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Sample records for blood leukocyte profile

  1. Leukocyte Profile in Peripheral Blood and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ring, Hans Christian; Prens, Errol P.

    2016-01-01

    .0001) and monocyte (p = 0.0014, p = 0.0004) levels in the HS groups compared with controls. Conclusion: The hs-CRP levels associated with HS appear to be intermediate (2.2-5.1 mg/l), implying systemic inflammation rather than infection. The peripheral blood leukocytosis in HS was dominated by neutrophils...... to the inflammatory state in HS. Objective: To investigate the status of inflammation and leukocyte profile in the peripheral blood of HS patients. Materials and Methods: Using a comparative cross-sectional study design, we investigated blood samples of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leukocyte...... odds of leukocytosis when compared to controls with an odds ratio for the HS-HOSP group of 4.38 (95% CI = 2.18-8.80; p neutrophil (p

  2. RNA-seq transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes from cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis

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    Kirsten E McLoughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a major endemic disease affecting cattle populations worldwide, despite the implementation of stringent surveillance and control programs in many countries. The development of high-throughput functional genomics technologies, including gene expression microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, has enabled detailed analysis of the host transcriptome to M. bovis infection, particularly at the macrophage and peripheral blood level. In the present study, we have analyzed the peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL transcriptome of eight natural M. bovis-infected and eight age- and sex-matched non-infected control Holstein-Friesian animals using RNA-seq. In addition, we compared gene expression profiles generated using RNA-seq with those previously generated using the high-density Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array platform from the same PBL-extracted RNA. A total of 3,250 differentially expressed (DE annotated genes were detected in the M. bovis-infected samples relative to the controls (adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05, with the number of genes displaying decreased relative expression (1,671 exceeding those with increased relative expression (1,579. Ingenuity® Systems Pathway Analysis (IPA of all DE genes revealed enrichment for genes with immune function. Notably, transcriptional suppression was observed among several of the top ranking canonical pathways including Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling. Comparative platform analysis demonstrated that RNA-seq detected a larger number of annotated DE genes (3,250 relative to the microarray (1,398, of which 917 genes were common to both technologies and displayed the same direction of expression. Finally, we show that RNA-seq had an increased dynamic range compared to the microarray for estimating differential gene expression.

  3. The effect of excessive disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA anticoagulant concentration on leukocytes profile in peripheral blood examination

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    Usi Sukorini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of leukocytes profile assessment is influenced by several pre analytical factors, among others, the anticoagulant concentration. EDTA is one of the most frequently used anticoagulant in peripheral blood examination. Several references stated that inappropriate concentration of EDTA anticoagulant in blood sample may affect the result of leukocytes profile in peripheral blood examination. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there are differences among leukocytes profile in peripheral blood examination specimens, which were prepared with excessive Na2EDTA anticoagulant in different concentration. This study was conducted in Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University. Blood samples from 30 subjects were taken using vein puncture. Two millimeters blood was divided into 4 Na2EDTA-containing tubes. Before that, one drop of blood without Na2EDTA anticoagulant was used to make blood film right after vein puncture, as control. Each tubes contained different concentration of anticoagulant. The first tube contained Na2EDTA in standard concentration 2 mg/ml; the remaining tubes contained 4 mg/ml, 6 mg/ml, and 8 mg/ml respectively. These samples were immediately examined using SYSMEX SE-9500 automatic cell counter to measure the total and differential leukocytes count; and were stained with Wright staining for morphological examination under the microscope. These procedures were done before 20 minutes of vein puncture. There were significant decrement of total leukocytes count, absolute differential leukocytes count and monocyte percentage following excessive Na2EDTA administration. Neutrophil percentage was found to be relatively increased and the difference was significant. Lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil percentages were not significantly different. Morphological examination showed significant increment in irregular cytoplasm margin, vacoulation and irregular nuclei lobes following excessive Na2EDTA administration. It is concluded

  4. Whole blood transcriptional profiling reveals significant down-regulation of human leukocyte antigen class I and II genes in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    be down-regulation of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and II genes, which are used by tumor cells to escape antitumor T-cell-mediated immune responses. We have performed whole blood transcriptional profiling of genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules, β2-microglobulin...... and members of the antigen processing machinery of HLA class I molecules (LMP2, LMP7, TAP1, TAP2 and tapasin). The findings of significant down-regulation of several of these genes may possibly be of major importance for defective tumor immune surveillance. Since up-regulation of HLA genes is recorded during...

  5. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

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    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes from cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis reveals suppression of host immune genes

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    Killick Kate E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB, a pathological infection with significant economic impact. Recent studies have highlighted the role of functional genomics to better understand the molecular mechanisms governing the host immune response to M. bovis infection. Furthermore, these studies may enable the identification of novel transcriptional markers of BTB that can augment current diagnostic tests and surveillance programmes. In the present study, we have analysed the transcriptome of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from eight M. bovis-infected and eight control non-infected age-matched and sex-matched Holstein-Friesian cattle using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array with 24,072 gene probe sets representing more than 23,000 gene transcripts. Results Control and infected animals had similar mean white blood cell counts. However, the mean number of lymphocytes was significantly increased in the infected group relative to the control group (P = 0.001, while the mean number of monocytes was significantly decreased in the BTB group (P = 0.002. Hierarchical clustering analysis using gene expression data from all 5,388 detectable mRNA transcripts unambiguously partitioned the animals according to their disease status. In total, 2,960 gene transcripts were differentially expressed (DE between the infected and control animal groups (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.05; with the number of gene transcripts showing decreased relative expression (1,563 exceeding those displaying increased relative expression (1,397. Systems analysis using the Ingenuity® Systems Pathway Analysis (IPA Knowledge Base revealed an over-representation of DE genes involved in the immune response functional category. More specifically, 64.5% of genes in the affects immune response subcategory displayed decreased relative expression levels in the infected animals compared to the control group. Conclusions This

  7. Leukocyte Profile in HIV Positive Adults in Owerri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukocyte Profile in HIV Positive Adults in Owerri, Nigeria. USB Anyaehie, RO Nneli, P Amadi, ED Nwodobo. Abstract. Leukocyte profile of 102 HIV positive asymptomatic adults (aged 18 – 56 years) in Owerri was compared with that of 80 HIV-negative adults (aged 22 – 50 years). The goal was to define early indicators of ...

  8. Filter Buffy Coats (FBC): a source of peripheral blood leukocytes recovered from leukocyte depletion filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T P H; Zehnter, I; Hofmann, B; Zaisserer, J; Burkhart, J; Rapp, S; Weinauer, F; Schmitz, J; Illert, W E

    2005-12-20

    In compliance with federal regulations, blood banks routinely use leukocyte depletion filters to eliminate contaminating leukocytes from blood products such as red blood cell and platelet concentrates. We developed and optimized conditions to elute leukocytes adsorbed to these filters; resulting in leukocyte suspensions which we termed Filter Buffy Coats (FBCs). These Filter Buffy Coats can replace standard buffy coats for various research applications. After optimizing both the filter elution medium as well as elution protocols, we compared commonly used leukocyte depletion filters from four different manufacturers. Relative fractions as well as total recoveries of leukocyte subsets, such as lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes, found in Filter Buffy Coats were identified and compared among the filters as well as to standard buffy coats and whole blood. Flow cytometric analysis of Filter Buffy Coats confirmed the presence of T- and B-lymphocytes, NK cells and monocytes. Furthermore, a significant quantity of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) was detected in Filter Buffy Coats prepared from different filters, thus making FBCs a valuable source for research on HSC/HPC. Colony assays revealed that most of these CD34(+) cells are functional. Using immunomagnetic cell sorting (MACS), we isolated a variety of leukocyte populations from FBC mononuclear cells (Filter-PBMCs) including T lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD3(+)), B lymphocytes (CD19(+)), NK cells (CD56(+)), HSC/HPC (CD34(+), CD133(+)) or dendritic cells (BDCA-4(+)). Functional properties of Filter-PBMCs, as well as of some of these isolated leukocyte populations, were confirmed using standard assays. In summary, Filter Buffy Coats are a valuable and convenient source of different peripheral leukocyte populations and can replace standard buffy coat preparations for research applications.

  9. Angiotensin receptor-binding molecule in leukocytes in association with the systemic and leukocyte inflammatory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruhara, Kotaro; Wakui, Hiromichi; Azushima, Kengo; Kurotaki, Daisuke; Kawase, Wataru; Uneda, Kazushi; Haku, Sona; Kobayashi, Ryu; Ohki, Kohji; Kinguchi, Sho; Ohsawa, Masato; Minegishi, Shintaro; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Yamashita, Akio; Nakajima, Hideaki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yokoo, Takashi; Tamura, Kouichi

    2018-02-01

    The components of the renin-angiotensin system in leukocytes is involved in the pathophysiology of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including hypertension, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-associated protein (ATRAP) is an AT1R-specific binding protein, and is able to inhibit the pathological activation of AT1R signaling in certain animal models of NCDs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and regulation of ATRAP in leukocytes. Human leukocyte ATRAP mRNA was measured with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction system, and analyzed in relation to the clinical variables. We also examined the leukocyte cytokines mRNA in bone-marrow ATRAP-deficient and wild-type chimeric mice after injection of low-dose lipopolysaccharide. The ATRAP mRNA was abundantly expressed in leukocytes, predominantly granulocytes and monocytes, of healthy subjects. In 86 outpatients with NCDs, leukocyte ATRAP mRNA levels correlated positively with granulocyte and monocyte counts and serum C-reactive protein levels. These positive relationships remained significant even after adjustment. Furthermore, the leukocyte ATRAP mRNA was significantly associated with the interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA levels in leukocytes of NCDs patients. In addition, the leukocyte interleukin-1β mRNA level was significantly upregulated in bone marrow ATRAP-deficient chimeric mice in comparison to wild-type chimeric mice after injection of lipopolysaccharide. These results suggest that leukocyte ATRAP is an emerging marker capable of reflecting the systemic and leukocyte inflammatory profile, and plays a role as an anti-inflammatory factor in the pathophysiology of NCDs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leukodepletion blood filters: filter design and mechanisms of leukocyte removal.

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    Dzik, S

    1993-04-01

    Modern leukocyte removal filters have been developed after years of refinement in design. Current filters are composite filters in which synthetic microfiber material is prepared as a nonwoven web. The filter material may be surface modified to alter surface tension or charge to improve performance. The housing design promotes effective contact of blood with the filter material and decreases shear forces. The exact mechanisms by which these filters remove leukocytes from blood components are uncertain, but likely represent a combination of both physical and biological processes whose contributions to leukocyte removal are interdependent. Small-pore microfiber webs result in barrier phenomena that permit retention of individual cells and increase the total adsorptive area of the filter. Modifications in surface charge can increase or decrease cell attraction to the fibers. Optimum interfacial surface tensions between blood cells, plasma, and filter fibers not only permit effective blood flow through small fiber pores, but also facilitate cell contact with the material. Barrier retention is a common mechanism for all modern leukocyte-removal filters and applies to all leukocyte subtypes. Because barrier retention does not depend on cell viability, it is operative for cells of any age and will retain any nondeformable cell, including whole nuclei from lymphocytes or monocytes. Barrier retention is supplemented by retention by adhesion. RBCs, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and platelets differ in their relative adhesiveness to filter fibers. Different adhesive mechanisms are used in filters designed for RBCs compared with filters designed for platelets. Although lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes can adhere directly to filter fibers, the biological mechanisms underlying cell adhesion may differ for these cell types. These differences may depend on expression of cell adhesion molecules. In the case of filtration of fresh RBCs, platelet-leukocyte interaction

  11. Cytomegalovirus infectivity in whole blood following leukocyte reduction by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, S M; Shepp, D H; Match, M E; Axelrod, F B; Whitbread, J A

    2001-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be transmitted by transfusion of whole blood and cellular components processed according to standard processing procedures. A need exists to develop new procedures to remove CMV and other leukocyte-borne viruses from donor blood. Ten patients (AIDS/bone marrow transplants) who were CMV antigenemic (virus subsequently confirmed by isolation), donated 50 mL of venous blood within 24 to 72 hours of the initial antigen detection. Twenty-five-milliliter aliquots of each specimen were passed through Purecell Neo Neonatal Leukocyte Reduction Filters (Pall, East Hills, NY). The remaining 25-mL nonfiltered aliquots, as well as the blood filtrates, were subjected to infectivity endpoint determinations. The Purecell Neo filter effected a 3 to 4 log10 leukocyte reduction. CMV input titers ranged from less than 10 to 7.3 x 10(1) median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) per milliliter. CMV was not isolated from any postfiltration effluent (i.e., leukocytes, erythrocytes, or plasma). CMV DNA was not detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in 8 of 10 postfiltrate blood specimens. The Purecell Neo filter was efficacious in eliminating or significantly reducing viral (CMV) load in venous blood.

  12. Efficient leukocyte segmentation and recognition in peripheral blood image.

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    Shirazi, Syed H; Umar, Arif Iqbal; Naz, Saeeda; Razzak, Muhammad I

    2016-05-18

    Blood cell count, also known as differential count of various types of blood cells, provides valuable information in order to assess variety of diseases like AIDS, leukemia and blood cancer. Manual techniques are still used in diseases diagnosis that is very lingering and tedious process. However, machine based automatic analysis of leukocyte is a powerful tool that could reduce the human errors, improve the accuracy, and minimize the required time for blood cell analysis. However, leukocyte segmentation is a challenging process due to the complexity of the blood cell image; therefore, this task remains unresolved issue in the blood cell segmentation. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient leukocyte cell segmentation and classification system. This paper presents an efficient strategy to segment cell images. This has been achieved by using Wiener filter along with Curvelet transform for image enhancement and noise elimination in order to elude false edges. We have also used combination of entropy filter, thresholding and mathematical morphology for obtaining image segmentation and boundary detection, whereas we have used back-propagation neural network for leukocyte classification into its sub classes. As a result, the generated segmentation results are fruitful in a sense that we have overcome the problem of overlapping cells. We have obtained 100%, 96.15%, 92.30%, 92.30% and 96.15% accuracy for basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil respectively.

