetric hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kristi T; Weeber, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of blood loss is an essential skill necessary to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality associated with obstetric hemorrhage. Visual estimation of blood has been consistently shown to be extremely inaccurate. The nurse plays a pivotal role in quantifying blood loss after birth, recognizing triggers, mobilizing needed interventions, and providing essential communication. PMID:22548283

  7. Use of Tranexamic acid is a cost effective method in preventing blood loss during and after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Chaudhry Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Purpose Allogenic blood transfusion in elective orthopaedic surgery is best avoided owing to its associated risks. Total knee replacement often requires blood transfusion, more so when bilateral surgery is performed. Many strategies are currently being employed to reduce the amount of peri-operative allogenic transfusions. Anti-fibrinolytic compounds such as aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid have been used systemically in perioperative settings with promising results. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing allogenic blood transfusion in total knee replacement surgery. Methodology This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on patients undergoing total knee replacement during the time period November 2005 to November 2008. Study population was 99 patients, of which 70 underwent unilateral and 29 bilateral knee replacement. Forty-seven patients with 62 (49.5% knees (group-I had received tranexamic acid (by surgeon preference while the remaining fifty-two patients with 66 (51.5% knees (group-II had did not received any tranexamic acid either pre- or post-operatively. Results The mean drop in the post-operative haemoglobin concentration in Group-II for unilateral and bilateral cases was 1.79 gm/dl and 2.21 gm/dl, with a mean post-operative drainage of 1828 ml (unilateral and 2695 ml (bilateral. In comparison, the mean drop in the post-op haemoglobin in Group-I was 1.49 gm/dl (unilateral and 1.94 gm/dl (bilateral, with a mean drainage of 826 ml (unilateral and 1288 ml (bilateral (p-value Interpretation Tranexamic acid is effective in reducing post-operative drainage and requirement of blood transfusion after knee replacement.

  8. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA for corrective spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Kenneth M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Methods/Design Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS, and adult deformity (AD via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. Discussion The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581

  9. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells or their conditioned medium prevents bone loss in ovariectomized nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, OVX mice treated with UCB-MSC CM (OVX-CM), zoledronate (OVX-Zol), or vehicle (OVX-Vehicle). Although the OVX-Vehicle group exhibited significantly less bone mineral density (BMD) gain compared with the Sham-Vehicle group, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC group) has effectively prevented OVX-induced bone mass attenuation. Notably, the OVX-CM group also showed BMD preservation comparable to the OVX-MSC group. In addition, microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated improved trabecular parameters in both the OVX-MSC and OVX-CM groups compared to the OVX-Vehicle or OVX-DFB group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation parameters, accompanied by increased serum procollagen type-I N-telopeptide levels in OVX-MSC and OVX-CM mice. However, cell-trafficking analysis failed to demonstrate engraftment of MSCs in bone tissue 48 h after cell infusion. In vitro, hUCB-MSC CM increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human bone marrow-derived MSCs and mRNA expression of collagen type 1, Runx2, osterix, and ALP in C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC CM significantly increased survival of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, while it inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. To summarize, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs could effectively prevent OVX-mediated bone loss in nude mice, which appears to be mediated by a paracrine mechanism rather than direct engraftment of the MSCs. PMID:23215868

  10. Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Their Conditioned Medium Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, ...

  11. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-24

    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  12. Stroma-contact prevents loss of hematopoietic stem cell quality during ex vivo expansion of CD34+ mobilized peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, D A; Blokland, E A; Siebel, K E; Mayen, A E; Engels, L J; Ploemacher, R E

    1998-01-01

    Stroma-supported long-term cultures (LTC) allow estimation of stem cell quality by simultaneous enumeration of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) frequencies in a graft using the cobblestone area forming cell (CAFC) assay, and the ability of the graft to generate progenitors in flask LTC (LTC-CFC). We have recently observed that the number and quality of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) was low in patients having received multiple rounds of chemotherapy. Moreover, grafts with low numbers of HSC and poor HSC quality had a high probability to cause graft failure upon their autologous infusion. Because ex vivo culture of stem cells has been suggested to present an attractive tool to improve hematological recovery or reduce graft size, we have studied the possibility that such propagation may affect stem cell quality. In order to do so, we have assessed the recovery of different stem cell subsets in CD34+ PBSC after a 7-day serum-free liquid culture using CAFC and LTC-CFC assays. A numerical expansion of stem cell subsets was observed in the presence of interleukin-3 (IL-3), stem cell factor, and IL-6, while stroma-contact, stromal soluble factors, or combined addition of FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin improved this parameter. In contrast, ex vivo culture severely reduced the ability of the graft to produce progenitors in LTC while stromal soluble factors partly abrogated this quality loss. The best conservation of graft quality was observed when the PBSC were cultured in stroma-contact. These data suggest that ex vivo propagation of PBSC may allow numerical expansion of various stem cell subsets, however, at the expense of their quality. In addition, cytokine-driven PBSC cultures require stroma for optimal maintenance of graft quality. PMID:9414274

  13. Management of major blood loss: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    the early control of the cause of bleeding by non-definitive means, while haemostatic control resuscitation seeks early control of coagulopathy. Haemostatic resuscitation provides transfusions with plasma and platelets in addition to red blood cells (RBCs) in an immediate and sustained manner as part...... of the transfusion protocol for massively bleeding patients. Transfusion of RBCs, plasma and platelets in a similar proportion as in whole blood prevents both hypovolaemia and coagulopathy. Although an early and effective reversal of coagulopathy is documented, the most effective means of preventing coagulopathy....... Furthermore, viscoelastic whole blood assays, such as thrombelastography (TEG)/rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM), appear advantageous for identifying coagulopathy in patients with severe haemorrhage, as opposed to conventional coagulation assays. In our view, patients with uncontrolled bleeding, regardless...

  14. Factors influencing intraoperative blood loss in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thastum, M; Andersen, K; Rude, K; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify factors of importance for intraoperative blood loss relative to total blood volume in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. The study included 356 patients treated consecutively at a Danish university hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years and (2) patient undergoing a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, or a combination of the two. The patient-specific relative blood loss was calculated as a percentage by dividing the intraoperative blood loss by the estimated preoperative total blood volume, and then correlated with body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operating time, and treatment modality in a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. Operating time (Psurgery, a prolonged operating time, and reduced BMI significantly increase the intraoperative relative blood loss in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

  15. Faecal blood loss in response to exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, J D; Maughan, R J; Davidson, R J

    1987-01-01

    Recently qualitative tests have indicated that gastrointestinal bleeding during exercise may be an important contributory factor in sports anaemia. In six healthy men who walked 37 km on four consecutive days faecal haemoglobin content remained normal (reference range 0.10-2.53 mg/g faeces) with no significant differences between values. In 28 marathon runners who refrained from taking drugs or food containing blood the median faecal haemoglobin content increased by 0.42 mg/g faeces (95% conf...

  16. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children: Preventing the Silent Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Hal Martin; Judith Sobel; Susan E. Griest; Linda Howarth; SHI Yongbing

    2006-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss and related tinnitus are often unrecognized problems, especially in non-occupational settings. Research indicates that increasing numbers of children and adolescents have or are acquiring noise induced hearing losses. Noise induced hearing loss can almost completely be prevented with simple precautionary measures. Educational programs rarely exist outside of those mandated in occupational settings.Health Communication theory can be applied to hearing health for developing effective loss prevention programs.Dangerous Decibels(R) is one example of an effective multi-disciplinary effort to develop and disseminated prevention strategies.

  17. Managing anemia and blood loss in elective gynecologic surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, W A; Meeks, G R

    2001-05-01

    Hysterectomy is the second-most-common surgical procedure among premenopausal women. The conditions that lead to the need for a hysterectomy often are accompanied by chronic blood loss that can lead to anemia. Moreover, hysterectomy and myomectomy may result in significant blood loss, which exacerbates the anemia. The presence of fatigue associated with anemia has a substantially negative impact on quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Options for alleviating perioperative anemia include minimizing surgical blood loss, blood transfusion, supplementation with hematinics, such as iron and folic acid, and treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin. Treating preoperative anemia is expected to help correct anemia prior to surgery and may have a positive impact on anemia-related symptoms and surgical outcomes.

  18. Management of major blood loss: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved, prioritizing...... coagulopathy of massive transfusion remains debated and randomized controlled studies are lacking. Results from recent before-and-after studies in massively bleeding patients indicate that trauma exsanguination protocols involving the early administration of plasma and platelets are associated with improved......, regardless of its cause, should be treated with goal-directed haemostatic control resuscitation involving the early administration of plasma and platelets and based on the results of the TEG/ROTEM analysis. The aim of the goal-directed therapy should be to maintain a normal haemostatic competence until...

  19. Effect of autologous blood donation on the central venous pressure, blood loss and blood transfusion during living donor left hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Jawan; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-Chi Tseng; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung-Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng; Po-Ping Liu; King-Wah Chiu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Autologous blood donation (ABD) is mainly used to reduce the use of banked blood. In fact, ABD can be regarded as acute blood loss. Would ABD 2-3 d before operation affect the CVP level and subsequently result in less blood loss during liver resection was to be determined.METHODS: Eighty-four patients undergoing living donor left hepatectomy were retrospectively divided as group Ⅰ (GⅠ)and group Ⅱ (GⅡ) according to have donated 250-300 mL blood 2-3 d before living donor hepatectomy or not. The changes of the intraoperative CVP, surgical blood loss,blood products used and the changes of perioperative hemoglobin (Hb) between groups were analyzed and compared by using Mann-Whitney Utest.RESULTS: The results show that the intraoperative CVP changes between GⅠ (n = 35) and GⅡ (n = 49) up to graft procurement were the same, subsequently the blood loss,but ABD resulted in significantly lower perioperative Hb levels in GⅠ.CONCLUSION: Since none of the patients required any blood products perioperatively, all the predonated bloods were discarded after the patients were discharged from the hospital, It indicates that ABD in current series had no any beneficial effects, in term of cost, lowering the CVP, blood loss and reduce the use of banked blood products, but resulted in significant lower Hb in perioperative period.

  20. "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...

  1. [Blood loss in dialysis in repeatedly used capillary dialysators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U; Senf, L; Kleinert, P; Thieler, H; Marx, M

    1980-11-01

    The blood losses increase to the twofold to threefold by capillary dialysators C-DAK 4 and C-DAK 5 are about 6.8 ml and 26 ml, respectively, in the first use. In repeated use of the C-DAK 4 the blood losses by the C-DAK 5, however, are so high that it is not to be advised to use them manifold under our conditions of dialysis. By an increase of the reperfusion quantity from 150 to 250 ml of electrolyte solution for one C-DAK 4 blood losses may considerably be reduced. In a parallel switching of two C-DAK 4 each exemplar should be perfused individually.

  2. 50例剖腹产术中出血的临床分析与预防措施%50 Cases Clinical Analysis of Blood Loss During Caesarean Section and Preventive Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青建; 刘彩萍

    2013-01-01

    preventive measures.Result:In 50 cases of cesarean bleeding,11 patients due to placental factors occur in patients with bleeding,accounting for 22.0%;9 patients with coagulation disorders occur due to blood loss,accounting for 18.0%;17 cases of patients with uterine inertia occurred intraoperative bleeding,accounting for 34.0%;six cases occurred in patients with bleeding due to uterine fibroids,accounting for 12.0%,seven patients because of bleeding laceration occurred,accounting for 14.0%.Caesarean section for all patients bleeding after giving symptomatic treatment of patients with stable vital signs,no deaths.Conclusion:Placental factors,coagulation disorders,uterine inertia,uterine fibroids,bleeding laceration caesarean section is the main reason,in the clinical treatment should be based on the patient's condition,analyze the causes of bleeding,combined with medical conditions,formulate caesarean bleeding hemostasis scientific programs to ensure the safety of mother and child.

  3. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  4. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  5. Study on the Prevention of Rabbit Hair from Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世春; 张华鹏; 姚穆

    2001-01-01

    A new method is presented to solve the problem of loss of rabbit hair by using ES fiber blending with rabbit hair. ES fiber is used to bond the rabbit hair to prevent the rabbit hair from losing after heat setting. The factors affecting hair loss are heat setting temperature, rabbit hair/ES fiber blend ratio, fabric heating setting, twistsof yarn, etc. Temperature of heat setting and ES fiber content are the two key factors This method has almost no detrimental effect on the coziness of the fabric, which is better than other hair loss prevention methods.

  6. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  7. Continuous Postoperative Pericardial Flushing: A Pilot Study on Safety, Feasibility, and Effect on Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshanden, Johan S.J.; Gielen, Chantal L.I.; de Borgie, Corianne A.J.M.; Klautz, Robert J.M.; de Mol, Bas A.J.M.; Koolbergen, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged or excessive blood loss is a common complication after cardiac surgery. Blood remnants and clots, remaining in the pericardial space in spite of chest tube drainage, induce high fibrinolytic activity that may contribute to bleeding complications. Continuous postoperative pericardial flushing (CPPF) with an irrigation solution may reduce blood loss by preventing the accumulation of clots. In this pilot study, the safety and feasibility of CPPF were evaluated and the effect on blood loss and other related complications was investigated. Methods Between November 2011 and April 2012 twenty-one adult patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) received CPPF from sternal closure up to 12 h postoperative. With an inflow Redivac drain that was inserted through one of the chest tube incision holes, an irrigation solution (NaCl 0.9% at 38 °C) was delivered to the pericardial cavity using a volume controlled flushing system. Safety aspects, feasibility issues and complications were registered. The mean actual blood loss in the CPPF group was compared to the mean of a retrospective group (n = 126). Results CPPF was successfully completed in 20 (95.2%) patients, and no method related complications were observed. Feasibility was good in this experimental setting. Patients receiving CPPF showed a 30% (P = 0.038) decrease in mean actual blood loss 12 h postoperatively. Conclusions CPPF after cardiac surgery was found to be safe and feasible in this experimental setting. The clinically relevant effect on blood loss needs to be confirmed in a randomized clinical trial. PMID:26501121

  8. Intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Fabris, André Luis Silva; Polo, Tárik Ocon Braga; Poli, Guilherme Henrique Souza; Pastori, Cláudio Maldonado; Marzola, Clóvis; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Garcia-Júnior, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-09-01

    Procedures for the surgical correction of dentofacial deformities may produce important complications, whether due to the potential for vascular injury or to prolonged surgery, both of which may lead to severe blood loss. Fluid replacement with crystalloid, colloid, or even blood products may be required. The aim of this study was to assess blood loss and transfusion requirements in 45 patients (18 males and 27 females; mean age 29.29 years, range 16-52 years) undergoing orthognathic surgery, assigned to one of two groups according to procedure type-rapid maxillary expansion or double-jaw orthognathic surgery. Preoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and intraoperative blood loss were measured. There was a substantial individual variation in pre- and postoperative hemoglobin values (10.3-17 and 8.8-15.4 g/dL, respectively; p surgery and follow meticulous protocols to minimize the risks.

  9. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and blood transfusion requirements following peri-acetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, G I; Perka, C; Janz, V; Krämer, M; Renner, L

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of using tranexamic acid (TXA) during peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) on peri-operative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. In addition we analysed whether the use of TXA was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following this procedure. A consecutive series of 96 PAOs, performed by a single surgeon, were reviewed. A total of 48 patients received TXA and 48 did not. The TXA group received a continuous infusion of TXA at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. The primary outcome measure was the requirement for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss, the decrease in the level of haemoglobin in the blood, the length of hospital stay, and the complications of this treatment. The mean rate of transfusion was significantly lower in the TXA group (62.5% vs 12.5%, p transfusion after PAO significantly, without adverse effects such as an increased rate of VTE.

  10. Preventing pathological regression of blood vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Keshet, Eli

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen administration to premature infants suppresses retinal VEGF expression and results in the catastrophic vessel loss associated with retinopathy of prematurity. A study investigating the development of the retinal vasculature in mice (see related article on pages 50–57) demonstrates that specific activation of VEGF receptor-1 by placental growth factor-1 protects against oxygen-induced vessel loss without stimulating vascular proliferation and neovascularization.

  11. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Heart and Blood Vessels Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... Top ] What can I do to prevent or control PAD? Don't smoke. Keep blood glucose and ...

  12. 76 FR 62093 - Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published in the Federal Register (FR... engineering controls'' as used in OSHA's noise standard. This FR notice requested comments on the proposal to... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting...

  13. The Prevention of Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Harrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our acoustic environment is filled with amplified sound sources (e.g., MP3 players, video game stations, and sports/entertainment venues. There is serious concern and also some controversy about the risks of acoustic trauma in children. This overview provides some basic information on the physiological mechanisms that lead to noise induced hearing loss, a survey of various studies that, on balance, indicates that there is cause for concern, and finally a discussion on measures that can help to prevent noise induced hearing loss in children. This paper is designed for public health and other healthcare professions (ENT, audiologists, family doctors, and pediatricians who should understand the risks of noise induced hearing loss and its prevention.

  14. Analysis on hidden blood loss of total knee arthroplasty in treating knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hui-liang; LI Zheng; FENG Ming-li; CAO Guang-le

    2011-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an important therapy for the treatment of various late-stage knee diseases. However, it has been observed that patients have lower hemoglobin (HB) counts postoperatively, which are significantly inconsistent with the measured blood loss. Although the concept of hidden blood loss has been presented in 2000, very little clinical attention has been paid since then. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and influential factor of hidden blood loss after TKA in treating knee osteoarthritis.Methods One hundred and eight patients, with 42 males and 66 females, were retrospectively analyzed. The perioperative blood loss and the hidden blood loss following TKA were calculated by Gross formula. Potential factors affecting perioperative and hidden blood loss included gender, surgical time, tourniquet time, hemostasis (during operation with deflating tourniquet), and reinfusion of salvaged blood.Results The average perioperative blood loss was found to be (1553±356) ml and the average hidden blood loss was (793±223) ml. The hidden blood loss of the male was significantly higher than that of the female, and was reduced by hemostasis during the operation with a deflating tourniquet. Hidden blood loss was not affected by postoperative blood salvage and reinfusion, surgical time, or tourniquet time.Conclusions When calculating the value of hidden blood loss by Gross formula, the lowest value of hematocrit should be chosen as the parameter so that hidden blood loss would not be underestimated. No significant differences could be found in hidden blood loss for males compared to females. Hidden blood loss can be reduced by hemostasis during operation with a deflating tourniquet. Although reinfusion of salvaged blood could not reduce the perioperative blood loss or hidden blood loss, it was still an effective method to reduce transfusion rate.

  15. Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients

  16. Preventing the loss of knowledge in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing the loss of nuclear knowledge has become an important concern for the atomic energy industry. A great number of nuclear workers are getting close to the retirement age and there are not enough young qualified people to replace them. It is necessary to identify the key skills to replace senior engineers, managers and experienced workers. This paper proposes a matrix for capturing the strategic nuclear knowledge obtained from plants operation in the past decades. (author)

  17. Invited Commentary: Preventable Pregnancy Loss Is a Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Carol J

    2016-04-15

    Pregnancy loss is common and can lead to long-standing parental depression and related problems. In this issue, a study of Danish registries by Bruckner et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(8):701-708) correlates monthly trends in unemployment with monthly trends in reported spontaneous abortion, lagged by 1 month. The observed association might be caused by a general population phenomenon, as suggested by the authors, or might represent an increased miscarriage risk only within the subset of the population that is directly affected by lost income. Preventive interventions will vary depending on which interpretation is more likely. Research into the preventability of miscarriages and stillbirths is hampered in the United States by poor-quality vital registration of these events. Investment in improved surveillance systems is needed and would be worthwhile, as illustrated by the knowledge gained about the black/white gap in infant mortality when national birth and infant death records began to be linked. In addition, institution of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in 1987 shed light on the association of stressful life events with poor birth outcomes. That system can be improved by sampling women who have experienced stillbirths. Better data would facilitate not only surveillance but also hypothesis-generating epidemiologic studies for identifying preventable pregnancy loss. PMID:27009345

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  19. Loss of deformability of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. Majid; Feng, James

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of malaria is largely due to stiffening of the infected red blood cells (RBCs). Contemporary understanding ascribes the loss of RBC deformability to a 10-fold increase in membrane stiffness caused by extra cross-linking in the spectrin network. Local measurements by micropipette aspiration, however, have reported only an increase of 3-fold in the shear modulus. We believe the discrepancy stems from the rigid parasite particles inside infected cells, and have carried out numerical simulations to demonstrate this mechanism. The cell membrane is represented by a set of discrete particles connected by linearly elastic springs. The cytosol is modeled as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid, and discretized by particles as in standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The malaria parasite is modeled as an aggregate of particles constrained to rigid-body motion. We simulate RBC stretching tests by optical tweezers in three dimensions. The results demonstrate that the presence of a sizeable parasite greatly reduces the ability of RBCs to deform under stretching. With the solid inclusion, the observed loss of deformability can be predicted quantitatively using the local membrane elasticity measured by micropipettes.

  20. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  1. Blood pressure control to prevent decline in cognition after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihle-Hansen H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hege Ihle-Hansen,1 Bente Thommessen,2 Morten W Fagerland,3 Anne R Øksengård,4 Torgeir B Wyller,5 Knut Engedal,6 Brynjar Fure7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 2Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway; 3Oslo Centre for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Support Services, Oslo University Hospital, Norway; 4Department of Internal medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 5Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 6Norwegian Centre for Dementia Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 7Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway Background: Treatment of hypertension post-stroke preserves cognition through prevention of recurrent stroke, but it is not clear whether it prevents cognitive decline through other mechanisms. We aimed to describe changes in blood pressure from baseline to 1 year post-stroke and to evaluate the association between achieved blood pressure targets and cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia.Methods: We included patients with first-ever stroke, and defined achieved blood pressure goals as systolic blood pressure (SBP in the categories ≤125 mmHg, ≤140 mmHg, and ≤160 mmHg, SBP reduction of ≥10 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP reduction of ≥5 mmHg. The main outcome variables were cognitive assessments 1 year post stroke. Secondary outcomes were diagnoses of MCI or dementia.Results: Forty-one of 166 patients (25% reached SBP ≤125 mmHg after 1 year, 92/166 (55% reached SBP ≤140 mmHg, and 150/166 (90% reached SBP ≤160 mmHg. SBP was reduced by ≥10 mmHg in 44/150 (29% and DBP by ≥5 mmHg in 57/150 (38%. We did not find any statistically significant associations between cognitive test performances and different blood pressure goals (P=0.070–1.0. Nor was there any significant association

  2. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  3. Comparison of coagulation factors and blood loss between O and non-O blood types following hydroxyethyl starch infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo Joo; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jae Ik

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals with type O blood are more likely to have reduced factor VIII and von Willebrand factor levels compared to their non-O counterparts. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), which is widely used for blood volume replacement, can induce coagulopathy. Therefore, we tested whether blood type O patients show more coagulopathy and blood loss than non-O patients after infusion of 6% HES. Methods Thirty-four non-O and 20 type O patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)...

  4. RELATIVE BLOOD VOLUME: THE MEANS OF INTRADIALYSIS HYPOTENSION PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Terehov; A. G. Strokov

    2010-01-01

    Intravascular volume preservation is the first choice measure for the prevention of intradialysis hypotension. At present there are devices that allow continuous monitoring of relative blood volume (RBV) changes during haemodialysis (HD). The aim of this research was to investigate (i) the regularity of RBV curve during haemo- dialysis and (ii) the efficacy of some measures for intravascular volume preservation. In patients with hyperhydration RBV curves were monotone; in all cases relation ...

  5. Pictorial estimation of blood loss in a birthing pool--an aide memoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anushia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article is to share some photographic images to help midwives visually estimate blood loss at water births. PubMed, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched for relevant research. There is little evidence to inform the practice of visually estimating blood loss in water, as discussed further on in the article. This article outlines a simulation where varying amounts of blood were poured into a birthing pool, captured by photo images. Photo images of key amounts like 150mls, 300mls and 450mls can be useful visual markers when estimating blood loss at water births. The speed of spread across the pool may be a significant factor in assessing blood loss. The author recommends that midwives and educators embark on similar simulations to inform their skill in estimating blood loss at water births.

  6. Safe surgery: how accurate are we at predicting intra-operative blood loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Introduction Preoperative estimation of intra-operative blood loss by both anaesthetist and operating surgeon is a criterion of the World Health Organization\\'s surgical safety checklist. The checklist requires specific preoperative planning when anticipated blood loss is greater than 500 mL. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of surgeons and anaesthetists at predicting intra-operative blood loss. Methods A 6-week prospective study of intermediate and major operations in an academic medical centre was performed. An independent observer interviewed surgical and anaesthetic consultants and registrars, preoperatively asking each to predict expected blood loss in millilitre. Intra-operative blood loss was measured and compared with these predictions. Parameters including the use of anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy as well as intra-operative hypothermia and hypotension were recorded. Results One hundred sixty-eight operations were included in the study, including 142 elective and 26 emergency operations. Blood loss was predicted to within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of cases. Consultant surgeons tended to underestimate blood loss, doing so in 43% of all cases, while consultant anaesthetists were more likely to overestimate (60% of all operations). Twelve patients (7%) had underestimation of blood loss of more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. Thirty per cent (n = 6\\/20) of patients requiring transfusion of a blood product within 24 hours of surgery had blood loss underestimated by more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. There was no significant difference in prediction between patients on anti-platelet or anticoagulation therapy preoperatively and those not on the said therapies. Conclusion Predicted intra-operative blood loss was within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of operations. In 30% of patients who ultimately receive a blood transfusion, both the surgeon and anaesthetist significantly underestimate

  7. The impact of restorative treatment on tooth loss prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldas Junior Arnaldo de França

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze tooth loss resulting from caries in relation to the number of times the extracted tooth had been restored, the type of caries diagnosed (primary or secondary, and socioeconomic indicators of patients from the city of Recife, Brazil. Ten public health centres and ten centres associated with health insurance companies were randomly selected. The size of the sample was calculated using a standard error of 2.5%. A confidence interval of 95% and a 50% prevalence of reasons for extractions were used for calculating the sample. The minimum size of the sample for meeting these requirements was 381 patients. Patients were randomly selected from the list of adults registered at each centre. A total of 410 patients were invited to take part in the study. The response rate was 100%, but 6 patients were excluded due to incompleteness of data in the questionnaire applied. An assessment was made to obtain the number of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT index and the reasons for extraction. The results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001 relationship between the number of times the tooth indicated for extraction had been restored and the reason for extraction being caries. Furthermore, the majority of teeth extracted due to caries had been restored two or more times. A highly statistically significant association was also observed between one indicator of use of dental services (F/DMFT and extraction due to caries (p < 0.001. The findings questioned the belief that tooth loss can be prevented in the general population by merely providing restorative treatment.

  8. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  9. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-centre plac...

  10. Increased blood loss in upright birthing positions originates from perineal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, A. de; Diem, M.T. van; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the risk of severe blood loss is increased in semi-sitting and sitting position, and if so, to which extent blood loss from perineal damage is responsible for this finding. Design: Secondary analysis of data from a large trial. Setting: Primary care midwifery practices i

  11. Nicotinamide prevents ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohong; Halliday, Gary M; Surjana, Devita; Damian, Diona L

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation is carcinogenic by causing mutations in the skin and also by suppressing cutaneous antitumor immunity. We previously found nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to be highly effective at reducing UV-induced immunosuppression in human volunteers, with microarray studies on in vivo irradiated human skin suggesting that nicotinamide normalizes subsets of apoptosis, immune function and energy metabolism-related genes that are downregulated by UV exposure. Using human adult low calcium temperature keratinocytes, we further investigated nicotinamide's effects on cellular energy metabolism. We found that nicotinamide prevented UV-induced cellular ATP loss and protected against UV-induced glycolytic blockade. To determine whether nicotinamide alters the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress posttranslationally, we also measured UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotinamide had no effect on ROS formation, and at the low UV doses used in these studies, equivalent to ambient daily sun exposure, there was no evidence of apoptosis. Hence, nicotinamide appears to exert its UV protective effects on the skin via its role in cellular energy pathways.

  12. Childhood hearing health: educating for prevention of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146

  13. Surgeons often underestimate the amount of blood loss in replacement surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Ganesan Ganesan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective:To assess the accuracy of the clinically estimated blood loss (EBL when compared with the actual blood loss (ABL in replacement surgeries. Methods: This prospective study was done in Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre from April 2011 to April 2013. Altogether 140 patients undergoing total hip replacement or total knee replacement were included with the inclusion criteria being patients with haemoglobin higher than 100 g/ml and coagulation profile within normal limits. Exclusion criteria were intake of antiplatelet drug or anti-coagulant, bleeding disorders, thrombotic episode, and haematological disorders. There were 65 men and 75 women. In this study, the consultants were free to use any clinical method to estimate the blood loss, including counting the blood-soaked mops and gauze pieces (estimating the volume of blood carried in all the mops and gauzes, measuring blood lost to suction bottles and blood in and around the operative field. The ABL was calculated based on a modification of the Gross’s formula using haematocrit values. Results: In 42 of the 140 cases, the EBL exceeded the ABL. These cases had a negative difference in blood loss (or DIFF-BL<0 and were included in the overestimation group, which accounted for 30% of the study population. Of the remaining 98 cases (70%, the ABL exceeded the EBL. Therefore they were put into the underestimation group who had a positive difference in blood loss (DIFF-BL>0. We found that when the average blood loss was small, the accuracy of estimation was high. But when the average blood loss exceeded 500 ml, the accuracy rate decreased significantly. This suggested that clinical estimation is inaccurate with the increase of blood loss. Conclusion:This study has shown that using clinical estimation alone to guide blood transfusion is inadequate. In this study, 70% of patients had their blood loss underestimated, proving that surgeons often underestimate blood loss in replacement

  14. Plasmalemma Vesicle-Associated Protein Has a Key Role in Blood-Retinal Barrier Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Kruk, Joanna; van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; van Veen, Henk A; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Vogels, Ilse M C; Versteeg, Danielle; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Klaassen, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Loss of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) properties induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other factors is an important cause of diabetic macular edema. Previously, we found that the presence of plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein (PLVAP) in retinal capillaries associates with loss of BRB properties and correlates with increased vascular permeability in diabetic macular edema. In this study, we investigated whether absence of PLVAP protects the BRB from VEGF-induced permeability. We used lentiviral-delivered shRNA or siRNA to inhibit PLVAP expression. The barrier properties of in vitro BRB models were assessed by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance, permeability of differently sized tracers, and the presence of endothelial junction complexes. The effect of VEGF on caveolae formation was studied in human retinal explants. BRB loss in vivo was studied in the mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy model. The inhibition of PLVAP expression resulted in decreased VEGF-induced BRB permeability of fluorescent tracers, both in vivo and in vitro. PLVAP inhibition attenuated transendothelial electrical resistance reduction induced by VEGF in BRB models in vitro and significantly increased transendothelial electrical resistance of the nonbarrier human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, PLVAP knockdown prevented VEGF-induced caveolae formation in retinal explants but did not rescue VEGF-induced alterations in endothelial junction complexes. In conclusion, PLVAP is an essential cofactor in VEGF-induced BRB permeability and may become an interesting novel target for diabetic macular edema therapy.

  15. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention: Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recommended amount of exposure time. Facts and Statistics Four million workers go to work each day ... Hearing Loss DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010-136 Statistics on hearing loss in the manufacturing industry. Surveys ...

  16. Surgeons often underestimate the amount of blood loss in replacement surgeries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganesan Ganesan Ram; Perumal Suresh; Phagal Varthi Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the accuracy of the clinically estimated blood loss (EBL) when compared with the actual blood loss (ABL) in replacement surgeries.Methods:This prospective study was done in Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre from April 2011 to April 2013.Altogether 140 patients undergoing total hip replacement or total knee replacement were included with the inclusion criteria being patients with haemoglobin higher than 100 g/ml and coagulation profile within normal limits.Exclusion criteria were intake of antiplatelet drug or anti-coagulant,bleeding disorders,thrombotic episode,and haematological disorders.There were 65 men and 75 women.In this study,the consultants were free to use any clinical method to estimate the blood loss,including counting the blood-soaked mops and gauze pieces (estimating the volume of blood carded in all the mops and gauzes),measuring blood lost to suction bottles and blood in and around the operative field.The ABL was calculated based on a modification of the Gross's formula using haematocrit values.Results:In 42 of the 140 cases,the EBL exceeded the ABL.These cases had a negative difference in blood loss (or DIFF-BL<0) and were included in the overestimation group,which accounted for 30% of the study population.Of the remaining 98 cases (70%),the ABL exceeded the EBL.Therefore they were put into the underestimation group who had a positive difference in blood loss (DIFF-BL>0).We found that when the average blood loss was small,the accuracy of estimation was high.But when the average blood loss exceeded 500 ml,the accuracy rate decreased significantly.This suggested that clinical estimation is inaccurate with the increase of blood loss.Conclusion:This study has shown that using clinical estimation alone to guide blood transfusion is inadequate.In this study,70% of patients had their blood loss underestimated,proving that surgeons often underestimate blood loss in replacement surgeries.

  17. Four Methods for Calculating Blood-loss after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Qiang Gao; Zi-Jian Li; Ke Zhang; Wei Sun; Hong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Currently,various calculation methods for evaluating blood-loss in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are applied in clinical practice.However,different methods may yield different results.The purpose of this study was to determine the most reliable method for calculating blood-loss after primary TKA.Methods:We compared blood-loss in 245 patients who underwent primary unilateral TKA from February 2010 to August 2011.We calculated blood-loss using four methods:Gross equation,hemoglobin (Hb) balance,the Orthopedic Surgery Transfusion Hemoglobin European Overview (OSTHEO) formula,and Hb-dilution.We determined Pearson's correlation coefficients for the four methods.Results:There were large differences in the calculated blood-loss obtained by the four methods.In descending order of combined correlation coefficient based on calculated blood-loss,the methods were Hb-balance,OSTHEO formula,Hb-dilution,and Gross equation.Conclusions:The Hb-balance method may be the most reliable method of estimating blood-loss after TKA.

  18. Diagnosis System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Glaucoma Screening to Prevent Vision Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundhara Raja DHANUSHKODI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR and glaucoma are two most common retinal disorders that are major causes of blindness in diabetic patients. DR caused in retinal images due to the damage in retinal blood vessels, which leads to the formation of hemorrhages spread over the entire region of retina. Glaucoma is caused due to hypertension in diabetic patients. Both DR and glaucoma affects the vision loss in diabetic patients. Hence, a computer aided development of diagnosis system for Diabetic retinopathy and Glaucoma screening is proposed in this paper to prevent vision loss. Method: The diagnosis system of DR consists of two stages namely detection and segmentation of fovea and hemorrhages. The diagnosis system of glaucoma screening consists of three stages namely blood vessel segmentation, Extraction of optic disc (OD and optic cup (OC region and determination of rim area between OD and OC. Results: The specificity and accuracy for hemorrhages detection is found to be 98.47% and 98.09% respectively. The accuracy for OD detection is found to be 99.3%. This outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: In this paper, the diagnosis system is developed to classify the DR and glaucoma screening in to mild, moderate and severe respectively.

  19. A systematic review of the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Carvalho Pacagnella

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This systematic review examines the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs and explores its use to trigger clinical interventions in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out using a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies presenting data on the relationship of clinical signs & symptoms and blood loss. Methodological quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist and the general guidelines of MOOSE. RESULTS: 30 studies were included and five were performed in women with pregnancy-related haemorrhage (other studies were carried in non-obstetric populations. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP and shock index were the parameters most frequently studied. An association between blood loss and HR changes was observed in 22 out of 24 studies, and between blood loss and SBP was observed in 17 out of 23 studies. An association was found in all papers reporting on the relationship of shock index and blood loss. Seven studies have used Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves to determine the accuracy of clinical signs in predicting blood loss. In those studies the AUC ranged from 0.56 to 0.74 for HR, from 0.56 to 0.79 for SBP and from 0.77 to 0.84 for shock index. In some studies, HR, SBP and shock index were associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: We found a substantial variability in the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs, making it difficult to establish specific cut-off points for clinical signs that could be used as triggers for clinical interventions. However, the shock index can be an accurate indicator of compensatory changes in the cardiovascular system due to blood loss. Considering that most of the evidence included in this systematic review is derived from studies in non-obstetric populations, further research on the use of the shock index in obstetric populations is needed.

  20. Individual-Specific, Beat-to-beat Trending of Significant Human Blood Loss: The Compensatory Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A; Howard, Jeffrey T; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Cardin, Sylvain; Batchelder, Paul; Mulligan, Jane; Grudic, Gregory Z; Moulton, Steven L; MacLeod, David B

    2015-08-01

    Current monitoring technologies are unable to detect early, compensatory changes that are associated with significant blood loss. We previously introduced a novel algorithm to calculate the Compensatory Reserve Index (CRI) based on the analysis of arterial waveform features obtained from photoplethysmogram recordings. In the present study, we hypothesized that the CRI would provide greater sensitivity and specificity to detect blood loss compared with traditional vital signs and other hemodynamic measures. Continuous noninvasive vital sign waveform data, including CRI, photoplethysmogram, heart rate, blood pressures, SpO2, cardiac output, and stroke volume, were analyzed from 20 subjects before, during, and after an average controlled voluntary hemorrhage of ∼1.2 L of blood. Compensatory Reserve Index decreased by 33% in a linear fashion across progressive blood volume loss, with no clinically significant alterations in vital signs. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve for the CRI was 0.90, with a sensitivity of 0.80 and specificity of 0.76. In comparison, blood pressures, heart rate, SpO2, cardiac output, and stroke volume had significantly lower receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values and specificities for detecting the same volume of blood loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, CRI detected blood loss and restoration with significantly greater specificity than did other traditional physiologic measures. Single measurement of CRI may enable more accurate triage, whereas CRI monitoring may allow for earlier detection of casualty deterioration. PMID:25565640

  1. Continuous Postoperative Pericardial Flushing: A Pilot Study on Safety, Feasibility, and Effect on Blood Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan S.J. Manshanden

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: CPPF after cardiac surgery was found to be safe and feasible in this experimental setting. The clinically relevant effect on blood loss needs to be confirmed in a randomized clinical trial.

  2. Efficacy of prophylactic tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana G.

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Injection tranexamic acid is the, antifibrinolytic agent that can be used for prophylactic administration before caesarean section for decreasing blood loss during surgery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2011-2016

  3. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during lower segment caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Raghavendra Gobbur

    2014-04-01

    Results: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss during LSCS 289.4 +/- 71.4 ml in the study group versus 328 +/- 58.9 ml in the control group (P = 0.004. It also significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to 2 hours post-partum: 360.9 +/- 110.3 ml in the study group, versus 443 +/- 88.55 ml in the control group. (P = 0.0008. No complications or side effects were reported in either group. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly reduces the blood loss during and after the caesarean section. Side effects like nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and thrombosis are rare. Tranexamic acid can be used effectively in women undergoing LSCS to decrease the blood loss. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 414-417

  4. Plummer-Vinson syndrome associated with chronic blood loss anemia and large diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Dordaneh; Cameron, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    The coexistence of large diaphragmatic hernia and Plummer-Vinson syndrome in two patients is described. It is proposed that the hernias caused chronic blood loss anemia, and that iron deficiency then resulted in postcricoid web formation.

  5. Comparision of blood loss between computer assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Kumar Mohanlal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that there is no significant difference in blood loss in CAS TKA and conventional TKA. This study also highlights the heterogeneity of methods used in studies related to CAS TKA. We believe that there is a need for a large multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to be performed before a consensus can be reached on the influence of CAS techniques on blood loss during primary TKA.

  6. Hidden blood loss and its influential factors after total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Kaisong; Ni, Su; Zhou, Xianju; Xu, Nanwei; Sun, Rongbin; Zhuang, Chao; Wang, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Background Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a vital therapy for various hip joint diseases. However, patients have lower hemoglobin level post-operatively, remarkably inconsistent with the measured blood loss. The inconsistence is majorly attributed to hidden blood loss (HBL). In this study, we investigated the HBL and its influential factors among patients after THA. Methods From January 2008 to June 2014, 322 patients (99 males and 223 females) undergoing THA were enrolled in this study. All...

  7. Effect of low dose tranexamic acid on intra-operative blood loss in neurosurgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Vel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood loss is often a major complication in neurosurgery that requires transfusion of multiple units of blood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA on intraoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor excision. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients aged 18-60 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status 1 and 2 scheduled to undergo elective craniotomy for tumor excision were enrolled. Patients received 10 mg/kg bolus about 20 min before skin incision followed by 1 mg/kg/h infusion of either TXA or saline. Hemodynamic variables, intravenous fluid transfused, amount of blood loss and blood given were measured every 2 h. Laboratory parameters such as serum electrolytes and fibrinogen values were measured every 3 h. On the 5 th postoperative day hemoglobin (POD Hb5, Hb estimation was done and the estimated blood loss (EBL calculated. Patients were also monitored for any complications. Results: The Mean heart rate in TXA group was significantly lower compared with the saline group. Mean arterial pressure and fibrinogen levels were higher in TXA group. The mean total blood loss in the TXA group was less than in the saline group. Blood transfusion requirements were comparable in two groups. The EBL and POD5 Hb were comparable in two groups. Conclusion: Even though, there is a significant reduction in the total amount of blood loss in TXA group. However, there was no reduction in intraoperative transfusion requirement.