  13. Leukocyte and plasma activation profiles in chronically transfused patients with a history of allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Magali J; Shih, Hank; Schubert, Richard; Wong, Wendy; Andrews, Jennifer; Jeng, Michael; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra

    2017-11-01

    Allergic transfusion reactions are drawbacks to the benefits of transfusion. Classically, allergic transfusion reactions depend on histamine release from mast cells or basophils, but other leukocyte subsets may also be important. Thus, we propose to better define the exact leukocyte subsets involved in allergic transfusion reactions. The overall objective of the current study was to compare the activation of specific peripheral blood leukocyte subsets (monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in a cohort of 13 patients who received chronic transfusions and had a history of allergic transfusion reactions compared with a control group of patients who received chronic transfusions and had no history of allergic transfusion reactions. Leukocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry at baseline and after red blood cell transfusion, and cytokine levels in platelet-free plasma collected at the same time points were measured by Luminex assay. Flow cytometry and cytokine profiles before and after transfusion did not differ significantly between patients who did and did not have a history of allergic transfusion reactions (p > 0.05). However, post-transfusion samples from both groups showed a decrease in CD63 expression in basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils and a decrease in CD45 expression in all leukocyte subsets compared with pretransfusion samples. Interleukin 10 levels increased after transfusion in the group with a history of allergic transfusion reactions (p = 0.0469), and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) was significantly decreased post-transfusion in all patients (p = 0.0122). None of the leukocyte subsets from patients who had a history of allergic transfusion reactions significantly increased in activation either before or after transfusion. All leukocyte subsets from patients who did and did not have a history of allergic transfusion reactions decreased in their activation profile upon

  14. [Tyrosine hydroxylase of the blood leukocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, M F

    1987-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase activity has been established in blood plasma leucocytes of rat, cat and man. Tyrosine precursors and some nuclear erythroid cells. GFU-GM did hydroxylase activity in leucocytes shows the Km for tyrosine inhibited by high concentrations of L6 tyrosine (substrate inhibition), alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine dopamine. The kinetic properties of leucocyte tyrosine hydroxylase are qualitatively similar to the properties of brain tyrosine hydroxylase.

  15. Association of leukocyte telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with endometrial cancer risk in Caucasian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Liren; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects (n = 139) in a Caucasian population, we assessed the association of relative LTL with the risk of endometrial cancer. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. We also determined the joint effects of LTL with established risk factors of endometrial cancer. The normalized LTL was significantly longer in endometrial cancer cases (median, 0.93; range, 0.19-1.62) than in controls (median, 0.70; range, 0.03-2.14) (P leukocytes is associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole... provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre- storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and...

  17. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

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    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  18. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; pleukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, pleukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  19. Ovine leukocyte profiles do not associate with variation in the prion gene, but are breed-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prion genotype in sheep confer resistance to scrapie. In cattle, lymphocyte profile has been found to be associated with prion genotype. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if variations in the sheep prion gene were associated with leukocyte populations as measured by complete blood ce...

  20. The Effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpiidae Venom on Leukocytes and the Leukocyte Subgroups in Peripheral Blood of Rat

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    Mehri Ghafourian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom on leukocytes and the leukocyte subgroups in peripheral blood of rat.Methods: In this experimental study, sixty N-Mari rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. Then the rats in each group were divided into four subgroups based on the blood sampling time that was 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after the venom injection, respectively. The control group did not receive anything, however, the first and the second ex­perimental groups received 0.1 and 0.01mg/kg of venom, subcutaneously. In accordance with a designated four sam­pling times, the blood sampling was carried out in three groups. After RBC lysis, the leukocytes and leukocyte sub­populations were determined and counted using appropriate hematological standard methods.Results: The leukocyte and the neutrophil count at two (P<0.05, six (P<0.01 and 24 (P<0.05 hours after the venom injection showed a significant decline compared with the control group, this decrease was significant at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg until 48 hours after the venom injection (P<0.05. The lymphocyte count showed a significant decline throughout the all hours of the experiment, compared with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Leukocytes are probably affected by the cytotoxicity effect of the H. lepturus venom in a dose-dependent manner. This could be a wakeup call for the medical staff to perform quick and accurate treatment in the least time possible.

  1. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes and to examine their ability to stimulate the production of connective tissue. METHODS: Culture medium from human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with or without IL-2...... was tested for induction of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and expression of cytokine genes. RESULTS: Supernatants from IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes induced six times more fibroblast proliferation than medium from leukocytes cultured without IL-2. The expression of type I....... CONCLUSION: Mediators that induce connective tissue production are secreted by IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes. These cytokines may be responsible, in part, for the stimulation of abdominal adhesions in patients receiving intraperitoneal immunotherapy....

  2. Removal of leukocytes from blood by fibre filtration. A comparison study on the performance of two commercially available filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, H. W.; Veldman, H.; Henrichs, H. J.; Prins, H. K.; Loos, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Two different kinds of filters suitable for the almost complete removal of leukocytes from blood-cell concentrates were tested. The maximal retention of filter I was 1.9-3.4 x 10(9) leukocytes per filter, whereas filter II could retain 3.6 - 7.8 x 10(9) leukocytes per filter before the leukocyte

  3. Asymmetric membrane filters for the removal of leukocytes from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, A.; van Aken, W.G.; Beugeling, T.; Beugeling, T.; Feijen, Jan; Steneker, I.; Huisman, J.G.; Prins, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a study on the mechanisms of leukocyte filtration, the influence of pore size distribution on filter efficiency was investigated. Conventional leukocyte filters are not suitable for model studies, as these filters are composed of tightly packed synthetic fibers, with a poorly defined

  4. The method of selection of leukocytes in images of preparations of peripheral blood and bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Y. V.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Polyakov, E. V.; Seldyukov, S. O.

    2017-01-01

    Study of the segmentation method on the basis of histogram analysis for the selection of leukocytes in the images of blood and bone marrow in the diagnosis of acute leukemia was conducted in this paper. Method of filtering was offered to eliminate the artifacts, resulting from the selection of leukocytes.

  5. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Matyunin, S N [Section of Applied Problems at the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  6. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 - 200 μW cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 - 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

  7. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  8. LeukoCatch, a quick and efficient tool for the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole-protein extracts from peripheral blood leukocytes are ideal for basic and clinical research. However, lack of a simple preparation technique has limited the use of such extracts. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and easy system that can selectively obtain leukocyte extracts without hemoglobin. Methods A filter that captures the leukocytes but not RBCs was set at the bottom of a 10-mL medical syringe by sandwiching it between plastic stoppers. The capturing efficiency of leukocytes with this tool, called LeukoCatch, was examined using human macrophage cells (MONO-MAC-6). The abilities of LeukoCatch system to capture the leukocyte proteins and to remove the hemoglobin from RBCs were tested by western blot analysis using human blood samples. Results This study presents the development of LeukoCatch, a novel tool that allows the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood samples within 3 min without centrifugation. Tissue-cultured human macrophage cells were tested to determine the optimal filter numbers and pass-through frequencies of LeukoCatch, which was then applied to 2-mL blood samples. Samples were passed 2~5 times through a LeukoCatch equipped with 5 filters, washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline for red cell removal, and leukocyte proteins were extracted with 0.5 mL of elution buffer. Western blot analysis of the purified extract indicated that more than 90% of hemoglobin was removed by the LeukoCatch and that the protein recovery rate of leukocytes was at least 4 times better than that of the conventional centrifugation method. Conclusion We conclude that LeukoCatch is useful not only for diagnosis at the bedside but also for basic research using blood samples or tissue culture cells. PMID:21849019

  9. LeukoCatch, a quick and efficient tool for the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabuta Norikazu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-protein extracts from peripheral blood leukocytes are ideal for basic and clinical research. However, lack of a simple preparation technique has limited the use of such extracts. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and easy system that can selectively obtain leukocyte extracts without hemoglobin. Methods A filter that captures the leukocytes but not RBCs was set at the bottom of a 10-mL medical syringe by sandwiching it between plastic stoppers. The capturing efficiency of leukocytes with this tool, called LeukoCatch, was examined using human macrophage cells (MONO-MAC-6. The abilities of LeukoCatch system to capture the leukocyte proteins and to remove the hemoglobin from RBCs were tested by western blot analysis using human blood samples. Results This study presents the development of LeukoCatch, a novel tool that allows the preparation of leukocyte extracts from blood samples within 3 min without centrifugation. Tissue-cultured human macrophage cells were tested to determine the optimal filter numbers and pass-through frequencies of LeukoCatch, which was then applied to 2-mL blood samples. Samples were passed 2~5 times through a LeukoCatch equipped with 5 filters, washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline for red cell removal, and leukocyte proteins were extracted with 0.5 mL of elution buffer. Western blot analysis of the purified extract indicated that more than 90% of hemoglobin was removed by the LeukoCatch and that the protein recovery rate of leukocytes was at least 4 times better than that of the conventional centrifugation method. Conclusion We conclude that LeukoCatch is useful not only for diagnosis at the bedside but also for basic research using blood samples or tissue culture cells.

  10. Leukocyte profile of adult Nigerian subjects with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Leukocyte levels are evidently useful in trauma assessment, prognostication and management.1 Leukocytosis is a known physiologic response to trauma 2 but suggested to be absent among Africans origin3. The aim of present study is to investigate the existence of leukocytosis among adult Nigerians who ...

  11. Reduced Responsiveness of Blood Leukocytes to Lipopolysaccharide Does not Predict Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wiewel, Maryse A.; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness

  12. Leukocytes-depleting filters preferentially remove activated leukocytes and reduce the expression of surface adhesion molecules during the simulated extracorporeal circulation of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Christos; Sheppard, Stuart; Tang, Augustine; Rengarajan, Arvind; Smith, David; Haw, Marcus; Gibbs, Roz

    2006-01-01

    The effect of leukocyte-depleting filters on the total and activated leukocyte counts and the expression of surface adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, and CD62L during the in vitro extracorporeal circulation of human blood was studied. A 200 ml blood sample was taken from 10 patients undergoing CABG surgery. The blood was circulated for 60 minutes within an experimental extracorporeal circuit. A leukocyte-depleting filter was attached in five circuits (filtered group). In five other circuits, no filter was used (controls). Total leukocyte counts were determined manually. Activated leukocytes were identified using nitroblue tetrazolium staining. The expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L was measured with flow cytometry. At 60 minutes, total leukocyte counts were reduced by 49% from the baseline values in the filtered group and 10% in the control group (p filtered group and increased by 116% in the control group (p filtered group, the expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD612L decreased by 60%, 21%, and 79%, respectively, and in the control group it increased by 24%, 6%, and 28% (p filters preferentially remove activated leukocytes and reduce the expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L during the in vitro extracorporeal circulation of human blood.

  13. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  14. Leukocytic Response and Peripheral Venous Blood Lymphocyte Apoptosis as a Marker of Tissue Ischemia in Acute Massive Blood Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Borovkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the level of peripheral venous blood lymphocyte apoptosis and intraoperative hypoxia in victims with acute massive blood loss. Subjects and methods. Twenty-two patients with open and close chest and abdominal traumas complicated by acute massive blood loss were examined. All the patients were emergently operated on to stop bleeding. Tissue metabolism was evaluated from gases, acid-base parameters, and plasma lactate, glucose, potassium, and sodium levels. Apoptosis of mononuclear cells was studied and dead leukocytes were counted using flow cytometry. Results. Preoperatively, the victims were found to have venous hypoxemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperglycemia, moderate leukocytosis, and higher dead leukocyte counts. There were also raised counts of lymphocytes coming into the process of apoptosis. A significant relationship was found between monocyte counts and hypoxia values. At the end of surgery, oxygen balance values became stable and exerted an effect on the count of leukocytes, the relative level of granulocytes, the relative and absolute counts of dead and damaged leukocytes, and the concentration of lymphocytes in the victims’ venous blood during the early stages of apoptosis, as evidenced by nonlinear regression models. Conclusion. The indicators of immunocompetent cell apoptosis and the count of venous blood dead leukocytes along with lactate levels and venous hypoxemia parameters reflect the degree of tissue hypoxia and may be used as specific markers.

  15. [Clinical evaluation of leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood by five-color flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ying; Wang, Jian-zhong; Pu, Cheng-wei; Shang, Ke

    2013-08-13

    To explore the clinical application values of five-color flow cytometry for leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood. Leukocyte differentiation in 265 peripheral blood samples collected at Peking University First Hospital from September 2010 to December 2010 was detected by standard microscopic cytology as a reference method. Meanwhile, Beckman-Coulter LH750 hematology analyzer and FC500 flow cytometer were performed. Then the correlations were analyzed between microscopic cytology, hematology analyzer and flow cytometry. Forty blood samples collected at Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Daopei Hospital and General Hospital of Beijing Military Command from August 2010 to November 2010 were analyzed by standard microscopic cytology, Beckman-Coulter LH750 hematology analyzer and NAVIOS flow cytometer. Then the correlations between microscopy, hematology analyzer and flow cytometry were explored to analyze the clinical diagnostic efficiency of flow cytometry. Correlation of leukocyte differential count between FC500 flow cytometer and standard microscopic cytology was significant (all P leukocyte differential count between NAVIOS flow cytometer via manual gate and standard microscopic cytology was significant (r > 0.700, all P leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood with different flow cytometers, and the sensitivity of detecting blasts and immature granulocytes is very excellent.

  16. Increased thymidylate synthase mRNA concentration in blood leukocytes following an experimental stressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnrooth, Eva; Zacharia, Robert; Svendsen, Gunner

    2002-01-01

    of an experimental stressor on mRNA levels in peripheral blood leukocytes of thymidylate synthase (TS), a gene necessary for cell division, while investigating possible individual differences in stress reactivity. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects were investigated under three experimental conditions: (1) exposure...... to a computerized mental stressor; (2) relaxation, and (3) control. Measurements included TS mRNA levels, total leukocyte number, leukocyte subtypes, and serum cortisol before (baseline), immediately after, and 1 h after each experimental condition. RESULTS: While no significant differences were found between...... in percentage of neutrophil cells after stress. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that TS mRNA levels in peripheral leukocytes may be sensitive to mental stress and confirm previous findings indicating that subjects scoring high on the personality trait of absorption exhibit greater physiological stress...

  17. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  18. Flow cytometric characterization of peripheral blood leukocyte populations of 3 neotropical snake species: Boa constrictor, Bothrops jararaca, and Crotalus durissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle G T; Massoco, Cristina O; Rossi, Silmara; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Catão-Dias, José L; Grego, Kathleen F

    2016-06-01

    The reptilian immune system is represented by innate, humoral, and cell-mediated mechanisms, involving different types of blood leukocytes. The development of optimized methods for the advanced study of origin and function of reptilian blood leukocytes is needed. The purpose of the study was to optimize leukocyte density gradient isolation protocols from snake peripheral blood samples, and characterize recovered cells by flow cytometry based on size and internal complexity for a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of leukocyte populations in one boa (Boa constrictor), and 2 viper species (Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus). Blood samples from 30 snakes (10 from each species, 5 males and 5 females) were collected in tubes with sodium heparin. Fresh blood was centrifuged with either ficoll-paque PLUS or percoll density gradients for leukocyte isolation. Flow cytometric leukocyte gates were defined based on size (forward scatter [FSC]) and internal complexity (side scatter [SSC]). Relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting the cells in these gates in one snake for each species were compared to conventional light microscopic differential counts on unsorted isolated leukocytes. There was no statistical difference in the relative leukocyte populations, including heterophils, azurophils, and small and large lymphocytes between samples isolated by ficoll or percoll. Four leukocyte gates were identified based on their location in FSC/SSC cytograms. The relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting in single animals showed some agreement with the light microscopy differential count on unsorted cells. Based on FSC and SSC, 4 distinct leukocyte populations were found in ficoll or percoll density gradient isolated leukocytes from peripheral blood from boa and viper species. Further optimization of the technique should allow the performance of functional assays. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Human peripheral blood leukocyte engraftment into SCID mice: critical role of CD4(+) T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchosal, M. A.; Mauray, S.; Rüegg, M.; Trouillet, P.; Vallet, V.; Aarden, L.; Tissot, J. D.; Schapira, M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the influence of donor T lymphocytes on human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) engraftment into severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. Mice were injected with unfractionated or subset-depleted human PBL, and treated at various times with OKT3, a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody

  20. A New Machine Classification Method Applied to Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses pattern classification of images by computer and describes the Two Domain Method in which expert knowledge is acquired using multidimensional scaling of judgments of dissimilarities and linear mapping. An application of the Two Domain Method that tested its power to discriminate two patterns of human blood leukocyte distribution is…

  1. [Clinical application of automated digital image analysis for morphology review of peripheral blood leukocyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ying; Yan, Xiaohua; Pu, Chengwei; Shang, Ke; Dong, Ning; Wang, Run; Wang, Jianzhong

    2016-03-01

    To explore the clinical application of automated digital image analysis in leukocyte morphology examination when review criteria of hematology analyzer are triggered. The reference range of leukocyte differentiation by automated digital image analysis was established by analyzing 304 healthy blood samples from Peking University First Hospital. Six hundred and ninty-seven blood samples from Peking University First Hospital were randomly collected from November 2013 to April 2014, complete blood cells were counted on hematology analyzer, blood smears were made and stained at the same time. Blood smears were detected by automated digital image analyzer and the results were checked (reclassification) by a staff with abundant morphology experience. The same smear was examined manually by microscope. The results by manual microscopic differentiation were used as"golden standard", and diagnostic efficiency of abnormal specimens by automated digital image analysis was calculated, including sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The difference of abnormal leukocytes detected by two different methods was analyzed in 30 samples of hematological and infectious diseases. Specificity of identifying abnormalities of white blood cells by automated digital image analysis was more than 90% except monocyte. Sensitivity of neutrophil toxic abnormities (including Döhle body, toxic granulate and vacuolization) was 100%; sensitivity of blast cells, immature granulates and atypical lymphocytes were 91.7%, 60% to 81.5% and 61.5%, respectively. Sensitivity of leukocyte differential count was 91.8% for neutrophils, 88.5% for lymphocytes, 69.1% for monocytes, 78.9% for eosinophils and 36.3 for basophils. The positive rate of recognizing abnormal cells (blast, immature granulocyte and atypical lymphocyte) by manual microscopic method was 46.7%, 53.3% and 10%, respectively. The positive rate of automated digital image analysis was 43.3%, 60% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistic

  2. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated

  3. Effective and cheap removal of leukocytes and platelets from Plasmodium vivax infected blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snounou Georges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations of Plasmodium vivax are restricted to samples collected from infected persons or primates, because this parasite cannot be maintained in in vitro cultures. Contamination of P. vivax isolates with host leukocytes and platelets is detrimental to a range of ex vivo and molecular investigations. Easy-to-produce CF11 cellulose filters have recently provided us with an inexpensive method for the removal of leukocytes and platelets. This contrasted with previous reports of unacceptably high levels of infected red blood cell (IRBC retention by CF11. The aims of this study were to compare the ability of CF11 cellulose filters and the commercial filter Plasmodipur at removing leukocyte and platelet, and to investigate the retention of P. vivax IRBCs by CF11 cellulose filtration. Methods and Results Side-by-side comparison of six leukocyte removal methods using blood samples from five healthy donor showed that CF11 filtration reduced the mean initial leukocyte counts from 9.4 × 103 per μl [95%CI 5.2–13.5] to 0.01 × 103 [95%CI 0.01–0.03]. The CF11 was particularly effective at removing neutrophils. CF11 treatment also reduced initial platelet counts from 211.6 × 103 per μl [95%CI 107.5–315.7] to 0.8 × 103 per μl [95%CI -0.7–2.2]. Analysis of 30 P. vivax blood samples before and after CF11 filtration showed only a minor loss in parasitaemia (≤ 7.1% of initial counts. Stage specific retention of P. vivax IRBCs was not observed. Conclusion CF11 filtration is the most cost and time efficient method for the production of leukocyte- and platelet-free P. vivax-infected erythrocytes from field isolates.

  4. Leukocyte profile of different breeds of the Nigerian cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total white blood cell (WBC) count and differential counts of WBC were determined using Neubauer Chamber and Thin blood smear techniques. Data generated were analysed using Genstat statistical software, with sex, breed and haemparasite species detected as factors. Results showed that 22% of the cattle were ...

  5. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  6. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ..., Rockville, MD 20852- 1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061... leukocyte reduction process. The guidance also provides information to assist licensed blood establishments...

  7. Leukocyte blood count during early puerperium and its relation to puerperal infection†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dior, Uri P; Kogan, Liron; Elchalal, Uriel; Goldschmidt, Neta; Burger, Ayala; Nir-Paz, Ran; Ezra, Yossef

    2014-01-01

    To describe the white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts in early puerperium and to investigate their contribution to the diagnosis of puerperal bacterial infection. A retrospective cohort analysis through which clinical and laboratory data were collected from 67 695 term live births. Total leukocyte and neutrophil blood count percentiles were established for febrile parturients (FP) with puerperal fever (≥38 °C) and for non-FP (NFP), and stratified by mode of delivery. Rates of positive bacterial cultures were compared according to the total leukocyte and neutrophil blood counts. Mean WBC counts of parturients delivering vaginally and by cesarean section were 12.62 × 10(3) and 12.71 × 10(3)/µL for NFP, and 14.38 × 10(3) and 12.74 × 10(3)/µL for FP, respectively. The proportions of parturients with a WBC count of ≥15 × 10(3)/µL were 36.4% for FP and 21.8% for NFP (p leukocyte count in 57.6% of FP and in 30.6% of NFP (p leukocytes and neutrophils. Leukocytosis and non-extreme neutrophilia were not found to reliably associate with bacterial infection, and their value in determining antibiotic therapy is questioned.

  8. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Meredith E.; Myers, David R.; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T.; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G.; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A.; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J.; Switz, Neil A.; Sulchek, Todd A.; Lam, Wilbur A.

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  9. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Generalised Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Pradeep S; Sagar, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Supriya; Narang, Sumit; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    To compare the total and differential leukocyte counts in the peripheral blood of generalised aggressive periodontitis patients with that of periodontally healthy subjects in a central Indian population. Seventy-five patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis and 63 periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled for the purpose of the study. All participants received a full-mouth periodontal examination in which probing depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. The haematological variables analysed included total leukocyte count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, neutrophil percentage, lymphocyte percentage, monocyte percentage and platelet count. The patient group showed a significantly higher total leukocyte count (7.62 ± 1.70 x 109 cells/l, p = 0.008), neutrophil count (5.06 ± 1.47x109 cells/l, p aggressive periodontitis and elevated total leukocyte (p = 0.012) and neutrophil counts (p = 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis might also demonstrate a systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by increased leukocyte counts. This systemic inflammatory response observed in patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis may be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Analysis of human leukocyte antigen genotypes in pemphigus with antidesmoglein antibody profile shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiko Mitsui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In particular pemphigus cases, the phenotypic transition between pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus is observed with the change of antibody profile between anti-desmoglein (Dsg 3 antibodies and anti-Dsg1 antibodies. In this study, we examined human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotypes of four pemphigus patients who presented with the phenotypic transition and/or antibody profile shift. Two out of four patients possessed a DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401, and two out of four patients possessed a DRB1*1405-DQB1*0503. These alleles might be associated with the development of phenotypic transition and antibody profile shift.

  11. Red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients awaiting kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Gláucia Maria; da Silva, Sonia Leite; Alves, Tânia Maria de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; Ribeiro, Thyciana Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Maria do Carmo Serpa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting kidney transplantation. Methods In this cross-sectional and prospective study, the serum of 393 chronic kidney disease patients on a transplant waiting list in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil were tested for red cell and leukocyte antibodies. In addition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results The average age in the sample of 393 patients was 34.1 ± 14 years. Slightly more than half (208; 52.9%) were male. The average numbers of transfusions and gestations were 3.1 ± 3.3 and 1.6 ± 6, respectively. One third (33.6%) were alloimmunized: 78% with leukocyte antibodies, 9.1% with red cell antibodies and 12.9% with both. Red cell antibodies were detected in 29 cases (7.4%), 17 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001). The most frequently detected red cell antibodies belonged to the Rh (24.1%) and Kell (13.8%) blood group systems. Leukocyte antibodies were detected in 30.5% of cases, 83 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001) and were more reactive to panel reactive antibodies (p-value < 0.0001). The mean alloreactivity to panel reactive antibodies was 47.7 ± 31.2%. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease patients on the transplant waiting list in Ceará, Brazil, display high rates of red cell (7.4%) and leukocyte (30.5%) alloimmunization. In this sample, alloimmunization was significantly associated with the number of transfusions and gender. PMID:23904808

  12. Neutrophils are not less sensitive than other blood leukocytes to the genomic effects of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gaelle; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Beauchamp, Guy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils are generally considered less responsive to glucocorticoids compared to other inflammatory cells. The reported increase in human neutrophil survival mediated by these drugs partly supports this assertion. However, it was recently shown that dexamethasone exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in equine peripheral blood neutrophils. Few comparative studies of glucocorticoid effects in neutrophils and other leukocytes have been reported and a relative insensitivity of neutrophils to these drugs could not be ruled out. We assessed glucocorticoid-responsiveness in equine and human peripheral blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes. Blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes were isolated from 6 healthy horses and 4 human healthy subjects. Cells were incubated for 5 h with or without LPS (100 ng/mL) alone or combined with hydrocortisone, prednisolone or dexamethasone (10(-8) M and 10(-6) M). IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, glutamine synthetase and GR-α mRNA expression was quantified by qPCR. Equine neutrophils were also incubated for 20 h with or without the three glucocorticoids and cell survival was assessed by flow cytometry and light microscopy on cytospin preparations. We found that glucocorticoids down-regulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mRNA expression in both cell populations and species. These drugs also significantly increased glutamine synthetase gene expression in both equine cell populations. The magnitude of glucocorticoid response between cell populations was generally similar in both species. We also showed that dexamethasone had a comparable inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression in both human and equine neutrophils. As reported in other species, glucocorticoids significantly increase the survival in equine neutrophils. Glucocorticoids exert genomic effects of similar magnitude on neutrophils and on other blood leukocytes. We speculate that the poor response to glucocorticoids observed in some chronic

  13. Effect of mixed γ-plus neutron-radiation on permeability to taurine of peripheral blood leukocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Naumenko, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of permeability to taurine of cellular membranes of peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro under normal conditions and 24 k following mixed γ-plus neutron-irradiation in a dose of 3.5 Gy. It was established that radiation increases the taurine content of cells. The protein content of leukocytes also increases probably due to a better sorption of serum proteins of blood

  14. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  15. Variable leukocyte composition of red blood cell concentrates prepared in top-bottom systems: possible implications for pre-transplant blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, S. S.; Remmerswaal, E. B.; Laport, R.; van Rhenen, D. J.; Rombout-Sastrienkova, E.; Smit Sibinga, C. T.; Vrielink, H.; Boog, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The beneficial effect of blood transfusion on kidney graft survival requires the presence of leukocytes in the transfusate, but a minimal dose has not been defined, nor has the role of individual leukocyte subsets been investigated. In the Netherlands, a standard

  16. Persistence of HTLV-I in blood components after leukocyte depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Joanne; Taylor, Graham P; Sutherland, Janet; Davis, Ricardo E; Seghatchian, Jerhard; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Williamson, Lorna M

    2002-07-15

    The human T-cell leukemia virus HTLV-I is a transfusion-transmissible retrovirus targeting T lymphocytes for which screening is not currently undertaken in United Kingdom blood donors. The introduction of universal leukocyte depletion (LD) of the United Kingdom blood supply raises the question as to the degree of protection afforded by this procedure against HTLV-I transmission by blood components. HTLV-I viral DNA removal by leukocyte-depleting filters was assessed in units of whole blood and platelets by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by nested PCR for HTLV-I Tax DNA. We examined HTLV-I removal by LD filters using a model system of blood units containing exogenous spiked HTLV-I-positive MT-2 cells at a relevant concentration and whole blood donations from asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. T-lymphocyte removal was assessed in parallel by measurement of endogenous subset-specific CD3 mRNA. In the MT-2 model system we observed 3.5 log(10) to 4 log(10) removal of HTLV-I Tax DNA by filtration of whole blood and 2 log(10) to 3 log(10) removal across platelet filters with 13 of 16 whole blood and 8 of 8 platelet units still positive after filtration. Despite 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) viral removal, HTLV-I Tax DNA could be detected after whole blood filtration in asymptomatic carriers with viral loads above 10(8) proviral DNA copies/L. T-lymphocyte removal was also between 3.5 log(10) and 4.5 log(10). HTLV-I provirus removal was incomplete in the model system and in asymptomatic carriers with viral loads greater than 10(8) copies/L. These results suggest that LD alone may not provide complete protection from HTLV-I transmission by transfusion.