  8. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  9. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required. PMID:25335699

  10. Doppler Assessment of Uterine Blood Flow in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent spontaneous abortion affects 2%-5% of"ncouples. Uterine perfusion is considered as one of the"nfactors that influences the success of implantation."nDuring the normal menstrual cycle, the impedance"nto uterine artery blood flow diminishes progressively"nduring the luteal phase, reaching the lowest values"nin the period coinciding with the implantation time."nImpedance of uterine arteries is a good indicator of"nthe possibility of a subsequent pregnancy. High blood"nflow resistance is associated with a reduced conception"nrate and women with lower pulsatility index values"nhave the highest possibility of becoming pregnant. An"nimpaired uterine perfusion could play a major role in"nthe pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion. In"nthis study, we examined sixty women with recurrent"nspontaneous abortion and a control group including"nthirty normal women with at least one previous"nuncomplicated pregnancy and without history of any"nabortion. Transvaginal sonography associated with"nDoppler flow measurement was performed during"nthe midluteal phase of a cycle in all women. The"nmeasurement of the ascending branch of both right"nand left uterine arteries was taken lateral to the cervix"nat the level of the internal os. The pulsatility and"nresistance index of both uterine arteries were calculated"nand compared in both groups. In this presentation we"nreport our finding in two groups. We also explain the"nexact method of study and present some interesting"ncases

  11. Anesthetic management of a patient with 10 l of blood loss during operation for a retroperitoneal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqin Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding is a common problem during resection of a retroperitoneal mass. Massive bleeding may occur in case of injury of an adjacent major vessel or organ. This case report describes a successful anesthetic management of a patient with 10 l of blood loss within three hours surgery. A 44-year-old woman who underwent an operation for resection of a retroperitoneal mass, went to a hypovolemic shock, due to acute life-threatening intra-operative bleeding, and was successfully rescued with a combination of measures, including control of surgical bleeding, supportive treatment with rapid fluid infusion, massive transfusion of blood products and administration of intravenous vasoactive agents for maintaining tissue perfusion and oxygenation, utilizing intraoperative autologous blood salvaged via cell saver, as well as prevention and treatment of complications. The patient received a total of 22 units of Packet Red Blood Cells (PRBCs, 18 units of Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP, 10 units of cryoprecipitate, 3750 ml of her own salvage blood. Postoperatively, she was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU with mechanical ventilator support, where she received another 5.4 units of FFP, 10 units of cryoprecipitate. The patient developed features of early acute lung injury such as fever and hypoxemia, and was managed successfully with mechanical ventilator support for a few days. At a three-month follow-up, the patient was doing very well. This paper explores the pathogenesia, implications, prevention and treatment of the transfusion-associated complications such as acidosis, hypothermia, electrolyte abnormalities, and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI. Particular attention is given to the prevention of secondary coagulopathy of the patient requiring massive blood transfusion. This case study presents a good reference for similar anesthetic scenario in the future.

  12. RELATIVE BLOOD VOLUME: THE MEANS OF INTRADIALYSIS HYPOTENSION PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Terehov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular volume preservation is the first choice measure for the prevention of intradialysis hypotension. At present there are devices that allow continuous monitoring of relative blood volume (RBV changes during haemodialysis (HD. The aim of this research was to investigate (i the regularity of RBV curve during haemo- dialysis and (ii the efficacy of some measures for intravascular volume preservation. In patients with hyperhydration RBV curves were monotone; in all cases relation RBV/ ultrafiltration volume (UF did not exceed 2,5%/L. In stable patients the RBV curve was immutable in the course of years. Patients with high RBV/UF ratio (>6%/L formed a high risk group. In these patients stability of RBV was more im- portant and more useful. Isolated UF did not decrease RBV drop, as well as haemodiafiltration online. Albumin administration allows to decrease RBV/UF ratio. After bolus of hypertonic dextrose solution RBV increased for about half of hour. In patients with acute renal injury RBV monitoring was far from reliability in many cases. 

  13. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  14. Metastasis and bone loss: Advancing treatment and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Robert E.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Guise, Theresa A.; Boyce, Brendon F.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Clézardin, Philippe; Peter I Croucher; Gralow, Julie R.; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R.; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced...

  15. Clinical effects of applying a tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty on blood loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-jiang; XIAO Yu; LIU Ya-bin; TIAN Xu; GAO Zhi-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Tourniquets used during total knee arthroplasty may lead to many complications. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative blood loss and its clinical relevance in total knee replacement surgery after applying a tourniquet.Methods From June 2009 to October 2009, 60 consecutive patients who underwent routine total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with or without a tourniquet (30 patients/group). There were no significant differences in patient baseline characteristics between the two groups. We compared the two groups of patients in terms of intra- and postoperative bleeding, invisible or visible bleeding, and total blood loss.Results None of the patients showed poor wound healing, lower extremity deep venous thrombosis or other complications. The amount of blood loss during surgery was lower in the tourniquet group than in the control group (P<0.01). However, postoperative visible bleeding (P <0.05) and occult bleeding (P <0.05) were significantly greater in the toumiquet group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups (P >0.05).Conclusions Tourniquet can reduce bleeding during total knee replacement surgery, but is associated with greater visible and invisible blood loss.

  16. Effect of Desmopressin on Platelet Aggregation and Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Valvular Heart Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Hong-Wen Ji

    2015-01-01

    Background:Blood loss after cardiac surgery can be caused by impaired platelet (PLT) function after cardiopulmonary bypass.Desmopressin or 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) is a synthetic analog of vasopressin.DDAVP can increase the level of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor Ⅷ,thus it may enhance PLT function and improve coagulation.In this study,we assessed the effects of DDAVP on PLT aggregation and blood loss in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Methods:A total of 102 patients undergoing valvular heart surgery (from October 2010 to June 2011) were divided into DDAVP group (n =52) and control group (n =50).A dose of DDAVP (0.3 μtg/kg) was administered to the patients intravenously when they were being re-warmed.At the same time,an equal volume of saline was given to the patients in the control group.PLT aggregation rate was measured with the AggRAM four-way PLT aggregation measurement instrument.The blood loss and transfusion,hemoglobin levels,PLT counts,and urine outputs at different time were recorded and compared.Results:The postoperative blood loss in the first 6 h was significantly reduced in DDAVP group (202 ± 119 ml vs.258 ± 143 ml,P =0.023).The incidence of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion was decreased postoperatively in DDAVP group (3.8% vs.12%,P =0.015).There was no significant difference in the PLT aggregation,urine volumes,red blood cell transfusions and blood loss after 24 h between two groups.Conclusions:A single dose of DDAVP can reduce the first 6 h blood loss and FFP transfusion postoperatively in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery,but has no effect on PLT aggregation.

  17. The responses of white blood cells to weight loss among young male judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Shariat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the assessment of white blood cells in response to acute and gradual weight loss among young male judoists. Material and Methods—Twenty four healthy young judoists aged 17.0±1.2 years (mean ± SD, with one year of experience in judo training, selected and they were randomly classified in two groups of acute weight loss and gradual weight loss. Blood sampling was conducted in three stages: 1 before weight loss, 2 18 hours after weight loss, and 3 after the last phase of physical exercise performance tests. Results— The average amount of white blood cells in the phase 2 for both groups didn’t increase meaningfully (Acute: P=0. 53, Gradual: P=0.48 but the increase in the phase 3 for both groups was significant (P<0.01. Conclusion— This study concludes that acute weight loss can result in changing the level of white blood cells which are determined in immunity system and related disease.

  18. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    for cancers of the liver, lung, colon, stomach, and esophagus, which are thought to be promoted by iron overload (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 0.84), but only among men and only with a latency of 3-7 years. The risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was higher among frequent......BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...

  19. Schools of music and conservatories and hearing loss prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesky, Kris

    2011-03-01

    Music students are not being taught that music is a sound source capable of harming hearing. Ensemble directors of public school and college bands, orchestras, and choirs, are unaware and unprepared to recognize and manage risk from excessive sound exposures. Schools of music and conservatories around the world, and the organizations that accredit them, need to embrace the idea that schools of music are best suited to facilitate change, conduct research, create and impart knowledge, institute competency, and most importantly, cultivate a culture of responsibility and accountability throughout the music discipline. By drawing attention to actions pursued at and through the College of Music at the University of North Texas, the purpose of this paper is to encourage change and to assist others in efforts to reach the best conditions for preventing irreversible hearing disorders associated with music. PMID:21288066

  20. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Farha Samar; Laskowski Daniel; George Deepa; Park Margaret M; Tang WH Wilson; Dweik Raed A; Erzurum Serpil C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in c...

  1. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  2. Radiochromium (chromium-51) evaluation of gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A.; LeBel, E.

    1987-10-30

    Gastrointestinal blood loss is one of the most serious clinical events induced by drugs. To date, almost no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been shown to be devoid of that side effect in a strictly controlled study. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively, by use of radioactive chromium (chromium-51)-labeled red blood cells, gastrointestinal blood loss associated with nabumetone (1000 mg daily), aspirin (3.6 g daily), and placebo. A total of 37 normal subjects, divided among the three treatment groups and a fourth group that received no treatment, were assessed clinically and quantitatively for gastrointestinal blood loss over a period of 28 days of active treatment. The results with chromium-51, analyzed on a logarithmic scale, revealed no statistically significant differences between the nabumetone, placebo, and control groups. Gastrointestinal blood loss in the aspirin group, however, was elevated when compared with all other groups at a high level of statistical significance (p less than 0.001). It is concluded that, under conditions in which aspirin causes substantial gastrointestinal microbleeding, nabumetone is not significantly different from placebo.

  3. Reducing intraoperative lower segment blood loss in placenta previa with Ashok Anand stitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok R. Anand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To avoid the need for blood transfusions and reducing complications in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section delivery by a new simple innovative technique developed by Dr ASHOK ANAND known as Ashok Anand’s stitch. Methods: This stitch is based on the reasoning that taking the stitch bilaterally occludes the collaterals supplying the lower segment. As these are end arteries, their occlusion causes hemostasis in the lower segment. Sample size: 20 cases in each study group. Blood loss was estimated by standardized visual method (fixed container and mop. Results: By applying this technique in 20 cases, there was significant reduction in the blood loss compared to the control group, thereby reducing the need for blood transfusion (p value <0.05. Conclusions: Ashok Anand’s stitch is a simple and effective technique in controlling lower segment bleeding in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section thus avoiding the need for blood transfusions for operative blood loss and obstetric hysterectomy. The technique is easy to apply, less invasive and does not require any special instruments. It can be life-saving. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 135-140

  4. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  5. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted. 760.814 Section 760.814 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760.814 Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than...

  6. Your Guide to Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Preventive Services Clinical Decision Support U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Improving Primary Care Practice Health IT Integration Health Care/System Redesign Clinical-Community Linkages Care ...

  7. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  8. ROLE OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN REDUCING POSTOPERATIVE BLOOD LOSS AND TRANSFUSION REQUIREMENT IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwant

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to assess the effects of tranexamic acid (TA in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgeries. OBJECTIVE: Assess the effects of tranexamic acid on prevention of bleeding and requirement of blood transfusion after major lower limb orthopedic surgeries. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 90 patients ASA grade I & II undergoing elective surgery for femoral fracture like open reduction internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, total hip replacement (THR under anaesthesia were taken. Patients were classified randomly into 2 groups (forty five patients in each group. Group T: Patients received inj. TA 10 mg/kg body weight. Group P: Patients received normal saline 1 ml/kg body weight 15 min before surgery. Postoperative hemoglobin concentration (on day 0 and day 2 and volume of blood in the drain were measured. The number of units of packed red cells transfused during the hospital stay was recorded and any thromboembolic and other complications were documented. RESULT: Analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the patients with respect to age, sex, duration and type of surgery and preoperative mean hemoglobin concentration. Neither heart rate nor MABP has statistically significant difference or results (P>0.05. The drains were removed in the evening of the first postoperative day. Mean volume of blood in the drain compared to placebo group showing a highly significant reduction in postoperative blood loss (P=0.01. Mean fall in hemoglobin at day 0 and day 2 was 2 less in the study group as compared to the placebo that has P value 0.01 making it significant finding. CONCLUSION: the present paired study demonstrated that the administration of TA given preoperatively reduces the blood loss in the first 24 h by a highly significant degree as well it causes a significant reduction in postoperative anemia and need for transfusion among these patients.

  9. The beneficial effect of Batroxobin on blood loss reduction in spinal fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hui-Min; Chen, Li; Frary, Charles Edward;

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Batroxobin on blood loss during spinal operations. Methods After obtaining approval from the ethics committee at the hospital along with informed written consent, we performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study w...

  10. Significant reduction in blood loss in patients undergoing minimal extracorporeal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W. B.; van Boven, W. J.; Smelt, M.; Morshuis, W. J.; van Dongen, H. P.; Haas, F. J.; Aarts, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown differences in blood loss and allogeneic transfusion requirements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recently a new concept, the mini-extracorporeal circulation, was introduced to minimize the side effects of extracorporeal circulat

  11. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  12. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  13. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. BACKGROUND: Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius...... Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) only a minor effect on coagulation competence is expected. METHODS: Eighty patients were scanned for enrollment in the study, and 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two patients withdrew their consent to participate in the study, and 5 patients were excluded. Thus, 16...... patients were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution and 17 to receive HES 130/0.4. RESULTS: Among the patients receiving HES 130/0.4, thrombelastography indicated reduced clot strength (P < 0.001) and blinded evaluation of the perioperative blood loss was 2.2 (range 0.5 to 5.0) versus 1.4 (range...

  14. High fibrinogen in peripheral blood correlates with poorer hearing recovery in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. METHODS: Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients' initial visit to our clinic. RESULTS: In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. CONCLUSIONS: High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset.

  15. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 patients were randomized to tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg given as a bolus intravenous injection, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour for 10 hours) or placebo (20 mL saline given intravenously) 15 minutes before the incision. We recorded the peroperative and postoperative...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...

  16. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Heart and Blood Vessels Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association of Diabetes Educators Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics National Heart Lung and Blood Institute American Diabetes ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  17. On preventive blood pressure self-monitoring at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    to develop better tools to support people’s preventive self-monitoring needs, compared to existing solutions. Supporting the active and informed individual can help improve people’s self-care, awareness, and implementation of preventive care. Based on our study, we also reflect on the findings to illustrate...

  18. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  19. The Design and Screening of Drugs to Prevent Acquired Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Sheehan, Kelly E; Kaur, Tejbeer; Ramkumar, Vickram; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheth, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sensorineural hearing loss affects a high percentage of the population. Ototoxicity is a serious and pervasive problem in patients treated with cisplatin. Strategies to ameliorate ototoxicity without compromising on antitumor activity of treatments are urgently needed. Similar problems occur with aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy for infections. Noise-induced hearing loss affects a large number of people. The use of ear protection is not always possible or effective. The prevention of hearing loss with drug therapy would have a huge impact in reducing the number of persons with hearing loss from these major causes. Areas covered This review discusses significant research findings dealing with the use of protective agents against hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise trauma. The efficacy in animal studies and the application of these protective agents in clinical trials that are ongoing are presented. Expert opinion The reader will gain new insights into current and projected future strategies to prevent sensorineural hearing loss from cisplatin chemotherapy, aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy and noise exposure. The future appears to offer numerous agents to prevent hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise. Novel delivery systems will provide ways to guide these protective agents to the desired target areas in the inner ear and will circumvent problems with therapeutic interference of anti-tumor and antibiotics agents and will minimize undesired side effects. PMID:22646075

  20. Tranexamic acid for control of blood loss in bilateral total knee replacement in a single stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tranexamic acid (TEA reduces blood loss and red cell transfusions in patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, there is not much literature regarding the use of TEA in patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage and the protocols for administration of TEA in such patients are ill-defined. Materials and Methods: We carried out a case control study evaluating the effect of TEA on postoperative hemoglobin (Hb, total drain output, and number of blood units transfused in 52 patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage, and compared it with 56 matched controls who did not receive TEA. Two doses of TEA were administered in doses of 10 mg / kg each (slow intravenous (IV infusion, with the first dose given just before tourniquet release of the first knee and the second dose three hours after the first one. Results: A statistically significant reduction in the total drain output and requirement of allogenic blood transfusion in cases who received TEA, as compared to the controls was observed. The postoperative Hb and Hb at the time of discharge were found to be lower in the control group, and this result was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: TEA administered in patients undergoing single stage bilateral TKA helped reduce total blood loss and decreased allogenic blood transfusion requirements. This might be particularly relevant, where facilities such as autologous reinfusion might not be available.

  1. Use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement: effects on perioperative blood loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Volquind

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement surgeries has been the subject of constant study. The strategies to reduce bleeding are aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusion due to the risks involved. In this study we evaluated the use of tranexamic acid in reducing bleeding, need for blood transfusion, and prevalence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis in primary total knee replacement. METHOD: 62 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were enrolled in the study, from June 2012 to May 2013, and randomized to receive a single dose of 2.5 g of intravenous tranexamic acid (Group TA or saline (Group GP, 5 min before opening the pneumatic tourniquet, respectively. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood loss were recorded 24 h after surgery. Deep vein thrombosis was investigated during patient's hospitalization and 15 and 30 days after surgery in review visits. RESULTS: There was no demographic difference between groups. Group TA had 13.89% decreased hematocrit (p = 0.925 compared to placebo. Group TA had a decrease of 12.28% (p = 0.898 in hemoglobin compared to Group GP. Group TA had a mean decrease of 187.35 mL in blood loss (25.32% compared to group GP (p = 0.027. The number of blood transfusions was higher in Group GP (p = 0.078. Thromboembolic events were not seen in this study. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid reduced postoperative bleeding without promoting thromboembolic events.

  2. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Dao-Gang; Li, Jun; Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Qian; Liu, Nan; Liu, Wei-Tian; Li, Ying-Xue

    2016-06-10

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations. PMID:27087421

  3. Longitudinal changes in blood pressure during weight loss and regain of weight in obese boys and girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Neland, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain.......To investigate blood pressure (BP) in relation to changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children during weight loss and subsequent weight regain....

  4. Influence of curve magnitude and other variables on operative time, blood loss and transfusion requirements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2015-05-03

    Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) typically requires lengthy operating time and may be associated with significant blood loss and subsequent transfusion. This study aimed to identify factors predictive of duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in an Irish AIS cohort.

  5. The effect of nasal application of cocaine/adrenaline on blood loss in Le Fort I osteotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Lange; E.M. Baas; R.B.G. Horsthuis; A. Booij

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine is a very potent vasoconstrictor that is used by ENT specialists to reduce blood loss and enhance visibility during nasal surgery. In orthognathic surgery, especially Le Fort I procedures, excessive blood loss is a relatively frequent complication. In this study, a prospective randomized cli

  6. [Influence of some anesthesiologic methods on blood loss in procedures for voluntary termination of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, F S; Granese, D; Fattori, A

    1980-03-01

    120 patients in good health, aged 25-38, all in the first trimester of pregnancy, and requesting interruption of pregnancy, were divided into 4 groups and given different types of anesthesia; 1) general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics; 2) general anesthesia without volatile anesthetics; 3) dissociated anesthesia with Ketamin; and, 4) paracervical block with Mepivacain 1%. All interventions were done through curettage, and lasted 7-18 minutes; in all cases blood loss was carefully collected and measured. Minimum amount of bleeding was noted with paracervical block; maximum amount with volatile anesthetics such as ethrane. For every type of anesthesia blood loss increased with age of pregnancy. There were no postoperative complications. As confirmed by the published literature anesthesia by paracervical block is an easy, uncomplicated method, which requires little preparation time and which can be done at low cost.

  7. Blood Loss and Transfusion After Topical Tranexamic Acid Administration in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    There has been much debate and controversy about the safety and efficacy of the topical use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is less blood loss and lower rates of transfusion after topical tranexamic acid administration in primary TKA. A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Embase was undertaken. All randomized, controlled trials and prospective cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid during primary TKA were included. The focus of the analysis was on the outcomes of blood loss results, transfusion rate, and thromboembolic complications. Subgroup analysis was performed when possible. Of 387 studies identified, 16 comprising 1421 patients (1481 knees) were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis. This study indicated that when compared with the control group, topical application of tranexamic acid significantly reduced total drain output (mean difference, -227.20; 95% confidence interval, -347.11 to -107.30; Pdeep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism due to tranexamic acid administration. Topical tranexamic acid was effective for reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements without increasing the prevalence of thromboembolic complications. PMID:26558665

  8. Benefits of commercial weight-loss programs on blood pressure and lipids: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ambereen K; Doshi, Ruchi S; Chaudhry, Zoobia W; Jacobs, David K; Vakil, Rachit M; Lee, Clare J; Bleich, Sara N; Clark, Jeanne M; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to compare the effect of commercial weight-loss programs on blood pressure and lipids to control/education or counseling among individuals with overweight/obesity. We conducted a systematic review by searching MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to November 2014 and references identified by the programs. We included randomized, controlled trials ≥12weeks in duration. Two reviewers extracted information on study design, interventions, and mean change in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, and total cholesterol and assessed risk of bias. We included 27 trials. Participants' blood pressure and lipids were normal at baseline in most trials. At 12months, Weight Watchers showed little change in blood pressure or lipid outcomes as compared to control/education (2 trials). At 12months, Atkins' participants had higher HDL-c and lower triglycerides than counseling (4 trials). Other programs had inconsistent effects or lacked long-term studies. Risk of bias was high for most trials of all programs. In conclusion, limited data exist regarding most commercial weight-loss programs' long-term effects on blood pressure and lipids. Clinicians should be aware that Weight Watchers has limited data that demonstrate CVD risk factor benefits relative to control/education. Atkins may be a reasonable option for patients with dyslipidemia. Additional well-designed, long-term trials are needed to confirm these conclusions and evaluate other commercial programs. PMID:27373206

  9. Rotary blood pump control strategy for preventing left ventricular suction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Giridharan, Guruprasad A

    2015-01-01

    The risk for left ventricular (LV) suction while maintaining adequate perfusion over a range of physiologic conditions during continuous flow LV assist device (LVAD) support is a significant clinical concern. To address this challenge, we developed a suction prevention and physiologic control (SPPC) algorithm for use with axial and centrifugal LVADs. The SPPC algorithm uses two gain-scheduled, proportional-integral controllers that maintain a differential pump speed (ΔRPM) above a user-defined threshold to prevent LV suction, while maintaining an average reference differential pressure (ΔP) between the LV and aorta to provide physiologic perfusion. Efficacy and robustness of the proposed algorithm were evaluated in silico during simulated rest and exercise test conditions for (1) ΔP/ΔRPM excessive setpoint (ES); (2) rapid eightfold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR); and (3) ES and PVR. Hemodynamic waveforms (LV pressure and volume; aortic pressure and flow) were simulated and analyzed to identify suction event(s), quantify total flow output (pump + cardiac output), and characterize the performance of the SPPC algorithm. The results demonstrated that the proposed SPPC algorithm prevented LV suction while maintaining physiologic perfusion for all simulated test conditions, and warrants further investigation in vivo. PMID:25248043

  10. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  11. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth w

  12. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jacob A; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. PMID:26852943

  13. EFFECT OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN CONTROL OF PERIOPERATIVE BLOOD LOSS ASSOCIATE WITH TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Costs of allogenic blood transfusions and the associated risks mandate strategies to reduce blood loss in surgery. The objective of this study was to asse ss the efficacy of antifibrinolytic treatment in reducing perioperative blood loss during total knee replacement. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A prospective study was carried out on 148patients undergoing total knee replacement. 88pts received tranexamic acid 10 mg kg −1 i.v. just before the cementation, 3hours post op and 6 hrs later.60 patients did not receive tranexamic acid. External perioperative blood loss was measured by post op amount of drain, and Hb levels and Hematocrit. The number of patients transfuse d and number of packed red cell (PRC units transfused was recorded and possible postoperative thrombo embolic complications were studied clinically. RESULTS : Amongst 78 pts who were given Cyclokapron, only 10(12.8% were given blood transfusions and the a verage transfusions were 3.9 units and Amongst 70 pts who were not given Cyclokapron, 20(28.5% were given blood transfusions and the average transfusions were 8.7 units. The average blood loss in the group of patients who were given cyclokapron was 1004ml while in the groups which were not given the average blood loss was 1507ml. Clinical assessment did not reveal any thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSIONS : Antifibrinolytic agents produce a significant decrease in blood loss in patients undergoing total knee replacement, reflected in a reduction in the number of blood transfusions required. Based on this study we can conclude that three doses of IV tranexamic acid of 10mg/kg, can be used in TKR procedures with proven effectiveness and efficiency to decre ase postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing TKR.

  14. The effect of aprotinin, tranexamic acid, and aminocaproic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in major pediatric surgery : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Esther S.; van de Pol, Alma C.; Schouten, Anton N. J.; Turner, Nigel M.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aprotinin reduces the blood loss and transfusion of blood products in children undergoing major surgery. Aprotinin has been associated with severe side effects in adults, and tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid have been found to be safer alternatives in adults. This systematic review a

  15. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2003-01-01

    = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  16. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D;

    1999-01-01

    alendronate to placebo than in those who continuously received placebo. In years 3 and 4, bone loss in participants who switched from alendronate to placebo was similar to that seen during years 1 and 2 in those who continuously received placebo. Compared with 5 mg of alendronate per day, estrogen-medroxyprogesterone...... acetate produced similar increases in bone mineral density and estradiol-norethisterone acetate produced increases that were substantially greater. CONCLUSIONS: Four years of treatment with alendronate or estrogen-progestin prevented postmenopausal bone loss. A residual effect was seen 2 years after...

  17. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption and preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Matsumoto, K; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effects of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), a mixture of galactosyl oligosaccharides formed from lactose by the transgalactosyl reaction of beta-D-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans, on calcium absorption and prevention of bone loss were examined in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Rats fed on a diet containing GOS absorbed calcium more efficiently than those on the control diet after 8-10 days and 18-20 days, and the bone (femur and tibia) ash weight and tibia calcium content of OVX rats fed on the GOS diet were significantly higher than those of the control animals. Although the serum total cholesterol of the ovariectomized rats was significantly elevated, GOS produced a significant hypocholesterolemic effect in the OVX rats. GOS, which is fermented by bacteria in the lower part of the intestine, enhanced volatile fatty acid production, and thus prevented bone loss and lower serum total cholesterol concentration in the ovariectomized rats.

  18. Increased blood flow prevents intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia: a controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Murias, Gastón; Maskin, Bernardo; Pozo, Mario O; Sottile, Juan P; Barán, Marcelo; Edul, Vanina S Kanoore; Canales, Héctor S; Badie, Julio C; Etcheverry, Graciela; Estenssoro, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Increased intramucosal–arterial carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) difference (ΔPCO2) is common in experimental endotoxemia. However, its meaning remains controversial because it has been ascribed to hypoperfusion of intestinal villi or to cytopathic hypoxia. Our hypothesis was that increased blood flow could prevent the increase in ΔPCO2. Methods In 19 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep, we measured cardiac output, superior mesenteric blood flow, lactate, gases, hemoglobi...

  19. Extended interferon-alpha therapy accelerates telomere length loss in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M O'Bryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha plus ribavirin treatment and were subsequently randomized to either a no additional therapy group or a maintenance dose pegylated-IFNα group for an additional 3.5 years. Significant telomere loss in naïve T cells occurred in the first 21 months in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere losses were similar in both groups during the final two years. Expansion of CD8(+CD45RA(+CD57(+ memory T cells and an inverse correlation of alanine aminotransferase levels with naïve CD8(+ T cell telomere loss were observed in the control group but not in the interferon-alpha group. Telomere length at screening inversely correlated with Hepatitis-C viral load and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sustained interferon-alpha treatment increased telomere loss in naïve T cells, and inhibited the accumulation of T cell memory expansions. The durability of this effect and consequences for immune senescence need to be defined.

  20. Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): A Pilot Clinical Trial in Older Adults with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Wolf Mehling; Eveline Wu; Matthew Beristianos; Kristine Yaffe; Karyn Skultety; Chesney, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current dementia medications have small effect sizes, many adverse effects and do not change the disease course. Therefore, it is critically important to study alternative treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to pilot-test a novel, integrative group exercise program for individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia called Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ), which focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand) ...

  1. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p neurons...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  2. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yiping; CHEN Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  3. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  4. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients.

  5. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  6. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehr-Aein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after protamin infusion, and 33 patients received only saline. Preoperative hematologic variables, postoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusions were considered. D-dimer plasma levels were also evaluated to monitor the activation of fibrinolysis. Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group compared with the control group (320 ± 38 mL vs. 480 ± 75 mL at 12 hour, P < 0.001. The tranexamic acid group had significantly lesser need for allogeneic blood products (0.46 units/patients vs. 0.94 units/patients, P < 0.001. They had also lower post-operative D-dimer plasma levels. No postoperative thrombotic complications were observed in either group. The defective hemostasis occurs even in the OPCABG. Tranexamic acid effectively reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products after OPCAB is decreased.

  7. Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis c transmission through donor blood and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chechetkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of organizational aspects of preventing the transmission of hepatitis C virus with donor blood and its components.Materials and methods. An activity of the blood service establishments in Russia for the prevention of HCV infection through transfusion of blood and its components on the basis of the analysis of sectoral statistical surveys was studied.Results. The frequency of detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors and its components during 2009–2013 decreased by more than 1,5 times. The percentage of donors who have identified markers of hepatitis C virus was significantly different in different regions: from 0,51% to 1,36%. The activity of the blood service implemented method of plasma quarantine resulting annually rejected from 0,32% to 0,23% as a result of the identified markers of HCV. Pathogen inactivated plasma volume increased in 3 times, the platelet concentrate in 3,2 times.Conclusion. To ensure the safety of donated blood and its components in the blood service effectively the modern technology use for to prevention transmission of the HCV: quarantine of plasma, donor selection and development, inactivation of pathogens. The degree of implementation in practice of nonpaid voluntary blood transfusions significantly increased and is characterized by regional features in recent years .

  8. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Samar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm and lung capillary blood volume (Vc in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO and nitric oxide (DLNO, DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p CO of PAH patients did not change over time, DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01. Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion.

  9. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01). Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion. PMID:23339456

  10. Whole body 59Fe-elimination rates and corresponding blood losses in patients with factitious anemia induced by self-blood letting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a year two cases were identified and quantitated for blood losses by whole body counting of retained iron. Whereas the 2 patients did not lose much blood during their observation within the hospital their blood losses increased upon release from the hospital. Although they lost about 5 liter blood in 50 days faecal occult blood tests were always negative and the daily faecal and urinary 59Fe-excretion was within the normal range. Haemoglobin and erythrocyte levels were stable during the periods of clinical observation when the whole body 59Fe-elimination rates were only just above the normal range. These values dropped however to very low values during or following periods of extremely elevated whole body 59Fe-elimination rates immediately after release of the patients from the hospital. Blood losses of up to 145 ml/d (=50 mg Fe/d) can be compensated by oral ferrous iron therapy with 4 x 50 = 200 mg Fe2+ /d. The patients did however refuse to take oral or parenteral iron and insisted in one case on regular blood transfusions twice per week. Two more probable cases of factitious anemia were subsequently observed and partially investigated. (orig./MG)

  11. Effects of preoperative β-blocker on blood loss and blood transfusion during spinal surgeries with sodium nitroprusside-controlled hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Mohamed Amr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study sought to determine whether premedication with oral β-blocker before hypotensive anesthesia with sodium nitroprusside could improve the quality of surgical field, decrease the blood loss, and decrease the need for homologous blood transfusion and duration of surgery. Methods: Eighty patients scheduled for spinal fixation surgery were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I received oral atenolol 50 mg twice one day before surgery; and Group II received placebo tablets identical in appearance to atenolol tablets for the same period and interval. All patients in both the groups received intraoperative sodium nitroprusside (SNP as a hypotensive agent. Hemodynamic variables, amount of sodium nitroprusside used, quality of surgical field, and the amount of homologous blood transfusion and blood loss were compared between groups. Results: Heart rate and amount of SNP used were significantly less (P<0.0001 in the atenolol group, but no significant difference was found in intraoperative mean arterial blood pressure (MABP between the two groups. The time of surgeries was significantly shorter in Group I than in Group II (185±15.21 vs 225±12.61 min, P<0.0001. The quality of surgical field was better in Group I than in Group II in all times of measurements, P<0.0001. The amount of blood loss and the amount of packed red blood cells transfused were significantly less in Group I than in Group II, P<0.0001. No clinically significant complications were observed in either group. Conclusion: Premedication with oral atenolol 50 mg twice/day for one day before hypotensive anesthesia with SNP during spinal surgeries seems to be clinically safe and effective to reduce heart rate, amount of SNP used, amount of blood loss, and amount of blood transfused with better quality of surgical field.

  12. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume (gain-framed) versus negative consequences of not listening to music at a reduced volume (loss-framed)] and type of temporal context (short-term versus long-term consequences). Participants were recruited from four vocational and secondary education schools in the Netherlands and message exposure took place online during class hours. Two weeks prior to message exposure, adolescents provided data on intention and risk perception towards hearing loss and use of (digital) music players. After message exposure, 194 adolescents (mean age = 14.71 years, SD = 1.00, 37.8% males) provided immediate follow-up data on intention. Results revealed that intention to listen to music at a reduced volume increased in those exposed to a loss-framed message with short-term consequences. No changes were found in the other conditions. Messages that emphasize negative short-term consequences of not listening to music at a moderate volume have the ability to influence adolescents' intention towards hearing loss prevention. PMID:26956040

  13. Baseline albuminuria predicts the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering drugs in preventing cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, C.; Postma, M.J.; Visser, S.T.; Atthobari, J.; de Jong, P.E.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Gansevoort, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Albuminuria has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular (CV) events in specific patient populations, but also in the general population. This study aimed to investigate whether the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering agents in preventing CV events depends on baseline urinary albumin ex

  14. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  15. Blood Components Prevent Sulfide Poisoning of Respiration of the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mar A.; Somero, George N.

    1983-01-01

    Respiration of plume tissue of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila is insensitive to sulfide poisoning in contrast to tissues of animals that do not inhabit vents. Permeability barriers may not be responsible for this insensitivity since plume homogenates are also resistant to sulfide poisoning. Cytochrome c oxidase of plume, however, is strongly inhibited by sulfide at concentrations less than 10 μ M. Factors present in blood, but not in cytosol, prevent sulfide from inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Avoidance of sulfide poisoning of respiration in Riftia pachyptila thus appears to involve a blood-borne factor having a higher sulfide affinity than that of cytochrome c oxidase, with the result that appreciable amounts of free sulfide are prevented from accumulating in the blood and entering the intracellular compartment.

  16. Accelerated remyelination during inflammatory demyelination prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Shen, Yun-An A; Rankin, Kelsey A; Stebbins, Karin J; Lorrain, Daniel S; Pekarek, Kara; A Sagan, Sharon; Xiao, Lan; Teuscher, Cory; von Büdingen, H-Christian; Wess, Jürgen; Lawrence, J Josh; Green, Ari J; Fancy, Stephen PJ; Zamvil, Scott S; Chan, Jonah R

    2016-01-01

    Demyelination in MS disrupts nerve signals and contributes to axon degeneration. While remyelination promises to restore lost function, it remains unclear whether remyelination will prevent axonal loss. Inflammatory demyelination is accompanied by significant neuronal loss in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and evidence for remyelination in this model is complicated by ongoing inflammation, degeneration and possible remyelination. Demonstrating the functional significance of remyelination necessitates selectively altering the timing of remyelination relative to inflammation and degeneration. We demonstrate accelerated remyelination after EAE induction by direct lineage analysis and hypothesize that newly formed myelin remains stable at the height of inflammation due in part to the absence of MOG expression in immature myelin. Oligodendroglial-specific genetic ablation of the M1 muscarinic receptor, a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, results in accelerated remyelination, preventing axonal loss and improving functional recovery. Together our findings demonstrate that accelerated remyelination supports axonal integrity and neuronal function after inflammatory demyelination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18246.001 PMID:27671734

  17. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... effects against muscle fatigue and ultrastructural damages, preventing or reducing the loss in mechanical muscle function after running. Subjects were tested before and after IERT protocol for maximal isometric, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extensor strength (60° and 180° s(-1)). In a second...... session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...

  18. The influence of blood on the efficacy of intraperitoneally applied phospholipids for prevention of adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettinger Alexander P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of adhesions following abdominal surgery is a well known problem. In previous studies we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneally applied phospholipids in order to prevent adhesion formation. This study evaluates the influence of blood on the efficacy of intraperitoneally applied phospholipids for prevention of adhesions. Methods In 40 Chinchilla rabbits adhesions were induced by median laparotomy, standardized abrasion of the visceral and parietal peritoneum in defined areas of the ventral abdominal wall and the caecum. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. They received either phospholipids 3.0% or normal saline (NaCl 0,9% (5 ml/kg body weight. In 50% of the rabbits we simulated intraperitoneal bleeding by administration of blood (1,5 ml/kg body weight. The other half served as control group. Ten days following the operation the animals were sacrificed and adhesion formation was assessed by computer aided planimetry and histopathologic examination. Results The median adhesion surface area in the NaCl-group (n = 9 amounted to 68,72 mm2, in the NaCl+Blood-group (n = 10 147,68 mm2. In the Phospholipid (PhL-group (n = 9 the median adhesion surface area measured 9,35 mm2, in the PhL+Blood-group (n = 9 11,95 mm2. The phospholipid groups had a significantly smaller adhesion surface area (p Conclusion Again these results confirm the efficacy of phospholipids in the prevention of adhesions in comparison to NaCl (p = 0,04. We also demonstrated the adhesion preventing effect of phospholipids in the presence of intraperitoneal blood.

  19. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE ON ESTIMATED BLOOD LOSS DURING ENDOSCOPIC SINUS SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W Williams

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current practice of lowering mean arterial pressure (MAP during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS is common, but unproven with regard to peer reviewed literature. The controlled hypotension induced is aimed for improved surgical field and lower the blood loss. Lower mean arterial pressures especially for prolonged surgeries may result in end organ hypoperfusion. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery for the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 at Memorial Hermann Hospital – Texas Medical Centre. We individually reviewed case sheets of every patient and documented blood loss as recorded on the anaesthesia record or in the surgical procedure note, among other variables. A total of 326 patients were included in this study. The median estimated blood loss (EBL was found to be 50 ml. The multivariate regression analysis between these three groups showed that EBL was higher in MAP 75 group. The average of EBL in MAP75 group and the average of EBL in MAP 65-70 group is 42% higher than that in MAP>75 group when other variables were fixed. Hence we found the trend toward higher blood loss with lower MAP. The authors conclude that lower MAP does not result in lower EBL in endoscopic sinus surgery. Furthermore, increases in BMI and crystalloid administered during an aesthetic management of these cases correlates with increased estimate blood loss.

  20. Percutaneous blood exposure among Danish doctors: exposure mechanisms and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the mechanisms of percutaneous blood exposure (PCE) among doctors and discuss rational strategies for prevention. Data were obtained as part of a nation-wide questionnaire survey of occupational blood exposure among hospital employed doctors in Denmark.......5% of all PCE. Use of fingers rather than instruments was a major cause of injury in surgical specialities and was a contributing cause of 36.9% PCE on suture needles. Common contributing causes when fingers were used (n = 199) were poor space in (30.2%) or view of (18.6%) the operation field. It was often...

  1. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  2. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham‑operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.

  3. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-06-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620

  4. Eliminating microglia in Alzheimer's mice prevents neuronal loss without modulating amyloid-β pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Elizabeth E; Lee, Rafael J; Najafi, Allison R; Rice, Rachel A; Elmore, Monica R P; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2016-04-01

    In addition to amyloid-β plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation is considered a key feature of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounding amyloid plaques, implicating their role in disease pathogenesis. Microglia in the healthy adult mouse depend on colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signalling for survival, and pharmacological inhibition of this receptor results in rapid elimination of nearly all of the microglia in the central nervous system. In this study, we set out to determine if chronically activated microglia in the Alzheimer's disease brain are also dependent on CSF1R signalling, and if so, how these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis. Ten-month-old 5xfAD mice were treated with a selective CSF1R inhibitor for 1 month, resulting in the elimination of ∼80% of microglia. Chronic microglial elimination does not alter amyloid-β levels or plaque load; however, it does rescue dendritic spine loss and prevent neuronal loss in 5xfAD mice, as well as reduce overall neuroinflammation. Importantly, behavioural testing revealed improvements in contextual memory. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglia contribute to neuronal loss, as well as memory impairments in 5xfAD mice, but do not mediate or protect from amyloid pathology.

  5. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents hearing loss and hair cell death in Cdh23(erl/erl) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Xu, M; Yuan, J; Li, B; Entenman, S; Yu, H; Zheng, Q Y

    2016-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has long been the subject of experimental and clinical research for many years. The recently identified novel mutation of the Cadherin23 (Cdh23) gene, Cdh23(erl/erl), was proven to be a mouse model of human autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB12). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a taurine-conjugated bile acid, has been used in experimental research and clinical applications related to liver disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases associated with apoptosis. Because hair cell apoptosis was implied to be the cellular mechanism leading to hearing loss in Cdh23(erl/erl) mice (erl mice), this study investigated TUDCA's otoprotective effects in erl mice: preventing hearing impairment and protecting against hair cell death. Our results showed that systemic treatment with TUDCA significantly alleviated hearing loss and suppressed hair cell death in erl mice. Additionally, TUDCA inhibited apoptotic genes and caspase-3 activation in erl mouse cochleae. The data suggest that TUDCA could be a potential therapeutic agent for human DFNB12.

  6. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  7. The 'new genetics' in blood and cardiovascular research: applications to prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-11-01

    Genetic approaches have become an important component of both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Certain diseases of the blood--the hemoglobinopathies--have been elucidated by the spectacular methods of molecular genetics. Some of these advances have already been incorporated in disease management. Often, common conditions such as coronary heart disease and hypertension show familial aggregation. Genetic analysis of these diseases together with biochemical and molecular methods are likely to be useful for further understanding and ultimate prevention and control.

  8. SY 16-1 DIETARY APPROACHES TO PREVENT AND CONTROL ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon

    2016-09-01

    A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction. There is strong and consistent clinical trial evidence that reducing salt intake to about 5 g/day has a modest (1-2 mmHg) SBP-lowering effect in normotensive individuals and a somewhat more pronounced effect (4-5 mmHg) in hypertensive individuals. Compared with salt restriction alone, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet resulted in the greater reduction in blood pressure. The dietary pattern's effect on blood pressure is independent of changes in weight and sodium intake.Dietary pattern such as the DASH dietary pattern, the USDA Food Pattern, or the AHA Diet are higher in fruits (particularly fresh), vegetables (emphasizing root and green varieties), whole grains (cereals, breads, rice, or pasta), and fatty fish (rich in omega-3 fatty acids); lower in red meat (and emphasizing lean meats); substituted lower-fat or fat-free dairy products for higher-fat dairy foods; and used oils (olive or canola), nuts (walnuts, almonds, or hazelnuts) or margarines blended with rapeseed or flaxseed oils in lieu of butter and other fats. This dietary pattern should be adopted to appropriate calorie requirements, personal and cultural food preferences, and nutrition therapy for other medical conditions (including diabetes mellitus). In conclusion, most recent dietary approach to prevent and control elevated blood pressure is combination the DASH dietary pattern with lower sodium intake. PMID:27643264

  9. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. Results: The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety. PMID:26894222

  10. Axonal loss and blood flow disturbances in the natural course of indirect traumatic optic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei; WANG Huai-zhou; SONG Wei-xian; YANG Wen-li; LI Wei-ye; WANG Ning-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve associated with severe visual dysfunction,which may be a result of secondary mechanical injury and vascular disorder of the optic nerve due to trauma.We analyzed the natural course of axonal loss and blood flow disturbances in patients with indirect TON to find a possible therapeutic window.Methods A cohort of 54 patients with indirect TON recruited between October 2008 and October 2010 at Beijing Tongren Hospital was retrospectively analyzed.The patients were divided into no light perception group (NLP) and better than NLP (btNLP) group.Specifically,the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT),and hemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery (OA),central retinal artery (CRA) and posterior ciliary artery (PCA) were determined.Results Two weeks after injury,there was a statistically significant decrease in the thickness of RNFL in the btNLP group as compared with the fellow control eyes (P <0.05).In contrast,in the NLP group,RNFL thickness slightly increased for 2 weeks following injury,then overtly reduced after 4 weeks (P <0.05).Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of CRA was significantly decreased 4 weeks after injury (P <0.05) in both the NLP group and btNLP group (P <0.05).The thickness of RNFL in the NLP group was negatively correlated with PSV of CRA after 1 week of injury (P <0.05,r=-0.962).Conclusions SD-OCT is a useful supplement in detecting the axonal loss in TON.The dynamic change of the thickness of RNFL appears to correlate with the hemodynamic disturbances in the natural course of TON.The first 2 weeks following an injury is critical and should be considered as the therapeutic window for TON patients.

  11. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  12. Preventing mitochondrial fission impairs mitochondrial function and leads to loss of mitochondrial DNA.

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    Philippe A Parone

    Full Text Available Mitochondria form a highly dynamic tubular network, the morphology of which is regulated by frequent fission and fusion events. However, the role of mitochondrial fission in homeostasis of the organelle is still unknown. Here we report that preventing mitochondrial fission, by down-regulating expression of Drp1 in mammalian cells leads to a loss of mitochondrial DNA and a decrease of mitochondrial respiration coupled to an increase in the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. At the cellular level, mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the lack of fission leads to a drop in the levels of cellular ATP, an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in autophagy. In conclusion, we propose that mitochondrial fission is required for preservation of mitochondrial function and thereby for maintenance of cellular homeostasis.

  13. Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H

    2014-02-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of αSMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  14. Prevention and Control of Losses of Gaseous Nitrogen Compounds in Livestock Operations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Jongebreur

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N losses from livestock houses and manure storage facilities contribute greatly to the total loss of N from livestock farms. Volatilisation of ammonia (NH3 is the major process responsible for the loss of N in husbandry systems with slurry (where average dry matter content varies between 3 and 13%. Concerning this volatilisation of NH3, the process parameters of pH and air temperature are crucial. During a period of approximately 10 years, systematic measurements of NH3 losses originating from a large variety of different livestock houses were made. One of the problems with NH3 emissions is the large variation in the measured data due to the season, the production of the animals, the manure treatment, type of livestock house, and the manure storage. Generally speaking, prevention and control of NH3 emission can be done by control of N content in the manure, moisture content, pH, and temperature[1]. In houses for growing pigs, a combination of simple housing measures can be taken to greatly reduce NH33 emissions[2]. In houses for laying hens, the control of the manure drying process determines the emission of NH3[1]. Monteny[3] has built an NH3 production model with separate modules for the emission of the manure storage under the dairy house and the floor in the house. Manure spreading is also a major source of NH3 emission and is dependent on slurry composition, environmental conditions, and farm management. The effects of these factors have been employed in a model[4]. Losses via NO, N2O, and N2 are important in husbandry systems with solid manure and straw. The number of experimental data is, however, very limited. As N2O is an intermediate product of complex biochemical processes of nitrification and denitrification, optimal conditions are the key issues in N2O reduction strategies. We may expect that in the near future the emission of greenhouse gases will get the same attention from policy makers as NH3. Sustainable livestock

  15. Effects of Three Types of Long-acting Contraceptive Implants on Menstrual Blood Loss in 89 Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽晖; 范慧民; 龚泉; 谢争; 孟凡; 洪玉凤; 王文娟

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of three types of contraceptive implants: the domestic No I , No I implants and Norplant on menstrual blood loss (MBL). Method: Eighty-nine healthy subjects were randomly allocated to three groups.Menstrual blood loss was measured before implanting and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Results: MBL of the three groups prior to the use of implant were 43. 3±6. 9ml,48.9±4. 3 ml, and 43.7±5. 5ml respectively, and decreased significantly at all post-implantation periods. MBLs were 32. 8±13. 2ml, 24. 8±5. 5ml, and 19. 7±9.3ml at the 3rd month after implantation and 23. 9±5. 9 ml, 40. 8±10. 4 ml, 25. 9±6. 0 ml at the 12th month after implantation respectively, sigmficantly less than before implantation(P<0. 05~0. 01). A tendency was seen in increase of hemoglobin concentraition. Conclusion: Long-acting contraceptive implants decreased menstrual blood loss and elevates hemoglobin concentration. They are applicable to women as a contraceptive method without blood loss effects.

  16. Preventive Effects of Collagen Peptide from Deer Sinew on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

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    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer sinew (DS has been used traditionally for various illnesses, and the major active constituent is collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of collagen peptide from DS on bone loss in the ovariectomized rats. Wister female rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham-operated (SHAM, ovariectomized control (OVX, OVX given 1.0 mg/kg/week nylestriol (OVX + N, OVX given 0.4 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OVX + H, OVX given 0.2 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + M, and OVX given 0.1 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + L, respectively. After 13 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and the effects of collagen peptide on body weight, uterine weight, bone mineral density (BMD, serum biochemical indicators, bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanics were observed. The data showed that BMD and concentration of serum hydroxyproline were significantly increased and the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased. Besides, histomorphometric parameters and mechanical indicators were improved. However, collagen peptide of DS has no effect on estradiol level, body weight, and uterine weight. Therefore, these results suggest that the collagen peptide supplementation may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  17. Cotinine prevents memory loss and diminishes Alzheimer's disease-like pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Charry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD affects millions of people around the world and currently there are no effective therapies. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to be neuroprotective, prevent memory loss and reduce amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in transgenic AD mice. The beneficial effect that cotinine has on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β. These pro-apoptotic factors promote neuronal survival and the synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in the hippocampus and cortex of wild type and AD mice. Cotinine has also shown to diminish depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed mice. Additionally, the use of this compound in studies has resulted in an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices. It can be observed in multiple studies, that daily treatment of mice with cotinine reduced Aβ levels and plaque formation compared with vehicle treated mice, which had higher memory loss and depressive behavior. The beneficial effects of cotinine on brain function and good safety profile, suggest that it may be a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T;

    2016-01-01

    on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight......AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise....

  19. Effect of antifibrinolytic drugs on transfusion requirement and blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation: Results from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, activation of the fibrinolytic system can contribute significantly to perioperative bleeding. Prophylactic administration of antifibrinolytic agents has been shown to reduce blood loss and the need for allogenic transfusion. Objective: To study the effect of antifibrinolytics on requirement of blood components, blood loss and operative time during OLT in patients with end stage liver disease, reporting to a single centre. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent OLT at this centre during the period February 2003-October 2007 were the subjects of this study. Based on the individual anesthesiologist′s preference, patients were assigned to receive either two million units of aprotinin (AP as a bolus followed by 5,00,000 units/hour or 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid (TAas a bolus followed by 10 mg/kg every six to eight hours, administered from the induction till the end of the surgery. Transfusion policy was standardized in all patients. Intraoperative red cell salvage was done wherever possible. The effect of these two antifibrinolytic drugs on transfusion requirement was evaluated as a whole and in a sub group of patients from each treatment group and compared with a concurrent control group that did not receive antifibrinolytic drugs. Results: Fifty patients (40 M / 10 F, 44 adults, 6 pediatric patients underwent OLT in the study period. Fourteen patients were given AP, 25 patients were given TA and 11 patients did not receive any of the agents(control group. The median volume of total blood components transfused in antifibrinolytic group (n=39 was 4540 ml(0-19,200ml, blood loss 5 l(0.7-35l and operative time 9h (4.5-17h and that of control group(n=11 was 5700 ml(0-15,500ml, 10 l(0.6-25 l and 9h (6.4-15.8h respectively. The median volume of blood transfusions, blood loss and operative time was lesser in AP group(n=14 than that of TA group(n=25. Conclusion: There is definite

  20. EFFICACY OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CAESAREAN SECTION: A RANDOMIZED CASE CONTROL PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: To reduce maternal mortality and morbidity caused by bleeding, it is important to reduce the amount of bleeding during and after lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. Tranexamic acid helps to reduce bleeding during and after LSCS. OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy and safety of Tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after Lower segment Caesarean Section (LSCS. METHODS: A randomized case controlled prospective study was conducted on 200 women undergoing lower segment cesarean section. Hundreds of them that were given tranexamic acid immediately before LSCS were compared to hundred others to whom tranexamic acid was not given. Blood loss was collected and measured during the two periods, from plancental delivery to end of LSCS and second from end of LSCS to two hours postpartum. RESULTS: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to end of LSCS, 202.25ml in the study group vs392.20 ml in the control group (p<0.001; from the end of LSCS, to 2 hours postpartum 3.80ml in the study group versus 112.25ml in the control group (p<0.001; In totality, it significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to two hours postpartum i.e. 27.05ml in the study group versus 510.45ml in the control group (p < 0.001. No complications or side effects were noted. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the amount of blood loss during and after LSCS. Tranexamic acid can be used prophylactically; moreover it is safer and effective in women undergoing LSCS.

  1. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

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    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting.

  2. Percutaneous blood exposure among Danish doctors: exposure mechanisms and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the mechanisms of percutaneous blood exposure (PCE) among doctors and discuss rational strategies for prevention. Data were obtained as part of a nation-wide questionnaire survey of occupational blood exposure among hospital employed doctors in Denmark.......5% of all PCE. Use of fingers rather than instruments was a major cause of injury in surgical specialities and was a contributing cause of 36.9% PCE on suture needles. Common contributing causes when fingers were used (n = 199) were poor space in (30.2%) or view of (18.6%) the operation field. It was often...... and 'acute situation' were common, especially in the case of PCE on i.v.-catheter-stylets. It is concluded that the exposure mechanisms of PCE reflect both unsafe routines, difficult working conditions and unsafe devices. Education in safer working routines are needed in all specialties. Introduction...

  3. Exercise prevents leptin-induced increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, K; Effendi, I; Caszo, Brinnell; Satar, Nuraliza Abdul; Singh, H J

    2014-06-01

    Although leptin has been shown to increase blood pressure (BP), it is however unclear if this increase can be prevented by exercise. This study therefore investigated the effect of leptin treatment with concurrent exercise on blood pressure (BP), sodium output, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in normotensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-270 g were divided into four groups consisting of a control group (n = 6), leptin-treated (n = 8), non-leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8), and a leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8). Leptin was given subcutaneously daily for 14 days (60 μg/kg/day). Animals were exercised on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 0.5 m/s and at 5° incline four times per week. Measurement of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and collection of urine samples for estimation of sodium and creatinine was done once a week. Serum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for determination of sodium, creatinine and ET-1. At day 14, mean SBP and serum ET-1 level in the leptin-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group whereas mean SBP and serum ET-1 level was significantly lower in the leptin-treated exercise group than those in leptin-treated and control groups. Creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion, and urine output were not different between the four groups. Regular treadmill exercise prevents leptin-induced increases in SBP in rats, which might in part result from increased urinary sodium excretion and preventing the leptin-induced increases in serum ET-1 concentration. PMID:24711061

  4. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. C. Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18–50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027; this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R2 of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R2 of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001, and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006. No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores.

  5. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  6. The effects of different exercise modes for preventing endothelial dysfunction of arteries and bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jonghoon; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there are positive correlations between vascular disorders and bone loss in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different types of exercise (e.g., climbing and swimming) for preventing endothelial dysfunction of arteries and bone loss in ovariectomized rats. [Methods] Twenty Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: ovariectomy (OVX) plus treatment with vitami...

  7. A randomized trial of the effect of low dose epinephrine infusion in addition to tranexamic acid on blood loss during total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Ø; Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mandøe, H;

    2016-01-01

    procedure. Intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA) was administered to all subjects. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss directly measured by drains and weighing swabs. Secondary outcome was total blood loss at 24 h postoperatively calculated using the Gross formula. RESULTS: Of 106 subjects...

  8. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  9. Using Aerogel-Based Insulation Material To Prevent Foam Loss on the Liquid-Hydrogen Intertank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Uninsulated areas on cryogenic propellant tanks and feedlines cause moisture in the air to condense or ice to form. Flange joints, bracket supports, expansion bellows, and other cavities are uninsulated by design. These areas cannot be sealed because conventional thermal insulation materials would restrict mechanical articulations. Aerogel-based thermal insulation systems are able to seal critical locations such as the liquid-oxygen (LO2) feedline bellows. A new thermal insulation system was also necessary between the intertank wall, flange, and the liquid-hydrogen (LH2) tank dome, where there is a cavity (or crevice) with an exposed 20-K surface. When nitrogen gas is used for purging within the intertank volume, it condenses on this cold surface. Some solid nitrogen may also form on the colder side of the crevice. Voids or discontinuities within the foam can pressurize and cause areas of foam to weaken and break off, reducing thermal efficiency and creating potentially dangerous debris. To prevent this foam loss, we developed a thermal insulation system using bulk-fill aerogel material and demonstrated it with a one-tenth-scale model of the LH2 intertank flange area

  10. Harpagophytum procumbens prevents oxidative stress and loss of cell viability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Larissa Finger; Peroza, Luis Ricardo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Fachinetto, Roselei; Wagner, Caroline

    2013-11-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as devil's claw, is a plant commonly used in the treatment of diseases of inflammatory origin. The anti-inflammatory effects of H. procumbens have been studied; however, the mechanism of action is not elucidated. It is known that excess of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may contribute to increasing tissue damage due to inflammation. In the present study, we examined the effects of H. procumbens infusion, crude extract and fractions on lipid peroxidation (brain homogenates) induced by different pro-oxidants (Fe(2+) or sodium nitroprusside) and the effects of ethyl acetate fraction (rich in phenolic compounds) on antioxidant defenses (catalase activity and thiol levels) and cell damage (brain cortical slices) induced by different pro-oxidants. All tested extracts of H. procumbens inhibited lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antioxidant effects either by decreasing lipid peroxidation and cellular damage or restoring thiols levels and catalase activity. Taken together, our results showed that H. procumbens acts either by preventing oxidative stress or loss of cell viability. Thus, the previously reported anti-inflammatory effect of H. procumbens could also be attributed to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23982320

  11. The first Iranian recommendations on prevention, evaluation and management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Feridoun; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Khosravi, Alireza; Andalib, Elham

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the complete report of the first Iranian Recommendations on Prevention, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure. The purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention, management and control of hypertension (HTN) by adapting the most internationally known and used guidelines to the local health care status with consideration of the currently available data and based on the locally conducted researches on HTN as well as social and health care requirements. A working group of national and international experts participated in discussions and collaborated in decision-making, writing and reviewing the whole report. Multiple subcommittees worked together to review the recent national and international literature on HTN in different areas. We used the evaluation tool that is called "AGREE" and considered a score of > 60% as a high score. We adapted the Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP), the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the US-based joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The key topics that are highlighted in this report include: The importance of ambulatory and self-measurement of blood pressure, evaluation of cardiovascular risk in HTN patients, the role of lifestyle modification in the prevention of HTN and its control with more emphasis on salt intake reduction and weight control, introducing pharmacotherapy suitable for uncomplicated HTN or specific situations and the available drugs in Iran, highlighting the importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers as the first line therapy in many situations, the non-use of beta blockers as the first time treatment except in specific conditions, treating HTN in women, children, obese and elderly patients, the patient compliance to improve HTN control, practical guidelines to improve

  12. Loss of autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue in juvenile diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Kastrup, J; Parving, H H;

    1984-01-01

    and retinopathy. The blood flow remained constant in all normal subjects, when the arterial perfusion pressure was varied between 70 and 150 mm Hg. All diabetics had impaired or reduced autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow. The blood flow increased and decreased almost linearly with the changes...... in arterial perfusion pressure. The mechanism underlying the defect autoregulation of blood flow in diabetics is uncertain; possibilities include structural changes of the arterioles and/or alterations of local metabolic factors.......The autoregulation of blood flow in subcutaneous tissue was investigated at the level of the lateral malleolus by the local 133Xenon washout technique. We have investigated eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetics and seven healthy controls. All diabetics had moderate diabetic nephropathy...

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section:A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr H Yehia; Magdy H Koleib; Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Ahmed Atik

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reduction of blood loss during and after cesarean section.Methods:Women included in the current double blinded, randomized, controlled trial were recruited from women attending for elective cesarean section and randomized into two groups; study group: received tranexamic acid with induction of anesthesia plus10IU of oxytocin injection after delivery of the baby.Control group: received only oxytocin 10IU injection after delivery of the baby.Results:Twenty four hours post-operative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in study group(11.2±1.5 mg/dL) compared to control(9.6±1.2 mg/dL), also24 hours post-operative hematocrit was significantly higher in study group(30.2±6.6) compared to control(29.2±2.8).Calculated total blood loss from placental delivery till end of cesarean section was significantly less in study group compared to control(369.5±198.0 versus606.8±193.0 mL; respectively), also, calculated vaginal bleeding during first6 hours post-operative was significantly less in study group compared to control(85.0±30.7 mL versus130.8±49.3 mL, respectively).The incidence of post-partum hemorrhage was significantly less in study group compared to control(31.1% versus63.2%; respectively), also the need for iron replacement therapy was significantly less frequent in study group compared to control(0.9% versus6.6%, respectively). Conclusions:Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  14. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latter David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA group (19 patients received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each (P = 0.82. Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit than in placebo group (median 2 units (P = 0.03. Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient.

  15. CHEMICAL PLANT SAFETY AND LOSS PREVENTION (Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Safety Control and Risk Management, SCRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Robert A.; Michigan, Midland

    1989-01-01

    Increased emphasis on safety and loss prevention over the last 50 years has engrained safety as one of the core values of The Dow Chemical Company. The safety emphasis starts at the very top, with the Environment, Health and Safety Committee of the Board

  16. Rilmenidine prevents blood pressure increase in rats with compromised nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária GEROV(A); Jozef T(O)R(O)K; Ol'ga PECH(A)(O)OV(A); Jana MATU(S)KOV(A)

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To search tools of high blood pressure in the model of nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertension, and the study focused on the effect of rilmenidine, agonist of imidazoline receptors, which was suggested to modulate central sympathetic outflow. METHODS: Three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 rats, were used: (Ⅰ) rats with inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 4 weeks in drinking water, (Ⅱ) rats with inhibited NOS as in group Ⅰ, plus agonist of imidazoline receptors rilmenidine 3mg.kg-1·d-1 for 4 weeks by gavage, and (Ⅲ) control rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly noninvasively.At the end of experiment aortic ring isometric tension was followed, NOS expression (aorta, left ventricle), and NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) were determined. RESULTS: In the group Ⅰ systolic blood pressure increased significantly, aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly attenuated. Rilmenidine administered simultaneously with L-NAME (group Ⅱ) prevented the increase of blood pressure which did not differ significantly from control values; aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine did not differ from control. No change in NOS expression (aorta and left ventricle) was found in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Significant decline in NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) was found in groups Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ. CONCLUSION: Rilmenidine has a remarkable role in NO-defective hypertension,possibly by inhibiting central sympathetic outflow and by affecting receptors in vascular smooth muscle also. The prime cause of hypertension in this experimental model - the compromised production of NO due to inhibition of NOS - was not affected by rilmenidine.

  17. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Penn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial cohorts: to analyse T2D incidence, sustained weight loss and utility of risk predictors. METHODS: We analysed data on 749 adults with impaired glucose tolerance (278 men and 471 women, mean age 56 years, mean BMI 31 kgm(-2 recruited between 1993 and 2003, and randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (I or lifestyle advice control (C. The intervention aimed to increase physical activity, modify diet, and promote weight loss≥5%. Using Cox-regression survival analysis, we assessed T2D incidence and the impact on T2D incidence of sustained weight loss, and of baseline cut-point values of FINDRISC score, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and HbA1c. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 3.1 years. T2D was diagnosed in 139 participants (I = 45/379, C = 94/370. Cumulative T2D incidence was 57% lower in the intervention compared with the control group (HR 0.42 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.60 P<0.001. Participants with ≥5% weight loss at one year had 65% lower T2D incidence (HR 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.56 P<0.001; maintaining ≥5% weight loss for two and three years further reduced T2D incidence. Recommended cut-points to identify those at high risk for T2D would have identified different proportions of European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS participants with similar hazard-ratios for intervention effect. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled analysis of EDIPS trial data reinforces evidence for T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention. Analysis showed the preventive effect of ≥5% weight loss, especially if maintained long term, which has utility for intervention monitoring. Analysis of proposed cut-points demonstrates difficulties in balancing risk and benefit, to

  18. Prevention and Control of Losses of Gaseous Nitrogen Compounds in Livestock Operations: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Monteny, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses from livestock houses and manure storage facilities contribute greatly to the total loss of N from livestock farms. Volatilisation of ammonia (NH3) is the major process responsible for the loss of N in husbandry systems with slurry (where average dry matter content varies between 3 and 13%). Concerning this volatilisation of NH3, the process parameters of pH and air temperature are crucial. During a period of approximately 10 years, systematic measurements of NH3 losses or...

  19. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg(-1)∙day(-1), respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  20. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C;

    2014-01-01

    blood cell count (4.80 ± 0.33 to 4.64 ± 0.37 × 10(12) cells l(-1), P < 0.05) indicating that 218 ± 173 ml fluid was recruited to the circulation. Withdrawing 450 ml blood reduced the time until initial fibrin formation (R: 6.5 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 1.0 min, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of clot formation...

  1. First Trimester Pregnancy Loss and the Expression of alternatively spliced NKp30 isoforms in Maternal Blood and Placental Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishai eShemesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate whether first trimester pregnancy loss is associated with differences in expression of NKp30 splice variants (isoforms in maternal peripheral blood or placental tissue. We conducted a prospective case-control study; a total of 33 women undergoing dilation and curettage due to first trimester pregnancy loss were further subdivided into groups with sporadic or recurrent pregnancy loss. The control group was comprised of women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. The qPCR approach was employed to assess the relative expression of NKp30 isoforms as well as the total expression of NKp30 and NKp46 receptors between the selected groups. Results show that in both PBMC and placental tissue, NKp46 and NKp30 expression was mildly elevated in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. In particular, NKp46 elevation was significant. Moreover, expression analysis of NKp30 isoforms manifested a different profile between PBMC and the placenta. NKp30-a and NKp30-b isoforms in the placental tissue, but not in PBMC, showed a significant increase in the pregnancy loss groups compared with the elective group. Placental expression of NKp30 activating isoforms -a and -b in the pregnancy loss groups was negatively correlated with PLGF expression. In contrast, placental expression of these isoforms in the elective group was positively correlated with TNFα, IL-10 and VEGF-A expression. The altered expression of NKp30 activating isoforms in placental tissue from patients with pregnancy loss compared to the elective group and the different correlations with cytokine expression point to the involvement of NKp30-mediated function in pregnancy loss.

  2. Syringe access for the prevention of blood borne infections among injection drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Josiah D

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases in the United States are associated with the practice of sharing of injection equipment and are preventable through the once-only use of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. Discussion Sterile syringes may be obtained legally by 4 methods depending on the state. They may be purchased over the counter, prescribed, obtained at syringe exchange programs or furnished by authorized agencies. Each of these avenues has advantages and disadvantages; therefore, legal access through all means is the most likely way to promote the use of sterile syringes. Summary By assisting illicit drug injectors to obtain sterile syringes the primary care provider is able to reduce the incidence of blood borne infections, and educate patients about safe syringe disposal. The provider is also able to initiate discussion about drug use in a nonjudgmental manner and to offer care to patients who are not yet ready to consider drug treatment.

  3. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merry Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  4. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  5. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  6. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, I.; Alshryda, S.; Somanchi, B.; Morakis, E.; Foster, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA) was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.). More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized. PMID:26664830

  7. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.. More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized.

  8. Medical image of the week: pneumatosis intestinalis secondary to massive acute blood loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assar S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a 32 year-old male with a past medical history significant for end stage liver disease secondary to severe alcoholism who was found with an altered mental status. In the emergency department, the patient divulged he had been throwing up blood clots in the preceding days. Shortly into his presentation he began throwing up voluminous bright red blood. Initial hemoglobin concentration was 2.8 mg/dL. CT scan of the abdomen revealed pneumatosis within the ascending colon, small bowel, and mesenteric veins. Despite massive transfusion efforts and two episodes of successful cardiac resuscitation the patient expired.

  9. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  10. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  11. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Edward J; Manson, Spero M; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A; Gutilla, Margaret J; Knepper, Stephanie L; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program For Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  12. Azithromycin Prevents Pregnancy Loss: Reducing the Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Raising the Level of Interleukin-10 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Er

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of azithromycin on LPS-induced pregnancy loss. Thirty-six pregnant female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: control group, where 0.3 mL of normal saline solution was administered intravenously on day 10 of pregnancy; azithromycin group, where azithromycin was administered orally at 350 mg kg−1 day on days 9, 10, and 11 of pregnancy; lipopolysaccharide group, where LPS was administered intravenously via the tail vein at 160 μg kg−1 on day 10 of pregnancy; and the azithromycin + LPS group, where azithromycin was administered orally at 350 mg kg−1 day on days 9, 10, and 11 of pregnancy and LPS was administered intravenously at 160 μg kg−1 on day 10 of pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from the tail vein on day 10 of the experiment. Pregnancy rates were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA. Azithromycin prevented ( LPS-induced pregnancy loss. Higher TNF-α and IL-10 levels were measured ( in the LPS and azithromycin + LPS groups, respectively. In conclusion, azithromycin may be useful in infection- or endotoxemia-dependent pregnancy loss.

  13. Preventing loss of independence through exercise (PLIE: a pilot clinical trial in older adults with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E Barnes

    Full Text Available Current dementia medications have small effect sizes, many adverse effects and do not change the disease course. Therefore, it is critically important to study alternative treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to pilot-test a novel, integrative group exercise program for individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia called Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ, which focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection.We performed a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial to compare PLIÉ with usual care (UC at an adult day program for individuals with dementia in San Francisco, CA. Assessments of physical performance, cognitive function, physical function, dementia-related behaviors, quality of life and caregiver burden were performed by blinded assessors at baseline, 18 weeks (cross-over and 36 weeks. Our primary outcomes were effect sizes based on between-group comparisons of change from baseline to 18 weeks; secondary outcomes were within-group comparisons of change before and after cross-over.Twelve individuals enrolled (7 PLIÉ, 5 UC and 2 withdrew (1 PLIÉ, 18 weeks; 1 UC, 36 weeks. Participants were 82% women (mean age, 84 ± 4 years; caregivers were 82% daughters (mean age, 56 ± 13 years. Effect sizes were not statistically significant but suggested potentially clinically meaningful (≥ 0.25 SDs improvement with PLIÉ versus UC for physical performance (Cohen's D: 0.34 SDs, cognitive function (0.76 SDs and quality of life (0.83 SDs as well as for caregiver measures of participant's quality of life (0.33 SDs and caregiver burden (0.49 SDs. Results were similar when within-group comparisons were made before and after cross-over.PLIÉ is a novel, integrative exercise program that shows promise for improving physical function, cognitive function, quality of life and caregiver burden in individuals with

  14. Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit: a community health worker program to prevent vision loss and blindness among people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammary-Risch, Neyal J; Aguilar, Marcela; Goodman, Laura Saunders; Quiroz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic eye disease is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness in the United States and disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos. This article provides an overview of the Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit, a culturally and linguistically appropriate resource designed for community health workers to educate people with diabetes about eye health complications. The toolkit provides science-based, easy-to-understand information that can be used to conduct interactive, educational sessions about diabetes and eye health, the importance of comprehensive dilated eye examinations at least once a year for people with diabetes, and other ways to prevent vision loss and blindness.

  15. Use of recombinant activated factor VII for reduction of perioperative blood loss during elective surgical correction of spine deformity in a Jehovah's Witness. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kącka, Katarzyna; Kącki, Wojciech; Merak, Joanna; Błęka, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Planned surgical procedures at patients who refuse allogenic blood transfusion because of religious convictions are important problem, not only medical but also ethical and juristical. At the study authors report the successful use of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) for the reduction of perioperative blood loss in four years old child - Jehovah's Witness, who had planned Torode kyphectomy. Applied perioperative management together with preparing to surgery with erythropoietin allowed for reduction of blood loss and avoiding of blood transfusion. Authors state, that appropriate perioperative proceeding makes a possibility of safe surgical procedures also at patients who refuse the transfusion. PMID:21057153

  16. Theories and Practice in Prevention and Treatment Principles in Relation to Chinese Herbal Medicine and Bone Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu 徐红; David LAWSON

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a world wide problem that is increasing in significance as the global population both increases and ages. While osteoporosis has been extensively studied in recent years, the utilization of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine for the prevention and treatment of this condition have seldom been examined in the Western world. This paper reviews the theories and the literature that relate to prevention and treatment of bone loss at the time of menopause according to the principles of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine. Practical developments in these areas are also illustrated in this paper based on the authors' research findings in recent studies.

  17. Charts for Weight Loss to Detect Hypernatremic Dehydration and Prevent Formula Supplementing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Boer, S.; Unal, S.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most breast-fed newborns get the milk they need. However, very rarely milk intake is insufficient mostly as a result of poor breastfeeding techniques. Dramatic weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration may occur. Our aim was to construct charts for weight loss. METHODS: A case-control st

  18. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Merry Stephenson; Stephenson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing lo...

  19. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberink, M F; Geleijnse, J M; Bakker, S J L;

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss...... in 420 overweight adults from the Diet, Obesity and Genes study. After an 8-week weight-loss period (>8% BW), subjects (42±6 years) were randomized to either a high-protein diet (23-28 en% protein) or a lower-protein control diet (10-15 en% protein) for 26 weeks. BMI after weight loss was 30.3±4.3 kg m......(-2), BP was 118/73 mm Hg and 28 subjects (6.5%) used antihypertensive agents. Systolic BP during 26 weeks of weight maintenance dietary intervention increased in both treatment groups, but it was 2.2 mm Hg less (95% CI: -4.6 to 0.2 mm Hg, P=0.08) in the high-protein group than in the lower...

  20. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance....... In the liraglutide group, the bone formation marker P1NP increased by 16% (7±3 μg/L) vs a 2% (-1±4 μg/L) decrease in the control group (pmaintenance phase. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a long-acting GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16......% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low calorie-diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent....

  1. COMPARISON OF HAEMODYNAMICS AND BLOOD LOSS IN URETHROPLASTY SURGERIES DONE UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA WITH AND WITHOUT CAUDAL BLOCK IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 2–5 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urethroplasty surgery is a painful procedure demanding high doses of analgesics, which may be associated with adverse effects and associated with significant blood loss. Caudal blockade provides good analgesia and hemodynamic stability and is probably a useful supplement in these surgeries. OBJECTIVES To compare the heart rate, blood pressure response to surgical stimuli and the incidence of blood transfusion rate post-operatively between 2 groups – A General Anaesthesia only. B General Anaesthesia with caudal block. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Study was conducted in 100 children, randomly divided into two groups A and B. Only ASA grade 1 patients aged 2-5yrs. undergoing urethroplasty for hypospadias were included. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1ml/kg of 0.125% bupivacaine was used for caudal blockade in group B (GA+CAUDAL and compared with group A (Only GA. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded for every 5 min. Blood loss and requirement of blood transfusions were recorded at the end of the surgery. RESULTS There were statistically significant haemodynamic changes and blood transfusion requirement during surgery in group A. In Group B haemodynamic parameters were stable (P value 0 and blood transfusion requirement was also less (p value 0.00054 (P<0.01. CONCLUSION Caudal blockade when supplemented with general anaesthesia reduces blood loss, decreases requirement for blood transfusion and maintains haemodynamic stability.

  2. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  3. Prevention of fetal loss in experimental antiphospholipid syndrome by in vivo administration of recombinant interleukin-3.

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, P; Falach-Vaknine, E; Zigelman, R; Bakimer, R; Sredni, B.; Djaldetti, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    1993-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are strongly associated with arterial and venous thrombosis and with fetal loss. Recently an experimental model for antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) was established in our laboratory. In this model, mice are immunized passively or actively with anticardiolipin antibodies and acquire the syndrome, which is characterized by prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombocytopenia, low fecundity rate, and fetal loss. In a normal process of pregnancy, l...

  4. Fingolimod prevents blood-brain barrier disruption induced by the sera from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Nishihara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Effect of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS is thought to involve the prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier (BBB. However, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs represent a possible additional target for fingolimod in MS patients by directly repairing the function of BBB, as S1P receptors are also expressed by BMECs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fingolimod on BMECs and clarified whether fingolimod-phosphate restores the BBB function after exposure to MS sera. METHODS: Changes in tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in BMECs were evaluated following incubation in conditioned medium with or without fingolimod/fingolimod-phosphate. In addition, the effects of sera derived from MS patients, including those in the relapse phase of relapse-remitting (RR MS, stable phase of RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS, on the function of BBB in the presence of fingolimod-phosphate were assessed. RESULTS: Incubation with fingolimod-phosphate increased the claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in BMECs, although it did not change the amount of occludin, ICAM-1 or MelCAM proteins. Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate restored the changes in the claudin-5 and VCAM-1 protein/mRNA levels and TEER values in BMECs after exposure to MS sera. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate prevents BBB disruption caused by both RRMS and SPMS sera via the upregulation of claudin-5 and downregulation of VCAM-1 in BMECs, suggesting that fingolimod-phosphate is capable of directly modifying the BBB. BMECs represent a possible therapeutic target for fingolimod in MS patients.

  5. Comparison between effects of intravenous lidocaine and sublingual nifedipine on preventing blood pressure increase in laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohseni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gholamreza Mohseni1, Azam Kolyaei2, Morteza Farshchian3, Mansour Rezaei4, Negin Ghadami51Anesthesiologist, assistant professor, 2Anesthetist, 3Orthopedist, assistant professor, 4Biostatistician, assistant professor, 5General practitioner, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranIntroduction: Arrhythmia during surgery most frequently occurs during laryngoscopy and intratracheal intubation. Many surgical procedures require intratracheal intubation, which results in hemodynamic changes. These changes in ill patients and patients with limited coronary flow reserve are associated with serious events.Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was performed on 124 healthy patients who were elective surgery candidates at Taleghani hospital in Kermanshah. Patients were allocated randomly to each equal group of 62 patients with 95% significance and 90% power of test-retest for sample size. The patients had no history of disease or use of special medications. Drugs commonly used for laryngoscopy and intubation to prevent hemodynamic complications, intravenous lidocaine and sublingual nifedipine, were compared with independent and paired t-tests.Results: This comparison suggested that while the mean age, weight, and sex distribution in our two groups were the same, mean changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increases in the lidocaine group were 12.6%, 7.5%, and 16.5%, and in the nifedipine group, 17.7%, 11.0%, and 23.5% (P value = 0.0052, 0.189, and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, intravenous lidocaine is more effective than sublingual nifedipine for preventing hemodynamic changes while performing laryngoscopy or intratracheal intubation.Keywords: hemodynamic changes, laryngoscopy

  6. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hansen-Turton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6% of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7% of the 628 control children (p = 0.1. Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4 months versus 23.6 (3.1 months (P = 0.6. Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4. The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes.

  7. Winter-catastrophies in the reindeer husbandry of Finland: Losses and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Helle

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurreance of disastrous winters to the reindeer industry in Finland with special attention on the winter catastrophies and tje condition of the pastures, the influence of the disasters upon the population dynamic of the reindeer and the methods used to prevent catastrophies. A reindeer catastrophy has been defined as a situation where the number of reindeer stays 20% below the mean of the reindeer numbers during the two preceeding years. During the winter-catastrophies from 1970/71 to 1980/81 4.5% of the total reindeer number was lost. The highest losses were found in the northwesternmost part of Lappland, where there is no alternative to the reindeer lichen as it is in the middle and southern part of the reindeer industry area (arboreal lichens and supplemental feeding. In Kaldoaivi reindeer association (district, which has been studied in detail, the calf percentage is depending upon how the reindeer is able to manage the winter (r=0.62, n=ll, p«0.05. There is also a positive correlation between the slaughterweight of the calves in the early winter and the calf rate (r=0.79, n=7, p«0.05.During severe winters the mortality rate of males exceeds that of the females. Winter-catastrophies may be prevented by deminishing the numer of reindeer and by guiding the harvest to the most risky cohorts of the population. It has been proved that supplementary and emergency feeding are the most effective methods. In a normal year during the 1970s the total use of dry hay was 0.5—1.5 mill, kg., being up to 5.9—12.5 kg. per reindeer/year. In normal winters 10—16% of the total reindeer stock was intensively fed in enclosures. Supplementary feeding in enclosures is most common in the middle and southern parts of the reindeer industry area, where the essential feed is grown on own land.Katotalvet suomen poronhoidossa: menetykset ja Niiden Torjunta.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Artikkeli käsittelee katastrofitalvien

  8. Coblation tonsillectomy versus dissection tonsillectomy: a comparison of intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izny Hafiz, Z; Rosdan, S; Mohd Khairi, M D

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain between coblation tonsillectomy and cold tonsillectomy in the same patient. A prospective single blind control trial was carried out on 34 patients whom underwent tonsillectomy. The patients with known bleeding disorder, history of unilateral peritonsillar abscess and unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy were excluded. Operations were done by a single surgeon using cold dissection tonsillectomy in one side while coblation tonsillectomy in the other. Intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain during the first 3 days were compared between the two methods. Results showed that the intraoperative time was significantly shorter (pcoblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. Post operative pain score was significantly less at 6 hours post operation (pcoblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. However, there were no differences in the post operative pain scores on day 1, 2 and 3. In conclusion, coblation tonsillectomy does have superiority in improving intraoperative efficiency in term of intraoperative time and bleeding compared to cold dissection tonsillectomy. The patient will benefit with minimal post operative pain in the immediate post surgery duration.

  9. Abdominal insufflation decreases blood loss without worsening the inflammatory response: implications for prehospital control of internal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, George C; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Tabbara, Malek; Duggan, Michael; Li, Yongqing; De Moya, Marc; Alam, Hasan B

    2008-04-01

    Abdominal insufflation (AI) by carbon dioxide has been shown to decrease the rate of bleeding in different swine models of abdominal organ injuries. With development of appropriate tools, AI could be used to control bleeding temporarily in the prehospital setting. Concerns have been raised about the inflammatory response to AI, which could damage organs at a later stage despite initial hemostasis. We hypothesized that AI controls bleeding without inducing an unfavorable inflammatory response. An experimental splenic injury was caused in 28 Yorkshire pigs, which were randomized to: 1) standard resuscitation (n = 14) with crystalloids to a mean arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg, or 2) standard resuscitation and AI (n = 14) to an abdominal pressure of 20 cmH2O. The experiment lasted for 30 minutes, and intra-abdominal blood loss was measured. Blood serum interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor beta1, and lung tissue heat shock protein 70 gene expression were measured at 0, 15, and 30 minutes, as markers of the inflammatory response. All animals survived to the end of the experiment. Total blood loss was significantly less in the AI group compared with the other standard resuscitation animals (733 +/- 76 vs 1094 +/- 153 mL, P = 0.049). The pH at the end of the experiment was significantly lower in the AI group (7.28 +/- 0.02 vs 7.44 +/- 0.05, P < 0.01) but there was no difference in lactate levels (1.5 +/- 0.4 vs 1.7 +/- 0.3, P = 0.7). Similarly, there was no difference in IL-1beta, transforming growth factor beta1, or lung tissue heat shock protein 70 gene expression between the two groups at any time point, although there was a trend towards lower IL-1beta levels in the AI group. Our conclusion is that AI reduces blood loss from splenic injury without a measurable effect on the early inflammatory response in a clinically relevant animal model.