  17. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  18. Ex vivo simulation of leukocyte function: stimulation of specific subset of leukocytes in whole blood followed by the measurement of function-associated mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Masato

    2010-12-15

    In order to characterize a wide spectrum of leukocyte functions with clinically applicable procedures, 0.06 ml each of heparinized whole blood was stimulated in triplicate for 4h with phytohemagglutinin (T cell stimulator), heat aggregated IgG (IgG Fc receptor stimulator), lipopolysaccharide (toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 stimulator), zymosan (TLR-2 stimulator), monoclonal antibody against T-cell receptor alpha/beta chain, recombinant interleukin-2, and solvent controls, then 32 different leukocyte function-associated mRNAs were quantified by the method reported previously (Mitsuhashi et al. Clin. Chem. 2006). Two control genes (beta-actin, beta-2-microglobulin) were not affected by these stimulations, whereas the induction of CCL chemokines-2, 4, 8, 20, CXCL chemokines-3, 10, interleukin (IL)-8 (markers of leukocyte accumulation/recruit), granzyme B, perforin 1, tumor necrosis factor superfamily-1, 2, 5, 14, 15, CD16 (markers of cell killing), IL10, transforming growth factor beta 1 (humoral factors of immune suppression), forkhead box P3, CD25, arginase (cellular markers of immune suppression), IL2, IL4, interferon-gamma, IL17 (markers of various subsets of T helper cells), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (marker of antigen presenting cells), immunoglobulin heavy locus (marker of B-cells), vascular endothelial growth factor (marker of angiogenesis), pro-opiomelanocortin (marker of local pain), and CD11a mRNA (marker of leukocyte adherence to endothelium) were identified by these stimulations. The blood volume in this assay was 1.44 ml, and 4 h' incubation in whole blood was physiological. Using triplicate aliquots of whole blood for both stimulant and solvent control, statistical conclusion was drawn for each stimulant for each mRNA. The method introduced in this study will be a new paradigm for clinical cellular immunology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ontogeny and characterization of blood leukocyte subsets and serum proteins in piglets before and after weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Jensen, K.H.; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    cytometry using monoclonal antibodies against CD1, CD3, CD4, CD8a CD14, CD21, CD172 (SWC3a), CD284 (TLR4), SLAI, and SLAII were performed to identify T-lymphocyte subsets, B-lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ELISA was used to measure the concentration of serum proteins. Several of the analyzed......Existing knowledge about the development of the porcine immune system was extended by phenotypic characterization of leukocyte subsets and with assessment of Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL) and immunoglobulin concentrations in peripheral blood of healthy piglets. Single-color and/or double-color flow...

  20. Neutrophils are not less sensitive than other blood leukocytes to the genomic effects of glucocorticoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Hirsch

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are generally considered less responsive to glucocorticoids compared to other inflammatory cells. The reported increase in human neutrophil survival mediated by these drugs partly supports this assertion. However, it was recently shown that dexamethasone exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in equine peripheral blood neutrophils. Few comparative studies of glucocorticoid effects in neutrophils and other leukocytes have been reported and a relative insensitivity of neutrophils to these drugs could not be ruled out.We assessed glucocorticoid-responsiveness in equine and human peripheral blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes.Blood neutrophils and neutrophil-depleted leukocytes were isolated from 6 healthy horses and 4 human healthy subjects. Cells were incubated for 5 h with or without LPS (100 ng/mL alone or combined with hydrocortisone, prednisolone or dexamethasone (10(-8 M and 10(-6 M. IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, glutamine synthetase and GR-α mRNA expression was quantified by qPCR. Equine neutrophils were also incubated for 20 h with or without the three glucocorticoids and cell survival was assessed by flow cytometry and light microscopy on cytospin preparations.We found that glucocorticoids down-regulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mRNA expression in both cell populations and species. These drugs also significantly increased glutamine synthetase gene expression in both equine cell populations. The magnitude of glucocorticoid response between cell populations was generally similar in both species. We also showed that dexamethasone had a comparable inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory gene expression in both human and equine neutrophils. As reported in other species, glucocorticoids significantly increase the survival in equine neutrophils.Glucocorticoids exert genomic effects of similar magnitude on neutrophils and on other blood leukocytes. We speculate that the poor response to glucocorticoids observed in some

  1. Gender dimorphism in differential peripheral blood leukocyte counts in mice using cardiac, tail, foot, and saphenous vein puncture methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crockett Elahé T

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many animal models that investigate the pathology of various diseases, there is a need to monitor leukocyte counts and differentials. However, various researchers use a range of different techniques in male and female laboratory animals to collect such blood variable information. These studies are then compared to one another without consideration of the possibility that different bleeding sites or techniques as well as gender may produce varying results. In light of this, the peripheral blood leukocyte counts and differentials of C57BL/6 male and female mice were determined using four blood-sampling techniques: cardiac, tail, foot, and saphenous vein punctures. Methods Blood smears were prepared and stained with Wright-stain for differential cell analysis. The total number of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined with the aid of a hemocytometer. Applying ANOVA and Student t-test analysis made comparisons between groups. Results The total leukocyte counts obtained using the cardiac puncture method were significantly lower as compared to the other three blood sources; saphenous, tail and foot. There were no significant differences between leukocyte counts of blood samples collected from the tail, saphenous, and foot. Additionally, no significant differences were observed in total leukocyte counts between male and female mice. Differential analysis showed lymphocytes as the predominant cell type present in the peripheral blood of both male and female mice, comprising 75–90% of the total leukocytes. While no significant differences were observed between male and female differential counts of blood collected from saphenous and tail veins, a significant difference in differential counts of blood obtained via cardiac puncture was observed between the male and female groups, suggesting the role of sex hormones. Further, of the four methods, cardiac puncture appeared to be the fastest and more reliable technique, yielding

  2. A simple and efficient method for measuring the uptake of radiolabelled compounds by leukocytes in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauly, J.L.; Schuller, M.G.; Germain, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid scintillation counting procedure is described for measuring the uptake of radiolabelled compounds by leukocytes in large or small volumes of whole blood. Color and chemical quenching as well as other technical difficulties noted previously by investigators attempting to process whole blood were eliminated by selectively disrupting the erythrocytes. This was readily accomplished by washing the blood with 3% acetic acid. After bleaching the leukocyte pellet with hydrogen peroxide, the sample was prepared for counting using methods in which the cells were dissolved or oxidized. Examples demonstrating the utility of the proposed technique are presented in which DNA, RNA and protein synthesis of leukocytes from patients with uncontrolled leukemia were measured by the uptake of tritiated thymidine, uridine and leucine, respectively. Also noted is the feasibility of employing a multiple automated sample harvester and whole blood microcultures. The advantages realised by these methods and their potential clinical and experimental utility are discussed. (author)

  3. Effects of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody infusion on blood leukocytes in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridley, D.S.; Slater, J.M.; Stickney, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a single infusion of radiolabelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) on peripheral blood leukocytes in cancer patients. Eleven patients with disseminated colon cancer, malignant melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma were infused with 111In-labelled anti-ZCE 025, anti-p97 type 96.5c, or LA 20207 MAb, respectively. Blood samples were obtained before infusion, immediately after infusion (1 hr), and at 4 and 7 days postinfusion. Flow cytometry analysis of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD19+ lymphocytes showed increasing CD4:CD8 ratios in seven patients after infusion. This phenomenon was not restricted to antibody subclass or to type of cancer. Two of the remaining patients exhibited a marked post-infusion increase in CD8+ cells. In all three patients with malignant melanoma, decreasing levels of CD16+ lymphocytes were noted after infusion and natural killer cell cytotoxicity showed fluctuations which paralleled the changes in the CD16+ subpopulation. Oxygen radical production by phagocytic cells was markedly affected in three subjects. These results suggest that a single infusion of radiolabelled murine MAb may alter the balance of critical lymphocyte subpopulations and modulate other leukocyte responses in cancer patients

  4. Leukocytes in a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal reduce transmission of malaria to Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensen, A H; Bolmer-Van de Vegte, M; van Gemert, G J; Eling, W M; Sauerwein, R W

    1997-01-01

    Mosquitoes are infected with Plasmodium falciparum by taking a blood meal from a gametocyte carrier. Since a mosquito takes a volume of 1 to 2 microl, a blood meal may contain 1 x 10(4) to 3 x 10(4) leukocytes (WBC). The majority of WBC are composed of neutrophils which may phagocytose and kill developing gametes inside the mosquito midgut. Phagocytosis was measured in vitro by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay. In the presence of P. falciparum gametes, sera from areas of endemicity had an increased CL response compared to controls. In mosquito membrane feeding experiments some such sera showed a transmission reduction which was related to the presence of viable WBC. The results of this study suggest that phagocytosis of opsonized gametes inside the mosquito midgut occurs and can contribute to a reduction in the transmission of P. falciparum parasites. PMID:9284160

  5. Correlations between phytohemagglutinin response and leukocyte profile, and bactericidal capacity in a wild rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced swelling is widely used to investigate cell-mediated and innate immunity across different vertebrate taxa. However, its physiological mechanism is still an open question due to the complexity of the involved immune components. In the present study, we measured the synchronous variations of PHA response, the proportion of different subtypes of leukocytes, as well as serum bactericidal capacity in circulation blood at 6, 12 and 24 h after PHA versus PBS injection in striped hamster, Cricetulus barabensis. First, the results showed that PHA responses reached a peak at 6 h postinjection, then sharply declined at 12 h and 24 h postinjection. Serum bactericidal capacity was higher at 6 h and 12 h than at 24 h. The proportion of different subtypes of leukocytes, as well as the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes did not display significant changes across different time points. Second, PHA response was positively correlated with the proportion of neutrophils and serum bactericidal capacity. The proportion of monocytes was negatively correlated with that of eosinophils and neutrophils. The proportion of basophils was negatively correlated with that of lymphocytes. Our results indicate that earlier enhanced PHA response is important for the striped hamster to cope with changing environmental conditions due to its small body mass, and the increased components of innate immunity in circulation blood may contribute to the enhancement of PHA swelling response. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. [Whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans based on flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengxin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xianling; Zhao, Bohua; Hou, Tianwen

    2015-04-01

    To establish a whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans (C.albicans) based on flow cytometry (FCM). C.albicans of mid-logarithmic growth phase was labeled by fluorescence probe carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE), and then added into CD45-PC5 pre-stained human whole blood cells at a 10:1 multiplicity of infection (MOI) in 37DegreesCelsius. The cells were incubated for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Phagocytosis rate of C.albicans by the CD45 positive cells in the blood was determined by FCM. In yeast extract peptone dextrose medium (YPD) and under the conditions of 37DegreesCelsius and 50 mL/L CO2, the logarithmic growth phase of C.albicans SC5314 was from the 5th to 11th hour. C.albicans were well stained by 10 mmol/L CFDA-SE after 30-minute incubation. After 10-, 30- and 60-minute incubation with SC5314 C.albicans with CD45⁺ cells, the phagocytosis rates measured by FCM were (80.1 ± 6.1)%, (83.8 ± 7.7)% and (92.3 ± 11.2)% for the neutrophils, (11.2 ± 3.6)%, (15.8 ± 4.4)% and (27.7 ± 6.8)% for the monocytes and (0.9 ± 0.3)%, (0.8 ± 0.4)% and (5.2 ± 1.6)% for the lymphocytes. The method for measuring whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis of C.albicans based on FCM is successfully established, and 30 minutes are the proper incubation time for the phagocytosis assay.