  10. The 2015 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabi, Doreen M; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Nerenberg, Kara; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; McKay, Donald W; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Ramesh Prasad, G V; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Brian Penner, S; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Fournier, Anne; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Harris, Kevin C; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program reviews the hypertension literature annually and provides detailed recommendations regarding hypertension diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment. This report provides the updated evidence-based recommendations for 2015. This year, 4 new recommendations were added and 2 existing recommendations were modified. A revised algorithm for the diagnosis of hypertension is presented. Two major changes are proposed: (1) measurement using validated electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices is preferred over auscultation for accurate office blood pressure measurement; (2) if the visit 1 mean blood pressure is increased but blood pressure measurements using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (preferably) or home blood pressure monitoring should be performed before visit 2 to rule out white coat hypertension, for which pharmacologic treatment is not recommended. A standardized ambulatory blood pressure monitoring protocol and an update on automated office blood pressure are also presented. Several other recommendations on accurate measurement of blood pressure and criteria for diagnosis of hypertension have been reorganized. Two other new recommendations refer to smoking cessation: (1) tobacco use status should be updated regularly and advice to quit smoking should be provided; and (2) advice in combination with pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be offered to all smokers. The following recommendations were modified: (1) renal artery stenosis should be primarily managed medically; and (2) renal artery angioplasty and stenting could be considered for patients with renal artery stenosis and complicated, uncontrolled hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed.

  11. MRI confirms loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Lizak, Martin J; Nayak, Debasis; McGavern, Dorian B; Roberts, David D

    2013-09-01

    Disseminated candidiasis primarily targets the kidneys and brain in mice and humans. Damage to these critical organs leads to the high mortality associated with such infections, and invasion across the blood-brain barrier can result in fungal meningoencephalitis. Candida albicans can penetrate a brain endothelial cell barrier in vitro through transcellular migration, but this mechanism has not been confirmed in vivo. MRI using the extracellular vascular contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid demonstrated that integrity of the blood-brain barrier is lost during C. albicans invasion. Intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy was used to provide the first real-time demonstration of C. albicans colonizing the living brain, where both yeast and filamentous forms of the pathogen were found. Furthermore, we adapted a previously described method utilizing MRI to monitor inflammatory cell recruitment into infected tissues in mice. Macrophages and other phagocytes were visualized in kidney and brain by the administration of ultrasmall iron oxide particles. In addition to obtaining new insights into the passage of C. albicans across the brain microvasculature, these imaging methods provide useful tools to study further the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections, to define the roles of Candida virulence genes in kidney versus brain infection and to assess new therapeutic measures for drug development.

  12. Prevention of diabetic microangiopathy by prophylactic transplant of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Xiao-cang CAO; Zhi-hong FANG; Cui-lin ZHENG; Zhi-bo HAN; He REN; Man-chiu POON; Zhong-chao HAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the prophylactic local delivery of mobilized periph-eral blood mononuclear cells (M-PBMNC) could prevent peripheral microangio-pathy in diabetic nude mice. Methods: Diabetic nude mice were induced with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. With the time course of diabetes, we detected the capillary and arteriole density of mice adductor muscles by immuno-histopathy. In situ apoptosis was detected by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. M-PBMNC were labeled and locally delivered to the adductor muscles. Mononuclear cells were also isolated and cultured in vitro for the detection and counting of endothelial progenitor cells(EPC). Results: Rarefication of capillaries and arterioles, enhanced apoptosis in adductor muscles,and reduced circulating EPC in diabetic nude mice. Prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC halted the progression of microvascular rarefaction in hind-limb skel-etal muscles by inhibiting apoptosis. We detected the survival, migration and incorporation of transplanted M-PBMNC into the murine vasculature in vivo. In addition, more EPC were available from M-PBMNC than non-mobilized cells.Conclusion: These results suggested that the prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC may represent a novel approach for the treatment of microvascular complications in diabetics.

  13. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. PMID:24677054

  14. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016. PMID:27111912

  15. Sex steroid deficiency-associated bone loss is microbiota dependent and prevented by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jau-Yi; Chassaing, Benoit; Tyagi, Abdul Malik; Vaccaro, Chiara; Luo, Tao; Adams, Jonathan; Darby, Trevor M; Weitzmann, M Neale; Mulle, Jennifer G; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Jones, Rheinallt M; Pacifici, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    A eubiotic microbiota influences many physiological processes in the metazoan host, including development and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have shown that the intestinal microbiota modulates inflammatory responses caused by sex steroid deficiency, leading to trabecular bone loss. In murine models, sex steroid deficiency increased gut permeability, expanded Th17 cells, and upregulated the osteoclastogenic cytokines TNFα (TNF), RANKL, and IL-17 in the small intestine and the BM. In germ-free (GF) mice, sex steroid deficiency failed to increase osteoclastogenic cytokine production, stimulate bone resorption, and cause trabecular bone loss, demonstrating that the gut microbiota is central in sex steroid deficiency-induced trabecular bone loss. Furthermore, we demonstrated that twice-weekly treatment of sex steroid-deficient mice with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or the commercially available probiotic supplement VSL#3 reduces gut permeability, dampens intestinal and BM inflammation, and completely protects against bone loss. In contrast, supplementation with a nonprobiotic strain of E. coli or a mutant LGG was not protective. Together, these data highlight the role that the gut luminal microbiota and increased gut permeability play in triggering inflammatory pathways that are critical for inducing bone loss in sex steroid-deficient mice. Our data further suggest that probiotics that decrease gut permeability have potential as a therapeutic strategy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:27111232

  16. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016.

  17. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss: the DiOGenes randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Larsen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss i

  18. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss : the DiOGenes randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M. F.; Geleijnse, J. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Larsen, T. M.; Handjieva-Darlesnka, T.; Kafatos, A.; Martinez, J. A.; Pfeiffer, A. F. H.; Kunesova, M.; Jebb, S. A.; Holst, C.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W. H. M.; Brink, E. J.; van Baak, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss i

  19. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16...

  20. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Mugyenyi, Godfrey Rwambuka; Obua, Celestino; Atuhumuza, Elly Bronney; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Tornes, Yarine Fajardo; Agaba, Amon Ganaafa; Siedner, Mark Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL) versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH. Methods Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241). Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%. Results A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6%) developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0%) had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85%) in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL. Conclusion WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell

  1. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  2. Hemostatic strategies for minimizing mortality in surgery with major blood loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    receiving a high fresh frozen plasma (FFP):RBC or platelet:RBC ratio have improved survival, with patients receiving both high FFP:RBC and platelet:RBC ratios exhibiting the highest survival rate. When whole blood thrombelastography is used to guide transfusion therapy in massively bleeding patients......, an increase in FFP and platelet to RBC ratio is also seen, and this is associated with improved survival. This indicates that thrombelastography is better than conventional coagulation assays to monitor coagulopathy and predict transfusion requirements in massive bleeders. SUMMARY: Implementation of more...... aggressive hemostatic resuscitation strategies in massively bleeding patients seems reasonable, and optimally, thrombelastography should be used to monitor coagulopathy and guide FFP and platelet transfusions....

  3. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... A stroke occurs when the blood supply is cut off to any part of the brain. A stroke is ...

  4. Testing the Effects of a Message Framing Intervention on Intentions towards Hearing Loss Prevention in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume…

  5. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, G.J. de; Spaans, P.; Jansen, B.; Riet, J.P. van 't

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents’ intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequence

  6. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  7. Risky Business: Risk Management, Loss Prevention and Insurance Procurement for Colleges and Universities. NACUA Publication Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Barbara

    No matter what type of insurance or how much actual coverage an individual college or university obtains, it will always pay for its own losses one way or another. This pamphlet is intended to assist colleges and universities to meet that challenge by providing administrators with a structure for analyzing and managing risks and determining the…

  8. [Position-holders in the prevention of consequences of premature loss of primary teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranić, I

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of secondary crowding in the mandible consequential to premature loss of primary teeth in the region canine-first molar are described. Therapy aimed at providing the space lost was performed by fixed orthodontic treatment and lasted for about a year.

  9. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  10. Prophylactic use of tranexamic acid combined with thrombelastogram guided coagulation management may reduce blood loss and allogeneic transfusion in pediatric hemispherectomy: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Fu, Wenya; Wang, Tianlong; Zhao, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Hemispherectomy is an established surgical procedure to treat medically refractory epilepsy caused by diffuse hemispheric diseases. The most common complication of hemispherectomy is intraoperative bleeding. Perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. Etiologies of massive blood loss during hemispherectomy include intraoperative diffuse vascular damage, antileptic drugs induced coagulation dysfunction, hyperfibrinolysis and dilutional coagulopathy. Great efforts should be made to minimize the need of blood transfusion. We present a series of three cases undergoing pediatric hemispherectomy, where a new algorithm was employed to manage coagulation. This new algorithm was mainly based on timely thrombelastogram analyses guided clotting factors supplement and continuous administration of tranexamic acid. In our cases, the amount of blood loss and subsequent allogeneic blood transfusion seemed to be less than literature reported. PMID:27555151

  11. Effect of heparin on prevention of flap loss in microsurgical free flap transfer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Liang Pan

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of heparin for thromboprophylaxis during microvascular free flap transfer is uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of heparin on the prevention of flap loss in microsurgical free flap transfer.A search of PubMed, Cochrane databases, and Google Scholar using combinations of the search terms heparin, free flap, flap loss, free tissue transfer was conducted on March 15, 2013. Inclusion criteria were: 1 Prospective randomized trials. 2 Retrospective, non-randomized studies. 3 Patients received free tissue transfer. Flap loss rate was used to evaluate treatment efficacy. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated and compared between therapies. Four studies meet the criteria for analysis and were included. Two studiescompared aspirin and heparin, and the ORs of the 2 studies were 1.688 and 2.087. The combined OR of 2.003 (95% CI 0.976-4.109, p = 0.058 did not indicate any significant difference between heparin and aspirin therapies. Two studiescompared high and low doses of dalteparin/heparin therapies, and the ORs of the 2 studies were 4.691 and 11.00. The combined OR of 7.810 (95% CI 1.859-32.808, p = 0.005 revealed a significant difference indicating that high dose dalteparin or heparin therapy is associated with a greater flap loss rate than low dose therapy. Heparin and aspirin prophylaxis are associated with similar flap loss rates after free flap transfer, and high dose dalteparin or heparin therapy is associated with a greater flap loss rate than low dose therapy.

  12. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 - evaluation of the effect of evidence based patient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Guido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient information (EBPI has been recognised as important tool for informed choice in particular in the matter of preventive options. An objective, on the best scientific evidence-based consumer information about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and primary prevention of diabetes, is not available yet. Thus we developed a web-based EBPI and aim to evaluate its effects on informed decision making in people 50 years or older. Methods/Design We conduct a web-based randomised-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of information about elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention on five specific outcomes: (i knowledge of elevated blood glucose level-related issues (primary outcome; (ii attitudes to a metabolic testing; (iii intention to undergo a metabolic testing; (iv decision conflict; (v satisfaction with the information. The intervention group receives a specially developed EBPI about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention, the control group information about this topic, available in the internet. The study population consists of people between 50 and 69 years of age without known diabetes. Participants will be recruited via the internet page of the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse (TK, and the internet page of the German Diabetes Centre. Outcomes will be measured through online questionnaires. We expect better informed participants in the intervention group. Discussion The design of this study may be a prototype for other web-based prevention information and their evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN22060616.

  13. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Robert A.; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes benefic...

  14. Genetic and pharmacological intervention for treatment/prevention of hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Cotanche, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago it was first demonstrated that birds could regenerate their cochlear hair cells following noise damage or aminoglycoside treatment. An understanding of how this structural and functional regeneration occurred might lead to the development of therapies for treatment of sensorineural hearing loss in humans. Recent experiments have demonstrated that noise exposure and aminoglycoside treatment lead to apoptosis of the hair cells. In birds, this programmed cell death induces the a...

  15. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, J. M.; Schofield, D.; Vlahopoulou, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This paper reports the rheological exa...

  16. Erythropoietin administration partially prevents adipose tissue loss in experimental cancer cachexia models

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Fabio; Busquets, Silvia; Toledo, Miriam; Pin, Fabrizio; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J.; Costelli, Paola; Argilés, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated cachexia is characterized, among other symptoms, by a dramatic loss of both muscle and fat. In addition, the cachectic syndrome is often associated with anemia. The object of the present investigation was to assess the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on experimental cancer cachexia models. The results clearly show that, in addition to the improvement of the hematocrit, EPO treatment promoted a partial preservation of adipose tissue while exerting negligible effects...

  17. 临产凝血四项检测与产时失血量的相关性研究%Research on the Relationship Between the Detection of 4 Indicators of Blood Coagulation and Blood Loss in Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁荣伟; 兰枝; 杨善业; 刘新雄; 宁儒凤

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation and blood loss of pregnant women during the labor. [Methods]Totally 2000 pregnant women in obstetric department of our hospital were selected and divided into natural delivery group and cesarean section group with 1000 cases in each group. Prenatal automated coagulation analyzer was used to detect 4 indicators of blood coagulation. Maternal bleeding volume of parturients at labor was estimated by obstetricians. The relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation and blood loss was analyzed. [Results] There was no relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation at labor and blood loss during natural delivery and cesarean section( P >0. 05) , while the abnormal rate of 4 prenatal indicators of blood coagulation had obvious relation with intrapartum hemorrhage( P 0.05),而产前凝血四项结果异常率与产时出血量多少有明显的相关性(P<0.05);同一孕妇四项结果异常项目越多产程大出血的几率越高.[结论]产前凝血四项结果异常率与产时出血量有一定的相关性,同一孕妇四项结果异常率与出血量明显相关,临床应给予高度重视.

  18. Comparative gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone as assessed by radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A.; Davis, A.; Lussier, Y.; Lebel, E.

    1989-03-01

    Nabumetone differs from most other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is presented to the gut as a nonacidic prodrug, and is metabolized to its active form after absorption. Studies in animals and humans suggest it is less irritating to the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study compared the gastrointestinal microbleeding induced by nabumetone to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), and placebo in a double blind parallel study using chromium /sup 51/Cr labelled red cells to quantitate fecal blood loss (FBL) in healthy volunteers. Thirty subjects were randomized to treatment with nabumetone (2000 mg), ASA (3.6 g) or placebo for 21 days following a 7 day placebo period. Six subjects served as untreated controls. FBL in nabumetone treated subjects was not significantly different to placebo or untreated subjects. In contrast, ASA-treated subjects exhibited significantly increased FBL than the other 3 groups (P less than .0001).

  19. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in posterior lumbar spine surgery for degenerative spinal stenosis with instability: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Stefan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative spinal stenosis and instability requiring multilevel spine surgery has been associated with large blood losses. Factors that affect perioperative blood loss include time of surgery, surgical procedure, patient height, combined anterior/posterior approaches, number of levels fused, blood salvage techniques, and the use of anti-fibrinolytic medications. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in spine surgery. Methods This retrospective case control study includes 97 patients who had to undergo surgery because of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and instability. All operations included spinal decompression, interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation (4-5 segments. Forty-six patients received 1 g tranexamic acid intravenous, preoperative and six hours and twelve hours postoperative; 51 patients without tranexamic acid administration were evaluated as a control group. Based on the records, the intra- and postoperative blood losses were measured by evaluating the drainage and cell saver systems 6, 12 and 24 hours post operation. Additionally, hemoglobin concentration and platelet concentration were reviewed. Furthermore, the number of red cell transfusions given and complications associated with tranexamic acid were assessed. Results The postoperative hemoglobin concentration demonstrated a statistically significant difference with a p value of 0.0130 showing superiority for tranexamic acid use (tranexamic acid group: 11.08 g/dl, SD: 1.68; control group: 10.29 g/dl, SD: 1.39. The intraoperative cell saver volume and drainage volume after 24 h demonstrated a significant difference as well, which indicates a less blood loss in the tranexamic acid group than the control group. The postoperative drainage volume at12 hours showed no significant differences; nor did the platelet concentration Allogenic blood transfusion (two red cell units was needed for eight patients

  20. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Squeo, Valentina; Sangineto, Moris; Graziano, Giusi; Sabbà, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03). None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  1. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Quaranta

    Full Text Available Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03. None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  2. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  3. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made...... in the ITI site (anteriorly), the premolar region just behind the fixtures, and the standard site of the mandible for obtaining reference values of the age-related MBC loss. The increased function of the mandible after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation that minimizes, or in some...

  4. Meditation effects on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow in subjects with memory loss: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Andrew B; Wintering, Nancy; Khalsa, Dharma S; Roggenkamp, Hannah; Waldman, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary study determined if subjects with memory loss problems demonstrate changes in memory and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after a simple 8-week meditation program. Fourteen subjects with memory problems had an IV inserted and were injected with 250 MBq of Tc-99m ECD while listening to a neutral stimulus CD. They then underwent a pre-program baseline SPECT scan. Then subjects were guided through their first meditation session with a CD, during which they received an injection of 925 MBq ECD, and underwent a pre-program meditation scan. Subjects completed an 8-week meditation program and underwent the same scanning protocol resulting in a post-program baseline and meditation scan. A region of interest (ROI) template obtained counts in each ROI normalized to whole brain to provide a CBF ratio. Baseline and meditation scans and neuropsychological testing were compared before and after the program. The meditation program resulted in significant increases (pmemory showed improvements after training. This preliminary study evaluated whether an 8-week meditation program resulted in improvements in neuropsychological function and differences in CBF in subjects with memory loss. While the findings are encouraging, there are a number of limitations that can be addressed in future studies with more participants and more detailed analyses.

  5. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  6. TCF7L2 polymorphism, weight loss and proinsulin:insulin ratio in the diabetes prevention program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available TCF7L2 variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI, and deficits in proinsulin processing and insulin secretion. Here we sought to test whether these effects were apparent in high-risk individuals and modify treatment responses.We examined the potential role of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant in predicting resistance to weight loss or a lack of improvement of proinsulin processing during 2.5-years of follow-up participants (N = 2,994 from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, a randomized controlled trial designed to prevent or delay diabetes in high-risk adults.We observed no difference in the degree of weight loss by rs7903146 genotypes. However, the T allele (conferring higher risk of diabetes at rs7903146 was associated with higher fasting proinsulin at baseline (P<0.001, higher baseline proinsulin:insulin ratio (p<0.0001 and increased proinsulin:insulin ratio over a median of 2.5 years of follow-up (P = 0.003. Effects were comparable across treatment arms.The combination of a lack of impact of the TCF7L2 genotypes on the ability to lose weight, but the presence of a consistent effect on the proinsulin:insulin ratio over the course of DPP, suggests that high-risk genotype carriers at this locus can successfully lose weight to counter diabetes risk despite persistent deficits in insulin production.

  7. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease. PMID:26569295

  8. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  9. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women

  10. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  11. Caffeine administration prevents retinal neuroinflammation and loss of retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Maria H.; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Nadal-Nícolas, Francisco; Ambrósio, António F.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, being characterized by progressive optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), accompanied by increased inflammatory response involving retinal microglial cells. The etiology of glaucoma is still unknown, and despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) being a major risk factor, the exact mechanisms responsible for RGC degeneration remain unknown. Caffeine, which is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Several evidences suggest that caffeine can attenuate the neuroinflammatory responses and afford protection upon central nervous system (CNS) injury. We took advantage of a well characterized animal model of glaucoma to investigate whether caffeine administration controls neuroinflammation and elicits neuroprotection. Caffeine or water were administered ad libitum and ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by laser photocoagulation of the limbal veins in Sprague Dawley rats. Herein, we show that caffeine is able to partially decrease the IOP in ocular hypertensive animals. More importantly, we found that drinking caffeine prevented retinal microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response and attenuated the loss of RGCs in animals with ocular hypertension (OHT). This study opens the possibility that caffeine or adenosine receptor antagonists might be a therapeutic option to manage RGC loss in glaucoma. PMID:27270337

  12. Cost-effectiveness of preventing loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a Cote d'Ivoire appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data from HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings show extensive rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU ranging from 5% to 40% within 6 mo of antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation. Our objective was to project the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent LTFU from HIV care in West Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC International model to project the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of LTFU-prevention programs from a payer perspective. These programs include components such as eliminating ART co-payments, eliminating charges to patients for opportunistic infection-related drugs, improving personnel training, and providing meals and reimbursing for transportation for participants. The efficacies and costs of these interventions were extensively varied in sensitivity analyses. We used World Health Organization criteria of <3x gross domestic product per capita (3x GDP per capita = US$2,823 for Côte d'Ivoire as a plausible threshold for "cost-effectiveness." The main results are based on a reported 18% 1-y LTFU rate. With full retention in care, projected per-person discounted life expectancy starting from age 37 y was 144.7 mo (12.1 y. Survival losses from LTFU within 1 y of ART initiation ranged from 73.9 to 80.7 mo. The intervention costing US$22/person/year (e.g., eliminating ART co-payment would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 12%. An intervention costing US$77/person/year (inclusive of all the components described above would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 41%. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that prevent LTFU in resource-limited settings would substantially improve survival and would be cost-effective by international criteria with efficacy of at least 12%-41%, depending on the cost of intervention, based on a reported 18% cumulative incidence of LTFU at 1 y after ART initiation. The commitment to

  13. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities. PMID:27412981

  14. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. RESULTS: Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  15. The 2014 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Quinn, Robert R; Zarnke, Kelly B; Rabi, Doreen M; Ravani, Pietro; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabkin, Simon W; Trudeau, Luc; Feldman, Ross D; Cloutier, Lyne; Prebtani, Ally; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Gilbert, Richard E; Ruzicka, Marcel; McKay, Donald W; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Bolli, Peter; Wilson, Thomas W; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Gelfer, Mark; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; McLean, Donna; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Burns, Kevin D; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Tremblay, Guy; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Carruthers, S George; Pylypchuk, George B; Burgess, Ellen; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Penner, S Brian; Hegele, Robert A; McFarlane, Philip A; Khara, Milan; Pipe, Andrew; Oh, Paul; Selby, Peter; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra J; Tobe, Sheldon W; Padwal, Raj S; Poirier, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Herein, updated evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in Canadian adults are detailed. For 2014, 3 existing recommendations were modified and 2 new recommendations were added. The following recommendations were modified: (1) the recommended sodium intake threshold was changed from ≤ 1500 mg (3.75 g of salt) to approximately 2000 mg (5 g of salt) per day; (2) a pharmacotherapy treatment initiation systolic blood pressure threshold of ≥ 160 mm Hg was added in very elderly (age ≥ 80 years) patients who do not have diabetes or target organ damage (systolic blood pressure target in this population remains at hypertension to only those ≥ 50 years of age. The 2 new recommendations are: (1) advice to be cautious when lowering systolic blood pressure to target levels in patients with established coronary artery disease if diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 60 mm Hg because of concerns that myocardial ischemia might be exacerbated; and (2) the addition of glycated hemoglobin (A1c) in the diagnostic work-up of patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed. In addition, emerging data on blood pressure targets in stroke patients are discussed; these data did not lead to recommendation changes at this time. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations will continue to be updated annually.

  16. Internal hydraulic redistribution prevents the loss of root conductivity during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Iván; Ryel, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs of the Great Basin desert in Utah are subjected to a prolonged summer drought with the potential consequence of reduced water transport capability of the xylem due to drought-induced cavitation. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is the passive movement of water from deep to shallow soil through plant roots. Hydraulic redistribution can increase water availability in shallow soil and ameliorate drought stress, providing better soil and root water status, which could affect shallow root conductivity (Ks) and native root embolism. We tested this hypothesis in an Artemisia tridentata Nutt. mono-specific stand grown in a common garden in Utah. We enhanced HR artificially by applying a once a week deep-irrigation treatment increasing the water potential gradient between deep and shallow soil layers. Plants that were deep-watered had less negative water potentials and greater stomatal conductance and transpiration rates than non-watered control plants. After irrigation with labeled water (δD), xylem water in stems and shallow roots of watered shrubs was enriched with respect to control shrubs, a clear indication of deep water uptake and HR. Shallow root conductivity was threefold greater and shrubs experienced lower native embolism when deep-watered. We found clear evidence of water transfer between deep and shallow roots through internal HR that delayed depletion of shallow soil water content, maintained Ks and prevented root embolism. Overall, our results show a positive effect of HR on root water transport capacity in otherwise dry soil, with important implications for plant water status. PMID:24436338

  17. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  18. Understanding Challenges and Opportunities of Preventive Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    methods to understand existing challenges and uncover opportunities of self-monitoring technologies to support preventive healthcare activities among older adults. Emerging challenges from our study were: rule complexity for self-measuring, reliability of measurements, interpretation, understanding...... and health awareness, the sharing activity for prevention, motivational factors, the role of the doctor for prevention, older adult’s use of technology, the home as a distributed information space, and visualization of health data. An awareness of these challenges can help designers to develop better tools...... to support people’s preventive self-monitoring needs compared with existing solutions. Furthermore, supporting the active and informed citizen can improve older adult’s care abilities, awareness and activation towards preventive care....

  19. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  20. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  1. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  2. 成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响%The acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion on acute blood loss patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜楠; 洪澄英; 温隽珉; 周志强; 赖旭春

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响.方法:对88例急性失血患者进行输血前及输血后定时血气分析监测,根据血气监测结果分析成分输血对酸碱平衡的影响.结果:观察期间14例患者存在其他影响酸碱平衡因素退出.纳入分析的74例中,44例输血前存在不同程度代谢性酸中毒的患者输血后26例酸中毒消失,17例减轻,1例略加重.74例患者中输血后发生输血相关性碱中毒24例,其24 h内新鲜冰冻血浆(FFP)平均用量2 063 ml,明显高于非碱中毒患者.输血相关性碱中毒的病例未使用酸性药物进行治疗,停止输血后13~48 h自动恢复.结论:急性失血患者输血前大部分存在程度不同的代谢性酸中毒,经有效止血、输血后多能缓解.成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响主要表现为代谢性碱中毒,代谢性酸中毒罕见.输血相关性碱中毒一般为自限性,停止输血后可自行恢复.%Objective:To investigate the acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion on acute blood loss patients. Methods:We detected the blood gas analysis of 88 acute blood loss patients before and after blood component transfusion, to analyze the acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion according to the blood gas analysis. Results:Fourteen patients were quit for the acid-base balance influence of other factors during the observation, Seventy-four patients were bring into the acid-base balance analysis; Among the forty-four patients with different degree acidosis before, Twenty-six patient's acidosis vanished after blood component transfusion,Seventeen patient's acidosis alleviated af-ter blood componenttransfusion, One patient's acidosis aggravated slightly after blood component transfusion;Twenty-four patients had blood transfusion relevent alkalosis in all seventy-four patients after transfusion, And their average usage amount of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was 2 063

  3. Dosing study on the effectiveness of salicylate/N-acetylcysteine for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Coleman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of three different doses of sodium salicylate (SAL in combination with one dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC to prevent noise-induced hearing loss was studied in chinchillas. After obtaining baseline-hearing thresholds, the chinchillas were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: three sets were injected intraperitoneally with 325 mg/kg NAC combined with 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg SAL, and a separate control group was injected with an equal volume of saline. Animals were injected twice daily for 2 days prior to and 1 hour before the noise exposure (6 hours to a 105-dB Standard Pressure Level octave band noise centered at 4 kHz. Immediate post-noise hearing thresholds were obtained followed by post-noise treatments at 1 hour then twice-daily for 2 days. Hearing tests continued at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-noise, and immediately after the last hearing test, animals′ cochleae were stained for hair cell counts. All the groups showed hearing improvement until week 2. However, at week 3, saline treated animals demonstrated a 17-33 dB SPL permanent threshold shift (PTS across the test frequencies. Hearing loss was lowest in the 50 SAL/325 NAC mg/kg group (all frequencies, P < 0.001, and although PTS was reduced in the 25 and 75 mg/kg SAL dosage groups compared to the saline group, only the 75 mg/kg SAL group was significantly different at all but 2 kHz frequency. Coupled with the hearing loss, outer hair cell (OHC loss was maximal in the 4-8 kHz cochlear region of saline treated animals. However, there was a substantial reduction in the mean OHC loss of the NAC plus 50 or 75 mg/kg (but not the 25 mg/kg SAL groups. These findings suggest that SAL in combination with NAC is effective in reducing noise damage to the cochlea, but SAL has a relatively narrow therapeutic dosing window.

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss in agriculture: Creating partnerships to overcome barriers and educate the community on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Ehlers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a common and preventable injury for farmers. Farmers are frequently exposed to excessive noise, ranking among the top three occupations and industries with the highest risk for hearing loss. Use of hearing protection among farmers is not common. Although the age when NIHL begins among farmers is unknown, its prevalence is higher among male adolescents who live and work on farms. The purpose of this paper is to describe how NIOSH created partnerships to promote hearing conservation for this hard-to-reach population. Partnerships included organizations and individuals who were trusted sources of information for the target population, young farmers 14-35 years of age and their families, and those who had linkages in rural communities. NIOSH engaged partners through exhibits and train-the-trainer workshops at state or national conventions. NIOSH workshops included basic information on NIHL as well as information on free or low-lost resources that participants could use in training others at schools and community events. People with hearing conservation expertise have an important role and many opportunities to improve the knowledge and implementation of hearing conservation among those in agriculture.

  5. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Coradi Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM.Methods:This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points, 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points, or 'inadequate' (<50 points. The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points, 'clinical screening' (40 points, 'laboratory screening' (40 points and 'hemovigilance' (15 points.Results:The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78. Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32. The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32. Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.Conclusion:Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with.

  6. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Andrade Nunes

    Full Text Available The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd20Lms/2J and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  7. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marielza Andrade; Schöwe, Natalia Mendes; Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained. PMID:26605788

  8. EFFICACY OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CAESAREAN SECTION IN MULTIGRAVIDA PARTURIENTS: A CASE CONTROLLED PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunavathi Kandappan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy of Tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after the lower segment caesarean section in Multigravida parturients. METHODOLOGY A case controlled prospective study was conducted in 50 multigravida parturient women undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section in our hospital after getting Institutional Ethical Committee approval, over a period of two months. 25 of them were given Tranexamic acid 15 mg/kg immediately before caesarean section. Blood loss was collected and measured during two periods. The first period was from placental delivery to end of LSCS and the second from the end LSCS to 2 hours postpartum. RESULTS Tranexamic acid significantly reduces the quantity of blood loss from the end of LSCS to 2 hours post-partum in multigravida parturients. No complications or side effects are noted in both the groups. CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid significantly reduces the amount of blood loss during and after the lower segment caesarean section in multigravida parturients and its use was not associated with any side effects or complications.

  9. Blood soluble drag-reducing polymers prevent lethality from hemorrhagic shock in acute animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, Marina V; Wu, Zhongjun J; Uraysh, Arkady; Repko, Brandon; Litwak, Kenneth N; Billiar, Timothy R; Fink, Mitchell P; Simmons, Richard L; Griffith, Bartley P; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, blood-soluble drag reducing polymers (DRPs) have been shown to significantly enhance hemodynamics in various animal models when added to blood at nanomolar concentrations. In the present study, the effects of the DRPs on blood circulation were tested in anesthetized rats exposed to acute hemorrhagic shock. The animals were acutely resuscitated either with a 2.5% dextran solution (Control) or using the same solution containing 0.0005% or 5 parts per million (ppm) concentration of one of two blood soluble DRPs: high molecular weight (MW=3500 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG-3500) or a DRP extracted from Aloe vera (AVP). An additional group of animals was resuscitated with 0.0075% (75 ppm) polyethylene glycol of molecular weight of 200 kDa (PEG-200), which possesses no drag-reducing ability. All of the animals were observed for two hours following the initiation of fluid resuscitation or until they expired. We found that infusion of the DRP solutions significantly improved tissue perfusion, tissue oxygenation, and two-hour survival rate, the latter from 19% (Control) and 14% (PEG-200) to 100% (AVP) and 100% (PEG-3500). Furthermore, the Control and PEG-200 animals that survived required three times more fluid to maintain their blood pressure than the AVP and PEG-3500 animals. Several hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these observed beneficial hemodynamic effects of DRPs are discussed. Our findings suggest that the drag-reducing polymers warrant further investigation as a potential clinical treatment for hemorrhagic shock and possibly other microcirculatory disorders.

  10. Relationship of hidden blood loss, implants and sex during the perioperative treatment of elderly intertrochanteric fracture Relationship of hidden blood loss, implants and sex during the perioperative treatment of elderly intertrochanteric fracture%老年股骨转子间骨折围修复期隐性失血量与内固定植入物及性别的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 李振武; 尹锐锋; 李志安

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the continuous renewal and development of clinical repair techniques, the intraoperatie blood loss has been greatly reduced in the treatment of intertrochanteric fracture; however, no matter what kind of repair methods should be adopted, there are stil a large amount of perioperative hidden blood loss, however, there are few clinical reports for the reasons and related factors. OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of perioperative hidden blood loss with gender and internal fixation methods in the surgery of elderly femoral intertrochanteric fractures.METHODS: Total y 121 patients with elderly femoral intertrochanteric fractures who received the treatment at Department of Orthopedics, Nanyang City Center Hospital from March 2010 to June 2013 were divided into two groups according to the condition and treatment wishes of patients, and were respectively treated with dynamic hip screw and proximal femoral anti-rotation intramedul ary nail internal fixation. The preoperative hidden blood loss, postoperative hidden blood loss, the total hidden blood loss, dominant blood loss and total blood loss of patients in these two groups were compared. The multiple linear regression analysis on the correlation of perioperative hidden blood loss with gender and internal fixation methods was conducted. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the preoperative hidden blood loss between these two groups (P > 0.05). The total blood loss, postoperative hidden blood loss and total hidden blood loss in the proximal femoral anti-rotation intramedul ary nail group were significantly higher than those in the dynamic hip screw group (P 0.05);股骨近端防旋髓内钉组患者的总失血量、治疗后隐性失血量及总隐性失血量均明显高于动力髋螺钉组(P <0.05),而显性失血量明显低于动力髋螺钉组(P <0.05)。治疗前、治疗后隐性失血量及总隐性失血量男性均显著低于女性

  11. Correlation between the coverage percentage of prosthesis and postoperative hidden blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Fuqiang; Guo Wanshou; Sun Wei; Li Zirong; Wang Weiguo; Wang Bailiang; Cheng Liming

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between prosthesis coverage and postoperative hidden blood loss (HBL) in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).Methods A total of 120 patients who had undergone unilateral TKA from August 2012 to May 2013 were retrospectively studied.The Gross formula was used to calculate the amount of HBL.Routine standard anteroposterior (AP) and lateral x-ray films of the knee joint were taken postoperatively and used to measure the percentages of coronal femoral and of coronal and sagittal tibial prosthetic coverage.Then Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to assess the correlations between the percentages of prosthetic coverage for each AP and lateral position and HBL on the first and third postoperative days.Results The volumes of HBL on the first and third postoperative days after TKA were (786.5±191.6) ml and (1 256.6±205.1) ml,respectively,and lateral x-ray film measurements of percentages of coronal femoral,tibial coronal,and sagittal prosthetic coverage were (87.9±2.5)%,(88.5±2.2)%,and (89.1±2.3)%,respectively.Pearson's correlation analysis showed statistically significant correlations between percentages of total knee prosthetic coverage for each AP and lateral position and volumes of HBL on the first and third postoperative days (P <0.05).Conclusions HBL after TKA correlates with degree of prosthetic coverage.To some extent,the size of the surfaces exposed by osteotomy determines the amount of HBL.Choice of the appropriate prosthesis can significantly reduce postoperative HBL.Designing individualized prostheses would be a worthwhile development in joint replacement surgery.

  12. Pentylentetrazole-induced loss of blood-brain barrier integrity involves excess nitric oxide generation by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjo, Sonoko; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Masatomo; Nakamura, Yu; Itoh, Kouichi

    2013-09-12

    Dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the major pathophysiological consequences of epilepsy. The increase in the permeability caused by BBB failure is thought to contribute to the development of epileptic outcomes. We developed a method by which the BBB permeability can be demonstrated by gadolinium-enhanced T1 weighted imaging (GdET1WI). The present study examined the changes in the BBB permeability in mice with generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) induced by acute pentylentetrazole (PTZ) injection. At 15min after PTZ-induced GCS, the BBB temporarily leaks BBB-impermeable contrast agent into the parenchyma of the diencephalon, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice, and the loss of BBB integrity was gradually recovered by 24h. The temporary BBB failure is a critical link to the glutamatergic activities that occur following the injection of PTZ. PTZ activates the glutamatergic pathway via the NMDA receptor, then nitric oxide (NO) is generated by NMDA receptor-coupled neuronal NO synthase (nNOS). To examine the influence of nNOS-derived NO induced by PTZ on the increases of the BBB permeability, GdET1WI was performed using conventional nNOS gene-deficient mice with or without PTZ injection. The failure of the BBB induced by PTZ was completely protected by nNOS deficiency in the brain. These results suggest that nNOS-derived excess NO in the glutamatergic pathway plays a key role in the failure of the BBB during PTZ-induced GCS. The levels of NO synthetized by nNOS in the brain may represent an important target for the future development of drugs to protect the BBB. PMID:23831997

  13. Evaluation of Cutaneous Blood Flow During Lower Body Negative Pressure to Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance of Bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is markedly impaired in most of the crewmembers during space flight and could seriously compromise crew safety during and immediately after landing. NASA investigators are studying the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a countermeasure to this intolerance. It is hypothesized that the continuously changing vascular pressure induced by sinusoidal LBNP with an additional countermeasure of salt and water will help crewmembers to be in a more acceptable physiologic condition to enter the earth's atmosphere. In ground based studies, subjects on bedrest provide the model for studying the physiologic effects of weightlessness. When subjects are treated with sinusoidal LBNP, negative pressures ranging from 0 to -60 mm/Hg are administered during a two hour period. This increases body fluids in the legs and lower body. This paper reports the results of two subjects who were placed on bedrest for six days. The subjects were randomly selected for either the control or treatment mode. The subject receiving the treatment mode ingested salt tablets and water on day 4 of the bedrest period. A ramp LBNP of two hours was next administered to this subject. The control subject did not receive anything during the bedrest period. Laser Doppler was used to measure the cutaneous blood flow of the forearm and calf to monitor vasoconstrictor effects of the baroreceptor reflex. Data indicated that skin blood flow in the treatment subject was higher than baseline in the forearm while the skin blood flow was decreased in the control subject.

  14. Radiation-Induced Loss of Salivary Gland Function Is Driven by Cellular Senescence and Prevented by IL6 Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmary, Yitzhak; Adar, Revital; Gaska, Svetlana; Wygoda, Annette; Maly, Alexander; Cohen, Jonathan; Eliashar, Ron; Mizrachi, Lina; Orfaig-Geva, Carmit; Baum, Bruce J; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H

    2016-03-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation commonly suffer from a devastating side effect known as dry-mouth syndrome, which results from the irreversible loss of salivary gland function via mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this study, we used a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction to investigate the outcomes of DNA damage in the head and neck region. We demonstrate that the loss of salivary function was closely accompanied by cellular senescence, as evidenced by a persistent DNA damage response (γH2AX and 53BP1) and the expression of senescence-associated markers (SA-βgal, p19ARF, and DcR2) and secretory phenotype (SASP) factors (PAI-1 and IL6). Notably, profound apoptosis or necrosis was not observed in irradiated regions. Signs of cellular senescence were also apparent in irradiated salivary glands surgically resected from human patients who underwent radiotherapy. Importantly, using IL6 knockout mice, we found that sustained expression of IL6 in the salivary gland long after initiation of radiation-induced DNA damage was required for both senescence and hypofunction. Additionally, we demonstrate that IL6 pretreatment prevented both senescence and salivary gland hypofunction via a mechanism involving enhanced DNA damage repair. Collectively, these results indicate that cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism driving radiation-induced damage in the salivary gland and suggest that IL6 pretreatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to preserve salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26759233

  15. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  16. TEI-3313, a novel prostaglandin A1 derivative, prevents bone loss and enhances bone formation in immobilized male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Azuma, Y; Kanatani, H; Kiyoki, M; Koshihara, Y

    1995-10-01

    The effect of a novel prostaglandin A1 derivative, TEI-3313, with the chemical structure 5-[(Z,2E)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-heptenyridene]-4-hydroxy- 2-methylthio-4-(4-phenoxybutyl)-2-cyclopentenone, on bone mineral content was investigated. Seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats in which the right hindlimbs were immobilized by sciatic nerve dissection received 1, 10, 100 or 500 micrograms of TEI-3313/kg/day, i.p., for 6 weeks. Control animals were operated on but received vehicle only. Bone mineral content of the femur was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Histomorphometric observations were performed on the proximal metaphysial sections of the tibiae. The administration of up to 500 micrograms/kg of TEI-3313 to rats had no effect on body weight or on serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and 1 alpha,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 levels. Immobilization decreased the ash content, calcium content and total bone mineral content of the femur compared with nonimmobilization (unoperated femur). With TEI-3313 administration, changes in these parameters in the immobilized femur were prevented almost to the levels of the nonimmobilized femur, in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancement of bone mineral content was remarkable in the midshaft of the femur. TEI-3313 enhanced ash and calcium content and total bone mineral content in nonimmobilized femurs. Microradiograms showed that TEI-3313, unlike pamidronate and 17 beta-estradiol, had little inhibitory effect on trabecular bone resorption in the proximal portion of the tibia. TEI-3313 not only prevented the bone loss induced by immobilization but also increased bone mass in the nonimmobilized femurs without affecting the levels of 1 alpha,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562584

  17. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  18. Strength Training Prevents Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation Independent of Weight Loss in Fructose-Fed Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezelli, José D.; Coope, Andressa; Ghezzi, Ana C.; Cambri, Lucieli T.; Moura, Leandro P.; Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; Mekary, Rania A.; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic, strength, and combined training on metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet. Wistar rats (120 days old) were randomized into five groups (n = 8–14): C (control diet and sedentary), F (fed the fructose-rich diet and sedentary), FA (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to aerobic exercise), FS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to strength exercise), and FAS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to combined aerobic and strength exercises). After the 8-week experiment, glucose homeostasis, blood biochemistry, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation were evaluated and analyzed. The strength protocol exerted greater effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and liver lipid contents than other protocols (all P < 0.05). All three exercise protocols induced a remarkable reduction in inflammation, tissue triglyceride content, and inflammatory pathways, which was achieved through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and factor nuclear kappa B (NFkB) activation in both the liver and the muscle. Our data suggest that strength training reduced the severity of most of the metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet and could be the most effective strategy to prevent or treat fructose-induced metabolic diseases. PMID:27487746

  19. Strength Training Prevents Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation Independent of Weight Loss in Fructose-Fed Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezelli, José D; Coope, Andressa; Ghezzi, Ana C; Cambri, Lucieli T; Moura, Leandro P; Scariot, Pedro P M; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; Mekary, Rania A; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic, strength, and combined training on metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet. Wistar rats (120 days old) were randomized into five groups (n = 8-14): C (control diet and sedentary), F (fed the fructose-rich diet and sedentary), FA (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to aerobic exercise), FS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to strength exercise), and FAS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to combined aerobic and strength exercises). After the 8-week experiment, glucose homeostasis, blood biochemistry, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation were evaluated and analyzed. The strength protocol exerted greater effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and liver lipid contents than other protocols (all P liver and the muscle. Our data suggest that strength training reduced the severity of most of the metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet and could be the most effective strategy to prevent or treat fructose-induced metabolic diseases. PMID:27487746

  20. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: implications for the prevention of blood borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2005-09-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900's and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana.

  1. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: Implications for the prevention of blood borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900’s and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. PMID:16102372

  2. Efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine in prevention of noise induced hearing loss: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopke, Richard; Slade, Martin D; Jackson, Ronald; Hammill, Tanisha; Fausti, Stephen; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda; Sanderson, Alicia; Dreisbach, Laura; Rabinowitz, Peter; Torre, Peter; Balough, Ben

    2015-05-01

    Despite a robust hearing conservation program, military personnel continue to be at high risk for noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). For more than a decade, a number of laboratories have investigated the use of antioxidants as a safe and effective adjunct to hearing conservation programs. Of the antioxidants that have been investigated, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has consistently reduced permanent NIHL in the laboratory, but its clinical efficacy is still controversial. This study provides a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the safety profile and the efficacy of NAC to prevent hearing loss in a military population after weapons training. Of the 566 total study subjects, 277 received NAC while 289 were given placebo. The null hypothesis for the rate of STS was not rejected based on the measured results. While no significant differences were found for the primary outcome, rate of threshold shifts, the right ear threshold shift rate difference did approach significance (p = 0.0562). No significant difference was found in the second primary outcome, percentage of subjects experiencing an adverse event between placebo and NAC groups (26.7% and 27.4%, respectively, p = 0.4465). Results for the secondary outcome, STS rate in the trigger hand ear, did show a significant difference (34.98% for placebo-treated, 27.14% for NAC-treated, p-value = 0.0288). Additionally, post-hoc analysis showed significant differences in threshold shift rates when handedness was taken into account. While the secondary outcomes and post-hoc analysis suggest that NAC treatment is superior to the placebo, the present study design failed to confirm this. The lack of significant differences in overall hearing loss between the treatment and placebo groups may be due to a number of factors, including suboptimal dosing, premature post-exposure audiograms, or differences in risk between ears or subjects. Based on secondary outcomes and post hoc

  3. The Effect of Silver Nanofibers on the Deformation Properties of Blood Vessels: Towards the Development of New Nanotechnologies to Prevent Rupture of Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An aneurysm is the result of a widening or ballooning of a portion of a blood vessel. The rupture of an aneurysm occurs when the mechanical stress acting on the inner wall exceeds the failure strength of the blood vessel. We propose an innovative approach to prevent the rupture of an aneurysm based on the use of nanotechnology to improve the strength of the blood vessel. We present results on the effect of silver nanofibers on the resistance toward deformation of blood vessels. The silver nanofibers are grown on the surface of the blood vessels. The nanofibers are 120±30 nm in diameter and 2.7±0.8 μm in length. The deformation per applied force of blood vessels was found to decrease from 0.15 m/N in control blood vessels to 0.003 m/N in blood vessels treated with the nanofibers. This represents an increase in the resistance towards deformation of a factor of 50. The increase in the resistance towards deformation is clinically significant since blood pressure increases by factors slightly larger than one in the human body. Treatment of blood vessels with silver nanofibers is a potential translational clinical tool for preventing rupture of aneurysms in a clinical setting.

  4. Analysis of predonation loss of blood donors due to deferrals - in a tertiary care hospital set up

    OpenAIRE

    Shreedevi S Bobati; Vijaya Basavraj; Pallavi Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Context: Blood is a living tissue that is transfused into another human body and hence blood safety is a major issue in transfusion medicine. It is well-known that a large number of apparently healthy donors are deferred from successful blood donation because of varied reasons. They are the potential motivated donors the society is losing. Hence, it is very important to analyze the reasons for deferral and retain the motivated donors. Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the...

  5. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  6. The strength of the biotic compartment to retain nitrogen additions prevents nitrogen losses from a Mediterranean maquis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the nutrients most limiting to ecosystem productivity. However, N availability is increasing globally, which may affect ecosystem functions and stability. To understand the role of each ecosystem compartment in the cycling of increased N, we studied the initial response of a nutrient-poor ecosystem, a Mediterranean maquis, to increased N. N availability (dose and forms was modified by three N additions along the year (spring, summer and middle autumn/winter. Soil inorganic N pools (nitrate in particular strongly reflected the N additions in autumn, almost matching the total N added along the three additions. Cistus ladanifer, the dominant plant species, responded to the increased N (cover and N concentration in leaves and litter, and given that leaf shedding occurs in the summer, the importance of this N pool returning to the soil through litter decomposition on the total soil inorganic N in autumn was investigated. Data suggest that living plants and litter have a crucial role in preventing N losses from Mediterranean maquis. This is the first integrated field study on how European Mediterranean ecosystems retain increased N of different forms and doses, however longer-term studies are needed to explore the generality of this study's observations.

  7. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17β-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy. (orig.)

  8. On the failure of the `Similar Piezoelectric Control' in preventing loss of stability by nonconservative positional forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Annibale, Francesco; Rosi, Giuseppe; Luongo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    A control strategy for continuous, autonomous, linear mechanical systems, controlled via piezoelectric devices, and suffering Hopf bifurcations, triggered by positional nonconservative forces, is discussed. The strategy is based on the `principle of similarity', proved in the literature to be successful in controlling externally excited systems. A continuous metamodel of Piezo-Electro-Mechanical system, loaded by position-dependent forces, is derived via the Extended Hamilton Principle. The similarity principle is introduced in the model, demanding for certain relations among mechanical and piezoelectric properties to be satisfied. A stability analysis is carried out via perturbation methods, also accounting for small deviations from similarity. It is shown that the similar control has always a detrimental effect in preventing the loss of stability of the mechanical systems and that this effect is robust under slight imperfections. As an example, a Generalized Beck beam is studied, internally and externally damped, under the simultaneous action of a follower and a dead load, for which the previous asymptotic results are corroborated by an exact analysis.

  9. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss.

  10. The bisphosphonate zoledronate prevents vertebral bone loss in mature estrogen-deficient rats as assessed by micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatt M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term treatment with the bisphosphonate zoledronate on vertebral bone architecture was investigated in estrogen-deficient mature rats. 4-month-old rats were ovariectomized and development of cancellous osteopenia was assessed after 1 year. The change of bone architectural parameters was determined with a microtomographic instrument of high resolution. After 1 year of estrogen-deficiency, animals lost 55% of vertebral trabecular bone in comparison to sham operated control animals. Trabecular number (Tb.N and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th were significantly reduced in ovariectomized animals, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, bone surface to volume fraction (BS/BV and trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf were significantly increased, indicating a loss of architectural integrity throughout the vertebral body. 3 groups of animals were treated subcutaneously with zoledronate for 1 year with 0.3, 1.5 and 7.5 microgram/kg/week to inhibit osteoclastic bone degradation. Administration started immediately after ovariectomy and treatment dose-dependently prevented the architectural bone deterioration and completely suppressed the effects of estrogen deficiency at the higher doses. The results show that microtomographic determination of static morphometric parameters can be used to quantitate the effects of drugs on vertebral bone architecture in small laboratory animals and that zoledronate is highly effective in this rat model.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borghi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega- 6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasocostrincting rather than vasodilating and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE activity, angiotensin II formation, TGF-beta expression, enhance eNO generation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The final result is improved vasodilation and arterial compliance of both small and large arteries. Preliminary clinical trials involving dyslipidemic patients, diabetics and elderly subjects, as well as normotensive and hypertensive subjects confirm this working hypothesis. Future research will clarify if PUFA supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.

  12. Loss of glucocorticoid receptor expression by DNA methylation prevents glucocorticoid induced apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kay

    Full Text Available Human small cell lung cancer (SCLC is highly aggressive, and quickly develops resistance to therapy. SCLC cells are typically insensitive to glucocorticoids due to impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR expression. This is important as we have previously shown that expression of a GR transgene induces cell death in-vitro, and inhibits tumor growth in-vivo. However, the underlying mechanism for loss of GR expression is unknown. The SCLC cell line, DMS79, has low GR expression, compared to non-SCLC cell lines and normal bronchial epithelial cells. Retroviral GR expression in DMS79 cells caused activation of the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by marked induction of caspase-3 activity. Methylation analysis of the GR promoter revealed some methylation in the 1D, and 1E promoters of the GR gene, however the ubiquitous constitutively active 1C promoter was heavily methylated. In the 1C promoter there was a highly significant increase in DNA methylation in a panel of 14 human SCLC cell lines compared to a mixed panel of GR expressing, and non-expressing cell lines, and to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, within the panel of SCLC cell lines there was a significant negative correlation seen between methylation of the 1C promoter, and GR protein expression. Reversal of GR gene methylation with DNA methyltransferase inhibition caused increased GR mRNA and protein expression in SCLC but not non-SCLC cells. This resulted in increased Gc sensitivity, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased caspase-3 activity in SCLC cells. These data suggest that DNA methylation decreases GR gene expression in human SCLC cells, in a similar manner to that for conventional tumor suppressor genes.

  13. Prevention of motion-induced signal loss in diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging by dynamic restoration of gradient moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumus, Kazim; Keating, Brian; Poser, Benedikt A; Armstrong, Brian; Chang, Linda; Maclaren, Julian; Prieto, Thomas; Speck, Oliver; Zaitsev, Maxim; Ernst, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Head motion is a significant problem in diffusion-weighted imaging as it may cause signal attenuation due to residual dephasing during strong diffusion encoding gradients even in single-shot acquisitions. Here, we present a new real-time method to prevent motion-induced signal loss in DWI o

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Meng; Zheng, Xin-Feng; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate. Objective To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar) in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrosp...

  15. Effect of desmopressin administration on intraoperative blood loss and quality of the surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Hua; Kuang, Li-Ting; Hou, Wei-Jian; Zhang,Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a challenge for the quality of the surgical field for surgeons. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of desmopressin premedication on blood loss and the quality of the surgical field in endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods A total of 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. They were randomly allocated to receive either desmopressin 0.3 μg/k...

  16. 血站非检测不合格血液报废的原因与预防措施%Causes and preventive measures ofdetecting unqualified blood scrapped blood non

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚卢清

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze and evaluate the blood non detecting unqualified blood scrap reason, summing up the relevant preventive measures, in order to reduce the blood bank blood unqualiifed rate and disability rate.Method: select 2013 2014 I stand with the collected blood were 8000 bags and 9000 bags, reasons for detecting unqualiifed blood discarding statistical non, calculate the unqualiifed blood scrap rate.Results: a total of 5062 bags of blood due to the non detecting unqualiifed due to scrap its reasons, including insufifcient blood, blood fat, blood bag, color abnormal blood clots, etc..Conclusion: according to the blood bank blood discarding non unqualiifed phenomenon, blood bank should develop and implement feasible preventive measures, fundamentally reduce unnecessary blood scrap, so as to improve the utilization rate of blood, to ensure that our blood work smoothly.%目的:分析和探讨血站非检测不合格血液报废的原因,总结相关预防措施,以此降低血站所采血液不合格率与报废率。方法选取我站2013年与2014年所采集的血液分别24300袋与25600袋,统计非检测不合格血液报废的原因,计算出不合格血液报废率。结果共有3800袋血液由于非检测不合格导致报废,其原因包括采血量不足、脂肪血、采血袋破损、颜色异常、血凝块等。结论针对血站非检测不合格血液报废现象,血站应制定并实施切实可行的预防措施,从根本上降低不必要的血液报废,从而提高血液利用率,确保我国血站工作顺利进行。

  17. [Image and quantity analysis of prostaglandin in rats' blood plasma and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in their cerebellum during the prevention of motion sickness by cinnarizine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W; Tian, D; Zhang, M

    1998-06-01

    To study the mechanism of cinnarizine in preventing motion sickness, TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha in rats' blood plasma and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the endothelial cells of their cerebellar capillary were measured and analysed by a radioactive immunity analyser and a computer image system. The results showed that TXB2 and 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha in rats' blood plasma in the cinnarizine preventing group (CPG) decreased remarkably, compared with those in the motion sickness group(MSG) (p < 0.05). The activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the endothelial cells of rats' cerebellar capillary in CPG was higher than that in MSG (p < 0.01). The authors suggest that the lower concentration of TXB2 and 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha in rats' blood plasma in CPG is closely related to cinnarizine which prevents Ca2+ from entering into the platelets and into the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The higher activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the cerebellum may be caused by cinnarizene which dilates the blood vessels in the brain, increases the blood flow therein, and hinders Ca2+ from getting into the cerebellum cells. These change are believed to be the important mechanism of how cinnarizine prevents motion sickness. PMID:12548903

  18. Elcatonin prevents bone loss caused by skeletal unloading by inhibiting preosteoclast fusion through the unloading-induced high expression of calcitonin receptors in bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Manabu; Menuki, Kunitaka; Murai, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Takada, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether elcatonin (EL) has a preventive action on bone dynamics in skeletal unloading. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with either ground control (GC) or tail suspension (TS) were administered EL 20U/kg or a vehicle (veh) three times per week and assigned to one of the following four groups: GCEL, GCveh, TSEL, and TSveh. Blood samples and bilateral femurs and tibias of the mice were obtained for analysis. After 7days of unloading, the trabecular bone mineral density in the distal femur obtained via peripheral quantitative computed tomography and the trabecular bone volume were significantly higher in the TSEL group than in the TSveh group. The bone resorption histomorphometric parameters, such as the osteoclast surface and osteoclast number, were significantly suppressed in the TSEL mice, whereas the number of preosteoclasts was significantly increased. The plasma level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) was significantly lower in the TSEL group than in all other groups. In the bone marrow cell culture, the number of TRACP-positive (TRACP(+)) multinucleated cells was significantly lower in the TSEL mice than in the TSveh mice, whereas the number of TRACP(+) mononucleated cells was higher in the TSEL mice. On day 4, the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V0 domain (ATP6V0D2) mRNA in the bone marrow cells in the TSEL mice was suppressed, and the expression of calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA on day 1 and Calcr antigen on day 4 were significantly higher in the TSveh mice than in the GCveh mice. EL prevented the unloading-induced bone loss associated with the high expression of Calcr in the bone marrow cells of mouse hindlimbs after tail suspension, and it suppressed osteoclast development from preosteoclasts to mature osteoclasts through bone-resorbing activity. This study of EL-treated unloaded mice provides the

  19. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  20. Prevention of bone loss by injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 after sciatic neurectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai-biao; CHEN Jun-chang

    2013-01-01

    Injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can prevent bone loss in sciatic nerve transaction rats.We try to investigate the action mechanism of IGF-1 on bone formation.Methods:A total of 40 adult male Spragne-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (experimental group and control group) with 20 animals in each.Sciatic neurectomy was performed to model disuse osteoporosis in all rats.IGF-1was administered in experimental group with the dose of 100 μg/kg per day for 3 days.Meanwhile,the rats in control group were treated with saline.Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy respectively.Expression of Osterix and Runx2 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.Results:There was a significant increase in the bone mineral density of experimental group compared with control group.There was a significant decrease in the level of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B-ligand but an increase in the level of osteoprotegerin 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy in the experimental group compared with control one.The expression of Osterix and Runx2 was up-regulated in the bone marrow of experimental group compared with control group.Conclusion:IGF-1 can increase bone formation by stimulation of osteoblast number and activity,and reduce bone resorption by restriction of differentiation of osteoclast,suggesting that IGF-1 may improve the therapeutic efficacy for disuse osteoporosis.

  1. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation and Absence of Galectin-3 Prevent Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction during Short-Term Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canning

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB occurs early in diabetes and is central to the development of sight-threatening diabetic macular edema (DME as retinopathy progresses. In the current study, we examined how advanced glycation end products (AGEs forming early in diabetes could modulate vasopermeability factor expression in the diabetic retina and alter inter-endothelial cell tight junction (TJ integrity leading to iBRB dysfunction. We also investigated the potential for an AGE inhibitor to prevent this acute pathology and examined a role of the AGE-binding protein galectin-3 (Gal-3 in AGE-mediated cell retinal pathophysiology. Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 wild-type (WT mice and in Gal-3−/− transgenic mice. Blood glucose was monitored and AGE levels were quantified by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. The diabetic groups were subdivided, and one group was treated with the AGE-inhibitor pyridoxamine (PM while separate groups of WT and Gal-3−/− mice were maintained as nondiabetic controls. iBRB integrity was assessed by Evans blue assay alongside visualisation of TJ protein complexes via occludin-1 immunolocalization in retinal flat mounts. Retinal expression levels of the vasopermeability factor VEGF were quantified using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. WT diabetic mice showed significant AGE -immunoreactivity in the retinal microvasculature and also showed significant iBRB breakdown (P<.005. These diabetics had higher VEGF mRNA and protein expression in comparison to controls (P<.01. PM-treated diabetics had normal iBRB function and significantly reduced diabetes-mediated VEGF expression. Diabetic retinal vessels showed disrupted TJ integrity when compared to controls, while PM-treated diabetics demonstrated near-normal configuration. Gal-3−/− mice showed significantly less diabetes-mediated iBRB dysfunction, junctional disruption, and VEGF expression changes than their WT counterparts. The data suggests an AGE

  2. Preventive administration of cromakalim reduces aquaporin-4 expression and blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shilei Wang; Yanting Wang; Yan Jiang; Qingxian Chang; Peng Wang; Shiduan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Cromakalim, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, exhibits protective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, there is controversy as to whether this effect is associated with aquaporin-4 and blood-brain barrier permeability. Immunohistochemistry results show that preventive administration of cromakalim decreased aquaporin-4 and IgG protein expression in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury; it also reduced blood-brain barrier permeability, and alleviated brain edema, ultimately providing neuroprotection.

  3. Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gillian; Heath Wallace, Rachel; Cameron, Amy; Emrah Ozel, Rifat; Hongay, Cintia F; Baral, Reshica; Andreescu, Silvana; Wallace, Kenneth N

    2013-04-15

    The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This choice has previously been demonstrated to involve Notch signaling as well as Atonal and Her transcription factors in both embryogenesis and adults. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the atoh1 in mammals, ascl1a is responsible for formation of secretory cells in zebrafish. ascl1a-/- embryos lack all intestinal epithelial secretory cells and instead differentiate into enterocytes. ascl1a-/- embryos also fail to induce intestinal epithelial expression of deltaD suggesting that ascl1a plays a role in initiation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling increases the number of ascl1a and deltaD expressing intestinal epithelial cells as well as the number of developing secretory cells during two specific time periods: between 30 and 34hpf and again between 64 and 74hpf. Loss of enteroendocrine products results in loss of anterograde motility in ascl1a-/- embryos. 5HT produced by enterochromaffin cells is critical in motility and secretion within the intestine. We find that addition of exogenous 5HT to ascl1a-/- embryos at near physiological levels (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) induce anterograde motility at similar levels to wild type velocity, distance, and frequency. Removal or doubling the concentration of 5HT in WT embryos does not significantly affect anterograde motility, suggesting that the loss of additional enteroendocrine products in ascl1a-/- embryos also contributes to intestinal motility. Thus, zebrafish intestinal epithelial cells appear to have a common secretory progenitor from which all subtypes form. Loss of enteroendocrine cells reveals the critical need for enteroendocrine products in maintenance of normal intestinal motility.

  4. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  5. The combined effect of administration of intravenous and topical tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion rate in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z. F.; Yin, H.; Xing, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent used as a blood-sparing technique in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and is routinely administered by intravenous (IV) or intra-articular (IA) injection. Recently, a novel method of TXA administration, the combined IV and IA application of TXA, has been applied in TKA. However, the scientific evidence of combined administration of TXA in TKA is still meagre. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of combined IV and IA TXA in patients undergoing TKA. Materials and Methods A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, the Cochrane Clinical Trial Register (Issue12 2015), Embase, Web of Science and the Chinese Biomedical Database. Only randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy and safety of combined use TXA in TKA were identified. Two authors independently identified the eligible studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software. Results A total of ten RCTs (1143 patients) were included in this study. All the included studies were randomised and the quality of included studies still needed improvement. The results indicated that, compared with either placebo or the single-dose TXA (IV or IA) group, the combination of IV and IA TXA group had significantly less total blood loss, hidden blood loss, total drain output, a lower transfusion rate and a lower drop in haemoglobin level. There were no statistically significant differences in complications such as wound infection and deep vein thrombosis between the combination group and the placebo or single-dose TXA group. Conclusions Compared with placebo or the single-dose TXA, the combined use of IV and IA TXA provided significantly better results with respect to all outcomes related to post-operative blood loss without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications in TKA. Cite this article: Z. F. Yuan, H. Yin, W. P. Ma

  6. Case study: Atlantis Systems International - Using KM principles to drive productivity and performance, prevent critical knowledge loss and encourage innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    necessarily produce innovation in the form of new products and services or in the continual improvement of work flows. Innovation at this level requires the creation of a knowledge building culture where the explicit goal for everyone in the organization is to continuously build and contribute new knowledge to the benefit of both the individual and the organization. By 2007, Atlantis revenues had grown by over 200%; the workforce increased from 102 employees to approx 210 employees; retention rates have remained consistent at 3% over a three year period, and the business has expanded its operations into the United States. In addition the company successfully leveraged its knowledge and expertise in training from the aerospace sector to enter the nuclear energy sector. The paper will present a conceptual framework for understanding Knowledge Management as it relates to organizational development, change management and innovation. Using concrete examples over a 3 three period, it will describe how knowledge management strategies applied by Atlantis to increase performance and profitability, encourage growth, accelerate innovation, attract and retain key talent, prevent knowledge loss, can be applied to the address the looming 'Grey Out' of the nuclear energy sector. (author)

  7. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  8. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  9. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  10. 防止兔毛掉毛方法及机理研究%METHORD AND RESEARCH ON THE MECHANISM TO PREVENT RABBIT HAIR LOSS FORM FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建伟; 李天恒; 张丽霞

    2000-01-01

    解决兔毛织物掉毛是目前世界性难题.本研究在保证兔毛风格前题下,找到了解决掉毛问题的关键,并分析了兔毛掉落的机理和防止掉毛的重要因素.从而提出一种新的防掉毛方法,即热熔粘合法,为兔毛生产打通了一条新的途径.%At present, the solution of rabbit hair loss form fabric is a difficult problem in the world[1]. On the basis of keeping rabbit hair style, a new method of thermo-bonding process to prevent rabbit hair loss was presented. and the rabbit hair loss can be reduced greatly by over 50%.

  11. Relationships Between Selected Gene Polymorphisms and Blood Pressure Sensitivity to Weight Loss in Elderly Persons With Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Kostis, William J; Cabrera, Javier; Hooper, W. Craig; Whelton, Paul K.; Espeland, Mark A.; Cosgrove, Nora M.; Cheng, Jerry Q; Deng, Yingzi; De Staerck, Christine; Pyle, Meredith; Maruthur, Nisa; Reyes, Ingrid; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Liu, Jie; Kostis, John B

    2013-01-01

    Salt sensitivity, the heterogeneity in the response of blood pressure (BP) to alterations in sodium intake, has been studied extensively, whereas weight sensitivity, the heterogeneity in BP response to weight change, has received scant attention. We examined the relationship of 21 gene polymorphisms previously found to be associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity, with weight sensitivity in the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly, where participants with h...

  12. Memory enhancing drugs and Alzheimer’s Disease: Enhancing the self or preventing the loss of it?

    OpenAIRE

    Dekkers, Wim; Rikkert, Marcel Olde

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyse some ethical and philosophical questions related to the development of memory enhancing drugs (MEDs) and anti-dementia drugs. The world of memory enhancement is coloured by utopian thinking and by the desire for quicker, sharper, and more reliable memories. Dementia is characterized by decline, fragility, vulnerability, a loss of the most important cognitive functions and even a loss of self. While MEDs are being developed for self-improvement, in Alzheimer’s Disease ...

  13. Pioglitazone Treatment Increases Survival and Prevents Body Weight Loss in Tumor–Bearing Animals: Possible Anti-Cachectic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B.; Henriques, Felipe S.; Rogério A L Sertié; Franco, Felipe O.; Kaltinaitis B Santos; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S.; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Farmer, Stephen R.; Seelaender, Marília; Fábio B Lima; Batista Jr., Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglita...

  14. Treadmill exercise prevents GABAergic neuronal loss with suppression of neuronal activation in the pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Baek-Vin; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by seizure and loss of neuronal cells by abnormal rhythmic firing of neurons in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal loss in relation with neuronal activation using pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: control group, control and treadmill exercise group, pilocarpine-induced epilepsy group, and pilocarpine-i...

  15. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  16. A comparison of outlet boundary treatments for prevention of backflow divergence with relevance to blood flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Bazilevs, Yuri; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.; Marsden, Alison L.

    2011-09-01

    Simulation divergence due to backflow is a common, but not fully addressed, problem in three-dimensional simulations of blood flow in the large vessels. Because backflow is a naturally occurring physiologic phenomenon, careful treatment is necessary to realistically model backflow without artificially altering the local flow dynamics. In this study, we quantitatively compare three available methods for treatment of outlets to prevent backflow divergence in finite element Navier-Stokes solvers. The methods examined are (1) adding a stabilization term to the boundary nodes formulation, (2) constraining the velocity to be normal to the outlet, and (3) using Lagrange multipliers to constrain the velocity profile at all or some of the outlets. A modification to the stabilization method is also discussed. Three model problems, a short and long cylinder with an expansion, a right-angle bend, and a patient-specific aorta model, are used to evaluate and quantitatively compare these methods. Detailed comparisons are made to evaluate robustness, stability characteristics, impact on local and global flow physics, computational cost, implementation effort, and ease-of-use. The results show that the stabilization method offers a promising alternative to previous methods, with reduced effect on both local and global hemodynamics, improved stability, little-to-no increase in computational cost, and elimination of the need for tunable parameters.

  17. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group – its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Salih Jaff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. Blood and saliva from 762 randomly selected apparently healthy adult individuals (480 men and 282 women were examined to determine their ABO and Rhesus blood groups by standard conventional methods, and their secretor status by using Lewis blood grouping and/or hemagglutination inhibition test of saliva. Results showed that 76.1% of the study population were ABH blood group antigens secretors and 23.9% were nonsecretors. The frequencies of secretor status in different ABO blood groups were 70.1% in group A, 67.8% in group B, 67.9% in group AB, and 88.3% in group O. In conclusion, blood group O individuals have significantly higher frequency of secretor status than non-O blood group individuals. This finding would be beneficial to them, protecting them, at least partially, from certain malignancies or allowing them to have less aggressive disease, and this finding might be useful in enhancing further studies and research in this direction.Keywords: blood group O, ABO blood groups, secretor phenotype, frequency, malignancies, prevention and/or treatment

  18. Comparison of Effects of Labetalol and Nitroglycerine on Intraoperative Blood Loss and Surgical Field Quality in Rhinoplasty Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hadavi, Mohamad Reza; Zarei, Yadollah; Tarogh, Shojaolhagh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rhinoplasty is one of the most common surgeries of the plastic surgery and as well as ear, throat and nose. Intra-operative bleeding during surgery is one of the most important factors that may impair the surgeon’s job. Providing a clean blood-free surgical filed makes the operation faster, easier and with a better quality. One way to achieve this goal is to induce hypotension. This study aimed to compare the impacts and outcomes of administration of labetalol or nitroglycerin for ...

  19. Availability and Accessibility of Student-Specific Weight Loss Programs and Other Risk Prevention Health Services on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sharon; Napolitano, Melissa; Hufnagel, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Background More than one third of college students who are overweight or obese are in need of weight loss programs tailored to college students. However, the availability and accessibility of these programs is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the availability and ease of access to weight loss programs for students at 10 universities with the largest undergraduate enrollment. Methods The 10 public universities with the largest student bodies with a mean (SD) undergraduate enrollment of 41,122 (7657) students were examined. The websites of the universities were assessed to determine the availability of weight loss programs. Services for high-risk health needs common to university campuses (ie, alcohol and other drugs, victim services, sexual health, and eating disorders) were searched. Results Of the universities searched, 3 (30%, 3/10) offered weight loss programming, however, none met the predetermined criteria. Comparatively, all schools (100%, 10/10) offered no-cost and continual enrollment programming for the other high-risk health needs. Conclusions There are limited weight loss services available to undergraduate students compared with other university services. Collaboration between existing college health service providers is suggested for the delivery of appropriate programming for overweight and obese undergraduates wanting to lose weight. PMID:27278261

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Agents in Reducing Perioperative Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    Full Text Available Routine use of antifibrinolytic agents in spine surgery is still an issue of debate.To gather scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents including aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, traditionally known as Amicar in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in scoliosis surgery.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs, retrospective case-control studies, and retrospective cohort studies on the use of antifibrinolytic agents in scoliosis surgery by searching in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials of papers published from January 1980 through July 2014. Safety of the antifibrinolytic agents was evaluated in all included studies, while efficacy was evaluated in RCTs.Eighteen papers with a total of 1,158 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Among them, 8 RCTs with 450 patients were included for evaluation of pharmacologic efficacy (1 RCT was excluded because of a lack of standard deviation data. Mean blood loss was reduced in patients with perioperative use of antifibrinolytic agents by 409.25 ml intraoperatively (95% confidence interval [CI], 196.57-621.94 ml, 250.30 ml postoperatively (95% CI, 35.31-465.30, and 601.40 ml overall (95% CI, 306.64-896.16 ml. The mean volume of blood transfusion was reduced by 474.98 ml (95% CI, 195.30-754.67 ml. The transfusion rate was 44.6% (108/242 in the patients with antifibrinolytic agents and 68.3% (142/208 in the patients with placebo. (OR 0.38; 95% CI; 0.25-0.58; P<0.00001, I2 = 9%. All studies were included for evaluation of safety, with a total of 8 adverse events reported overall (4 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group.The systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that aprotinin, TXA, and EACA all significantly reduced perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements

  1. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi; Peterson Cadore; Andrea Gallon; Soraia Almeida Watanabe Imanishi

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the cross-contamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tes...

  2. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  3. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. PMID:25564274

  4. Prevention of Paclitaxel-induced allodynia by Minocycline: Effect on loss of peripheral nerve fibers and infiltration of macrophages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen-Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although paclitaxel is a frontline antineoplastic agent for treatment of solid tumors, the paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is a serious problem for patients. There is currently no valid drug to prevent or treat the paclitaxel-induced allodynia, partly due to lack of understanding regarding the cellular mechanism. Studies have shown that minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia/macrophage, prevented neuropathic pain and promoted neuronal survival in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, Cata et al also reported that minocycline inhibited allodynia induced by low-dose paclitaxel (2 mg/kg in rats, but the mechanism is still unclear. Results Here, we investigate by immunohistochemistry the change of intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin, expression of macrophage and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 in DRG at different time points after moderate-dose paclitaxel treatment (cumulative dose 24 mg/kg; 3 × 8 mg/kg in rats. Moreover, we observe the effect of minocycline on the IENF, macrophages and ATF3. The results showed that moderate-dose paclitaxel induced a persisted, gradual mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by the loss of IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin and up-regulation of macrophages and ATF3 in DRG in rats. The expressions of ATF3 mainly focus on the NF200-positive cells. More importantly, we observed that pretreatment of minocycline at dose of 30 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, prevented paclitaxel-evoked allodynia. The evidence from immunohistochemistry showed that 30 mg/kg minocycline rescued the degeneration of IENF, attenuated infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 induced by paclitaxel treatment in rats. Conclusions Minocycline prevents paclitaxel-evoked allodynia, likely due to its inhibition on loss of IENF, infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 in rats. The finding might provide potential target for preventing paclitaxel

  5. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A;

    1998-01-01

    to one of five regimens: oral placebo; oral alendronate, 1, 5, or 10 mg/d; or oral alendronate, 20 mg/d for 2 years followed by placebo during the third year (20/0 mg/d). MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover and bone quality were assessed...... with biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry. RESULTS: Alendronate at 5, 10, and 20/0 mg/d increased bone mineral density from baseline at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter by 1% to 4% and in the total body by 0.3% to 1.0%; placebo led to losses of 2% to 4% at these sites....... Alendronate, 1 mg/d, attenuated losses relative to those seen with placebo. Alendronate decreased markers of bone resorption to a new steady state by 3 months and decreased markers of bone formation by 6 to 12 months. Bone quality remained normal. At all dosages studied, alendronate had a safety and...

  6. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  7. Trimegestone in a low-dose, continuous-combined hormone therapy regimen prevents bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Spielman, Danièle;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of estrogen + progestogen therapy with 1 mg 17beta-estradiol and 0.125 mg trimegestone in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: For this study, 360 healthy, postmenopausal women with osteopenia [lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) between ...

  8. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes...

  9. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Sarah L; Good, Craig A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB) would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36) were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass) into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis) were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX. PMID:22590551

  10. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Manske

    Full Text Available High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX. Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36 were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight weeks old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containin...

  12. Research on two specimens policy with blood transfusion management system in prevention incompatible blood%二次血型制配合输血管理系统阻止不相容血液发放的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远杰; 刘家瑞; 李红梅; 冯宁; 冯俊程; 杨晓丽

    2015-01-01

    次血型鉴定错误的血样中,如果根据这些血液样本的血型鉴定结果发放血液,其中3份可导致急性溶血性输血反应,存在输血安全风险(25%,3/12).采用2次血型制,每年可避免约1次血型不相容输血.血袋因采、供血机构已进行多次血型检测、复核,其安全风险无法用具体数据评估.结论 2次血型检测制配合输血管理系统能防止不相容血液的发放,大幅减低输血安全风险.%Objective To investigate the role and significance of two specimens policy cooperated with blood transfusion management system in the prevention of incompatible blood.Methods From March 2011 to June 2014,a total of 120 962 blood samples from outpatients and inpatients in Suining Central Hospital and 24 963 blood bags (suspended red blood cells) were collected into this study,as research objects.Inclusion criteria:no damage and leakage,no exception to the naked eye;Exclusion criteria:pollution.The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human at Suining Central Hospital.Patients' blood samples were carried out twice independent blood group appraisals,respectively,as the initial blood grouping and second blood grouping.At the same time,the blood group appraisal and the irregular antibody screening of the blood bags were carried out.All data input into the blood transfusion management system,and the blood transfusion management system automatically compared these entry data.If twice blood group appraisal results were consistent,and irregular antibody screening results were negative,the blood can be extended.Otherwise,blood transfusion management system could prevent to extend blood,and issue a warning.Twice blood grouping error rates were computed and corrected.Blood samples of which twice blood group appraisals cannot match were tested again,to distinguish between initial sample error and second sample error.Blood transfusion safety risks were computed.Blood bags of which

  13. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  14. Design a Close Loop Cooling System for EA-P1 and Its Auxiliaries to Prevent Loss of Domestic Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any one of four machines i.e. EA-P1, EA-J4, EA-J5 and EA-J6 may be used to develop vacuum in water box side of main condenser in KANUPP. As per design and operating experience, most efficient one is EA-P1. But since it consumes ample quantity of domestic water which is already very short at KANUPP (even tankers are purchased), its use is avoided. If water used for its cooling is prevented from going to waste and is recycled. EA-P1 operation may be resumed thereby improving efficiency of condenser. We made a close loop for EA-P1 in order to prevent water from going to waste. For this purpose we suggested two close loop schemes and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Feasibility of both schemes is present in this report and efficient one is proposed for installation at KANUPP. (author)

  15. Involvement of periostin-sclerostin-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the prevention of neurectomy-induced bone loss by naringin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Ma, Xinlong; Xing, Guosheng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Lei; Wang, Jianbao; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun

    2015-12-25

    Periostin has an essential role in mechanotransduction in bone. Naringin, a natural flavonoid, has been evidenced for its osteoprotective role in osteoporosis, while its mechanism is far from clear. Here we show that down-regulation of periostin, and up-regulation of its downstream sclerostin and inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling were implicated in neurectomy-induced bone loss. Naringin could up-regulate periostin and prevent neurectomy-induced deterioration of BMD, trabecular microstructure and bone mechanical characteristics. In conclusion, naringin could prevent progress of disuse osteoporosis in rats, which may be mediated by increased periostin expression and subsequently inhibition of sclerostin and activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:26541456

  16. Hidden blood loss in total knee arthroplasty under high negative pressure drainage%全膝关节置换后高负压引流下的隐性失血

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻长纯; 杨明路; 杜兴升

    2013-01-01

    背景:通常评价关节置换患者出血量主要是记录置换中的出血量和置换后的引流量,这些只是显性失血量,研究表明隐性失血量可达到并超过总量的50%。  目的:比较全膝关节置换高负压引流和普通负压引流失血量,评价高负压引流对全膝关节置换隐性失血的影响。  方法:60例单侧全膝人工关节置换患者根据置换后采用的负压吸引不同分为高负压引流组和普通负压引流组(对照组),每组30例。通过Gross方程推算,对膝关节置换后总失血量(显性失血量+隐性失血最)和输血量进行分析,并对两组置换后并发症及功能恢复状况进行比较。  结果与结论:高负压引流组患者总失血量为(646±184) mL,隐性失血量为(215±128) mL;对照组患者总失血量为(867±296) mL,隐性失血量(457±268) mL;高负压引流组总失血量及隐性失血量均明显少于对照组(P METHODS:A total of 60 patients undergoing lateral total knee arthroplasty were equal y divided into high negative pressure drainage group and conventional drainage group (control group). We calculated the total blood loss (dominant blood loss and hidden blood loss) and blood transfusion amount with the Gross equation. The recovery after surgery and complications were compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:In high negative pressure drainage group, the total blood loss was (646±184) mL and the hidden blood loss was (215±128) mL. In the control group, the total blood loss was (867±296) mL and the hidden blood loss was (457±268) mL. The total blood loss and hidden blood loss in the high negative pressure drainage group were significantly less than those in the control group (P<0.05). The average blood transfusion amount was 224 mL in the high negative pressure drainage group and 467 mL in the control group. Fol owing unilateral total knee arthroplasty, total blood loss, hidden blood loss and blood transfusion

  17. Cocoa-rich diet attenuates beta cell mass loss and function in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats by preventing oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Ramos, Sonia; Escrivá, Fernando; Alvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Angeles

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that cocoa flavanols may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. In this work, we investigated if a cocoa-rich diet is able to preserve beta-cell mass and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding during the prediabetic state attenuates hyperglycaemia, reduces insulin resistant, and increases beta cell mass and function in obese Zucker diabetic rats. At the molecular level, cocoa-rich diet prevented beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-xL and decreasing Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Cocoa diet enhanced the activity of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mainly glutathione peroxidase, preventing thus oxidative injury induced by the pre-diabetic condition and leading to apoptosis prevention. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may delay the loss of functional beta-cell mass and delay the progression of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress and beta-cell apoptosis.

  18. Cocoa-rich diet attenuates beta cell mass loss and function in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats by preventing oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Ramos, Sonia; Escrivá, Fernando; Alvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Angeles

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that cocoa flavanols may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. In this work, we investigated if a cocoa-rich diet is able to preserve beta-cell mass and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding during the prediabetic state attenuates hyperglycaemia, reduces insulin resistant, and increases beta cell mass and function in obese Zucker diabetic rats. At the molecular level, cocoa-rich diet prevented beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-xL and decreasing Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Cocoa diet enhanced the activity of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mainly glutathione peroxidase, preventing thus oxidative injury induced by the pre-diabetic condition and leading to apoptosis prevention. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may delay the loss of functional beta-cell mass and delay the progression of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress and beta-cell apoptosis. PMID:25559866

  19. BRCA1 loss pre-existing in small subpopulations of prostate cancer is associated with advanced disease and metastatic spread to lymph nodes and peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, Natalia; Eltze, Elke; Semjonow, Axel; Rink, Michael; Andreas, Antje; Mulder, Lennart; Hannemann, Juliane; Fisch, Margit; Pantel, Klaus; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Brandt, Burkhard

    2010-03-19

    A recent study concluded that serum prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based screening is beneficial for reducing the lethality of PCa, but was also associated with a high risk of 'overdiagnosis'. Nevertheless, also PCa patients who suffered from organ confined tumors and had negative bone scans succumb to distant metastases after complete tumor resection. It is reasonable to assume that those tumors spread to other organs long before the overt manifestation of metastases. Our current results confirm that prostate tumors are highly heterogeneous. Even a small subpopulation of cells bearing BRCA1 losses can initiate PCa cell regional and distant dissemination indicating those patients which might be at high risk of metastasis. A preliminary study performed on a small cohort of multifocal prostate cancer (PCa) detected BRCA1 allelic imbalances (AI) among circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The present analysis was aimed to elucidate the biological and clinical role of BRCA1 losses on metastatic spread and tumor progression in prostate cancer patients. Experimental Design: To map molecular progression in PCa outgrowth we used FISH analysis of tissue microarrays (TMA), lymph node sections and CTC from peripheral blood. We found that 14% of 133 tested patients carried monoallelic BRCA1 loss in at least one tumor focus. Extended molecular analysis of chr17q revealed that this aberration was often a part of larger cytogenetic rearrangement involving chr17q21 accompanied by AI of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and lack of the BRCA1 promoter methylation. The BRCA1 losses correlated with advanced T stage (p < 0.05), invasion to pelvic lymph nodes (LN, p < 0.05) as well as BR (p < 0.01). Their prevalence was twice as high within 62 LN metastases (LNMs) as in primary tumors (27%, p < 0.01). The analysis of 11 matched primary PCa-LNM pairs confirmed the suspected transmission of genetic abnormalities between those two sites. In 4 of 7 patients with metastatic disease, BRCA1

  20. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments.