  7. Study on changes of the plasma cytokines in 60Co γ-ray irradiated blood and leukocyte reduction of whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Le Jiayi; Qu Yihua; Xu Wenhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α in 60 Co γ-ray irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood, and to understand the fever phenomenon in patients received blood transfusion. Methods: ELISA method was used to measure changes of the cytokines. Results: The plasma levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α did not change significantly with extending the conservation period both in 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. The frequency of fever decreaed obviously with transfusion of 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. Conclusion: 60 Co-irradiated blood can not only prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), but also decrease non-hemolytic febrile transfusion reactions (NHFTR) effectively. (authors)

  8. In vivo temporal and spatial profile of leukocyte adhesion and migration after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzmaier, Susanne M; Zimmermann, Ricarda; McGarry, Niamh B; Trabold, Raimund; Kim, Seong-Woong; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2013-02-28

    Leukocytes are believed to be involved in delayed cell death following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, data demonstrating that blood-borne inflammatory cells are present in the injured brain prior to the onset of secondary brain damage have been inconclusive. We therefore investigated both the interaction between leukocytes and the cerebrovascular endothelium using in vivo imaging and the accumulation of leukocytes in the penumbra following experimentally induced TBI. Experimental TBI was induced in C57/Bl6 mice (n = 42) using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model, and leukocyte-endothelium interactions (LEI) were quantified using both intravital fluorescence microscopy (IVM) of superficial vessels and 2-photon microscopy of cortical vessels for up to 14 h post-CCI. In a separate experimental group, leukocyte accumulation and secondary lesion expansion were analyzed in mice that were sacrificed 15 min, 2, 6, 12, 24, or 48 h after CCI (n = 48). Finally, leukocyte adhesion was blocked with anti-CD18 antibodies, and the effects on LEI and secondary lesion expansion were determined 16 (n = 12) and 24 h (n = 21), respectively, following TBI. One hour after TBI leukocytes and leukocyte-platelet aggregates started to roll on the endothelium of pial venules, whereas no significant LEI were observed in pial arterioles or in sham-operated mice. With a delay of >4 h, leukocytes and aggregates did also firmly adhere to the venular endothelium. In deep cortical vessels (250 μm) LEIs were much less pronounced. Transmigration of leukocytes into the brain parenchyma only became significant after the tissue became necrotic. Treatment with anti-CD18 antibodies reduced adhesion by 65%; however, this treatment had no effect on secondary lesion expansion. LEI occurred primarily in pial venules, whereas little or no LEI occurred in arterioles or deep cortical vessels. Inhibiting LEI did not affect secondary lesion expansion. Importantly, the majority of migrating

  9. [Effect of female steroid hormones on expression of adhesion molecules by peripheral blood leukocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, V P; Vodianyk, M O; Hrekova, S P

    2002-01-01

    The specific adhesion of cells to other cells or to extracellular matrices is a basic component of cell migration and recognition, and it underlies a lot of biologic processes including embryogenesis, tissue repair, and both immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of female steroid hormones on expression of the adhesion molecules on the leukocytes. The whole blood from healthy people was incubated in a presence or an absence of progesterone (2 micrograms/ml) or 17 beta-estradiol (0.2 microgram/ml) for 4 h., and then with TNF for 18 h. The phenotype of the leukocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Progesterone inhibited an expression of CD54 on monocytes and lymphocytes due to reducing density of these molecules on the cellular surface; 17 beta-estradiol inhibited an expression of CD54 on monocytes and CD69 molecules on monocytes and lymphocytes due to reducing density of these molecules on the cellular surface. Progesterone inhibited TNF-stimulated CD54 and CD11b expression on the granulocytes and CD69 expression on lymphocytes by reducing partly the density of these molecules on the surface of cells, and in such way it partly blocked the proinflammatory activity of this cytokine. Progesterone also reduced CD62L expression on the granulocytes by reducing an amount of a marker, positive to those cells but enhanced the effect of TNF. The data obtained evidence that female steroid hormones take part in the regulation of an expression of adhesion molecules by the leukocytes and are likely to be important in the circulation and activation of the leucocytes.

  10. Hypermethylation of gene promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes in humans long term after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmina, Nina S.; Lapteva, Nellya Sh.; Rubanovich, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Some human genes known to undergo age-related promoter hypermethylation. These epigenetic modifications are similar to those occurring in the course of certain diseases, e.g. some types of cancer, which in turn may also associate with age. Given external genotoxic factors may additionally contribute to hypermethylation, this study was designed to analyzes, using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the CpG island hypermethylation in RASSF1A, CDKN2A (including p16/INK4A and p14/ARF) and GSTP1 promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation long time ago. One hundred and twenty-four irradiated subjects (24–77 years old at sampling: 83 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant clean-up workers, 21 nuclear workers, 20 residents of territories with radioactive contamination) and 208 unirradiated volunteers (19–77 years old at sampling) were enrolled. In addition, 74 non-exposed offspring (2–51 years old at sampling) born to irradiated parents were examined. The frequency of individuals displaying promoter methylation of at least one gene in exposed group was significantly higher as compared to the control group (OR=5.44, 95% CI=2.62–11.76, p=3.9×10 −7 ). No significant difference was found between the frequency of subjects with the revealed promoter methylation in the group of offspring born to irradiated parents and in the control group. The increase in the number of methylated loci of RASSF1A and p14/ARF was associated with age (β=0.242; p=1.7×10 −5 ). In contrast, hypermethylation of p16/INK4A and GSTP1 genes correlated with the fact of radiation exposure only (β=0.290; p=1.7×10 −7 ). The latter finding demonstrates that methylation changes in blood leukocytes of healthy subjects exposed to radiation resemble those reported in human malignancies. Additional studies are required to identify the dose-response of epigenetic markers specifically associating with radiation-induced premature aging and/or with

  11. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI.

  12. [Prognostic significance of leukocyte count in the venous blood in the acute stage of cerebral aneurism rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkin, A A; Petrikov, S S; Khamidova, L T; Krylov, V V

    To determine a prognostic role of leukocyte count in the venous blood in the acute stage of cerebral aneurysm (CA) rupture. Fifty-one patients with CA rupture, aged from 20 to 65 years, hospitalized in the first 72 h over the period from 01.10.12 to 01.02.16 were examined. The severity of disease and anatomical form of hemorrhage was corresponded to III-IV degree on the W. Hunt - R. Hess scale and Fisher scale. All patients underwent surgery. Outcomes after open and endovascular surgeries were similar. Normal leukocyte number in the venous blood at admission was identified in 12 (24%) of patients (on average 7.3±1.4·109/L), leukocytosis in 39 (76%) (14.3±3.1·109/L) (pLeukocyte number in the acute stage of CA rupture was correlated with the frequency and severity of the vessel spasm. In 28 (55%) of patients with ischemic lesions of the brain matter, mean leukocyte number in the first 72 h after hemorrhage was higher by 2-24% (3±4.8·109/L) compared to patients without ischemia (11.9±2.5·109/L) (p=0.06). The level of leukocytes in survivors was lower by 3 - 28% (122±3.4·109/L) compared to patients with fatal outcome and patients with severe neurological deficit after the surgery (14.5±3.9·109/L) (p>0.05). The increase in leukocyte number in the venous blood in the first 72 h after CA rupture ≥10,1·109/L is a reliable risk factor of marked vessel spasm. The level of leukocytes in patients with cerebral ischemia and poor prognosis in the first 72h after aneurysmal hemorrhage was higher by 2-28% compared to survivors without neurological impairment or mild neurological deficit.

  13. Increased thymidylate synthase mRNA concentration in blood leukocytes following an experimental stressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnrooth, Eva; Zacharia, Robert; Svendsen, Gunner

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While it is well documented that immune responses, e.g. proliferative responses, can be influenced by psychosocial factors, e.g. stress, less is known about the biological mechanisms mediating such influences. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect...... experimental conditions at baseline in cortisol (p = 0.9) or TS mRNA levels (p = 0.1), significantly higher TS mRNA expression was found immediately after stress compared to pretreatment levels (p effect of the experimental stressor, with higher cortisol levels...... of an experimental stressor on mRNA levels in peripheral blood leukocytes of thymidylate synthase (TS), a gene necessary for cell division, while investigating possible individual differences in stress reactivity. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects were investigated under three experimental conditions: (1) exposure...

  14. Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and mortality among 64,637 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with older age and age-related diseases. We tested the hypotheses that short telomeres are associated with both increased cancer mortality and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Individuals (n = 64637) were recruited from 1991......), 2420 had cancer and 2633 had cardiovascular disease as causes of death. Decreasing telomere length deciles were associated with increasing all-cause mortality (P(trend) = 2*10(-15)). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of all-cause mortality was 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1...... onwards from two Danish prospective cohort studies: the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. All had telomere length measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the genotypes rs1317082 (TERC), rs7726159 (TERT), and rs2487999 (OBFC1) determined. The sum...

  15. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes and the aggressiveness of localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Gu, Jian; Meng, Qing H; Kim, Jeri; Davis, John W; He, Yonggang; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Timothy C; Logothetis, Christopher J; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-12-08

    We investigated whether low mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in peripheral blood leukocytes at diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of the aggressive form of the tumor and disease progression among localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients. We recruited 1,751 non-Hispanic white men with previously untreated PCa from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. mtDNAcn was categorized into three groups according to tertiles. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of mtDNAcn with the risk of having aggressive PCa at diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for disease progression. We observed an inverse association between aggressiveness of PCa and mtDNAcn (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, compared to patients in the highest tertile of mtDNAcn, those in the second and lowest tertiles had significantly increased risks of presenting with the high-risk form of PCa, as defined by the D'Amico criteria, with ORs of 1.33 (95% CI, 0.89-1.98; P = 0.17) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02-2.30; P = 0.04), respectively. Furthermore, PCa patients in the lowest and second tertiles combined relative to those in the highest tertile had a 56% increased risk of disease progression (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.96-2.54; P = 0.07). In summary, our results suggested that low mtDNAcn in peripheral blood leukocytes was associated with aggressive PCa at diagnosis and might further predict poor progression-free survival among localized PCa patients.

  16. Sensitive microculture method for isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erice, A; Sannerud, K J; Leske, V L; Aeppli, D; Balfour, H H

    1992-02-01

    A study was conducted to compare our standard culture with a new microculture procedure for isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from blood leukocytes. A total of 137 blood specimens from 102 HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals (52 were asymptomatic, 31 were symptomatic, and 19 had AIDS) were cultured in a microculture system in which 10(6) of the patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cocultured with 10(6) phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from an HIV-1 antibody-negative blood donor in 1.2 ml of culture medium. Results were compared with those of a historical control group of 139 standard HIV-1 cultures from 108 HIV-1 antibody-positive subjects (58 were asymptomatic, 36 were symptomatic, and 14 had AIDS). For standard cultures, 10 x 10(6) of the patients' PBMC were cocultured with 5 x 10(6) PHA-stimulated PBMC from an HIV-1 antibody-negative blood donor in 15 ml of culture medium. HIV-1 was isolated in 128 (93%) microcultures and 133 (96%) standard cultures. Both methods identified more than 75% of the positive cultures within 7 days and 100% of the positive cultures within 14 days. The isolation rates for HIV-1 in microcultures compared with standard cultures were 91 versus 93% (specimens from asymptomatic individuals), 93 versus 96% (specimens from symptomatic individuals), and 97 versus 100% (specimens from patients with AIDS). The median time to positivity for both culture methods was 7 days, and this correlated significantly with symptoms and CD4+ cell counts. The microculture method is a sensitive and less expensive system for isolation of HIV-1 from PBMC of HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals, and we recommend it as the culture method of choice, especially for children and patients with AIDS and severe anemia or leukopenia whose blood volume is an important consideration.

  17. Blood Leukocyte Counts and Genetic Polymorphisms of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Brooks, Philip J; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    Roughly 40% of East Asians have inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele, and 90% have highly active alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele. Macrocytosis and macrocytic anemia in alcoholics have been associated with ADH1B and ALDH2 gene variants which increase acetaldehyde (AcH) levels. We investigated the relationship between ADH1B*2, ALDH2*2, and leukocyte counts of Japanese alcoholic men (N = 1,661). After adjusting for age, drinking habits, smoking habits, body mass index, presence of liver cirrhosis, and serum levels of C-reactive protein, we found that total and differential leukocyte counts were lower in the presence of the ALDH2*1/*2 genotype (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype). ALDH2*2/*2 carriers were not found in our study population. Leukocyte, granulocyte, and monocyte counts were also lower in the presence of ADH1B*2 (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype), but the lymphocyte count was higher. The ALDH2*1/*2 genotype was associated with leukocytopenia (counts. The total and differential blood leukocyte counts of Japanese alcoholics were strongly affected by their ADH1B and ALDH2 gene variants. High AcH exposure levels probably play a critical role in the suppression of blood leukocyte counts in alcoholics. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Dysregulation of CXCR3 expression on peripheral blood leukocytes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Mads Krüger; Singh, Amardeep; Faber, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 has been strongly related to inhibition of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between expression of CXCR3 on peripheral blood leukocytes and Age-related Wet Macular Degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, we measured the plasma...

  19. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  20. Hesperidin displays relevant role in the nutrigenomic effect of orange juice on blood leukocytes in human volunteers: a randomized controlled cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Milenkovic

    Full Text Available We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice.Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation.This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086.

  1. Comparison of the Histopaque-1119 method with the Plasmagel method for separation of blood leukocytes for cytomegalovirus isolation.

    OpenAIRE

    Slifkin, M; Cumbie, R

    1992-01-01

    Histopaque-1119 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.) and Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, N.Y.) were compared as density gradient separation reagents for the separation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells from blood from the isolation of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Of 200 peripheral blood specimens examined, CMV was recovered from 51 by both methods. The time of detection of immunofluorescent sites or a cytopathic effect associated with CMV was similar by each method....

  2. Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Is Associated with Severity of Biliary Atresia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanvisa Udomsinprasert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with the severity of biliary atresia (BA.One hundred and fourteen BA patients and 114 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Relative telomere length (RTL was assessed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate RTL as an independent risk factor of BA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the accuracy of biomarkers in the prediction of liver cirrhosis.BA patients had significantly shorter telomeres than healthy controls (p < 0.0001. The RTL in BA patients with jaundice was considerably lower than that of patients without jaundice (p = 0.005. Moreover, RTL was markedly shorter in patients with cirrhosis (F4, as compared to patients with mild fibrosis (F2 and non-fibrosis (F0-F1, p < 0.0001. Logistic regression analysis indicated that short RTL was associated with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis in BA. Tertile analysis showed a dose-response effect for this association (p trend < 0.0001. Additionally, RTL in BA children revealed a negative correlation with age (r = -0.50, p < 0.001. We noted an association between reduction of RTL and liver stiffness scores, adjusted for age and gender (b = -0.01, p < 0.0001. Short RTL can be employed to distinguish cirrhosis patients from non-cirrhosis patients (AUC = 0.78. Further analysis showed a linear correlation between leukocyte RTL and liver RTL in BA patients (r = 0.83, p < 0.001.The findings of this study provide evidence that telomere shortening is associated with an elevated risk of liver cirrhosis in BA.