  1. Preventing and reversing vacuum-induced optical losses in high-finesse tantalum (V) oxide mirror coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Chuang, Isaac; Gutierrez, Michael Steven; Jelenkovic, Branislav; Vuletic, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    High-finesse optical cavities placed under vacuum are foundational platforms in quantum information science with photons and atoms. We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO[subscript 2]-Ta[subscript 2]O[subscript 5] dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial low loss levels. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous ...

  2. Preventing and Reversing Vacuum-Induced Optical Losses in High-Finesse Tantalum (V) Oxide Mirror Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenković, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred opti...

  3. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and <2 ng/ml, respectively) had the highest PPL (76.3%; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, PPL was higher in cows with advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments. PMID:27198072

  4. Selective inhibition of NF-κB activation prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Roy, Avik; Liu, Xiaojuan; Kordower, Jeffrey H.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Hartley, Dean M.; Ghosh, Sankar; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E; Pahan, Kalipada

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is available to stop its onset or halt its progression. The present study evaluates the ability of peptide corresponding to the NF-κB essential modifier-binding domain (NBD) of IκB kinase α (IKKα) or IKKβ to prevent nigrostriatal degeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD and establish a role for NF-κB in human parki...

  5. Inhibition of Leptin-ObR Interaction Does not Prevent Leptin Translocation Across a Human Blood-Brain Barrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carter, D; Goode, A E; Fiammengo, R; Dunlop, I E; Dexter, D T; Porter, A E

    2016-06-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin regulates appetite and energy homeostasis through the activation of leptin receptors (ObR) on hypothalamic neurones; hence, leptin must be transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach its target sites in the central nervous system. During obesity, however, leptin BBB transport is decreased, in part precluding leptin as a viable clinical therapy against obesity. Although the short isoform of the ObR (ObRa) has been implicated in the transport of leptin across the BBB as a result of its elevated expression in cerebral microvessels, accumulating evidence indicates that leptin BBB transport is independent of ObRa. In the present study, we employed an ObR-neutralising antibody (9F8) to directly examine the involvement of endothelial ObR in leptin transport across an in vitro human BBB model composed of the human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Our results indicate that, although leptin transport across the endothelial monolayer was nonparacellular, and energy- and endocytosis-dependent, it was not inhibited by pre-treatment with 9F8, despite the ability of the latter to recognise hCMEC/D3-expressed ObR, prevent leptin-ObR binding and inhibit leptin-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation in hCMEC/D3 cells. Furthermore, hCMEC/D3 cells expressed the transporter protein low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 (LRP-2), which is capable of binding and endocytosing leptin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that leptin binding to and signalling through ObR is not required for efficient transport across human endothelial monolayers, indicating that ObR is not the primary leptin transporter at the human BBB, a role which may fall upon LRP-2. A deeper understanding of leptin BBB transport will help clarify the exact causes for leptin resistance seen in obesity and aid in the development of more efficient BBB-penetrating leptin analogues. PMID:27037668

  6. Preventing and reversing vacuum-induced optical losses in high-finesse tantalum (V) oxide mirror coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenković, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-07-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO$_2$ passivating the Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

  7. Preventing and Reversing Vacuum-Induced Optical Losses in High-Finesse Tantalum (V) Oxide Mirror Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Gangloff, Dorian; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenković, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO$_2$ passivating the Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

  8. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miin Roh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC caused intraocular pressure (IOP to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH. Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ocular hypertension (OHT triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.

  9. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals. PMID:17904939

  10. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to

  11. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  12. Effects of combination therapy with atenolol and amlodipine on blood pressure control and stroke prevention in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang LING; Ai-jun LIU; Fu-ming SHEN; Guo-jun CAI; Jian-guo LIU; Ding-feng SU

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To test the effects of atenolol and amlodipine,either alone or in combination,on blood pressure,blood pressure variability (BPV),baroreflex sensitivity (BRS),and the prevalence of stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP). Methods:In the first set of the study,24 8-month-old,female SHR-SP rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Blood pressure,heart period,and BRS were determined before and after the intragastric administration of atenolol (10 mg/kg) and amlodipine (1.0 mg/kg),either alone or in combination. In the second set of the study,40 male and 40 female rats were randomly assigned to 1 of the and both (10 male and 10 female in each group). The stroke incident and survival time were recorded. Results:Atenolol and amlodipine,either alone or in combination,significantly decreased blood pressure,with the exception of the amlodipine-induced effect on diastolic blood pressure. Meanwhile,only the combination treatment significantly decreased the BPV levels for the same period.The q-values calculated by the probability sum analysis were 1.17 and 2.67 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure,respectively,and were 2.48 and 2.10 for systolic and diastolic BPV,respectively,following administration. Neither drug exhibited any significant effect on BRS. Atenolol and amlodipine,either alone or in combination,significantly increased the lifespan of SHR-SP,with the best effeet elicited by the combination therapy. Conclusion:A significant synergism exists between atenolol and amlodipine in lowering and stabilizing blood pressure in SHR-SP. Combination therapy may be an optimal strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  13. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. PMID:25818810

  14. Cyclosporine Does Not Prevent Microvascular Loss in Transplantation but Can Synergize With a Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor, Elafin, to Maintain Graft Perfusion During Acute Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X; Nguyen, T T; Tian, W; Sung, Y K; Yuan, K; Qian, J; Rajadas, J; Sallenave, J-M; Nickel, N P; de Jesus Perez, V; Rabinovitch, M; Nicolls, M R

    2015-07-01

    The loss of a functional microvascular bed in rejecting solid organ transplants is correlated with fibrotic remodeling and chronic rejection; in lung allografts, this pathology is predicted by bronchoalveolar fluid neutrophilia which suggests a role for polymorphonuclear cells in microcirculatory injury. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant model, cyclosporine, which primarily inhibits T cells, failed as a monotherapy for preventing microvessel rejection and graft ischemia. To target neutrophil action that may be contributing to vascular injury, we examined the effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, elafin, on the microvascular health of transplant tissue. We showed that elafin monotherapy prolonged microvascular perfusion and enhanced tissue oxygenation while diminishing the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and decreasing tissue deposition of complement C3 and the membrane attack complex, C5b-9. Elafin was also found to promote angiogenesis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway but was insufficient as a single agent to completely prevent tissue ischemia during acute rejection episodes. However, when combined with cyclosporine, elafin effectively preserved airway microvascular perfusion and oxygenation. The therapeutic strategy of targeting neutrophil elastase activity alongside standard immunosuppression during acute rejection episodes may be an effective approach for preventing the development of irreversible fibrotic remodeling. PMID:25727073

  15. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  16. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  17. 人工关节置换术隐性失血量及其相关因素分析%Hidden blood loss after artificial joint replacement and its correlation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪飞; 吕德成; 张卫国; 张羽飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To calculate the volume and to study the correlated risk factors of hidden blood loss after artificial hip or knee joint replacement. Methods From July to November in 2008, 38patients with age of (65.11±13.51) years old were treated with artificial hip or knee joint replacement, and were divided by age into four groups. Using Gross formula, total blood loss was calculated depending on height, weight and pre- and post-operation hematocrit, and the hidden blood loss was acquired by subtracting the visible blood loss from the total blood loss. The correlation between age,body mass index( BMI),gender and hidden blood blood loss was observed. Differences of hidden blood loss of artificial hip or knee joint replacement were compared. Results The total blood loss of all arthroplasties was ( 1563.52 ± 693.10) ml,and the hidden blood loss was (538.70 ± 529.77) ml,the percentage of hidden blood loss was 33%. The hidden blood loss was inversely related to age (P< 0.05 ). There was no correlation between BMI and hidden blood loss (P>0.05). The percentage of hidden blood loss in total blood loss in woman was significantly higher than that in man. With age and gender paired, the percentage of hidden blood loss in total blood loss in artificial hip joint replacement was significantly higher than that in artificial knee joint replacement (P<0.05 ). Conclusions Both of age and gender are risk factors influencing hidden blood loss after artificial hip or knee joint replacement. And compared with artificial knee joint replacement, the percentage of hidden blood loss in artificial hip joint replacement is higher.%目的 通过计算人工髋关节置换术和人工膝关节置换术隐性失血量,分析其相关的危险因素,并探讨其发生机制.方法 2008年7-11月行人工关节置换术38例,年龄(65.11±13.51)岁,其中人工髋关节置换术25例,人工膝关节置换术13例.根据身高、体质指数和手术前后的红细胞压积计算总失血

  18. Loss of integrin α3 prevents skin tumor formation by promoting epidermal turnover and depletion of slow-cycling cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Norman; Secades, Pablo; van Hulst, Laura; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-12-26

    Progression through the various stages of skin tumorigenesis is correlated with an altered expression of the integrin α3β1, suggesting that it plays an important role in the tumorigenic process. Using epidermis-specific Itga3 KO mice subjected to the 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol, we demonstrate that efficient tumor development is critically dependent on the presence of α3β1. In the absence of α3β1, tumor initiation is dramatically decreased because of increased epidermal turnover, leading to a loss of DMBA-initiated label-retaining keratinocytes. Lineage tracing revealed emigration of α3-deficient keratinocytes residing in the bulge of the hair follicle toward the interfollicular epidermis. Furthermore, tumor growth and cell proliferation were strongly reduced in mice with an epidermis-specific deletion of Itga3. However, the rate of progression of α3β1-null squamous cell carcinomas to undifferentiated, invasive carcinomas was increased. Therefore, α3β1 critically affects skin carcinogenesis with opposing effects early and late in tumorigenesis. PMID:23236172

  19. Fish oil combined with SCFA synergistically prevent tissue accumulation of NEFA during weight loss in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    (2·5w%) for 4 weeks, the source of fat being either FO, a lard–safflower oil mix (control), or both types combined with SCFA. Weight, fasting insulin, tissue and serum lipid concentrations, as well as mRNA amount of genes related to adipose inflammation and hepatic fat oxidation were determined. All...... than the no-SCFA diets. It furthermore significantly increased the amount of mRNA for PPAR-α, and decreased the mRNA amount for NF-κB in the liver and white adipose tissue. The FO diets enhanced improvement of tissue lipid levels. Thus, FO improved liver TAG and NEFA levels compared with weight loss...... on the control diet. Combining FO and SCFA further reduced tissue NEFA accumulation. In conclusion, we found that dietary SCFA had a significant impact on gene expression in the liver and adipose tissue, and that the effect of FO on tissue NEFA content was modified by SCFA. Thus, interactions between fatty acids...

  20. Auditoria dos programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas em Curitiba (PPPA Hearing loss prevention programs control of Curitiba (HLPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C.M. Cavalli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo examinar se medidas práticas de prevenção de perdas auditivas, adotadas por indústrias de Curitiba e região metropolitana, atendem às exigências da legislação trabalhista vigente e recomendações científicas que abordam este tema. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um questionário elaborado pelo instituto americano National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH em 1996, para auditoria de programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas (PPPA, nos serviu de instrumento para a coleta de dados. O instrumento original possui 89 questões divididas em oito temas relacionados à prática dos programas: treinamento e educação, envolvimento do supervisor, medição do ruído, controle de Engenharia e Administrativo, monitoração audiométrica e manutenção dos registros, encaminhamentos, equipamento de proteção individual e questões administrativas. A coleta de dados foi realizada com Médicos do Trabalho, Engenheiros e/ou Técnicos de Segurança das indústrias. As empresas foram divididas em dois grupos: o das empresas que possuem um PPPA e o das que não possuem. CONCLUSÃO: Com base nos dados obtidos concluímos que não houve diferença significativa de conduta entre os grupos e que ambos cumprem parcialmente a legislação trabalhista relacionada à prevenção dos efeitos do ruído. Quanto às questões que abordam aspectos que se excedem às exigências legais, concluímos que as empresas que possuem PPPA dedicam maiores esforços à prevenção de perdas auditivas. Com estes dados identificamos pontos fortes e fracos das medidas que vêm sendo adotadas pelas indústrias da região, os quais poderão nos direcionar à elaboração de medidas preventivas mais efetivas e de propostas para revisão da legislação vigente.AIM: The objective of this study is to examine if the hearing loss prevention practices in industries located in the greater

  1. 云浮市无偿献血初筛血型错误原因分析及预防%Cause analysis and prevention of primary screening blood type errors of donating blood in Yunfu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高炳谏; 区勇勤; 李惠玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:对无偿献血者ABO血型初筛错误进行原因分析,并采取相应的预防措施,以减少初筛血型的错误率。方法统计2010~2014年本站无偿献血标本94298人次中初筛血型与实验室正反定型检测结果血型进行比较分析。结果94298例无偿献血标本中,发现初筛血型错误368例,错误率0.39%,以B型误判为O型最高,占17.12%,其次为AB型误判为A型,占15.22%;各采血点分布差异明显,新兴、罗定采血点错误率最高,分别占0.58%和0.44%;各年份比较,初筛血型错误率逐年下降。结论初筛血型错误大多是由于人为因素导致,应增强工作人员的质量意识和责任心教育,加强理论知识和操作技能的培训,严格遵守操作规程,改善献血环境和试剂的管理,使献血前ABO血型筛查错误降到最低。%Objective To analyze the causes of primary screening errors of the ABO blood types of voluntary blood donors and take corresponding preventative measures to reduce the error rate of primary screening blood type. Methods The primary screening blood types and the laboratory positive and negative blood grouping test results of 94 298 donat-ing blood specimens of our station between 2010 and 2014 were analyzed comparatively. Results Of the 94 298 donat-ing blood specimens,368 cases of primary screening blood type errors were found,with the error rate of 0.39%,of which type B misjudged as type O was the commonest,accounting for 17.12%,followed by type AB misjudged as type A,ac-counting for 15.22%.The errors distributed significantly differently over each blood collection station and the error rates in Xinxing and Luoding blood collection stations were the highest,accounting for 0.58% and 0.44% respectively.As for the errors of different years,the primary screening blood type error rate decreased year by year. Conclusion As primary screening blood type errors are mainly caused by human factors,enhancement of

  2. Protocatechuic Acid Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating JNK/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling and Prevents Inflammatory Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-04-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) plays a critical role in nutritional metabolism; it is a major metabolite of anthocyanins, which are flavonoids with a range of health benefits. PCA has a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial activities. However, the pharmacological effect of PCA, especially on osteoclastogenesis, remains unknown. We examined the effect of PCA on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. PCA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. At the molecular level, PCA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of JNK among MAPKs only, without significantly affecting the early signaling pathway. PCA also suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) at the mRNA and protein levels, without altering c-Fos mRNA expression. Additionally, PCA down-regulated the expression of downstream osteoclastogenesis-related genes including β3-integrin, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2, CTR, and CtsK. Mice treated with PCA efficiently recovered from lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo. Thus, PCA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing JNK signaling, c-Fos stability, and expression of osteoclastic marker genes. These results suggest that PCA could be useful in treatment of inflammatory bone disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26792397

  3. Decrease in symptoms, blood loss and uterine size with nafarelin acetate before abdominal hysterectomy: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikorkala, O; Tiitinen, A; Hulkko, S; Kivinen, S; Nummi, S

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nafarelin before hysterectomy in a prospective placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 188 pre-menopausal women with uterine fibroids (n = 111), menometrorrhagia (n = 58) or pelvic pain (n = 19) to receive either nafarelin (200 micrograms twice daily as a nasal spray) or a placebo for 3 months before abdominal hysterectomy. The data analysis could be performed in 166 women, of whom 107 received nafarelin and 59 a placebo. Nafarelin led to a rise in blood haemoglobin (5.5 g/l) and to a decrease in uterine volume (23.7%). This, however, gave no objective benefit during surgery (similar operative durations and blood losses). The uteri from patients treated with nafarelin (255.5 +/- 12.6 g, mean +/- SD) were significantly lighter (P = 0.029) than those from patients treated with a placebo (346.2 +/- 35.7 g). Histological examination of the fibroids or uteri revealed changes typical for hypo-oestrogenism, but no specific histological pattern could be established. The endometrium was proliferative in 56% and showed mild hyperplastic features in 10% of patients given nafarelin, whereas the respective figures for the placebo group were 41 and 0%. Hot flushes were the most common side-effects, being reported by 61% in the nafarelin group and 35% in the placebo group. Nafarelin can be useful as a pre-surgical adjunct in a patient scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy if there is a need to raise the haemoglobin concentration or to reduce the size of the uterus. PMID:7593517

  4. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated human kallikrein gene therapy prevents high-salt diet-induced hypertension without effect on basal blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-tao YAN; Tao WANG; Juan LI; Xiao XIAO; Dao-wen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the expression of human kallikrein (HK) on basal level blood pressure and high-salt diet-induced hypertension. Methods: We delivered the recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV)-mediated HK (rAAV-HK) gene and rAAV-LacZ (as the control) to normal, adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were administered a normal diet in the first 4 weeks, followed by a high-salt diet. The expression of HK in the rats was assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR. Blood pressure and Na~ and K~ urinary excretion were monitored. Results: Under the normal diet, no obvious changes in blood pressure and Na+ and K+ urinary excretion were observed. When the high-salt diet was administered, sys-tolic blood pressure in the control animals receiving rAAV-LacZ increased from 122.3±1. 13 mmHg to a stable 142.4±1.77 mmHg 8 weeks after the high-salt diet. In contrast, there was no significant increase in the blood pressure in the rAAV-HK-treated group, in which the blood pressure remained at 121.9±1.73 mmHg. In the rAAV-HK-treated group, Na+ and K+ urinary excretion were higher compared to those of the control group. The morphological analysis showed that HK delivery remarkably protected against renal damage induced by a high-salt intake. Conclusion: Our study indicates that rAAV-mediated human tissue kallikrein gene delivery is a potentially safe method for the long-term treatment of hypertension. More importantly, it could be applied in the salt-sensitive population to prevent the occurrence of hypertension.

  5. Morphological dependency of cutaneous blood flow and sweating during compensable heat stress when heat-loss requirements are matched across participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-07-01

    Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm(2)/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1°C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W/m(2); moderate, ∼200 W/m(2)). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r = 0.63 and r = 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P < 0.05), explaining ∼45% of the vasomotor variation. Conversely, during light and moderate work, whole body sweat rate, as well as local sweat rate and sudomotor sensitivity at three of four measured sites, revealed moderate, negative relationships with the mass-specific surface area (correlation coefficient range -0.37 to -0.73, P < 0.05). Moreover, those relationships could uniquely account for between 10 and 53% of those sweating responses (P < 0.05). Therefore, both thermoeffector responses displayed a significant morphological dependency in the presence of equivalent thermoafferent drive. Indeed, up to half of the interindividual variation in these effector responses could now be explained through morphological differences and the first principles governing heat transfer. PMID:27125845

  6. Mitochondrial DNA A1555G mutation screening using a testing kit method and its significance in preventing aminoglycoside-related hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; YANG Weiyan; HAN Dongyi; JIN Zhengce; GUAN Minxin; DAI Pu; HUANG Deliang; YUAN Huijun; LI Weiming; YU Fei; ZHANG Xin; KANG Dongyang; CAO Juyang

    2006-01-01

    To report a new screening method for mitochondrial DNA 1555A→G mutation and the results of genotype analysis in 19 maternal inherited deafness pedigrees. Method Five hundred and forty-six non-syndromic neuro-sensory hearing loss patients were tested for 1555A→G mutation using a new compact testing kit, which allows clear distinction between wild type and 1555 A→G mutated mtDNAs. Results Nineteen subjects among the 546 patients (3.48%) were found to carry mtDNA A1555G mutation. The results were confirmed by sequencing in an ABI 3100 Avant sequencer. Conclusions Maternal inherited deafness families are a frequently seen in outpatient group. The detection ofmtDNA 1555 A→G mutation with a low cost, ready to use detection kit is needed and suitable in China for large scale screening and preventive testing before usage of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  7. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin prevents abnormality of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in salt-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshige, Yui; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effects of the selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary sodium excretion and circadian blood pressure in salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fifteen-week-old obese OLETF rats were treated with 1% NaCl (in drinking water), and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, n=10) or empagliflozin (10 mg kg(-1)per day, p.o., n=11) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry system. Glucose metabolism and urinary sodium excretion were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and high salt challenge test, respectively. Vehicle-treated OLETF rats developed non-dipper type blood pressure elevation with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, empagliflozin-treated OLETF rats showed an approximately 1000-fold increase in urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Furthermore, empagliflozin prevented the development of blood pressure elevation with normalization of its circadian rhythm to a dipper profile, which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion. These data suggest that empagliflozin elicits beneficial effects on both glucose homeostasis and hypertension in salt-replete obese states. PMID:26818652

  8. The effect of selenium supplementation in the prevention of DNA damage in white blood cells of hemodialyzed patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, Bronislaw A; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Palus, Jadwiga; Zbrog, Zbigniew; Swiech, Rafal; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased incidence of cancer. It is well known that long periods of hemodialysis (HD) treatment are linked to DNA damage due to oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation to CKD patients on HD on the prevention of oxidative DNA damage in white blood cells. Blood samples were drawn from 42 CKD patients on HD (at the beginning of the study and after 1 and 3 months) and from 30 healthy controls. Twenty-two patients were supplemented with 200 μg Se (as Se-rich yeast) per day and 20 with placebo (baker's yeast) for 3 months. Se concentration in plasma and DNA damage in white blood cells expressed as the tail moment, including single-strand breaks (SSB) and oxidative bases lesion in DNA, using formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG), were measured. Se concentration in patients was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P < 0.0001) and increased significantly after 3 months of Se supplementation (P < 0.0001). Tail moment (SSB) in patients before the study was three times higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After 3 months of Se supplementation, it decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and was about 16% lower than in healthy subjects. The oxidative bases lesion in DNA (tail moment, FPG) of HD patients at the beginning of the study was significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared with controls, and 3 months after Se supplementation it was 2.6 times lower than in controls (P < 0.01). No changes in tail moment was observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, our study shows that in CKD patients on HD, DNA damage in white blood cells is higher than in healthy controls, and Se supplementation prevents the damage of DNA. PMID:20661660

  9. Reasons for loss to follow-up among mothers registered in a prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission program in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwirire, L D; Fitzgerald, M; Zachariah, R; Chikafa, V; Massaquoi, M; Moens, M; Kamoto, K; Schouten, E J

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify reasons for a high and progressive loss to follow-up among HIV-positive mothers within a prevention-of-mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) program in a rural district hospital in Malawi. Three focus group discussions were conducted among a total of 25 antenatal and post-natal mothers as well as nurse midwives (median age 39 years, range 22-55 years). The main reasons for loss to follow-up included: (1) not being prepared for HIV testing and its implications before the antenatal clinic (ANC) visit; (2) fear of stigma, discrimination, household conflict and even divorce on disclosure of HIV status; (3) lack of support from husbands who do not want to undergo HIV testing; (4) the feeling that one is obliged to rely on artificial feeding, which is associated with social and cultural taboos; (5) long waiting times at the ANC; and (6) inability to afford transport costs related to the long distances to the hospital. This study reveals a number of community- and provider-related operational and cultural barriers hindering the overall acceptability of PMTCT that need to be addressed urgently. Mothers attending antenatal services need to be better informed and supported, at both community and health-provider level.

  10. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  11. Harpagoside Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) Signaling Pathway and Prevents Inflammation-Mediated Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Sun-Hyang; Baek, Jong Min; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Min Seuk; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2015-09-25

    Harpagoside (HAR) is a natural compound isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) that is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects; however, these effects have not been investigated in the context of bone development. The current study describes for the first time that HAR inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. HAR also inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner as well as the activity of mature osteoclasts, including filamentous actin (F-actin) ring formation and bone matrix breakdown. This involved a HAR-induced decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) in RANKL-dependent early signaling, as well as the activation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which resulted in the down-regulation of various target genes. Consistent with these in vitro results, HAR blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in an inflammatory osteoporosis model. However, HAR did not prevent ovariectomy-mediated bone erosion in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. These results suggest that HAR is a valuable agent against inflammation-related bone disorders but not osteoporosis induced by hormonal abnormalities. PMID:26308264

  12. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 9357 subjects from 11 populations highlights missed opportunities for cardiovascular prevention in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W;

    2011-01-01

    To analyze sex-specific relative and absolute risks associated with blood pressure (BP), we performed conventional and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in 9357 subjects (mean age, 52.8 years; 47% women) recruited from 11 populations. We computed standardized multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios...

  13. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  14. Genetic rescue of CB1 receptors on medium spiny neurons prevents loss of excitatory striatal synapses but not motor impairment in HD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Alipi V; Sepers, Marja D; Swinney, Katie; Raymond, Lynn A; Palmiter, Richard D; Stella, Nephi

    2014-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in huntingtin protein that disrupts synaptic function in specific neuronal populations and results in characteristic motor, cognitive and affective deficits. Histopathological hallmarks observed in both HD patients and genetic mouse models include the reduced expression of synaptic proteins, reduced medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic spine density and decreased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs). Early down-regulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression on MSN (CB1(MSN)) is thought to participate in HD pathogenesis. Here we present a cell-specific genetic rescue of CB1(MSN) in R6/2 mice and report that treatment prevents the reduction of excitatory synaptic markers in the striatum (synaptophysin, vGLUT1 and vGLUT2), of dendritic spine density on MSNs and of MSN sEPSCs, but does not prevent motor impairment. We conclude that loss of excitatory striatal synapses in HD mice is controlled by CB1(MSN) and can be uncoupled from the motor phenotype.

  15. [3H]Methotrexate loss from the rat brain following enhanced uptake by osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right brain regions of anesthetized rats were loaded with [3,5,7-3H]methotrexate ([3H]MTX) or with [14C]sucrose by infusing the tracers into the right carotid artery, after the blood-brain barrier had been opened by right carotid infusion of a hypertonic arabinose solution. During the 6 hr following the procedure, the [3H]MTX concentration in 7 right-sided brain regions, when normalized to the plasma concentration integral during tracer infusion, fell, with an average half-time of 4.8 hr as compared to less than 20 min for the initial rate of loss [14C]sucrose. Right-left brain concentration differences 3 hr after treatment were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) for [3H]MTX but not for [14C]sucrose. The results indicate that intracerebral [3H]MTX is lost more slowly than is intracerebral [14C]sucrose, possibly because [3H]MTX enters brain cells, whereas [14C]sucrose remains largely extracellular

  16. Transfusion of blood and blood products: indications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sharma, Poonam; Tyler, Lisa N

    2011-03-15

    Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient's clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia (causing shortness of breath, dizziness, congestive heart failure, and decreased exercise tolerance), acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. Fresh frozen plasma infusion can be used for reversal of anticoagulant effects. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects. Cryoprecipitate is used in cases of hypofibrinogenemia, which most often occurs in the setting of massive hemorrhage or consumptive coagulopathy. Transfusion-related infections are less common than noninfectious complications. All noninfectious complications of transfusion are classified as noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Acute complications occur within minutes to 24 hours of the transfusion, whereas delayed complications may develop days, months, or even years later.

  17. Autologous blood donation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2004-01-01

    Although preoperative autologous blood donation is employed in elective surgery, this is declining because of the increasingly safe allogeneic blood supply. However, it continues to be used because of the public's perception of allogeneic blood risks and increasing blood shortages. Patients may donate a unit of blood (450 ± 45 ml) as often as twice weekly, up to 72 hours before surgery. Preoperative autologous blood is most beneficial in procedures that cause significant blood loss. It has be...

  18. Estrogen receptor-a in the medial amygdala prevents stress-induced elevations in blood pressure in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychological stress contributes to the development of hypertension in humans. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, has been shown to prevent stress-induced pressor responses in females by unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that the antihypertensive effects of estrogen during stress were blunted in femal...

  19. Prevention of Post-Transfusion Hepatitis by Screening of Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Healthy Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Shastry, S.; S S Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Background Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Objective To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors Subjects and Methods The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of...

  20. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamee Shastry; Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral h...

  1. Control of viremia and prevention of AIDS following immunotherapy of SIV-infected macaques with peptide-pulsed blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Rose

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunotherapies for HIV are needed. Drug therapies are life-long with significant toxicities. Dendritic-cell based immunotherapy approaches are promising but impractical for widespread use. A simple immunotherapy, reinfusing fresh autologous blood cells exposed to overlapping SIV peptides for 1 hour ex vivo, was assessed for the control of SIV(mac251 replication in 36 pigtail macaques. An initial set of four immunizations was administered under antiretroviral cover and a booster set of three immunizations administered 6 months later. Vaccinated animals were randomized to receive Gag peptides alone or peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins. High-level, SIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity was induced following immunization, both during antiretroviral cover and without. Virus levels were durably approximately 10-fold lower for 1 year in immunized animals compared to controls, and a significant delay in AIDS-related mortality resulted. Broader immunity resulted following immunizations with peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins, but the responses to Gag were weaker in comparison to animals only immunized with Gag. No difference in viral outcome occurred in animals immunized with all SIV proteins compared to animals immunized against Gag alone. Peptide-pulsed blood cells are an immunogenic and effective immunotherapy in SIV-infected macaques. Our results suggest Gag alone is an effective antigen for T-cell immunotherapy. Fresh blood cells pulsed with overlapping Gag peptides is proceeding into trials in HIV-infected humans.

  2. Vitamin D prevents hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption via vitamin D receptor-mediated NF-kB signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonmi Won

    Full Text Available Maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity and minimizing neuronal injury are critical components of any therapeutic intervention following ischemic stroke. However, a low level of vitamin D hormone is a risk factor for many vascular diseases including stroke. The neuroprotective effects of 1,25(OH2D3 (vitamin D after ischemic stroke have been studied, but it is not known whether it prevents ischemic injury to brain endothelial cells, a key component of the neurovascular unit. We analyzed the effect of 1,25(OH2D3 on brain endothelial cell barrier integrity and tight junction proteins after hypoxia/reoxygenation in a mouse brain endothelial cell culture model that closely mimics many of the features of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Following hypoxic injury in bEnd.3 cells, 1,25(OH2D3 treatment prevented the decrease in barrier function as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance and permeability of FITC-dextran (40 kDa, the decrease in the expression of the tight junction proteins zonula occludin-1, claudin-5, and occludin, the activation of NF-kB, and the increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. These responses were blocked when the interaction of 1,25(OH 2D3 with the vitamin D receptor (VDR was inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate treatment. Our findings show a direct, VDR-mediated, protective effect of 1,25(OH 2D3 against ischemic injury-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction in cerebral endothelial cells.

  3. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens von Schacky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens von SchackyMedizinische Klinik and Poliklinik Innenstadt, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, cardiovascular prevention, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  4. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.

    Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors

    Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France. Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.

    Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4% were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years. Eighty six (0.7% were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2% zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1% were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.

    Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.

     

  5. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Nasiri; Hamid Reza Sameni; Abedin Vakili; Morteza Jarrahi; Mahdi Zahedi Khorasani

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP) and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: Saffron (200 mg/kg/day) was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day) administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histolo...

  6. Ability of the ankaferd blood stopper® to prevent parenchymal bleeding in an experimental hepatic trauma model

    OpenAIRE

    Aysan, Erhan; Bektas, Hasan; Ersoz, Feyzullah; Sari, Serkan; Kaygusuz, Arslan; Huq, Gulben Erdem

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic parenchymal bleeding (HPB) is a major problem following both trauma and elective hepatic procedures. The present study investigated the effect of the Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) on HPB. Method(s): A total of 20 rats were used. After creating a laceration model in the left lateral hepatic lobe, the area was compressed for 3 minutes with the ABS in the rats in group 1 (n=10) and with 0.9% NaCl-soaked gauze in the rats in group 2 (n=10). Results: The mean change in haematocrit levels b...

  7. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P water and feed access treatment. Based on these results, water and feed withdrawal in lairage should not exceed 18 h during the marketing of Holstein slaughter cows acclimated to springtime conditions to maintain BW, serum component concentrations, and fresh meat composition.

  8. 肠系膜淋巴管结扎对急性失血大鼠血液凝固性的影响%Effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation on coagulability of blood after acute loss of blood in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵自刚; 刘春艳; 张玉平; 张静; 赵永泉; 牛春雨

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation on platelet function, thrombus formation in vitro and coagulation function in rats with acute loss of blood, and investigate the role of intestinal lymphatic pathway on coagulability change during acute loss of blood. Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into loss of blood group (n=10) and ligation group (n=10). The acute loss of blood model was reproduced by withdrawing blood (one fourth of body whole blood volume) with an automatic withdrawal-infusion machine through right common carotid artery. In ligation group, the mesenteric lymph duct was ligated after loss of blood, and in loss of blood group only a thread was passed under the mesenteric lymph duct. The rats′ survival rate at 24 hours was recorded. After 24 hours, surviving rats were anesthetized again, and 6 ml of blood was withdrew from left common carotid artery rapidly. The platelet adhesive rate, platelet aggregation rate, thrombus formation in vitro, coagulation function were determined before and after experiment, and the cerebral blood flow was measured. Results There were 6 rats alive in loss of blood group (60%), and 9 rats alive in ligation group (90%). The platelet adhesive rate, platelet aggregation rate, fibrinogen (Fib) content were increased in both groups, and cerebral blood flow was lower compared with before experiment significantly. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in loss of blood group, and thrombin time (TT) in both groups were prolonged. And the length of wet thrombus, wet weight of thrombus, length of dry thrombus, dry weight of thrombus and thrombus formation rate in loss of blood group were significantly increased compared with before experiment (P0.05).与实验前相比,两组血小板黏附率、血小板聚集率、纤维蛋白原(Fib)均显著升高,凝血酶时间(TT)显著延长,脑血流量显著降低;失血组活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)显著延长,

  9. Loss of bifurcation patency after cross-over stenting of ostial lesions in superficial femoral artery: possible causes, prevention and reintervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junhao; Chen Bin; Dong Zhihui; Shi Yun; Li Weimiao; Yue Jianing

    2014-01-01

    Background Crossover stenting across the origin of the profunda femoral artery (PFA) and occasionally into the common femoral artery (CFA) is commonly used after suboptimal balloon angioplasty of ostial occlusive lesions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) involving the bifurcation.Late stent occlusion at the bifurcation is not rare and results in severe lower extremity ischemia.Therefore,we tried to assess its possible causes,prevention and reintervention.Methods Using a prospectively maintained single-center database,12-month femoral bifurcation patency was retrospectively compared and lesion and procedural predictors of stent occlusion were determined among 63 patients (64 lesions) who between July 2011 and February 2013 underwent crossover (36 non-jailed and 15 jailed SFA,and 12 distal and 1 complete CFA) stenting of de novo ostial SFA lesions.Results Twelve-month overall patency rate at the femoral bifurcation was 88%,with no significant difference between jailed-ostial SFA (80%) and distal CFA (67%) stenting (P=0.731),and significant differences between either and non-jailed ostial stenting (100%,P=0.035 and 0.002).When PFA ostium was jailed by the stent,patients with preexisting CFA or PFA lesions had a 12-month bifurcation patency rate of 20%,significantly lower than those with simple ostial SFA lesions (83%,P=0.015).Stent induced intimal hyperplasia caused bifurcation occlusion in 6 surgical reintervention cases.Conclusions In crossover stenting of ostial lesions in SFA,bifurcation patency loss was significantly higher in distal CFA and jailed ostial SFA stenting than non-jailed ostial SFA stenting.Preexisting CFA or PFA lesion is a significant risk factor for bifurcation patency loss when PFA ostium is jailed by crossover stenting.

  10. Assessment of the effect on blood loss and transfusion requirements when adding a polyethylene glycol sealant to the anastomotic closure of aortic procedures: a case–control analysis of 102 patients undergoing Bentall procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natour Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of CoSeal®, a polyethylene glycol sealant, in cardiac and vascular surgery for prevention of anastomotic bleeding has been subject to prior investigations. We analysed our perioperative data to determine the clinical benefit of using polyethylene glycol sealant to inhibit suture line bleeding in aortic surgery. Methods From January 2004 to June 2006, 124 patients underwent aortic surgical procedures such as full root replacements, reconstruction and/or replacement of ascending aorta and aortic arch procedures. A Bentall procedure was employed in 102 of these patients. In 48 of these, a polyethylene glycol sealant was added to the anastomotic closure of the aortic procedure (sealant group and the other 54 patients did not have this additive treatment to the suture line (control group. Results There were no significant between-group differences in the demographic characteristics of the patients undergoing Bentall procedures. Mean EuroSCORES (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation were 13.7 ± 7.7 (sealant group and 14.4 ± 6.2 (control group, p = NS. The polyethylene glycol sealant group had reduced intraoperative and postoperative transfusion requirements (red blood cells: 761 ± 863 versus 1248 ± 1206 ml, p = 0.02; fresh frozen plasma: 413 ± 532 versus 779 ± 834 ml, p = 0.009; and less postoperative drainage loss (985 ± 972 versus 1709 ± 1302 ml, p = 0.002. A trend towards a lower rate of rethoracotomy was observed in the sealant group (1/48 versus 6/54, p = 0.07 and there was significantly less time spent in the intensive care unit or hospital (both p = 0.03. Based on hypothesis-generating calculations, the resulting economic benefit conferred by shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays, reduced transfusion requirements and a potentially lower rethoracotomy rate is estimated at €1,943 per patient in this data analysis

  11. Curcumin inhibition of JNKs prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease through suppressing mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.

  12. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  13. Diapocynin, a dimer of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, reduces ROS production and prevents force loss in eccentrically contracting dystrophic muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Ismail

    Full Text Available Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches.

  14. Intense emotional experiences and enhanced training prevent memory loss induced by post-training amnesic treatments administered to the striatum, amygdala, hippocampus or substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada-Alcala, Roberto A; Medina, Andrea C; Lopez, Norma Serafin; Quirarte, Gina L

    2012-01-01

    Most of the work related to the neurobiological basis of memory has been guided by the memory consolidation theory, which was derived from the seminal work of Miiller and Pilzecker that was published over a century ago. This theory proposes that the transfer from short- to long-term memory is mediated by a process called consolidation,and while consolidation is taking place, the information to be stored is in a labile state. A great deal of experimentation has given strong support to this proposal,as it has been found repeatedly that interference with neural activity shortly after a learning experience impedes durable retention of that experience. A growing body of evidence, however, indicates that intense emotional experiences prevent memory loss induced by amnesic treatments,even when these treatments are administered intracerebrally shortly after the learning experience. This evidence implies that the memory consolidation theory cannot account for long-term memory formation when neural activity is disrupted while consolidation should be taking place, and it calls for new hypotheses to account for these findings. PMID:23023883

  15. Use of an ex-vivo porcine kidney model to compare the blood loss of different size of nephrostomy tracts%经皮肾镜术大小通道出血量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华; 王德娟; 罗建斌; 邱剑光

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较经皮肾镜术大小通道出血量.方法 采用离体的生理盐水持续灌注的猪肾脏模型.在猪肾上建立穿刺通道后,先后建立16、18、22、24、30F5组通道,每组10个通道,分别测量失血量.结果 5组通道的出血量分别为(5.84±0.98)、(5.99±0.85)、(9.76±1.05)、(11.90±1.49)、(14.48±1.30) g/min,通道越大,出血量越多,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).16 F与18F通道出血量之间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在经皮肾镜手术中,通道越大,出血量越多,小通道经皮肾镜术可减少术中出血量.%Objective To compare the blood loss of different size of nephrostomy tracts in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).Methods The model of isolated normal saline ( NS)-perfused porcine kidney was used to determine the blood loss of different size of nephrostomy tracts.By applying the technique of percutaneous nephrostomy,five groups of different size of nephrostomy tracts ( 16,18,22,24,30 F) were established on the porcine kidney gradually,with 10 tracts in every group,then the blood loss of each group was measured respectively.Results The blood loss of the five tracts ( 16,18,22,24,30 F)was (5.84±0.98),(5.99±0.85),(9.76±1.05),(11.90±1.49),(14.48±1.30) g/min,respectively.The blood loss was increased with the size of the tract diameter ( P < 0.05 ).There was no significant difference between 16 F and 18 F groups ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion The blood loss of PCNL was increased with the size of the nephrostomy tracts.Mini-PCNL could cause less bleeding than standard-PCNL.

  16. Association of Bone Loss with the Upregulation of Survival-Related Genes and Concomitant Downregulation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Osteoblast Differentiation-Related Genes in the Peripheral Blood of Late Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tchetina, Elena V.; Karina A. Maslova; Mikhail Y. Krylov; Myakotkin, Valery A.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to identify bone related markers in the peripheral blood of osteoporotic (OP) patients that pointed toward molecular mechanisms underlying late postmenopausal bone loss. Whole blood from 22 late postmenopausal OP patients and 26 healthy subjects was examined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DXA. Protein levels of p70-S6K, p21, MMP-9, TGFβ1, and caspase-3 were quantified by ELISA. Gene expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR. OP registered by low BMD indices in late ...