  3. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  4. The influence of age and sex on the cell counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Wang, Rui-Rui; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2009-12-01

    Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques are the favorable models for preclinical study of potential therapeutic drugs, vaccines and mechanisms of human diseases. Little is known about the normal levels of leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques. To obtain these data, 100 blood samples from Chinese rhesus macaques were collected. The normal range of major leukocyte subpopulations, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), were quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry through BD trucount tubes. The influence of age and sex on the cell counts of leukocyte subpopulations was analyzed. The counts of CD3(+) T cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells, CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells and B cells decreased with age, but those of monocytes, mDCs and pDCs had no significant correlation with age. Significant differences existed in the cell counts of most leukocyte subpopulations between the male and female groups except pDCs. And the values of the females were higher than those of the males. The study provided basic information about the leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques, and it may be valuable for immunobiological study of Chinese rhesus macaques.

  5. Radiolabeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Taylor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Leukocytes are a heterogeneous group of nucleated cells that follow similar patterns of differentiation in the bone marrow. Although the various leukocyte cell types perform somewhat different functions, they act as a group to protect the host from hazards of the internal and external environment, such as infection and neoplasia, and they assist in the repair of damaged tissue. Leukocytes spend a small fraction of their life in the peripheral blood, using it only for transportation to sites where they are needed to perform their defensive functions. In adults, the mature types of leukocytes are neutrophils (59 percent of the leukocyte population), lymphocytes (34 percent), monocytes (four percent), eosinophils (three percent), and basophils (0.5 percent). Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils all contain nuclei with finitely granular, evenly distributed chromatin and are collectively called granulocytes. In addition to the main categories of leukocytes listed above, there are subsets of many of these classes of cells; for example, natural killer cells are a subset of lymphocytes

  6. Comparison of the Histopaque-1119 method with the Plasmagel method for separation of blood leukocytes for cytomegalovirus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifkin, M; Cumbie, R

    1992-10-01

    Histopaque-1119 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.) and Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, N.Y.) were compared as density gradient separation reagents for the separation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells from blood from the isolation of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Of 200 peripheral blood specimens examined, CMV was recovered from 51 by both methods. The time of detection of immunofluorescent sites or a cytopathic effect associated with CMV was similar by each method. The Histopaque-1119 method was less time-consuming than the Plasmagel method since it did not require a precentrifugation step for the settling of erythrocytes. The use of Histopaque-1119 will permit an effective alternative single-step method for the separation of blood leukocytes for the isolation of CMV.

  7. Functional characterization of neotropical snakes peripheral blood leukocytes subsets: Linking flow cytometry cell features, microscopy images and serum corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Lourenço, Mariana Mathias; Levin, Gabriel; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images. Moreover, since corticosterone is an important immunomodulator in reptiles, hormone levels of all blood samples were measured. We provide novel and additional information which should contribute to better understanding of the development of the immune system of reptiles and vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva

    2017-06-01

    The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×10 6 cellsmL -1 , and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14 + ) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V + /Propidium iodide + ) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leukocyte removal efficiency of cell-washed and unwashed whole blood: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, M. ten; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Feron, JC; Meer, W. van der; Brouwer, René

    2005-01-01

    Leukocyte filtration of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) perfusate after cardiac surgery has evolved as an important technique to prevent effector functions mediated by activated leukocytes. However, little is known about the filtration efficiency. Therefore, an in vitro study was conducted to

  10. Training a model for estimating leukocyte composition using whole-blood DNA methylation and cell counts as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Jonathan A; Breitling, Lutz P; Lehne, Benjamin; Kooner, Jaspal S; Chambers, John C; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    Whole-blood DNA methylation depends on the underlying leukocyte composition and confounding hereby is a major concern in epigenome-wide association studies. Cell counts are often missing or may not be feasible. Computational approaches estimate leukocyte composition from DNA methylation based on reference datasets of purified leukocytes. We explored the possibility to train such a model on whole-blood DNA methylation and cell counts without the need for purification. Using whole-blood DNA methylation and corresponding five-part cell counts from 2445 participants from the London Life Sciences Prospective Population Study, a model was trained on a subset of 175 subjects and evaluated on the remaining. Correlations between cell counts and estimated cell proportions were high (neutrophils 0.85, eosinophils 0.88, basophils 0.02, lymphocytes 0.84, monocytes 0.55) and estimated proportions explained more variance in whole-blood DNA methylation levels than counts. Our model provided precise estimates for the common cell types.

  11. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-γ. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection.

  12. Variations in the leukocyte and cytokine profiles between placental and maternal circulation in pregnancy-associated malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamgba OC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Okezie Caleb Okamgba,1 Martin O Ifeanyichukwu,1 Ayodele O Ilesanmi,2 Lawrence N Chigbu3 1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, 3Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria Background: Activation of immune cells by malaria infection induces the secretion of cytokines and the synthesis of other inflammatory mediators. This study compared the cytokine levels and leukocyte count between malaria-infected peripheral and placental blood of pregnant women before delivery and postpartum. The cytokines assessed include interferon gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10. Materials and methods: The subjects comprised 144 malaria-infected pregnant women and 60 malaria-infected women at post-partum stage (for placental blood collection. Others were 60 malaria-uninfected pregnant women and 40 malaria-uninfected women at postpartum stage (for placental blood collection. Forty malaria-infected and 40 malaria-uninfected nonpregnant women served as control subjects. The test groups were asymptomatic, and the control groups were apparently healthy subjects. All were aged between 17 and 44 years. Ethical approval for the study was obtained at Abia State University Teaching Hospital and Living Word Mission Hospital, Aba. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood samples were aseptically collected initially from the maternal peripheral circulation and from the placenta on delivery, and tested for HIV and malaria using standard methods. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Kruskal–Wallis test was used for comparison of the groups. Results: IFN-γ was significantly

  13. Dynamic expression of leukocyte innate immune genes in whole blood from horses with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In horses, insights into the innate immune processes in acute systemic inflammation are limited even though these processes may be highly important for future diagnostic and therapeutic advances in high-mortality disease conditions as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS...... expressions in blood leukocytes during equine acute LPS-induced systemic inflammation thoroughly characterized a highly regulated and dynamic innate immune response. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of equine systemic inflammation.......) and sepsis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of 31 selected blood leukocyte immune genes in an equine model of acute systemic inflammation to identify significantly regulated genes and to describe their expression dynamics during a 24-h experimental period. Systemic...

  14. Comparison of two leukocyte reduction filters for whole blood derived platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Hee; Choi, Ju Hee; Hur, Mina; Moon, Hee-Won; Park, Chul Min; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2012-08-01

    Leukocyte reduction filters are widely used for platelet transfusion therapy, and effective leukocyte removal is mandatory for transfusion safety. We evaluated both the performance of leukocyte reduction filters for platelets and the effect of filtration on platelet function. A total of 100 pooled products (eight platelet concentrates were randomly pooled for each product) were used in this study: 50 were filtered by BioP-plus (Fresenius Kabi AG, Homburg, Germany) and 50 by PXL-8 (Pall Corporation, East Hills, NY, USA). Leukocyte reduction, platelet recovery, and filtration time were evaluated in each leukocyte reduction filter. Platelet aggregation responses to thrombin receptor activation peptide stimulation were compared in pre- and post-filtration products using impedance aggregometry (Multiplate Analyzer, Dynabyte Medical, Munich, Germany). Leukocyte counts were uniformly less than 8.3×10(5) in all the post-filtration products, except one filtered by the PXL-8. Leukocyte reduction was 99.1% for BioP-plus and 99.7% for PXL-8, and platelet recovery was 84.2% for the BioP-plus and 86.7% for PXL-8. Filtration time of the BioP-plus was significantly shorter than that of PXL-8. Post-filtration platelet aggregation tended to decrease in both filters, showing no difference between them. Both BioP-plus and PXL-8 leukocyte reduction filters for platelets performed well with effective leukocyte reduction and satisfactory platelet recovery. Although platelet function was decreased after filtration procedures, its clinical relevance is uncertain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide peripheral blood leukocyte DNA methylation microarrays identified a single association with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, R Alan; Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Pedersen, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance rates and epidemiologic data implicate that environmental changes and epigenetic factors may play a pathogenic role in IBD. DNA methylation (the methylation of ...... of cytosines within CpG dinucleotides) is an epigenetic modification, which can respond to environmental influences. We investigated whether DNA methylation might be connected with IBD in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA by utilizing genome-wide microarrays....

  16. Dysregulation of CXCR3 expression on peripheral blood leukocytes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Mads Krüger; Singh, Amardeep; Faber, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 has been strongly related to inhibition of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between expression of CXCR3 on peripheral blood leukocytes and Age-related Wet Macular Degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, we measured the plasma...... leading to choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) formation and growth. CXCR3-enhancing molecules could therefore be a possible target for treatment of AMD....

  17. Flow cytometry as a tool in the evaluation of blood leukocyte function in Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rossi

    Full Text Available Chelonia mydas is a sea turtle that feeds and nests on the Brazilian coast and a disease called fibropapillomatosis is a threat to this species. Because of this, it is extremely necessary to determine a methodology that would enable the analysis of blood leukocyte function in these sea turtles. In order to achieve this aim, blood samples were collected from C. mydas with or without fibropapillomas captured on the São Paulo north coast. Blood samples were placed in tubes containing sodium heparin and were transported under refrigeration to the laboratory in sterile RPMI 1640 cell culture medium. Leukocytes were separated by density gradient using Ficoll-PaqueTM Plus, Amershan Biociences®. The following stimuli were applied in the assessment of leukocyte function: Phorbol Miristate-Acetate (PMA for oxidative burst activity evaluation and Zymosan A (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bio Particles®, Alexa Fluor® 594 conjugate for phagocytosis evaluation. Three cell populations were identified: heterophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Monocytes were the cells responsible for phagocytosis and oxidative burst.

  18. Clinical value of indicators of cationic proteins, leukocytes myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma in viral meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: was to establish clinical and diagnostic value of cytochemical indices of peripheral blood leukocytes (cationic protein and myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma to assess the severity, predict the course and outcome of viral meningitis in children.Subjects and methods. In 450 patients with viral meningitis (enterovirus, arbovirus, parotitic, herpesviral, adenovirus etiology at the age of 14 years, the parameters of the microbicidal system of leukocytes (cation proteins, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma were determined. Etiological diagnosis of meningitis was confirmed by release of viral RNA from blood and cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.The results and conclusion. Found that severe, prolonged duration, lethal outcome of viral meningitis in children are accompanied by sugnificant suppression of cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma, maximally expressed in lethal outcomes, compared with the severe form, but with a favorable outcome and control. Settings imbalance cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma are objective criteria of the adaptation syndrome that reflects the state of the phagocytosis system in viral meningitis in children and can be considered as additional criteria for predicting the course and outcome of disease.

  19. Prepartal Energy Intake Alters Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transcriptome During the Peripartal Period in Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the dairy industry, cow health and farmer profits depend on the balance between diet (ie, nutrient composition, daily intake and metabolism. This is especially true during the transition period, where dramatic physiological changes foster vulnerability to immunosuppression, negative energy balance, and clinical and subclinical disorders. Using an Agilent microarray platform, this study examined changes in the transcriptome of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs due to prepartal dietary intake. Holstein cows were fed a high-straw, control-energy diet (CON; NE L  = 1.34 Mcal/kg or overfed a moderate-energy diet (OVE; NE L  = 1.62 Mcal/kg during the dry period. Blood for PMNL isolation and metabolite analysis was collected at −14 and +7 days relative to parturition. At an analysis of variance false discovery rate <0.05, energy intake (OVE vs CON influenced 1806 genes. Dynamic Impact Approach bioinformatics analysis classified treatment effects on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, including activated oxidative phosphorylation and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and inhibited RNA polymerase, proteasome, and toll-like receptor signaling pathway. This analysis indicates that processes critical for energy metabolism and cellular and immune function were affected with mixed results. However, overall interpretation of the transcriptome data agreed in part with literature documenting a potentially detrimental, chronic activation of PMNL in response to overfeeding. The widespread, transcriptome-level changes captured here confirm the importance of dietary energy adjustments around calving on the immune system.

  20. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nationwide outbreak of red eye syndrome associated with transfusion of leukocyte-reduced red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Echanove, Juan; Sippy, Brian D; Chin, Arthur E; Cairns, Lisa; Haley, Rebecca; Epstein, Jay S; Richards, Michael J; Edelhauser, Henry; Hedberg, Katrina; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Jarvis, William R; Pearson, Michele L

    2006-11-01

    To characterize red eye reactions occurring within 24 hours after receipt of units of leukocyte-reduced red blood cells, determine their etiology, and investigate their potential link to transfusion. We conducted a survey of transfusion facilities nationwide to determine the scope and magnitude of the reactions; performed case-control and cohort studies among transfused patients at the facility where most reactions occurred; and performed animal experiments, using cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from leukocyte-reduction filters and filter precursors, to reproduce reactions. From January 1, 1997, through January 15, 1998, we identified 159 reactions in 117 patients from 17 states. Reactions were characterized by conjunctival erythema or hemorrhage (in 100% of patients), eye pain (in 62%), photophobia (in 46%), and decreased visual acuity (in 32%). Symptom onset occurred 1-24 hours after initiation of transfusion and resolved within a median of 5 days. Reactions were associated with transfusion sessions that included units of red blood cells filtered with a specific brand of filter, the LeukoNet filter (HemaSure) (odds ratio, 100.4; Psyndrome was elicited in rabbits injected with cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from unused LeukoNet filters or filter precursors. No reactions were reported after LeukoNet filters were withdrawn from the market. This transfusion-associated red eye syndrome was linked to a specific brand of leukocyte-reduction filter and likely resulted from cellulose acetate derivatives leached from the filter membrane.