  17. Ability of the ankaferd blood stopper® to prevent parenchymal bleeding in an experimental hepatic trauma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysan, Erhan; Bektas, Hasan; Ersoz, Feyzullah; Sari, Serkan; Kaygusuz, Arslan; Huq, Gulben Erdem

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic parenchymal bleeding (HPB) is a major problem following both trauma and elective hepatic procedures. The present study investigated the effect of the Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) on HPB. Method(s): A total of 20 rats were used. After creating a laceration model in the left lateral hepatic lobe, the area was compressed for 3 minutes with the ABS in the rats in group 1 (n=10) and with 0.9% NaCl-soaked gauze in the rats in group 2 (n=10). Results: The mean change in haematocrit levels between baseline and the 24 hour values in group 1 was lower than group 2 (p=0.045). The mean perioperative bleeding in group 1 was lower than group 2 (p=0.003). The histopa-thologic evaluation revealed that there were no differences between the groups with respect to areas of necrosis (p=0.107) or inflammation (p=0.135). Conclusion: Although the ABS does not stop HPB completely, it ensures a statistically significant reduction in HPB. PMID:20827316

  18. 氨甲环酸对全髋关节置换术隐性失血的影响%Effect of tranexamic acid on the hidden blood loss after total hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅峥; 张健; 姚海

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of tranexamic acid on the hidden blood loss after unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Methods: Totally 40 patients who received unilateral total hip arthroplasty due to femoral neck fracture were randomly divided into two groups. Group A included 20 cases without tranexamic acid,in which the patients were just given 250 ml normal saline when the surgery star-tod ; Group B included 20 cases with tranexamic acid, and the patients in this group were given 20 mg/kg tranexamic acid with 250 ml normal saline when the surgery started. The total red blood cell loss,visible red blood cell loss and hidden red blood cell loss of the two groups were measured and the comparative analysis was conducted. Results: Results of the visible red blood losses in group A and group B were (95.43 ±17.72)ml and (48.84 ± 15.04)ml,respectively; the hidden red blood loss in group A and group B were (322.37 ± 57.69) ml and (169. 89 ±58.50) ml,respectively. The visible and hidden red blood cell losses in group B were both significantly less than those in group A(P<0.05). Conclusion:Tranexamic acid reduces both the visible and hidden red blood loss after the unilateral total hip arthroplasty.%目的:探讨氨甲环酸对单侧全髋关节置换术隐性失血的影响.方法:40例因单侧股骨颈骨折行全髋关节置换术患者随机分为2组.A组20例,不使用氨甲环酸,手术开始时予250 ml生理盐水静滴;B组20例,使用氨甲环酸,手术开始时将氨甲环酸按20 mg/kg稀释于250 ml生理盐水中静滴.分别计算其显性及隐性红细胞丢失量,并进行相应对比分析.结果:A组与B组显性红细胞丢失量分别为(95.43 ±17.72) ml和(48.84±15.04) ml(P<0.05);A组与B组隐性红细胞丢失量分别为(322.37 ±57.69) ml和(169.89±58.50) ml(P<0.05).结论:氨甲环酸能明显减少单侧全髋关节置换术的显性及隐性失血.

  19. Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viruses in Health Care Workers of a Northern District in Pakistan: Risk Factors and Preventive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhaib Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp. as compared to general population (4.7%–38%. The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections.

  20. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  2. A randomised controlled trial of oxytocin 5IU and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5IU and 30IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section--pilot study. ISRCTN 40302163.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the blood loss at elective lower segment caesarean section with administration of oxytocin 5IU bolus versus oxytocin 5IU bolus and oxytocin 30IU infusion and to establish whether a large multi-centre trial is feasible. STUDY DESIGN: Women booked for an elective caesarean section were recruited to a pilot randomised controlled trial and randomised to either oxytocin 5IU bolus and placebo infusion or oxytocin 5IU bolus and oxytocin 30IU infusion. We wished to establish whether the study design was feasible and acceptable and to establish sample size estimates for a definitive multi-centre trial. The outcome measures were total estimated blood loss at caesarean section and in the immediate postpartum period and the need for an additional uterotonic agent. RESULTS: A total of 115 women were randomised and 110 were suitable for analysis (5 protocol violations). Despite strict exclusion criteria 84% of the target population were considered eligible for study participation and of those approached only 15% declined to participate and 11% delivered prior to the planned date. The total mean estimated blood loss was lower in the oxytocin infusion arm compared to placebo (567 ml versus 624 ml) and fewer women had a major haemorrhage (>1000 ml, 14% versus 17%) or required an additional uterotonic agent (5% versus 11%). A sample size of 1500 in each arm would be required to demonstrate a 3% absolute reduction in major haemorrhage (from baseline 10%) with >80% power. CONCLUSION: An additional oxytocin infusion at elective caesarean section may reduce blood loss and warrants evaluation in a large multi-centre trial.

  3. Inhibition of cerebrovascular raf activation attenuates cerebral blood flow and prevents upregulation of contractile receptors after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddahi Aida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late cerebral ischemia carries high morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH due to reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF and the subsequent cerebral ischemia which is associated with upregulation of contractile receptors in the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 signal pathway. We hypothesize that SAH initiates cerebrovascular ERK1/2 activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The raf inhibitor will inhibit the molecular events upstream ERK1/2 and may provide a therapeutic window for treatment of cerebral ischemia after SAH. Results Here we demonstrate that SAH increases the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 in cerebral vessels and reduces the neurology score in rats in additional with the CBF measured by an autoradiographic method. The intracisternal administration of SB-386023-b, a specific inhibitor of raf, given 6 h after SAH, aborts the receptor changes and protects the brain from the development of late cerebral ischemia at 48 h. This is accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cerebrovascular SMC. SAH per se enhances contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT and angiotensin II (Ang II, upregulates ETB, 5-HT1B and AT1 receptor mRNA and protein levels. Treatment with SB-386023-b given as late as at 6 h but not at 12 h after the SAH significantly decreased the receptor upregulation, the reduction in CBF and the neurology score. Conclusion These results provide evidence for a role of the ERK1/2 pathway in regulation of expression of cerebrovascular SMC receptors. It is suggested that raf inhibition may reduce late cerebral ischemia after SAH and provides a realistic time window for therapy.

  4. A randomised controlled trial to prevent hospital readmissions and loss of functional ability in high risk older adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne M

    2011-08-01

    collection is undertaken at baseline within 72 hours of hospital admission, 4 weeks following hospital discharge, 12 weeks following hospital discharge, and 24 weeks following hospital discharge. Outcome assessors are blinded to group allocation. Primary outcomes are emergency hospital readmissions and health service use, functional status, psychosocial well-being and cost effectiveness. Discussion The acute hospital sector comprises the largest component of health care system expenditure in developed countries, and older adults are the most frequent consumers. There are few trials to demonstrate effective models of transitional care to prevent emergency readmissions, loss of functional ability and independence in this population following an acute hospital admission. This study aims to address that gap and provide information for future health service planning which meets client needs and lowers the use of acute care services. Trial Registration No Australian & New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000202369

  5. 氨甲环酸对单侧全膝关节置换失血量的影响及安全性评价%Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid on blood loss after unilateral total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵鹏; 彭银虓; 胡江海; 顾祖超

    2015-01-01

    背景:全膝关节置换围手术期出血较多,而输血不仅额外增加费用,延长康复时间,也存在免疫反应和传染疾病的风险.因此,减少全膝关节置换失血量显得十分重要.目的:评估氨甲环酸在全膝关节置换中止血的有效性和安全性.方法:将 64 例因骨关节病拟行单侧全膝关节置换的患者随机分为两组,每组 32 例.氨甲环酸组于置换前 15 min将氨甲环酸按10 mg/kg稀释于250 mL等渗盐水中静脉滴注;对照组同时间点给予等量生理盐水.对比术中失血量、置换后可见失血量、置换后血红蛋白减少量、输血量、输血人数和置换后纤维蛋白原、凝血酶原时间等凝血评价指标.观察置换后下肢深静脉栓塞的症状,并在置换后30 d行下肢血管多普勒检查.结果与结论:两组术中出血量差异无显著性意义(P>0.05),氨甲环酸组置换后可见失血量低于对照组(P<0.001),氨甲环酸组的输血量和输血人数同样低于对照组(P<0.001);置换后血红蛋白值氨甲环酸组明显高于对照组(P<0.001).置换后3 h两组的凝血指标差异无显著性意义;但两组D-二聚体均明显高于置换前,氨甲环酸组低于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.001).两组患者置换后均未发现下肢深静脉血栓形成.提示氨甲环酸能够有效减少全膝关节置换后的失血量、降低输血率和输血量,且不增加置换后深静脉血栓形成的风险.%BACKGROUND:Total knee arthroplasty is always associated with peripheral blood loss.Blood transfusion not only involves additional cost and prolongs rehabilitation time,but also carries substantial risk of immunologic reaction and disease transmission.Therefore it is very important to reduce blood loss of total knee arthroplasty.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid on reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty.METHODS:We enroled 64 patients with primary osteoarthritis

  6. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  7. Glucose and blood pressure lowering effects of Pycnogenol® are inefficient to prevent prolongation of QT interval in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankyova, Stanislava; Kmecova, Jana; Cernecka, Hana; Mesarosova, Lucia; Musil, Peter; Brnoliakova, Zuzana; Kyselovic, Jan; Babal, Pavel; Klimas, Jan

    2012-08-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy shows ECG alterations related to cardiac repolarization and manifested by increased duration of QT interval. Although the mechanism is unknown, it is widely believed that the reduction of hyperglycaemia might prevent such alterations. To test this hypothesis, we used the standardized extract of French pine bark - Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) with hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties in 8-9 week old rats with experimentally (streptozotocin) induced diabetes mellitus (DM). PYC was administered orally for 6 weeks in three different doses (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg b.w., resp.). Experimental DM was manifested by hyperglycaemia (four to six-fold increase in plasma glucose concentration; p<0.05) and significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure (by 19%; p<0.05) measured using catheterization of carotid artery in vivo. Both abnormalities were dose-dependently reduced by PYC. In addition, diabetic cardiomyopathy was associated with a significant increase in left ventricular weight to body weight ratio (by 21%; p<0.05) and a significant decrease of the width of cardiomyocytes (by 23%; p<0.05) indicating cardiac edema on the one side, and hypotrophy of cardiomyocytes on the other. Both of these changes were not affected by PYC. Consequently to metabolic and hemodynamic alterations, significant prolongation of QT interval (by 20%; p<0.05) was present in diabetic rats, however, PYC failed to correct it. Conclusively, PYC fails to correct QT prolongation in spite of dose-dependent reduction of glycaemia and high blood pressure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:22749577

  8. Analysis on related factors of amount of blood loss during delivery in pregnant women combined with hysteromyoma%妊娠合并子宫肌瘤分娩出血量的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 张丽丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨影响妊娠合并子宫肌瘤孕妇分娩出血量的相关因素.方法:2007~2011年在产前检查时发现子宫肌瘤且至少有1个直径≥5 cm肌瘤的孕妇192例,分析产妇的年龄、产次、分娩方式、新生儿体重及肌瘤的数量、单发肌瘤的最大径线、多发肌瘤最大径线之和、肌瘤的位置与分娩出血量的关系.结果:孕妇的年龄及肌瘤的数量与出血量呈正相关,而分娩方式、新生儿体重及肌瘤的大小和位置与出血量无显著相关性.结论:高龄和多发性子宫肌瘤是妊娠合并子宫肌瘤孕妇分娩出血量多的重要因素,必须提前做好产前准备,备足充足的血源,以避免严重产后出血导致产妇死亡.%Objective: To explore the related influencing factors of amount of blood loss during delivery in pregnant women combined with hysteromyoma. Methods; A total of 192 pregnant women were found with hysteromyoma and at least the diameter of one myoma ^ 5 cm during prenatal examination from 2007 to 2011; the relationship between maternal age, parity, delivery modes, neonatal weight, the number of myoma, the longest diameter of single myoma, the sum of longest diameters of multiple myoma, the location of myoma and the a-mount of blood loss during delivery was analyzed. Results; There was a positive correlation between maternal age, the number of myoma and the amount of blood loss; delivery modes, neonatal weight, the size and location of myoma were not correlated with the amount of blood loss during delivery. Conclusion; Advanced age and multiple hysteromyoma were important factors inducing excessive hemorrhage during delivery in pregnant women combined with hysteromyoma, prenatal preparation should be conducted and sufficient blood resource should be prepared to avoid maternal death induced by serious postpartum hemorrhage.

  9. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlöf, Björn; Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R;

    2005-01-01

    The apparent shortfall in prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) noted in early hypertension trials has been attributed to disadvantages of the diuretics and beta blockers used. For a given reduction in blood pressure, some suggested that newer agents would confer advantages over diuretics...

  10. A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

  11. High acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV-testing but unacceptable loss to follow up in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme in rural Malawi: scaling-up requires a different way of acting.

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, M; Zachariah, R.; Teck, R; Buhendwa, L.; Kazima, J.; Bakali, E; Firmenich, Peter; Humblet, P

    2005-01-01

    SETTING: Thyolo District Hospital, rural Malawi. OBJECTIVES: In a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme, to determine: the acceptability of offering 'opt-out' voluntary counselling and HIV-testing (VCT); the progressive loss to follow up of HIV-positive mothers during the antenatal period, at delivery and to the 6-month postnatal visit; and the proportion of missed deliveries in the district. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Review of routine antenatal, VCT and PMTCT ...

  12. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  13. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities and Cancer For Patient Advocates Public Policy Advocacy Cancer Awareness Dates Survivorship Blog About Us You ... Health Disparities and Cancer For Patient Advocates Public Policy Advocacy Cancer Awareness Dates Cancer.Net provides timely, comprehensive, ...

  14. Relationship of tranexamic acid therapy duration with hidden blood loss after total hip arthroplasty%氨甲环酸使用时间与全髋关节置换术隐性失血的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅峥; 张健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of tranexamic acid on visible and hidden blood loss after the preliminary unilateral total hip arthtoplasty (THA).Methods The study involved 60 patients who received primary unilateral THA due to femoral neck fracture from March 2010 to September 2011.They were 18 males and 42 females,at 58 to 86 years of age (average 74.5 years).They were divided into Group A (n =20),not given tranexamic acid,Group B (n =20),given tranexamic acid in operation,Group C (n =20),given tranexamic acid at preoperative one hour according to stratified random method.Total red blood cell loss,visible red blood cell loss,and hidden red blood cell loss in each group were calculated.Results Visible red blood cell loss in Groups A,B,and C was (95.4 ± 17.7) ml,(45.5 ± 11.5) rnl,and (45.3 ± 8.4) ml respectively.Moreover,difference of visible red blood cell loss was significant between Groups A and B (P < 0.05),but insignificant between Groups B and C (P > 0.05).Hidden red blood cell loss in Groups A,B,and C was (322.4 ± 57.7) ml,(203.8 ±46.6) ml,and (137.6 ± 34.7) ml respectively,with significant difference between Groups A and B (P<0.05) and between Groups B and C (P<0.05).Conclusions Tranexamic acid reduces the visible and hidden blood loss in primary unilateral THA significantly.While tranexamic acid administered at preoperative one hour gains advantage of less hidden blood loss over the intraoperative administration.%目的 探讨氨甲环酸对初次单侧全髋关节置换术(total hip arthroplasty,THA)显性及隐性失血的影响. 方法 选取2010年3月-2011年9月行初次单侧THA患者60例,其中男18例,女42例;年龄58 ~86岁,平均74.5岁,诊断均为股骨颈骨折.按分层随机分组法分为:A组(20例,不使用氨甲环酸)、B组(20例,术中使用氨甲环酸)和C组(20例,术前1h使用氨甲环酸).计算总红细胞丢失量、显性红细胞丢失量及隐性红细胞丢失量. 结果 A、B、C组显性

  15. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient...

  16. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  17. Prevention of medical personnel from being infected with blood-borne diseases%论医务人员对血源性传播疾病感染的预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔惠敏; 秦凤菊; 王艳华

    2014-01-01

    目的:提高医务人员对血源性传播疾病感染的预防能力。方法:通过研究血源性传播疾病的传播路径,分析此类疾病对医务人员造成的损害,探索相应的预防措施。结果:医务人员掌握科学的预防理念与措施能够有效预防血源性传播疾病感染的发生。结论:医务人员必须充分认识血源性传播疾病的危害,强化自我保护与预防意识,才能将该类疾病的感染风险降到最低限度。%Objective:To improve the ability of medical personnel to prevent infectious blood-borne diseases. Methods:Based on the research of the dissemination paths of infectious blood-borne diseases and analysis of the injuries and harms caused by this kind of disease to the medical personnel, the corresponding prevention measures were explored. Results: If the medical personnel had grasped the scientific prevention concepts and measures, they could effectively prevent from being infected by the blood-borne disea-ses. Conclusions:The medical personnel must be fully aware of the harm of the blood-borne diseases and strengthen the self-protec-tion and prevention consciousness, in order to minimize the risk of infection of the disease.

  18. Loss of bone marrow adrenergic beta 1 and 2 receptors modifies transcriptional networks, reduces circulating inflammatory factors, and regulates blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Niousha; Schmidt, Jordan T; Krane, Gregory A; Malphurs, Wendi; Cunningham, Bruce E; Owen, Jennifer L; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Zubcevic, Jasenka

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a prevalent condition with complex etiology and pathophysiology. Evidence exists of significant communication between the nervous system and the immune system (IS), and there appears to be a direct role for inflammatory bone marrow (BM) cells in the pathophysiology of hypertension. However, the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been characterized. Here, we transplanted whole BM cells from the beta 1 and 2 adrenergic receptor (AdrB1(tm1Bkk)AdrB2(tm1Bkk)/J) knockout (KO) mice into near lethally irradiated C57BL/6J mice to generate a BM AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. This allowed us to evaluate the role of the BM beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in mediating BM IS homeostasis and regulating blood pressure (BP) in an otherwise intact physiological setting. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting demonstrated that a decrease in systolic and mean BP in the AdrB1.B2 KO chimera is associated with a decrease in circulating inflammatory T cells, macrophage/monocytes, and neutrophils. Transcriptomics in the BM identified 7,419 differentially expressed transcripts between the C57 and AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts related to several cell processes in the BM of C57 compared with AdrB1.B2 KO chimera, including processes related to immunity (e.g., T-cell activation, T-cell recruitment, cytokine production, leukocyte migration and function), the cardiovascular system (e.g., blood vessel development, peripheral nerve blood flow), and the brain (e.g., central nervous system development, neurite development) among others. This study generates new insight into the molecular events that underlie the interaction between the sympathetic drive and IS in modulation of BP. PMID:27235450

  19. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; McEwen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    Context: For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. Objective: To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Methods: Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Results: Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Conclusions: Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that

  20. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection--Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-04-15

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus. Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for treatment of blood components can be implemented. To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units, 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units, and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector, other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance.

  1. 静脉输注氨甲环酸对全膝关节置换后隐性失血的影响%Effect of intravenous tranexamic acid on hidden blood loss in total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旻暐; 李子剑; 张克; 曾琳; 方拓

    2015-01-01

    背景:人工全膝关节置换过程中,止血带的使用、手术创伤等因素会导致纤溶系统的异常激活,是术后失血的主要原因。氨甲环酸是一类抗纤溶药物,在人工全膝关节置换中使用,可减少置换后显性失血、总失血量,并降低异体血输血率。然而,氨甲环酸对人工全膝关节置换后隐性失血的影响尚未明确。目的:观察静脉输注氨甲环酸对初次全膝关节置换后隐性失血的影响。方法:回顾性分析2013年6至12月北京大学第三医院行初次单侧全膝关节置换54例患者的临床资料,按照是否使用氨甲环酸分为两组。氨甲环酸组22例在术中经静脉给予总量2 g的氨甲环酸,对照组32例使用等量生理盐水。两组患者置换后均口服利伐沙班抗凝。记录患者置换前及置换后连续5 d的血红蛋白、血红细胞压积,采用Gross方程计算总失血量和隐性失血量,比较两组间失血量的差异性。置换后1周行下肢静脉超声检查,判断有无下肢深静脉血栓形成。结果与结论:两组患者一般资料、围术期情况等比较差异均无显著性意义(P >0.05)。氨甲环酸组患者置换后引流量、显性失血量、总失血量、自体血回输量、异体血输注量均明显少于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P 0.05). Postoperative drainage, dominant blood loss, total blood volume, the amount of autologous blood transfusion and the amount of alogeneic blood transfusion were significantly less in the tranexamic acid group than in the control group (P < 0.05). According to Gross formula, the difference of hidden blood loss was statisticaly significant between the tranexamic acid group (302.9±189.9) mL and the control group (596.8±271.4) mL (P < 0.05). Deep vein thrombosis appeared in one case between the two groups after replacement. Results indicate that intravenous infusion of tranexamic acid dramaticaly decreased the hidden blood

  2. Thinking of change in terms of gains or losses Promotion versus prevention focus as a moderator in the job demands-resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Petrou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Promotion and prevention regulatory foci have been established as self-regulation systems with implications for the study of change.Research purpose: The study aimed to test moderating effects of promotion and prevention focus within the job demands-resources model in a context of organisational change. Predictors included job demands and resources whilst outcomes included emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change.Motivation for the study: The study intended to understand whether individual differences in promotion and prevention focus play an important role during the experience of organisational change.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 164 teachers from the Netherlands participated in a quantitative survey design before a new governmental policy was implemented in their schools and 189 different teachers working in the same schools participated in the survey after the implementation of the policy. Cross-sectional moderated regression analyses were used to analyse the data.Main findings: Promotion focus moderated the relationship between job demands and openness to change, whilst both promotion and prevention focus moderated many of the relationships between job resources on the one hand and emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change on the other hand.Practical/managerial implications: Knowing that organisational change can have different meanings for promotion and prevention focused employees, managers can facilitate employee adaptation to change.Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework that incorporates self-regulation as a moderator in the job demands-resources model. At the same time, implications for organisational change were co-examined.

  3. 血站护士职业暴露原因分析及预防控制措施%The cause analysis and preventive control measures of occupational exposure of blood-bank nurse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宗丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of nurses occupational exposure of blood bank,and risk analysis on blood flow to find control points,to develop security measures and prevent or reduce the incidence of occupational exposure. Methods 24 nurses were investigated voluntarily through questionnaire in blood-bank. Results Number of occupational exposure to 79.2%,including needle stick injuries and hard impact injury 57.9%,blood treatment and centrifugation broken bags of blood leak 42.1%;work time < 3 years 15 cases,accounting for 78.9%;21.1%occurred secondary exposure who had worked<3 year. Conclusion Blood stations nurses is an important group of occupational exposure,the implementation of specific measures of prevention and control of occupational exposure to prevent blood infections infectious diseases,is indispensable work for blood stations nurse who must take seriously.%  目的探讨血站护士职业暴露的原因,对采血流程进行危险性分析,找出控制点,制定出安全防护措施,避免或减少职业暴露的发生。方法对血站24名护士进行自愿问卷调查。结果发生职业暴露人数为79.2%。其中被针头刺伤和硬物撞击伤为57.9%,处理血液和离心破袋渗漏42.1%;工作时间<3年的15人,占78.9%;二次发生暴露21.1%,均为工作年限<3年的护士。结论血站护士是职业暴露的重要人群,实施职业暴露预防与控制具体措施,防止血行性感染传染病的发生,是血站护士必须重视和不可缺少的工作。

  4. 氨甲环酸用于全膝关节置换降低失血量的有效性及安全性%Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in total knee arthroplasty:effectiveness and safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万军; 朱绍灵; 刘显东; 唐承杰; 郑金文; 陈星宇; 刘颖; 肖鹏

    2015-01-01

    背景:氨甲环酸是一种人工合成的抗纤维蛋白溶解的药物,可以经静脉有效的控制全膝关节置换后失血。目的:观察氨甲环酸对初次行单侧全膝关节置换患者置换后失血的有效性及安全性。方法:选取2014至2015年在四川省骨科医院下肢科行单侧全膝关节置换的100例患者。以使用氨甲环酸与否分为试验组和对照组,各50例。试验组患者在全膝关节置换前10 min静脉注射氨甲环酸1 g,而对照组不给予氨甲环酸。结果与结论:试验组患者置换后围手术期总失血量、置换后24 h引流量、输血量明显少于对照组(P <0.05);试验组与对照组术中出血量、输血人数差异无显著性意义。两组患者患者置换前血红蛋白水平差异无显著性意义,而置换后血红蛋白水平均下降,且试验组患者置换后血红蛋白水平均明显高于对照组。置换后24 h,两组患者凝血功能差异无显著性意义。置换后6 d,2组患者双下肢静脉彩色多普勒超声检查均未见深静脉血栓。提示初次单侧全膝关节置换前静脉给予氨甲环酸能明显减少围手术期失血量及输血量,降低输血风险及输血费用,利于术后功能恢复,且不增加下肢深静脉血栓的风险。%BACKGROUND:Tranexamic acid is a synthetic anti-fibrinolytic drug, and can effectively control blood loss after total knee arthroplasty through vein. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss after primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. METHODS:From 2014 to 2015, 100 patients from the Department of Lower Limb, Sichuan Orthopaedic Hospital underwent primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty, and randomly divided into test group which used tranexamic acid and control group which used tranexamic acid, with 50 cases in each group. 1 g tranexamic acid was infused into the vein at 10 minutes before total knee arthroplasty

  5. Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry competitiveness losses? Insights from a meta-analysis of recent economic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Branger, Frédéric; Quirion, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses. A widely discussed policy option to reduce leakage and protect competitiveness of heavy industries is to impose Border Carbon Adjustments (BCA) to non regulated countries, which remains contentious for juridical and political reasons. The estimation of carbon leakage as well as the assessment of different policy options led to a substantial body of litterature in energy-economic modelin...

  6. Hypoxic Stress Induced by Hydralazine Leads to a Loss of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and an Increase in Efflux Transporter Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatard, Morgane; Puech, Clémentine; Roche, Frederic; Perek, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by hypoxic stress is crucial to reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in some neurological diseases. Since the brain is a complex organ, it makes the interpretation of in vivo data difficult, so BBB studies are often investigated using in vitro models. However, the investigation of hypoxia in cellular pathways is complex with physical hypoxia because HIF-1α (factor induced by hypoxia) has a short half-life. We had set up an innovative and original method of induction of hypoxic stress by hydralazine that was more reproducible, which allowed us to study its impact on an in vitro BBB model. Our results showed that hydralazine, a mimetic agent of the hypoxia pathway, had the same effect as physical hypoxia, with few cytotoxicity effects on our cells. Hypoxic stress led to an increase of BBB permeability which corresponded to an opening of our BBB model. Study of tight junction proteins revealed that this hypoxic stress decreased ZO-1 but not occludin expression. In contrast, cells established a defence mechanism by increasing expression and activity of their efflux transporters (Pgp and MRP-1). This induction method of hypoxic stress by hydralazine is simple, reproducible, controllable and suitable to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved by hypoxia on the BBB. PMID:27337093

  7. Azithromycin Prevents Pregnancy Loss: Reducing the Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Raising the Level of Interleukin-10 in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Er

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of azithromycin on LPS-induced pregnancy loss. Thirty-six pregnant female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: control group, where 0.3 mL of normal saline solution was administered intravenously on day 10 of pregnancy; azithromycin group, where azithromycin was administered orally at 350 mg kg−1 day on days 9, 10, and 11 of pregnancy; lipopolysaccharide group, where LPS was administered intravenously via the tail vein at 1...

  8. Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss in Complex Posterior Lumbar Surgery%氨甲环酸对减少复杂腰椎后路手术围手术期出血的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石厚银; 江锋; 谢显平; 马川; 胡旭光

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid on blood loss associated with complex posterior lumbar surgery. Methods 238 patients who received complex posterior lumbar surgery,from June 2013 to December 2015,were retrospectively analyzed. 123 patients were received tranexamic acid before incision in treatment group. 115 patients were not received tranexamic acid during perioperative period in the control group. Intraoperative estimated blood loss,postoperative drainage volume,amount of blood transfusion,hemoglobin and complications were compared. Results The average intraoperative estimated blood loss was significant difference between the groups[TXA group(523±153)ml vs. control group(785±188) ml,P=0.026]. The average postoperative drainage volume was significant difference too,between the groups[TXA group(265±84)ml vs. control group(381±105)ml,P=0.031]. The amount of blood transfusion was no statistical different between groups[TXA group(278±53)ml vs. control group(335±71)ml,P=0.187]. There was insignificantly different in operative time. Deep vein thrombosis and other adverse effects did not discover in both groups. Conclusion Tranexmaic acid is safe and effective in complex posterior lumbar surgery.%目的:观察氨甲环酸减少复杂腰椎后路手术围手术期出血的疗效与安全性。方法回顾2013年6月~2015年12月238例行复杂腰椎后路手术患者,其中氨甲环酸组123例,对照组115例。比较氨甲环酸组与对照组术中出血量,术后引流量,输血量,血红蛋白及深静脉血栓等。结果术中出血量:氨甲环酸组(523±153)ml,对照组(785±188)ml,差异有统计学意义(P=0.026);术后引流量:氨甲环酸组(265±84) ml,对照组(381±105)ml,差异有统计学意义(P=0.031);输血量:氨甲环酸组(278±53)ml,对照组(335±71)ml,差异无统计学意义(P=0.187);两组均未见深静脉血栓、肾功能

  9. Oral lipid-based nanoformulation of tafenoquine enhanced bioavailability and blood stage antimalarial efficacy and led to a reduction in human red blood cell loss in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melariri P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paula Melariri,1 Lonji Kalombo,2 Patric Nkuna,2 Admire Dube,2,3 Rose Hayeshi,2 Benhards Ogutu,4,5 Liezl Gibhard,6 Carmen deKock,6 Peter Smith,6 Lubbe Wiesner,6 Hulda Swai2 1Polymers and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; 2Polymer and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; 4Centre for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Division of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town Medical School, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Tafenoquine (TQ, a new synthetic analog of primaquine, has relatively poor bioavailability and associated toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient individuals. A microemulsion formulation of TQ (MTQ with sizes <20 nm improved the solubility of TQ and enhanced the oral bioavailability from 55% to 99% in healthy mice (area under the curve 0 to infinity: 11,368±1,232 and 23,842±872 min·µmol/L for reference TQ and MTQ, respectively. Average parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was four- to tenfold lower in the MTQ-treated group. In vitro antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum indicated no change in half maximal inhibitory concentration, suggesting that the microemulsion did not affect the inherent activity of TQ. In a humanized mouse model of G6PD deficiency, we observed reduction in toxicity of TQ as delivered by MTQ at low but efficacious concentrations of TQ. We hereby report an enhancement in the solubility, bioavailibility, and efficacy of TQ against blood stages of Plasmodium parasites without a corresponding increase in toxicity

  10. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. PMID:25807965

  11. Preventive measures for risk factors of blood-borne infections in operating room nurses%手术室护士血源性暴露危险因素的预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨手术室护士对血源性暴露危险因素的预防措施,为其临床防治提供依据.方法 共纳入47名手术室护理人员,详细记录其相关信息,对发生血源性暴露的患者进行分析,根据具体情况分析可能的原因并提出相应的预防措施.结果 47名护理人员中23人有血源性暴露史,6人发生≥2次,共31人次;其中11人次被锐器损伤,损伤率为35.5%,18人次污血等溅落到眼睛或皮肤上,发生率为58.1%,2次为直接接触血液,占6.4%;23人有暴露史的人员均未发生血源性感染;31人次暴露史中主要以乙型肝炎病毒为主,有14人次,其次为丙型肝炎病毒,有11人次,其他包括人类免疫缺陷病毒、梅毒、疟疾等共6人次,分别占45.2%、35.5%及19.4%.结论 由于职业因素影响,手术室护士发生血源性感染的风险比较大,个人及医院均需要采取积极的预防措施,避免血源性感染的发生,保护护理人员的生命安全及健康.%OBJECTIVE To discuss the prevention measures for the blood-borne exposure to operating room nurses so as to provide the basis for the clinical work.METHODS A total of 47 nursing staff in the operating rooms were enrolled in the study,the relevant information was recorded in detail,the incidence of blood-borne infections was analyzed,then the corresponding prevention measures were put forward through analysis of the possible causes.RESULTS Of 47 nursing staff investigated,23 cases had the history of blood-borne exposure,with 6 cases more than two times,31 case-times in total,among which there were 11 (35.5%) case-times with sharp instrument injuries,18 (58.1%) case-times with contaminated blood splashing to the eyes or skin,and 2 (6.4 %) case-times with directly contacting the blood;the blood-borne infections did not occurred in 23 cases who had the history of blood-borne exposure.Of the 31 case-times of nursing staff with the history of blood-borne exposure,there were

  12. Perioperative Vision Loss in Spine Surgery and Other Orthopaedic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Alvin W; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Larson, A Noelle

    2016-10-01

    Perioperative vision loss is a rare complication of orthopaedic surgery and has been documented after spine, knee, hip, and shoulder procedures. It is associated with several ophthalmologic diagnoses, most commonly ischemic optic neuropathy. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, current evidence suggests that systemic hemodynamic compromise and altered balance of intraocular perfusion contribute to the development of ischemic optic neuropathy. Although vision recovery has been reported, the prognosis of perioperative vision loss is poor, and no proven effective treatment is available. Perioperative vision loss is unpredictable and can occur in healthy patients. Associated risk factors include pediatric or elderly age, male sex, obesity, anemia, hypotension or hypertension, perioperative blood loss, prolonged surgical time, and prone positioning. Preventive strategies include avoiding direct pressure to the eye, elevating the head, optimizing perioperative hemodynamic status, and minimizing surgical time with staged surgical procedures as appropriate.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood ... record for use in an emergency. How Can I Prevent Hyperglycemia? Your best bet is to practice ...

  14. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...

  15. [Autologous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencher, N; Conseiller, C

    2001-06-30

    Autologous blood transfusion techniques are the principal means of reducing allogeneic blood exposure. Those techniques were developed in order to prevent the risk of contamination by viruses, mainly HVB, HCV and HIV. However that risk has become so small that all studies show an exorbitant cost/efficiency ratio. Autologous blood transfusion would therefore be of no interest in terms of public health but a recent experimental study suggested a possible transmission of the BSE agent through blood. Until the matter is settled, the precaution principle means we should prefer alternative techniques to allogeneic blood whenever possible, hence a renewed interest in autologous transfusion. PMID:11503506

  16. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  17. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  18. 全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法的失血量比较%Comparison on blood loss between different position and drainage method after total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红嫣; 王利宏; 卢福娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of different position and drainage method on blood loss after total knee arthro-plasty. Method Select 30 patients after total knee arthroplasty. Divide them into Group A, B and C according to random number table. Patients in Group A take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling vacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group B take the position of extension knee with pillow under the ankle of affected extremity and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Patients in Group C lift affected extremity at the angle of 30 degree, bend knee at the angle of 45 degree and indwelling unvacuum-drainage bag. Compare the volumes of drain 24h after operation, total blood transfusion and change of prc - operation and post - operation total protein and hemoglobin of three groups. Result The volumes of drain 24h after operation of Group A, B and C arc (970. 00±79. 54)ml, (719. 00 ± 83. 91) ml and (419. 00 ± 38. 74)ml (F=15. 36, P<0. 05). The total blood transfusion and loss of total protein and hemoglobin arc less in Group C. There is significant difference on comparison between Group C and other two groups. Conclusion Bent and lifting position and unvacuum-drainage for patients after total knee arthroplasty can help reduce postoperative blood loss.%目的 探讨全膝关节置换术后不同体位和引流方法对减少失血量的影响.方法 选择30例全膝关节置换术后患者,按随机数字表分为A组、B组和C组各10例.A组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置负压引流袋引流;B组术后患肢踝后垫枕,膝关节伸直位,留置非负压引流袋引流;C组术后患肢抬高30°、屈膝45°,留置非负压引流袋引流.比较3组术后24 h 切口引流量、术前和术后总蛋白及血红蛋白差值、总输血量.结果 A、B、C 3组术后24 h 切口引流量分别为(970.00±79.54)ml、(719.00±83.91)ml和(419.00±38.74)ml,经比较,F=15.36,P<0.05;C组患者

  19. Study of effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and blood transfusion rate of elderly hip fracture surgery%氨甲环酸减少老年髋部骨折手术失血量与输血率的有效性及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明新; 于华; 赵金红; 苏杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of preoperative intravenous administration of tranex-amic acid in the hemiarthroplasty treatment of elderly hip fracture. Methods Seventy patients who received hemiarthro-plasty due to femoral neck fracture (Garden Ⅲ/Ⅳ) in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, of which 35 patients were given preoperative intravenous administration of tranexamic acid and 35 pa-tients were not. The patients'preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit values were collected. The to-tal blood loss amount was calculated through Gross equation and the postoperative drainage amount, number of people receiving blood transfusion, blood transfusion amount and occurrence of thrombus events were recorded. Results The total blood loss amount of the tranexamic acid group was (867.79±76.93) mL, which was significantly lower than (1207.07±403.83) mL of the control group, with statistically significant difference(P=0.036). The postoperative drainage amount was (305.67±103.68) mL, which was lower than the (393.00±66.29) mL of the control group, with statistically significant difference (P<0.01). The application of tranexamic acid decreased the blood transfusion rate from 42.86% to 20.00%(P=0.039). The complications of postoperative thrombus events did not increase (P=0.643). Conclusion In the treatment of elderly femoral neck fracture, the preoperative intravenous administration of tranexamic acid can effec-tively and safely reduce the blood loss amount and blood transfusion rate of hemiarthroplasty.%目的:探讨术前静脉使用氨甲环酸在半髋关节置换术治疗老年髋部骨折中的有效性与安全性。方法回顾性分析我院2008年1月~2012年12月因股骨颈骨折(GardenⅢ/Ⅳ型)行半髋关节置换术患者70例,其中35例术前静脉使用氨甲环酸,35例未使用。收集患者的术前、术后血红蛋白及血细胞比容值,通过Gross方程计算

  20. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-04-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm(2) ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm(2) ± 20.08, p hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p hair.

  1. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide enhances salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox homeostasis and preventing salt-induced K⁺ loss in seedlings of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Diwen; Mao, Yu; Zhou, Heng; Li, Feng; Wu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jing; He, Ziyi; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie

    2014-08-01

    Despite the external application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conferring plant tolerance against various environmental cues, the physiological significance of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES)-associated endogenous H2S production involved in salt-stress signaling was poorly understood. To address this gap, the participation of in planta changes of H2S homeostasis involved in alfalfa salt tolerance was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl (from 50 to 300 mM) progressively caused the induction of total l-DES activity and the increase of endogenous H2S production. NaCl-triggered toxicity symptoms (175 mM), including seedling growth inhibition and lipid peroxidation, were alleviated by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM), a H2S donor, whereas aggravated by an inhibitor of l-DES or a H2S scavenger. A weaker or negative response was observed in lower or higher dose of NaHS. Further results showed that endogenous l-DES-related H2S modulated several genes/activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, and also regulated the contents of antioxidant compounds, thus counterbalancing the NaCl-induced lipid peroxidation. Moreover, H2S maintained K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis by preventing the NaCl-triggered K(+) efflux, which might be result form the impairment of SKOR expression. Together, our findings indicated that endogenous H2S homeostasis enhance salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox balance and restraining K(+) efflux in alfalfa seedlings.

  2. On the efficacy and safety of vaccination with live tachyzoites of Neospora caninum for prevention of neospora-associated fetal loss in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Fred H; Jackson, James A; Sobecki, Brian; Choromanski, Les; Olsen, Mary; Meinert, Todd; Frank, Rodney; Reichel, Michael P; Ellis, John T

    2013-01-01

    Infection of cattle with Neospora caninum may result in abortion or the birth of a congenitally infected calf. Vaccination with live N. caninum protects against experimental infection of cattle and mice, and the naturally attenuated Nc-Nowra strain of N. caninum is of particular interest as a potential vaccine candidate. Vaccination of heifers prior to breeding with live Nc-Nowra tachyzoites by either the subcutaneous or the intravenous route reduced the rate of abortion and the presence of the parasite in calves as determined by PCR and serology after infection of cows with a virulent isolate. Protected fractions were 55.6% to 85.2% depending on the route of vaccination and growth conditions of the vaccine strain, with cryopreserved Nc-Nowra tachyzoites being less effective, with a 25.9% protected fraction. Vaccination appeared to reduce the rate of pregnancy after artificial insemination in some groups compared to nonvaccinated, nonchallenged controls. One animal that was vaccinated but not challenged experienced an abortion, but Nc-Nowra could not be detected in any of the cows in this group or their progeny. This study confirms that live vaccination can be an effective method of preventing neosporosis in cattle and yet highlights the technical hurdle of preservation of live parasites that must be overcome for a vaccine to be commercially successful.

  3. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Ask ...

  4. Effect of tranexamic acid on perioperative blood loss during transurethral resection of prostate%氨甲环酸对经尿道前列腺电切术失血量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙倩倩; 熊君宇; 潘宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of tranexamic acid on perioperative blood loss in patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate ( TURP) , as well as its safety.Methods A double blind randomized control trial was conducted from January 2012 to February 2013.In this trial, 30 patients of the tranexamic acid group (T group), between age of 55-85 years, underwent TURP and received 1 g of tranexamic acid in 200 mL normal saline after induction of anes-thesia and 30 patients of the control group (C group) received a placebo (normal saline only).The medicine dripping speed ranged 20-40 drops/minute.The amount of blood loss was measured during the operation and at 4 h and 24 h post-operatively and the difference between the two groups was analyzed.Coagulation profiles, including prothrombin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level, were measured preoperatively and 4 h postoperatively.Any signs of thromboembolic e-vent especially in the lower limbs or within 7 days were noted.Results The blood losses during operation and 4 h postopera-tion were (102.0 ±11.4) mL and (61.9 ±6.1) mL, respectively in the T group and (303.6 ±24.8) mL and (84.8 ± 15.2) mL, respectively in the C group.The values were significantly lower in the T group compared to those in the C group (P<0.05).However, there was no significant difference at 24 h postoperative blood loss between the groups.The coagu-lation profiles in the two groups were statistically not relevant.There was no evidence of deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs or in both groups.Conclusion Tranexamic acid can reduce intraoperative blood loss during TURP without increasing the risk of thrombosis.%目的:探讨人工合成的抗纤溶药物氨甲环酸对接受经尿道前列腺电切术的患者失血量的影响及其安全性。方法2012年1月—2013年2月行经尿道前列腺电切术的60例患者,随机双盲分为氨甲环酸组( T组)和空白对照组( C组),每组30例。 T组在麻

  5. Development of the roadmap and guidelines for the prevention and management of high blood pressure in Africa: Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting: Nairobi, Kenya, 27 October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzudie, A; Ojji, D; Anisiuba, B C; Abdou, B A; Cornick, R; Damasceno, A; Kane, A L; Mocumbi, A O; Mohamed, A; Nel, G; Ogola, E; Onwubere, B; Otieno, H; Rainer, B; Schutte, A; Ali, I T; Twagirumukiza, M; Poulter, N; Mayosi, B

    2015-01-01

    Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economic changes are associated with a health transition characterised by a rise in cardiovascular risk factors and complications, which tend to affect the African population at their age of maximum productivity. Recent data from Africa have highlighted the increasing importance of high blood pressure in this region of the world. This condition is largely underdiagnosed and poorly treated, and therefore leads to stroke, renal and heart failure, and death. Henceforth, African countries are taking steps to develop relevant policies and programmes to address the issue of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in response to a call by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by the year 2025 (25 × 25). The World Heart Federation (WHF) has developed a roadmap for global implementation of the prevention and management of raised blood pressure using a health system approach to help realise the 25 × 25 goal set by the WHO. As the leading continental organisation of cardiovascular professionals, the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) aims to contextualise the roadmap framework of the WHF to the African continent through the PASCAR Taskforce on Hypertension. The Taskforce held a workshop in Kenya on 27 October 2014 to discuss a process by which effective prevention and control of hypertension in Africa may be achieved. It was agreed that a set of clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension are needed in Africa. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a roadmap for implementation of the prevention and management of hypertension in Africa under the auspices of the WHF. PMID:25940121

  6. The Association Between Antihypertensive Medication Nonadherence and Visit-to-Visit Variability of Blood Pressure: Findings From the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronish, Ian M; Lynch, Amy I; Oparil, Suzanne; Whittle, Jeff; Davis, Barry R; Simpson, Lara M; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Cushman, William C; Chang, Tara I; Muntner, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Low adherence to antihypertensive medication has been hypothesized to increase visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP). We assessed the association between antihypertensive medication adherence and VVV of BP in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). VVV of BP was calculated using SD independent of mean, SD, and average real variability across study visits conducted 6 to 28 months after randomization. Participants who reported taking heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, or mortality risk. In conclusion, improving medication adherence may lower VVV of BP. However, VVV of BP is associated with cardiovascular outcomes independent of medication adherence.

  7. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition patially prevents defecits in water maze performance, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cerebral blood flow in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Manschot, S.M.; Biessels, G.J.; Cameron, N.E.; Cotter, M.A.; Kamal, A.; Kappelle, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is important in the pathogenesis of peripheral complications of diabetes. However, the effects of diabetes on cerebral blood flow and the role of vascular deficits in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy are still unknown. The present study examined whether experimental d

  8. Efficacy Analysis of a Script-based Guide for EVAR Execution: is it Possible to Reduce Patient Exposure to Contrast, Operative Time and Blood Loss even when Advanced Technologies are not Available?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani José Dal Poggetto Molinari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Despite the patient and medical staff exposure to radiation in endovascular aneurysm repair, the benefits of this abdominal aortic aneurysm type of surgical management are justfied by minor recovery time and hospitalization, as well as an option for patients not elected to conventional open repair. In this minimally invasive surgical aproach, time of procedure and radiation doses can be substantial - and the increasing frequency of these procedures and it's complexity have impelled vascular surgeons to face additional and successive risk to occupational radiation exposure. Meticulous study of the computed tomography angiography during the endovascular aneurysm repair preparation allows reduction of unnecessary radiation exposure, as also reduces consecutive image acquisition and contrast use (that may be related to renal overload in susceptible patients. Some studies have proposed strategies to optimize endovascular intervention to reduce contrast use and X-ray exposure. Although they might prove to be effective, they rely on use of additional specific and advanced equipment, available only in major centers. As an alternative to this expensive and restrict technology, it is presented a simpler technique through image manipulation on software OsiriX, aiming to reduce both exposures. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy of the adoption of a study protocol and a script-based guide in preparation for endovascular aneurysm repair through verifying it's impact over the surgical procedure - as referred to intravascular contrast infuse, effects over renal function, blood loss and operatory time. METHODS: A longitudinal prospective study from March 2014 through March 2015, where 30 performed endovascular aneurysm repair were compared to a historic control group. The planning for endovascular aneurysm repair through the patient's tomographic image manipulation in the prospective group was performed with OsiriX MD software. A script

  9. Strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate prevents bone loss in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis via the OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo MA; Qi ZHANG; Di WU; Yong-lu WANG; Ying-ying HU; Yan-ping CHENG; Zhen-dong YANG; Ya-ya ZHENG; Han-jie YING

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the protective effects of strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP-Sr),a novel strontium salt that combined fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP)with strontium,on bone in an ovariectomy-induced model of bone loss.Methods:Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX)or sham-operated.Three months later,the rats were assigned to six groups (10 for each):sham-operated,OVX control,OVX+FDP-Sr (110,220,or 440 mg/kg),or OVX+strontium ranelate (SR,180 mg/kg).Drugs were administered orally for 3 months.When the treatment was terminated,the following parameters were assessed:bone mineral density (BMD),the biomechanical properties of the femur and lumbar vertebrae,trabecular histomorphology,serum phosphorus,calcium,bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP),tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b),N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx)and a series of markers for oxidative stress.Receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)and osteoprotegerin (OPG)levels in serum were measured using ELISA and their gene expression levels in the bone were measured using R-T PCR.Results:Treatment with FDP-Sr (220 or 440 mg/kg)or SR (180 mg/kg)significantly increased the BMD and improved the bone microarchitecture and bone strength in OVX rats.The treatments also decreased in the levels of H202 and MDA,restored the CAT level in serum and bone marrow,increased the serum B-ALP and decreased NTx and TRACP 5b in OVX rats.Treatment with FDP-Sr decreased the RANKL level,and increased the OPG level in serum in a dose-dependent manner.It also significantly down-regulated the RANKL expression and ul-regulated OPG expression in bone marrow.Conclusion:FDP-Sr may be an effectve treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis that acts,in part,via a decrease in osteoclastogenesis through the OPG\\RANKL\\RANK pathway.

  10. Number of endothelia progenitor cells from peripheral blood in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss%突发性耳聋患者外周血内皮祖细胞的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 周慧芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the number of endothelia progenitor cells (EPCs) from peripheral blood in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss(SSHL) and the proliferative number of EPCs colonies. Methods: Number of EPCs from peripheral blood and number of proliferative colonies of EPCs after 7 d were measured and comparison was made between SSHL group and the healthy group. Results: The number of EPCs reduced significantly in SSHL group compared with contrast group, they were (36.5?.58)/200xl03 cells and(85.3?.55)/200xl03 cells respectively. The number of proliferative colonies of EPCs were(2.01?.31) in SSHL group and (3.80眑.05) in normal group (P?0.01). Conclusion: Because the number of EPCs and the number of proliferative colonies of EPCs significantly lessen in patients with SSHL, EPCs cannot satisfy the body requirement during the process of restoration and result in the symptom of hearing loss.%目的:探讨突发性耳聋患者外周血中内皮祖细胞(EPCs)数量变化及增殖集落变化情况.方法:测定突发性耳聋患者和听力正常健康人外周血中EPCs数量及培养7d后增殖集落数量.结果:突发性耳聋组外周血中EPCs计数为(36.5±2.58)个/20万单个核细胞,听力正常健康人EPCs计数为(85.3±6.55)个/20万单个核细胞,EPCs增殖集落计数分别为(2.01±0.31)个和(3.80±1.05)个,两者比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:突发性耳聋患者由于EPCs数量及增殖集落数量下降,在机体修复过程中不能满足要求而引起耳聋等临床症状.

  11. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  12. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  13. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  14. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  15. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (PIGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (PIGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  16. Prevent Wounds by Conducting a Comprehensive Foot Examination and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Shelly Burdette-Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity wounds and falls are on the rise with the demographics and projected aging population. Diabetes and heart disease supersede cancer deaths. A basic foot exam—performed routinely on patients identified as high risk allows time for early intervention and prevention. A Certified Foot and Nail Care Nurse (CFCN) who evaluates clients on a regular basis, conducts a comprehensive lower extremity exam for loss of protective sensation (LOPS) and compromised peripheral blood flow is more...

  17. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  18. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  19. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  20. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  1. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  2. A Case Analysis on the Risk Prevention of the Business of Reporting the Loss of Bank Cards%银行卡挂失业务风险防范的案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东

    2012-01-01

    目前,由于银行卡挂失业务中责任界定不统一,办理流程不规范,风险防范不到位,因此形成了较大的法律风险、操作风险和道德分析,这也给不法分子造成了可乘之机。本文通过案例分析,提出完善法律规范和业务流程,提高银行风险防控能力的建议。%At present because there is no a uniform definition on the responsibility of the business of reporting the loss of bank cards among financial institutions, the operational process is not regulated and risks are not effectively prevented, legal risks, operational risks and moral hazard have come into being, which provides opportunity for criminals. With analyzing the case, the paper puts forward suggestions such as perfecting the relevant laws and operational processes to improve the capacity of risk prevention and control of banks.

  3. KMUP-1 suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss: roles of MAPKs, Akt, NF-κB and calcium/calcineurin/NFATc1 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Liou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: KMUP-1 is a xanthine derivative with inhibitory activities on the phosphodiesterase (PDE 3,4 and 5 isoenzymes to suppress the degradation of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. However, the effects of KMUP-1 on osteoclast differentiation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether KMUP-1 inhibits osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL in RAW 264.7 cells and bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice, and the underlying mechanisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro, KMUP-1 inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP activity, the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts and resorption-pit formation. It also inhibited key mediators of osteoclastogenesis including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1. In addition, KMUP-1 inhibited RANKL-induced activation of signaling molecules (Akt, MAPKs, calcium and NF-κB, mRNA expression of osteoclastogensis-associated genes (TRAP, MMP-9, Fra-1, and cathepsin K and transcription factors (c-Fos and NFATc1. Furthermore, most inhibitory effects of KMUP-1 on RANKL-mediated signal activations were reversed by a protein kinase A inhibitor (H89 and a protein kinase G inhibitor (KT5823. In vivo, KMUP-1 prevented loss of bone mineral content, preserved serum alkaline phosphate and reduced serum osteocalcin in ovariectomized mice. CONCLUSIONS: KMUP-1 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. These effects are mediated, at least in part, by cAMP and cGMP pathways. Therefore, KMUP-1 may have a role in pharmacologic therapy of osteoporosis.

  4. Grape powder intake prevents ovariectomy-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment and high blood pressure in female Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role

  5. Perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão em condutores de ônibus Noise-induced hearing loss and high blood pressure among city bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleno Rodrigues Corrêa Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar as prevalências de perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão arterial em condutores de ônibus urbanos. MÉTODOS: Executou-se estudo transversal em amostra probabilística de 108 motoristas da cidade de Campinas, SP. Aplicou-se questionário sobre história profissional, jornadas de trabalho e repouso, e realizou-se exame físico e laboratorial incluindo medida da pressão arterial, audiometria tonal limiar, logoaudiometria e dados antropométricos, após a obtenção de consentimento. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de perda auditiva induzida por ruído foi de 32,7% do total examinado. Segundo a classificação de Merluzzi, nos 31 casos classificados em primeiro e segundo graus, observou-se que a freqüência audiométrica com perda auditiva mais acentuada foi a de 6 kHz (61,3%, seguida pela de 4 kHz (38,7%, sem diferenças significantes quanto à lateralidade. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial diastólica (PAD³90 mmHG; PAS³140 mmHG foi de 13,2% dos examinados. CONCLUSÕES: O risco de disacusia induzida por ruído foi maior para os motoristas com mais de seis anos de trabalho, após ajuste para a perda relacionada com a idade, com um odds ratio de 19,25 (1,59OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and arterial hypertension among city bus drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a probability random sample of 108 city bus drivers taken out of a total of 1,529 estimated professionals in the city of Campinas, Brazil, in 1991. Drivers were interviewed using questionnaires on job history, shift work and vacation schedules and underwent clinical and laboratory examinations including measures of blood pressure, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and anthropometric data analysis after an informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was 32.7%. According to Merluzzi's classification, 91.2% (31 cases were classified as

  6. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    studies consistently identified benefits with increased protein consumption, longer-term studies produced limited and conflicting findings; nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis showed persistent benefits of a higher-protein weight-loss diet on body weight and fat mass. Dietary compliance appears......Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also......-analyses of shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies showed greater weight loss, fat mass loss, and preservation of lean mass after higher-protein energy-restriction diets than after lower-protein energy-restriction diets. Reductions in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference were also reported...

  7. Autoantigen-specific immunosuppression with tolerogenic peripheral blood cells prevents relapses in a mouse model of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kleist, Christian; MOHR, ELISABETH; Gaikwad, Sadanand; Dittmar, Laura; Kuerten, Stefanie; Platten, Michael; Mier, Walter; Schmitt, Michael; Opelz, Gerhard; Terneß, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) rendered suppressive by treatment with mitomycin C and loaded with the autoantigen myelin basic protein demonstrated earlier their ability to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). This provides an approach for prophylactic vaccination against autoimmune diseases. For clinical application such DCs are difficult to generate and autoantigens hold the risk of exacerbating the disease. Methods: We ...

  8. Regulation of homeostasis in the process of protein absorption from small intestine to blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Yuldashev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscopic and immunоfluorescent study in rats aged 1 and 3 days after birth allowed to establish a process of absorption of protein from the small intestine into the lymph and blood. Blood homeostasis was provided by the proteins filtrated from glomerular capillaries of nephrons and reabsorbed by the epithelial cells in canaliculi of nephrons. The absorbed natural heterologous protein was depleted by lysosomes of epithelial cells of intestine and kidneys and macrophages. It supported not only blood homeostasis but also prevented loss of protein by an organism, formed sites for its digestion in the organism.

  9. Immune invasion of the central nervous system parenchyma and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, but not leukocyte extravasation from blood, are prevented in macrophage-depleted mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hoekstra, K; van Rooijen, N;

    1998-01-01

    /J mice was abrogated by Cl2MDP-mnL treatment. CD4+ T cell and MHC II+ B220+ B cell extravasation from blood vessels and Th1 cytokine production were not inhibited. However, invasion of the central nervous system intraparenchymal tissues by lymphocytes, F4/80+, Mac-1+, and MOMA-1+ macrophages was almost...... completely blocked after treatment with Cl2MDP-mnL. Furthermore, in Cl2MDP-mnL-treated mice, the myelin sheaths appeared completely normal, whereas, in the control groups, marked demyelination occurred. Production of TNF-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase, both associated with macrophage...

  10. Study on the Efficacy of Abstergent Autologous Blood Transfusion Combined with Fresh Frozen Plasma in Preventing Coagulation Disorders after Operation%洗涤式自体血回输联合新鲜冰冻血浆预防术后凝血功能障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新桥; 陈建明; 李慧梁; 蔡丹; 周巧群; 罗旭倩

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨洗涤自体血回输联合使用新鲜冰冻血浆预防术后凝血障碍的疗效。【方法】选取2012年1月至2013年12月本院收治的大出血患者90例,按照患者的术中失血量大小,将其分为小量组(<400mL,n=50)、中量组(400~800mL,n=20)和大量组(>800mL,n=20)。根据回输血量多少与患者凝血功能的量化关系,制定联合新鲜冰冻血浆输注的具体方案。比较分析三组患者纤维蛋白原(FIB)、血小板(PLT)及凝血酶原时间(PT)变化情况。【结果】回输血液后三组患者机体FIB、PLT均较术前显著降低,PT明显延长(P<0.05);术后18h三组患者FIB、PLT均较回输血液后明显升高,PT显著缩短(P<0.05)。【结论】联合新鲜冰冻血浆输注的具体方案能提高洗涤自体血回输的安全性和实用性,有效预防凝血功能障碍的发生。%Objective To explore the efficacy of abstergent autologous blood transfusion combined with fresh frozen plasma in preventing coagulation disorders after operation .[Methods] Totally 90 patients with hemorrhea in our hospital from Jan .2012 to Sept .2013 were chosen .According to blood loss volume ,all pa-tients were divided into small volume group(800ml) .On the basis of the quantitative relation between blood transfusion volume and coagulation function of patients ,the concrete scheme about the combined fresh frozen plasma transfusion was made .Fi-brinogen(FIB) ,platelet(PLT) and prothrombin time(PT ) in 3 groups at different time point were analyzed and compared .[Results] Compared with before blood transfusion ,FIB and PLT in 3 groups after blood trans-fusion were decreased significantly and PT was prolonged obviously ( P <0 .05) .Compared with after blood transfusion ,FIB and PLT in 3 groups 18h after blood transfusion were increased obviously and PT was short-ened significantly( P < 0 .05) .[Conclusion]The concrete scheme about the

  11. Relative and cumulative effects of lipid and blood pressure control in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Messig, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relative contributions of on-treatment low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides, and blood pressure (BP) control on the risk of recurrent stroke or major cardiovascular events in patients with stroke is not well defined. METHODS: We...... randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease to atorvastatin 80 mg per day or placebo. RESULTS: After 4.9 years, at each level of LDL-C reduction, subjects with HDL-C value above the median or systolic BP below the median had greater reductions...... control was defined as LDL-C 50 mg per deciliter, triglycerides level of control increased (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.98 [0.76 to 1.27], 0.78 [0.61 to 0.99], 0.62 [0...

  12. 血栓通注射液防治癌症相关静脉血栓的临床观察%Xueshuantong injection in prevention and treatment of the cancer-related venous blood clots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增刚; 于苏华; 邢建波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the preventive and therapeutic effect of xueshuantong injection on cancer-related venous blood clots and the influence on the quality of cancer patients'life. Methods Four hundred and sixty cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups, 230 cases in the treatment group and 230 cases in the control group. Both groups received radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and to the treatment group, intravenous dripping of xueshuantong injection was added.The incidence rate of venous blood clots was observed and the quality of life was evaluated by Karnof-sky performance score(KPS).Results The incidence rate of venous blood clots was 1.15% in the treatment group,which was lower than that in the control group(16.96%),P<0.05.Cases experienced symptom inprovement were found more in the treatment group(118/230,51.30%)than in the control group(72/230,31.30%),P<0.05. Patients in stable condition were more in the treatment group(82/230,35.65%)than in the control group(47/230,20.43%),P<0.05. Conclusions Xueshuantong injection shows definite effect in preventing cancer-related venous blood clots and improving the quality of cancer patients'life.%目的 观察血栓通注射液对癌症相关静脉血栓的防治作用及对癌症患者生存质量的影响.方法 观察组230例患者在住院放化疗治疗的同时加用血栓通注射液静脉滴注,对照组230例仅做放、化疗,治疗结束后对两组患者静脉血栓的发生率及生活质量(Karnof - sky评分)进行评价.结果 观察组血栓发生率为1.15%,对照组血栓发生率为16.96%.Karnof-sky评分:观察组改善118例,稳定82例;对照组改善72例,稳定47例,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 血栓通注射液对癌症相关静脉血栓有预防作用,对该类癌症患者的生存质量有明显提高作用.

  13. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  14. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  15. Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at

  16. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  17. Optimal serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age for prevention of neural tube defects: World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Amy M; Crider, Krista S; Rogers, Lisa M; Cannon, Michael J; Berry, R J

    2015-04-24

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that occur during the first month of pregnancy when the neural tube fails to close completely. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have shown that adequate daily consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy considerably reduces the risk for NTDs. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily for NTD prevention. Furthermore, fortification of staple foods (e.g., wheat flour) with folic acid has decreased folate-sensitive NTD prevalence in multiple settings and is a highly cost-effective intervention. PMID:25905896

  18. Protein kinase C inhibition prevents upregulation of vascular ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptors and reverses cerebral blood flow reduction after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beg, Saema S; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob A; Vikman, Petter J;

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebral ischaemia after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) still remains elusive. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether specific protein kinas C (PKC) inhibition in rats could alter the transcriptional SAH induced Endothelin (ET) type B and 5-hydroxytryptamine......-CT; 5-HT(1) receptor agonist) were investigated with a myograph. The contractile responses to ET-1 and 5-CT were increased (PB) and 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA and protein expression were significantly elevated after SAH, as analysed...... by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Administration of RO-31-7549 prevented the upregulated contraction elicited by application of ET-1 and 5-CT in cerebral arteries and kept the ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA and protein levels at pre-SAH levels. Regional...

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism. PMID:18656319

  20. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  1. Innovative design to prevent reversal of roller blood pump rotation in the event of electromechanical failure: an easy solution to a devastating problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoletsky, Jennifer S; White, Brian T; Austin, Jon W

    2007-06-01

    Despite the advanced technologies of battery back-up for heart-lung consoles and the availability of system-wide generators, electromechanical failure is still occurring. Several heart-lung machine manufacturers still provide unsafe handcranking devices to use in the case of an emergency while using a roller blood pump. A new design has been engineered to eliminate safety and quality issues for the perfusionist and the patient when the need for handcranking presents itself. A ratchet-style handcranking device was fabricated by means of a steel plate with adjustable pins. The adjustable pins allow for use with different models of the Cobe, Stockert, and Jostra heart-lung consoles, which contain roller pumps with 1800 roller heads. Additional modifications such as a 1:2 transmission and fluorescent markers are also used in the design. This innovative design is an improvement in safety compared with the current handcrank provided by Cobe, Stockert, and Jostra. With this modified handcranking device, accidental reverse rotation of the roller pump head cannot occur. Fluorescent markers will improve visualization of the pump head in low-light situations. The ergonomic design improves efficiency by reducing fatigue. Most importantly, a "safe" safety device will replace the current design provided by these manufacturers, thus improving the quality of care by health care providers.

  2. A role for peripherally inserted central venous catheters in the prevention of catheter-related blood stream infections in patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiro; Kohda, Kyuhei; Konuma, Yuichi; Hiraoka, Yasuko; Ichikawa, Yukari; Ono, Kaoru; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Takada, Kouichi; Iyama, Satoshi; Kato, Junji

    2014-12-01

    Central venous catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSIs) are a serious complication in patients with hematological malignancies. However, it remains unclear whether there is a difference in the rate of CR-BSI associated with the conventional type of central venous catheters (cCVCs) and peripherally inserted CVCs (PICCs) in such patients. To address this question, we retrospectively investigated the incidence of CR-BSIs associated with PICCs versus cCVCs in patients with hematological malignancies. We used PICCs in all consecutive patients requiring CVC placement between February 2009 and February 2013. We compared the CR-BSI rate in patients with PICCs with that in patients with cCVCs treated between September 2006 and January 2009 (control group). Eighty-four patients received PICCs and 85 received cCVCs. The most common reason for removal due to catheter-related complications was CR-BSI. The CR-BSI rate in the PICC group was significantly lower than that in the cCVC group (PICCs: 1.23/1000 catheter days; cCVCs: 5.30/1000 catheter days; P Catheter-related complications other than CR-BSIs occurred at an extremely low rate in the PICC group. The median catheter-related complication-free survival duration was significantly longer in the PICC group than in the cCVC group. Our study shows that PICCs are useful in patients with hematological malignancies.

  3. Prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Leona; Fitzpatrick, Jane

    All patients undergoing surgery are at risk of developing hypothermia; up to 70% develop hypothermia perioperatively. Inadvertent hypothermia is associated with complications such as impaired wound healing, increased blood loss, cardiac arrest and increased risk of wound infection. Anaesthesia increases the risk as the normal protective shivering reflex is absent. Ambient temperature also has a major effect on the patient's body temperature. Prevention of hypothermia not only reduces the incidence of complications, but patients also experience a greater level of comfort, and avoid postoperative shivering and the unpleasant sensation of feeling cold. Nurses should be aware of the risks of hypothermia so that preventative interventions can be employed to minimize the risk of hypothermia. Preoperative assessment is essential to enable identification of at-risk patients. Simple precautionary measures initiated by nurses can considerably reduce the amount of heat lost, minimize the risk of associated complications and ultimately improve patients' short- and long-term recovery. Minimizing skin exposure, providing adequate bed linen for the transfer to theatre and educating patients about the importance of keeping warm perioperatively are all extremely important. It is also worth considering using forced-air warmers preoperatively as research suggests that initiating active warming preoperatively may be successful in preventing hypothermia during the perioperative period. PMID:19966730

  4. Bleeding in Liver Surgery : Prevention and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkozai, Edris M.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Intraoperative blood loss and transfusion of blood products are negatively associated with postoperative outcome after liver surgery. Blood loss can be minimized by surgical methods, including vascular clamping techniques, the use of dissection devices, and the use of topical hemostatic agents. Preo

  5. Prevention of bone loss by aqueous extract of Epimedii sagittatum in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis%箭叶淫羊藿对去卵巢大鼠骨量丢失的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年华; 徐玲玲; 马明华; 秦路平; 郑汉臣; 张巧艳

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevention effect of aqueous extract of Epimedii sagittatum (ESE) on ovariectomy-induced (OVX) bone loss in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into sham-operated and OVX groups. The OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg, ig) and ESE (0.5 and 1 g /kg, ig) for 11 weeks. Serum calcium, phosphorus, estradiol, bone gla protein concentrations and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were measured. Bone density was assayed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The undecalcified longitudinal proximal tibial metaphysical sections were cut and stained for the bone histomorphometric analysis. Results: In OVX rats, alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was markedly increased by ESE treatment, which had no obvious influence on the body weight. Meanwhile, atrophy of uterus and descent of bone mineral density were suppressed by ESE treatment. In addition, ESE completely corrected the decreased concentrations of calcium and E2 in serum observed in OVX rats. Histological results also showed ESE prevented the increases in trabecular separation (Tb. Sp) in OVX rats whereas it did not alter trabecular thickness (Tb. Th) and trabecular number (Tb. N) in OVX rats. Moreover, ESE had remarkable effect on bone formation rate with bone volume as referent (BFR/BV) and bone formation rate with bone surface as referent (BFR/BS). Conclusion: The findings assessed on the basis of biochemical test, bone mineral density and histomorphornetric parameters show that aqueous extract of Epimedii sagittatum has a definite antiosteoporotic effect and can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats.%目的:研究箭叶淫羊藿对去卵巢大鼠骨量丢失的保护作用.方法:大鼠分去卵巢组和假手术组.去卵巢组包括空白对照组、雌激素组、0.5 g/kg淫羊藿提取物组和1 g/kg淫羊藿提取物组.11周后,测定大鼠血清钙、磷的浓度和碱性磷酸酶的活性,竞争放射免疫法测定血

  6. Impaction of iron supplement combined with tranexamic acid on perioperative blood loss and safety of unilateral total knee ar-throplasty%铁剂与氨甲环酸联合应用对单侧全膝关节置换术围手术期失血及安全性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟涛; 尚希福

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore and discuss the efficacy and safety of iron supplement combined with tranexamic acid in reducing perioperative blood loss of unilateral total knee arthroplasty(TKA). Methods 142 patients suffered from unilateral knee osteoarthritis and underwent primary TKA in our hospital from July to December in 2014 were enrolled in this study,then they were randomly divided into study group(76 cases)and control group(66 cases). Besides the same treatment as the control group,patients in the study group were given oral iron supplement during 2 weeks before and after the operation,and during the operation they received intra - articular injection of tranexamic acid(1. 0 g)and 20 mL normal saline after suturing and intravenous tranexamic acid(15 mg/ kg)at 20 min before tourniquet release. The amounts of intraoperative blood loss,hidden blood loss,total blood loss and postoperative drainage,the number of patients needing blood transfusion,the operation time,and results of blood Hb,Hct,PT,APTT,FIB of the two groups before and after the operation were recorded and analyzed. Results The differences of preoperative general conditions and examinations of patients were of no statistically significant be-tween the two groups(P > 0. 05). There was no significant difference in operation time,intraoperative blood loss and postoperative levels of PT,APTT and FIB between the two groups(P > 0. 05). Results of Hb and Hct of the study group at 1 day,3 days,2 weeks after operation were significantly higher than those of the control group(P 0.05);两组患者手术时间、术中失血量、术后 FIB、PT、APTT 比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),观察组术后1天、3天、2周时 Hb 及 Hct 均高于对照组(P <0.05),观察组术后引流量、隐性失血量、总失血量及输血人数均少于对照组(P <0.05)。结论联合应用铁剂和氨甲环酸可安全、有效地减少单侧 TKA 围手术期的失血,促进患者术后 Hb、Hct 水平的恢复。

  7. Preventing the parathyroid glands and their blood supplies during level VI lymphadenectomy of thyroid cancer surgery%甲状腺癌Ⅵ区清扫术中预防甲状旁腺损伤的术式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how to identify and protect the parathyroid glands and their blood supplies during level Ⅵ lymphadenectomy of thyroid cancer surgery.Methods: During operation ,the parathyroid glands were exposed and preserved ,and the trunk of thyroid arteries were avoided to ligate.After operation,the function of parathyroid was observed.Results: Before operation,the blood concentrations in patients received ligating the trunk of thyroid arteries were almost the same compared to those without ligating the arteries,there was no statistical difference,but after operation,there was statistical difference(P<0.01 ).Conclusion: During level Ⅵ lymphadenectomy of thyroid cancer surgery,parathyroid glands and its artery blood-supply should be exposed and preserved to prevent hypoparathyroidism after surgery.%目的:探讨甲状腺癌Ⅵ区清扫术中保留甲状腺血管后支对甲状旁腺血运及功能的影响.方法:采用传统方法行甲状腺癌VI区淋巴结清扫及术中保留甲状腺上下血管后支方法的手术,术后观察甲状旁腺的血运及功能变化.结果:甲状腺癌Ⅵ区淋巴结清扫术中保留甲状旁腺上下血管后支可明显阳氏对甲状旁腺血运和功能影响.结论:甲状腺癌Ⅵ区清扫术中保留甲状腺血管后支可有效预访甲状旁腺功静低下.

  8. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  9. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  10. Imatinib and nilotinib inhibit hematopoietic progenitor cell growth, but do not prevent adhesion, migration and engraftment of human cord blood CD34+ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Belle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs has considerably changed the management of Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia. The BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib is also known to inhibit the tyrosine kinase of the stem cell factor receptor, c-Kit. Nilotinib is 30 times more potent than imatinib towards BCR-ABL in vitro. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or gastrointestinal stromal tumors have shown that therapeutic doses of nilotinib deliver drug levels similar to those of imatinib. The aim of this study was to compare the inhibitory effects of imatinib and nilotinib on proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and engraftment capacities of human cord blood CD34(+ cells. DESIGN AND METHODS: After a 48-hour cell culture with or without TKIs, CFC, LTC-IC, migration, adhesion and cell cycle analysis were performed. In a second time, the impact of these TKIs on engraftment was assessed in a xenotransplantation model using NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ (null mice. RESULTS: TKIs did not affect LTC-IC frequencies despite in vitro inhibition of CFC formation due to inhibition of CD34(+ cell cycle entry. Adhesion of CD34(+ cells to retronectin was reduced in the presence of either imatinib or nilotinib but only at high concentrations. Migration through a SDF-1α gradient was not changed by cell culture in the presence of TKIs. Finally, bone marrow cellularity and human chimerism were not affected by daily doses of imatinib and nilotinib in a xenogenic transplantation model. No significant difference was seen between TKIs given the equivalent affinity of imatinib and nilotinib for KIT. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that combining non-myeloablative conditioning regimen with TKIs starting the day of the transplantation could be safe.

  11. 唑来膦酸对髋关节置换后假体柄周围骨丢失的预防效果%Preventive effect of zoledronic acid on bone loss around the prosthesis stem after hip replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国青; 苑振峰; 刘鹏; 庞同涛; 张先巍

    2015-01-01

    to prevent fractures surrounding the prosthesis. OBJECTIVE:To observe the preventive effect of zoledronic acid on bone loss surrounding the prosthesis stem after hip replacement. METHODS:A total of 80 patients after total hip replacement in the People’s Hospital of Shenxian from February 2011 to September 2014 were enrol ed in this study. They were divided into two groups (n=40). At 4 days after replacement, patients in the observation group received treatment with zoledronic acid, but those in the control group did not give zoledronic acid. The rest medication was identical between the two groups. Bone mineral density in the hip was measured before replacement and at 1 year after replacement in both groups. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed before replacement, 3 days and 1 year after medication in the two groups. Adverse reaction during medication was recorded in the observation group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The average bone mineral density was significantly decreased in both groups at 1 year after replacement, and significant differences were found as compared with before replacement (P replacement (P0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activities were low in the observation group at 1 year after medication, and significant difference was detected as compared with the control group and that before replacement (P0.05). Within two or three days after medication, nine patients suffered from varying degrees of muscle aches and fever in the observation group, and above symptoms were lessened after taking acetaminophen. These results verify that after total hip replacement, zoledronic acid injection can effectively prevent bone loss around the prosthesis in early stage after replacement, but fever symptoms may occur within a week after replacement. Thus, it is recommended that zoledronic acid injection can be given at 1 week after replacement. If fever and other symptoms appear, acetaminophen can be given.

  12. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani;

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark...

  13. [Prevention of atherosclerosis. The positional specificity of blood triglycerides and lipases, the particular milk lipids, and the modification of the fatty acids of vegetable oils and animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Krylin, V V; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2011-03-01

    Milk is a biological medium that bears no resemblance to any of the biological fluids and tissues in primates and mammals in the positional composition of fatty acids (FA) in triglycerides. This is determined by the fact that at the very early phylogenesis of mammals, milk is to ensure a high postnatal bioavailability (absorption) of saturated palmitic FA, a substrate for neonatal energy supply despite all obstacles that are formed in the baby's intestine in vivo. Milk is destined for infant nutrition in the biology-destined period (not more than a year); assimilation of triglycerides that are so structurally unusual requires a) high isomerization activity in the enterocytes and b) the ability of blood lipases to hydrolyze palmitate-oleate-palmitate triglycerides as a component of oleic very-low-density lipoproteins. After the period permitted by nature, there is virtually no possibility to physiologically consume milk that contains structurally unusual triglycerides. The use of whole milk and its products by adults impairs the active, receptor cell absorption of FAs as ligand lipoproteins via apoE/B-100-endocytosis and enhances the generation of small, dense low-density lipoproteins as biological debris. The impaired biological function of endoecology and the debris accumulation of the intercellular medium lead to the activation of atheromatosis, atherothrombosis, and coronary sclerosis. Nature has given no sanction for turning the mammals that are not on milk to those on milk for whole life. Up to one year of age, the baby has in vivo conditions for the absorption and hydrolysis of triglycerides with palmitic FA at the sn-2 position. After one year of age, the expression of these lipases and coenzymes is over; re-expression occurs only with the activation of the biological function of locomotion - long-term strenuous physical activity. High physical activity expresses other genes, enzymes, coenzymes, and carrier proteins, which activate the hydrolysis of

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your members of Congress to support continued medical research funding Take Action Meetings ASH Workshop on Genome Editing July 14- ... U.S. Surgeon General has issued a Call to Action on DVT and PE to raise public ... research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots ...

  16. Eficácia da ciclosporina 0,05% na prevenção da perda endotelial no transplante de córnea Efficacy of cyclosporine 0.05% for preventing endothelial loss in corneal transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação da ciclosporina 0,05% tópica na prevenção da perda endotelial no transplante de córnea. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 18 olhos submetidos a transplante penetrante por ceratocone realizados no serviço pelo mesmo cirurgião. Pacientes com microscopia especular com a 1200 células/mm² constituiram o outro grupo (grupo B. O critério de inclusão foi a presença da microscopia especular no período pós-operatório de 6 meses, 1 ano e 2 anos. Os critérios de exclusão foram retransplantes precoces, olhos contralaterais de casos bilaterais, episódios prévios de rejeição ao enxerto, doenças oculares associadas como glaucoma. A análise estatística foi realizada pelos testes de Friedman com significância estatística. Foi realizada uma avaliação da variação percentual de perda endotelial em relação à microscopia especular base, comparada aos períodos de 6 meses x 1 ano x 2 anos. RESULTADOS: No grupo A (pacientes que não utilizaram a ciclosporina 0,05% nos respectivos períodos de 6 meses, 1 ano e 2 anos, observou-se um decréscimo da variação percentual de perda endotelial estatisticamente significante (p = 0,001 . No grupo B (pacientes que utilizaram a ciclosporina 0,05% nos respectivos períodos de 6 meses, 1 ano e 2 anos, observou-se um decréscimo da variação percentual de perda endotelial estatisticamente não significante (p = 0,513 . CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostram uma desaceleração da variação percentual de perda endotelial nos transplantes penetrantes de córnea dos pacientes que utilizaram ciclosporina, quando comparados aos pacientes não tratados topicamente com tal medicação, sugerindo eficácia na manutenção das células endoteliais e sobrevida do transplante de córnea.PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of topical cyclosporine .05% for preventing endothelial loss in cornea transplant. METHODS: Retrospective study of 18 eyes submitted to penetrating transplant due to

  17. B族维生素及同型半胱氨酸与复发性流产的关系%Correlation between serum FA, VitB12, HCY and red blood cell FA level in patients with early unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓娟; 董雪梅; 柳素芬; 孙庆梅; 赵翠生; 张翀; 杜晓钟; 孙朋; 刘青

    2012-01-01

    目的 测定血清叶酸、维生素B12、同型半胱氨酸及红细胞叶酸水平,探讨其与早期原因不明复发性流产的关系.方法 分别采用磁微粒酶免疫分析方法、ELISA方法及电化学发光法测定流产组与对照组外周血中血清叶酸、维生素B12、同型半胱氨酸及红细胞叶酸水平.结果 76例早期原因不明复发性流产患者(流产组)与40例正常同期育龄期妇女(对照组)比较,血清叶酸( t=-3.631,P<0.005)、维生素B12(t=-4.790,P<0.005)、同型半胱氨酸(t=3.019,P<0.005)及红细胞叶酸(t=-3.640,P<0.005),均有显著性差异.流产组A组(补充0.4mg/d叶酸片)与B组(补充5mg/d叶酸片及复合维生素B),2组补充叶酸后1个月与首诊比较,血清叶酸(t=2.131,P<0.005)及同型半胱氨酸(t=2.685,P<0.05),均有显著性差异.结论 体内叶酸水平低下可能是早期原因不明复发性流产发生、发展的一个重要因素,它的检测对于早期原因不明复发性流产患者的预防及治疗具有一定的临床意义.%Objective To determine the serum levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 , homocysteine ( HCY ) and red blood cell folic acid and explore the correlation between them and early unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss ( URPL ). Methods The serum levels of serum folic acid, vitamin B12, HCY and red blood cell folic acid in abortion group and control group were measured by magnetic beads enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) and electrochemiluminescence assay ( ECLA ) methods, respectively. Results The mean levels of serum folic acid, vitamin B12 , HCY and red blood cell folic acid were significantly different between 76 cases of URPL ( abortion group ) and 40 cases of simultaneous women of childbearing age ( control group )( t value was - 3. 631, - 4. 790, 3.019and -3.640, respectively, allP<0.005). Compared with the levels of serum folic acid and HCY at initial diagnosis, they were significantly different one

  18. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  19. Study of role of blood transfusion in obstetric emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhuti Pravinbhai Patel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood Transfusion is recognized as one of the eight essential component of comprehensive emergency obstetric care which has been shown to reduce the maternal mortality.1,2 In developing country like India, efforts should be done to make blood and transfusion services well maintained and quickly available to reduce maternal morbidity from haemorrhage and thus decrease the incidence of maternal mortality. Aims and objectives: (1 To study clinical status of the patients at time of admission. (2 To study the role of antenatal visits in all patients required blood transfusion. (3 To study the effect of blood components on the patients' health. (4 To screen out the patients of high risk pregnancy and treat them safely. (5 To study causes of maternal mortality. Methods: Retrospective study of requirement of blood transfusion in antenatal and postnatal patients who came in labour room during last 3 month period at tertiary care Centre, Ahmedabad. Results: during the whole study out of 2200 patients 440 patients required blood transfusion among which 70% required due to obstetric hemorrhage and 30% due to severe anemia (less than 7 gm/dl. Major associated complications in the transfused patients were anemia (34% and PPH (36%. 4 patients expired among them 2 were due to development of DIC and septicemia, 1 due to severe anemia and 1 due to severe PPH. Conclusions: Ensuring a safe supply of blood and blood products and the appropriate and rational clinical use of blood. Strategies made to maximize the haemoglobin (Hb level at the time of delivery as well as to minimize blood loss. Active management of the third stage of labour is required to prevent avoidable morbidities, such as PPH, Retained product of conception, and vaginal lacerations. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1002-1005

  20. Preventive and therapeutic effects of tranexamic acid on postpartum bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Solltani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage is among the leading causes of maternal mortality throughout the world. Severe blood loss contributes to  the increased blood transfusion risk with its concerned inherent adverse events and therefore increased rate of emergency re-operative interventions such as arterial ligation or hysterectomy. It also can lead to protracted anemia, particularly in low or median income countries. Extended application of antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid has been customary for long years to stop or reduce blood loss in postpartum period. However, there are not enough reliable evidence to approve the real efficacy of these drugs. In this brief and summary review, we pointed to a few conducted studies. The PubMed was searched for keyword including postpartum hemorrhage, tranexamic acid, cesarean section, vaginal delivery, and blood loss prevention. The articles with language other than English were excluded from our review.  We concluded that more convincing information is needed to determine the precise effects of tranexamic acid, and its benefits against adverse effects.