  2. Red blood cell size is inversely associated with leukocyte telomere length in a large multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlitina, Julia; Garcia, Christine Kim

    2012-01-01

    Although mutations in the genes encoding either the protein or RNA component of telomerase have been found in patients with various blood disorders, the impact of telomere length on hematopoiesis is less well understood for subjects from the general population. Here we have measured telomere lengths of genomic DNA isolated from circulating leukocytes of 3157 subjects, ranging from 18 to 85 years of age, enrolled in a large multiethnic population based study, the Dallas Heart Study 2. Shorter telomere lengths are marginally associated with lower red blood cell counts in this cohort, but are significantly associated with larger mean red blood cell size (as measured by the MCV), increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW), higher hemoglobin levels and lower platelet counts, even after correction for age, gender and ethnicity (p-values of 50 years vs. p = 0.0006 for size in a large urban US population and suggests a biologic mechanism for macrocytosis of aging.

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  4. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap % was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0 and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24 by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002. In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

  5. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, S J; Antaki, J F [Carnegie Mellon University, 700 Technology Dr., CMRI/PTC 4218, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)], E-mail: shund@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: antaki@andrew.cmu.edu

    2009-10-21

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, {psi}, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

  6. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, S J; Antaki, J F

    2009-01-01

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, Ψ, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

  7. Enzymatic Activities of Bovine Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Milk Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils during Intramammary Inflammation Caused by Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prin-Mathieu, C.; Le Roux, Y.; Faure, G. C.; Laurent, F.; Béné, M. C.; Moussaoui, F.

    2002-01-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33+ PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process. PMID:12093678

  8. Poly(ethyleneimine) modified filters for the removal of leukocytes from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, Anton; Oosterom, Hieke A.; Steneker, Ingeborg; Beugeling, T.; van Aken, W.G.; Feijen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Polyurethane membrane filters and filters coated with poly(ethyleneimine) were used to investigate the influence of leukocyte adhesion during filtration. Treatment of the filters with an aqueous solution of 1% (w/v) poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) led to the introduction of amine groups at the filter

  9. Subnormal Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts Are Related to the Lowest Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaomei; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Song, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100–3,900 cells/mm3) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57–2.49) and 1.50 (1.22–1.84) (both P for trend leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts. PMID:24876672

  10. Effects of propolis (Trigona sp.) extract supplementation on the growth and blood profile of Pangasius djambal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Firman M.; Nugroho, Rudy Agung; Fachmy, Syafrizal

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effects of propolis extract (PE) on the growth (G), growth rate (GR), specific growth rate (SGR) and blood profile (erythrocyte, leukocyte, and hemoglobin) of catfish (Pangasius djambal). five groups of fish with three replicates, containing 10 fish each group were fed various concentration of PE, viz 2 (P1), 4 (P2), 6 (P3), 8 (P4) and 10 (P5) g kg-1 of PE in a basal diet and compared to control (C) fish without PE at a rate 3% of body weight for 4 weeks. At the end of the trial, G, GR, SGR, and blood profile (erythrocyte, leukocyte, and hemoglobin) of all groups of fish were examined. The results showed that PE in the fish diet significantly increased G, GR, SGR, erythrocyte, hemoglobin while leukocyte was not affected by dietary any concentration of PE. The dietary 10 g kg-1 PE in the diet of fish showed the highest growth while the highest number of erythrocyte and hemoglobin activity was found in the fish fed 6 g kg-1 PE in the diet. These findings suggested that the inclusion of PE higher than 8 g kg-1 in the diet is beneficial to improve growth, growth rate, specific growth rate, erythrocyte and hemoglobin of Pangasius djambal.

  11. [The effect of two leukocyte depletion in-line filters on the efficiency of whole blood filtration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rufeng; Li, Yun; Huang, Yuwen; Mo, Qing; Dai, Yongchao; Tang, Weilong

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the difference in respect to the leukocyte reduction efficiency and quality of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) from filtered whole blood between two types of in-line filters wherein only filter materials were surface modified by the two methods respectively. Whole blood was kept in refrigerator and filtered within 6 h of collection at ambient temperature. Samples were taken pre- and post filtration for analysis of WBC numbers, coagulation factors and complement activation (n = 8 for each type of filter). All filtered units contained 0.05). Factor V, XI and AT-III decreased significantly in two group filters. Group B showed more significant losses of IgA content and factor V activity than did group A, which appeared to be related to the difference in surface character between group A and group B filters. These two types of filters could remove leukocytes effectively, and no significant changes were observed in the quality of FFP from the filtered whole blood. It is presumed that the filter material with better bio-compatibility will give a high recovery of plasma protein and coagulation factors after filtration.

  12. Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli are protected from leukocyte phagocytosis by binding to erythrocyte complement receptor 1 in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, O. L.; Hellerud, B. C.; Christiansen, D.

    2011-01-01

    The initial interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with erythrocytes and its implications on leukocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst in human whole blood were examined. Alexa-labeled Escherichia coli, wild-type H44/76 N. meningitidis and the H44/76lpxA lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutant...... no effect on these processes since similar results were obtained using an LPS-deficient N. meningitidis mutant. In vivo experiments in a pig model of sepsis showed limited binding of bacteria to erythrocytes, consistent with the facts that erythrocyte CR1 receptors are absent in non...

  13. Global DNA hypomethylation in peripheral blood leukocytes as a biomarker for cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good biomarkers for early detection of cancer lead to better prognosis. However, harvesting tumor tissue is invasive and cannot be routinely performed. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was evaluated as a biomarker for cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to estimate overall cancer risk according to global DNA hypomethylation levels among studies with various cancer types and analytical methods used to measure DNA methylation. Studies were systemically searched via PubMed with no language limitation up to July 2011. Summary estimates were calculated using a fixed effects model. RESULTS: The subgroup analyses by experimental methods to determine DNA methylation level were performed due to heterogeneity within the selected studies (p<0.001, I(2: 80%. Heterogeneity was not found in the subgroup of %5-mC (p = 0.393, I(2: 0% and LINE-1 used same target sequence (p = 0.097, I(2: 49%, whereas considerable variance remained in LINE-1 (p<0.001, I(2: 80% and bladder cancer studies (p = 0.016, I(2: 76%. These results suggest that experimental methods used to quantify global DNA methylation levels are important factors in the association study between hypomethylation levels and cancer risk. Overall, cancer risks of the group with the lowest DNA methylation levels were significantly higher compared to the group with the highest methylation levels [OR (95% CI: 1.48 (1.28-1.70]. CONCLUSIONS: Global DNA hypomethylation in peripheral blood leukocytes may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk. However, the association between global DNA methylation and cancer risk may be different based on experimental methods, and region of DNA targeted for measuring global hypomethylation levels as well as the cancer type. Therefore, it is important to select a precise and accurate surrogate marker for global DNA methylation levels in the association studies between global DNA methylation levels in peripheral

  14. Poly(ethyleneimine) modified filters for the removal of leukocytes from blood

    OpenAIRE

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, Anton; Oosterom, Hieke A.; Steneker, Ingeborg; Beugeling, T.; van Aken, W.G.; Feijen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Polyurethane membrane filters and filters coated with poly(ethyleneimine) were used to investigate the influence of leukocyte adhesion during filtration. Treatment of the filters with an aqueous solution of 1% (w/v) poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) led to the introduction of amine groups at the filter surfaces, as was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The modification procedure did not significantly change the porous structure in the filters, as was demonstrated by SEM and porometry. Us...

  15. Long-term leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice transplanted with human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, Annette; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Li, Duo; Ivic, Sandra; Fahrny, Audrey; Muller, Christina K S; Gers-Huber, Gustavo; Myburgh, Renier; Bredl, Simon; Schlaepfer, Erika; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Kuster, Stefan P; Speck, Roberto F

    2017-05-30

    Humanized mice (hu mice) are based on the transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice and have become important pre-clinical models for biomedical research. However, data about their hematopoiesis over time are scarce. We therefore characterized leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice, which were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells at newborn age, longitudinally in peripheral blood and, for more detailed analyses, cross-sectionally in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow at different time points. Human cell chimerism and absolute human cell count decreased between week 16 and 24 in the peripheral blood of hu mice, but were stable thereafter as assessed up to 32 weeks. Human cell chimerism in spleen and bone marrow was maintained over time. Notably, human cell chimerism in peripheral blood and spleen as well as bone marrow positively correlated with each other. Percentage of B cells decreased between week 16 and 24, whereas percentage of T cells increased; subsequently, they levelled off with T cells clearly predominating at week 32. Natural killer cells, monocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) as well as CD1c + and CD141+ myeloid DCs were all present in hu mice. Proliferative responses of splenic T cells to stimulation were preserved over time. Importantly, the percentage of more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow was maintained over time. Overall, leukocyte reconstitution was maintained up to 32 weeks post-transplantation in our hu NSG model, possibly explained by the maintenance of HSCs in the bone marrow. Notably, we observed great variation in multi-lineage hematopoietic reconstitution in hu mice that needs to be taken into account for the experimental design with hu mice.

  16. Development of methods to examine the effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zussman, Lisa Ann

    In vitro methods to study the effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on leukocyte function using human peripheral blood were developed. These methods were demonstrated using the blood of 1-5 individuals and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban PM #1648, diesel PM #1650, silica PM, and a locally collected PM sample (New Jersey PM10). For the blood samples analyzed in this study NIST urban PM and New Jersey PM10 treatment mediated the release of granule contents from peripheral blood leukocytes and induced structural changes associated with degranulation. Flow cytometry revealed PM-induced changes in phagocytosis and cell structure associated with degranulation. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed NIST urban PM-induced cell structure changes were associated with PM internalization. Colorametric and electrophoretic methods showed no PM-induced release of primary granules and a slight PM-induced release of secondary granules associated with only NIST urban PM. Enzyme Immunosorbent Assays detected increased histamine release from basophils treated with NIST urban PM, a locally collected PM, and the soluble and insoluble components of these particles. NIST urban PM was found to be a potent inducer of histamine release in 4 out of 6 individuals tested. Fractionation studies revealed that soluble (aqueous) and insoluble fractions of NIST urban PM contain histamine-releasing activity. This was also demonstrated for the New Jersey PM10 sample for which the soluble fraction exhibited the most activity. Complementary studies with inhibitors of IgE-mediated histamine release conducted on one test subject suggest that PM-induced histamine release was partially mediated by IgE. A new hypothesis has been formed, suggesting that particle toxicity is related to PM-induced histamine release. Due to the bioactive nature of histamine and its association with many cardiopulmonary responses, the PM- mediated release of histamine should be investigated

  17. Leukocytes and transfusion related adverse events: the effects of leuko-reduction process in the prevention of adverse reactions resulted from the transfusion of blood components: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehteramolsadat Hosseini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is commonly implemented to manage life and health-threatening conditions on a rapid and short-term basis. Over the years, ongoing technical advances have dramatically improved transfusion medicine to provide more safety and effectiveness. However, transfusion is still complicated with different adverse events that mainly induced by the presence of allogeneic leukocytes in the blood products. Several lines of evidence have shown that leukocytes in blood components are involved in the induction of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs, HLA alloimmunization and platelet refractoriness as well as the increased risk of the infectious diseases transmitted by leukotropic viruses including cytomegalovirus (CMV, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I/II and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. During current decades, introducing various leuko-reduction techniques have shown to be associated with less transfusion related adverse events and improved clinical outcomes. The lower incidence and severity of febrile transfusion reactions; reduced risk of transfusion related transmission of CMV or other leukocyte-associated infections, lowered incidence of alloimmune platelet refractoriness in addition to reducing risk of mortality and morbidity in patients are considered as clinical benefits of leuko-reduced products. Currently, by the use of 3rd and 4th generation of filters, the highest levels of leukoreduction in blood components have been achieved. Filtration techniques have also the advantages of being performed shortly after preparation of components (pre-storage or post-storage even at the patient’s bedside. However, it seems that pre-storage depletion of leukocytes provides better protection than post-storage techniques due to the elimination of leukocyte-derived cytokines effects which are increasingly released during storage. Particularly in platelet products, the earlier depletion of leukocyte also favors less platelet

  18. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    . No difference was found between the patients who responded and those who did not respond in regard to age, sex, smoker/non-smoker, % recovery of BAL-fluid, total cell count, differential cell counts, histamine content per mast cell, or diagnoses. Also stimulation of the BAL-cells with the calcium-ionophore A......23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria...

  19. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    Histamine release induced by Staphylococcus aureus was examined in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in non-atopic individuals. Approximately half of the individuals responded with mediator release to the bacterium, and the release was found to be time- and concentration dependent. N......23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria...

  20. Changes in thymidylate synthase mRNA in blood leukocytes from patients with colorectal cancer after bolus administration of 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnrooth, E; Sørensen, B; Poulsen, J H

    2000-01-01

    target enzyme, thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA, in blood leukocytes before and after courses 1 and 3 in 21 patients with colorectal cancer. TS mRNA expression was quantified using an RT-PCR assay with an internal RNA standard. Median TS mRNA expression decreased significantly 30 min after course no. 1 (p....... The present results indicate that TS mRNA in blood leukocytes may be an early indicator of an RNA damaging effect after i.v. bolus infusion of 5-FU....

  1. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ß-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ß-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes. In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ß-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ß-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD as anticoagulants revealed that ß-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  2. The alkaline comet assay as a biomarker of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of nuclear medicine personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether occupational exposure to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine departments may lead to genotoxicity. The alkaline comet assay was selected as a bio-marker of exposure to evaluate the levels of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of exposed and corresponding control subjects. Statistically significant differences were found between comet tail length and tail moment values measured in leukocytes from the exposed and control groups. Within exposed group significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage were assessed, indicating different genome sensitivity. In majority of exposed subjects the levels of DNA damage were in positive correlation with the duration of occupational exposure, while the influences of age and dosimeter readings could be excluded. However, the levels of primary DNA damage detected both in control and exposed subjects were significantly influenced by smoking. The present study indicates the possibility of genotoxic risks related to occupational exposure in nuclear medicine departments. Therefore, the exposed personnel should carefully apply the radiation protection procedures to minimize, as low as possible, radiation exposure to avoid possible genotoxic effects. According to results obtained, the alkaline comet assay could be usefully applied as a sensitive additional bio-marker in the regular health screening of workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. (authors)

  3. A Novel Centrifugation Method Using a Cell Salvage Device Offers an Alternative to the Use of Leukocyte-Depleting Filters for Autologous Blood Transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchilon, Michael; Gaspar, Cristina; Mexas, Angela; Nieter, Don

    2016-12-01

    Autotransfusion protocols often use the use of costly filters, such as leukocyte-depleting filters (LDFs), to minimize reinfusion of activated leukocytes and inflammatory mediators associated with reperfusion injury (RI). LDFs are used extensively in hospital settings; however, they represent an additional capital expenditure for hospitals, as well as a constraint on the reinfusion rate of blood products for health-care providers. We compared a commonly used LDF to a novel centrifugation method employing a widely used cell salvage device. Complete blood counts and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) measuring tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were performed to compare the efficacy of these methodologies. The LDF removed, on average, 94% of all leukocytes, including 96% of neutrophils. The centrifugation method removed, on average, 89% of all leukocytes, including 91% of neutrophils and resulted in a highly concentrated red blood cell product. Our results suggest both methods offer equivalent leukocyte reduction. TNF-α was also comparably reduced following our novel centrifugation method and the LDF method and IL-2 levels were undetectable in all samples. These results indicate our novel centrifugation method may preclude the need for a LDF during select autotransfusion applications.

  4. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    Histamine release induced by Staphylococcus aureus was examined in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in non-atopic individuals. Approximately half of the individuals responded with mediator release to the bacterium, and the release was found to be time- and concentration dependent. N......23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria......-induced mediator release from superficially lying cells in the airways epithelium might be of importance for the precipitation or exacerbation of bronchial asthma in respiratory tract infections....

  5. The Effects of Leukocyte Filtration on Cell Salvaged Autologous Blood Transfusion on Lung Function and Lung Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Reactions in Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Shen, Jianjun; Sun, Jianliang; McQuillan, Patrick M; Hu, Zhiyong

    2018-02-21

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of leukocyte filtration of autologous salvaged blood on lung function, lung inflammatory reaction, and oxidative stress reaction in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery. Sixty elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: Leukocyte Filter group and Control group. Serum levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell and polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, superoxide dismutase, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and respiratory function markers including dynamic respiratory system compliance, oxygenation index, and respiratory index were measured immediately before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately before blood transfusion (T1), and 1 (T2), 6 (T3), and 12 hours (T4) after end of blood transfusion. The Leukocyte Filter group had higher dynamic respiratory system compliance at T2, oxygenation index at T2 and T3, respiratory index and superoxide dismutase at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). The Leukocyte Filter group had lower white blood cell, polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α at T2, T3, and T4 than those in the Control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse reactions related specifically to blood transfusion or postoperative respiratory complications within 72 hours. Salvaged autologous blood leukocyte filtration can improve ventilation, promote gas exchange and oxygenation, and inhibit lung inflammatory and oxidative stress reactions in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery.

  6. Strong concordance between transcriptomic patterns of spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Erin E; Orr, Megan; Li, Xianyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Johnson, Timothy J; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K; Lamont, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes morbidity in chickens and exhibits zoonotic potential. Understanding host transcriptional responses to infection aids the understanding of protective mechanisms and serves to inform future colibacillosis control strategies. Transcriptomes of spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of the same individual birds in response to APEC infection were compared to identify common response patterns and connecting pathways. More than 100 genes in three contrasts examining pathology and infection status were significantly differentially expressed in both tissues and similarly regulated. Tissue-specific differences in catalytic activity, however, appear between birds with mild and severe pathology responses. Early expression differences, between birds with severe pathology and uninfected controls, in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in PBLs precede spleen responses in the p53 and cytokine-cytokine receptor pathways. Tissue bianalysis is useful in identifying genes and pathways important to the response to APEC, whose role might otherwise be underestimated in importance.

  7. Increased Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Genes Implicate CD14+ Tissue Macrophages in Cellular Intestine Allograft Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ningappa, Mylarappa; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Higgs, Brandon W.; Sun, Qing; Schmitt, Lori; Snyder, Sara; Dobberstein, Jennifer; Branca, Maria; Jaffe, Ronald; Zeevi, Adriana; Squires, Robert; Alissa, Feras; Shneider, Benjamin; Soltys, Kyle; Bond, Geoffrey; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Humar, Abhinav; Mazariegos, George; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent rejection shortens graft survival after intestinal transplantation (ITx) in children, most of whom also experience early acute cellular rejection (rejectors). To elucidate mechanisms common to early and recurrent rejection, we used a test cohort of 20 recipients to test the hypothesis that candidate peripheral blood leukocyte genes that trigger rejection episodes would be evident late after ITx during quiescent periods in genome-wide gene expression analysis and would achieve quantitative real-time PCR replication pre-ITx (another quiescent period) and in the early post-ITx period during first rejection episodes. Eight genes were significantly up-regulated among rejectors in the late post-ITx and pre-ITx periods, compared with nonrejectors: TBX21, CCL5, GNLY, SLAMF7, TGFBR3, NKG7, SYNE1, and GK5. Only CCL5 was also up-regulated in the early post-ITx period. Among resting peripheral blood leukocyte subsets in randomly sampled nonrejectors, CD14+ monocytes expressed the CCL5 protein maximally. Compared with nonrejectors, rejectors demonstrated higher counts of both circulating CCL5+CD14+ monocytes and intragraft CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages in immunohistochemistry of postperfusion and early post-ITx biopsies from the test and an independent replication cohort. Donor-specific alloreactivity measured with CD154+ T-cytotoxic memory cells correlated with the CCL5 gene and intragraft CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages at graft reperfusion and early post-ITx. CCL5 gene up-regulation and CD14+ macrophages likely prime cellular ITx rejection. Infiltration of reperfused intestine allografts with CD14+ macrophages may predict rejection events. PMID:21854741

  8. Development of leukocytes countin blood of neonatal pigs after colostrum intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ROLINEC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the development of white blood cells in blood of neonatal piglets immediately after birth and colostrum intake. Together 8 newborn piglets (Large white were included in this study. Piglets were during whole experiment under his mother and the colostrum intake was ad libitum. Blood samples (1.0 mL were collected before colostrum intake (0 hour and on 3rd, 6th and 12th hour after first colostrum intake. Heparinized blood samples were used for total white blood cells, lymphocytes, mid-sized cells and granulocytes determinations. Blood samples were analyzed using haematological analyser Abacus Junior Vet (Diatron, Austria. The results were statistically analyzed by a one-way ANOVA, the differences in average means of blood cells between different sampling times were tested with T-test. The content of white blood cells (P<0.01, lymphocytes (P<0.001, mid-sized cells (P<0.05 as well as granulocytes (P<0.05 changed statistically during the first 12 hours of piglets life. Only in the samples collected on 6th and 12th hour of piglets life, the white blood cells (11.68 resp. 10.82 G*l-1 and lymphocytes (8.13 resp. 9.63 G*l-1 reached the lower physiological range for pigs. Other white blood cells indices of neonatal piglets did not reach the lower limit of the reference range. However in all white blood cells indices, we detected very high differences between minimal and maximal values. It points out, that some newborn piglets had very low, whereas some newborn piglets had very high content of white blood indices and it suggest, that some piglets of the litter had better protection, whereas another piglets not.

  9. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  10. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263

  11. Imaging experimental myocardial infarction with indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes: effects of infarct age and residual regional myocardial blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The external imaging patterns and the kinetics of infiltration of indium-111 labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) occurring in the course of the inflammatory response associated with myocardial infarction were studied in dogs subjected to closed-chest anterior wall infarction. The effects of infarct age and regional residual myocardial blood flow upon PMN infiltration were investigated and quantified, and the capacity of indium-111 PMNs to image the experimental infarction was evaluated qualitatively. The epicardial accumulation of indium-111 PMNs occurred primarily in infarct zones with residual blood flow of 0.6 times normal and was maximal (14.8 +- 3.8 times normal) in the lowest blood flow zone (< 0.1 times normal). PMN accumulation in the endocardial infarct zones occurred in the regions with blood flow < 0.6 times normal and was maximal (26.8 +- 4.9 times normal) in the lowest blood flow zone. However, contrary to the maximal epicardial infiltration period, which occurred within the first 24 h after infarction, the maximal endocardial infiltration occurred at 72 hours after infarction. In both endocardium and epicardium, PMN uptake was minimal at 120 h after infarction. In vivo cardiac images were abnomal and revealed discrete, anatomically distinct areas of increased myocardial radioactivity uptake in the anterior wall of all dogs studied within 24 to 96 h after infarction. All images obtained 120 h after infarction were negative. Thus, indium-111 PMNs provide a noninvasive means of in vivo imaging of the inflammatory response to myocardial infarction and allow quantification of this response at a tissue level

  12. Increased soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in peripheral blood from climbers on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Michel; Yaghi, Layale; Flajollet, Sébastien; Radanne-Krawice, Irène; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Lugrin, Didier; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Carosella, Edgardo D; Moreau, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant acceptance, and tumor escape from immunosurveillance, operating by inhibiting activity of T, antigen presenting cells (APC), and natural killer (NK) cells. HLA-G gene expression is modulated in vitro after hypoxic conditions, a situation evidenced during pregnancy and tumor progression. In extreme altitude, mountaineers are in hypoxic conditions that generate physiologic adaptative responses, some of them giving rise to pathologic signs. We performed measurements of plasma soluble HLA-G in six climbers before departure of the expedition and during their ascent to and descent from summit of Mount Everest, and in 3 Sherpas at 5300-6400 m. We found that HLA-G levels are upregulated during the ascent with a unique pattern in comparison with angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that HLA-G has to be taken into account in the mechanisms participating in adaptation to high altitudes and reinforce hypoxia as an important factor in the regulation of HLA-G expression. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of innate immune genes in caprine blood leukocytes after systemic endotoxin challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Øyvind; Reiten, Malin R; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a serious health problem associated with a range of infectious diseases in animals and humans. Early events of this syndrome can be mimicked by experimental administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Compared with mice, small ruminants and humans are highly sensitive to LPS, making go...... insights into the dynamic regulation of innate immune genes, as well as raising new questions regarding the importance of ISGs and extrahepatic APPs in leukocytes after systemic endotoxin challenge....... goats valuable in inflammatory models. We performed a longitudinal study in eight Norwegian dairy goats that received LPS (0.1 μg/kg, Escherichia coli O26:B6) intravenously. A control group of five goats received corresponding volumes of sterile saline. Clinical examinations were performed continuously...... with the acute phase response, type I interferon signaling, LPS cascade and apoptosis, in addition to cytokines and chemokines were targeted. Pro-inflammatory genes, such as IL1B, CCL3 and IL8, were significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, increased mRNA levels of seven interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) were...

  14. Leukocyte Composition and Immunophenotype of the Blood Lymphocytes in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.A. Saienko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an opinion that changes in some indicators of natural and adaptive immunity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and overweight are caused by concomitant obesity, as the adipose tissue is the potent secretory organ that produces many cytokines, particularly adipokines playing a key role in various immune responses. It is known that the level of the main adipokines, which regulate the adipose tissue, in the human peripheral blood (PB is determined on the basis of human sexual dimorphism. Purpose of the study — to elucidate the question of the extent, to which the observed changes in the leukocyte composition and lymphocyte immunophenotype in type 2 DM in women are determined by obesity, due to the significant sex differences in the secretion of some adipokines involved in controlling the function of the immune system. Materials and methods. The study included 24 women aged 40 to 65 years with newly diagnosed type 2 DM, who were divided into 2 subgroups: the first one — with a body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and the second one — with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The total number of leukocytes in the PB was counted using hematology analyzer. Leucocyte vomposition was determined in smears of the PB per 200 cells stained by Pappenheim. Surface antigens of lymphocytes against membrane antigens: CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD56 — were labelled by monoclonal antibodies marked with fluorescein isothiocyanate or phycoerythrin. Results. The increase in the total number of leukocytes in the PB of obese patients was more significant than in patients with a normal BMI, i.e. 23.1 versus 14.5 % (p < 0.05. The highest leukocytosis was observed in patients with DM type 2 and obesity, reached 7.61 × 109/L on the average. In the subgroup of healthy women and female patients with normal body mass, the absolute number of segmented neutrophils in the PB of patients with DM type 2 in relation to that of normoglycemic women had

  15. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I and Class II Polymorphisms and Serum Cytokine Profiles in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Bahls

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Only a small proportion of women who are exposed to infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV progress to persistent infection and develop cervical cancer (CC. The immune response and genetic background of the host may affect the risk of progression from a HR-HPV infection to lesions and cancer. However, to our knowledge, no studies has been conducted to evaluate the relationship between variability of human leukocyte antigens (HLA genes and serum cytokine expression in this pathology. In the current study, we examined the associations of HLA alleles and haplotypes including Class I (HLA-A, -B and -C and II (HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 with serum levels of cytokines interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-17 as well as risks of HPV infections, lesions and CC among admixed Brazilian women. HLA polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk or protection from HPV, lesions and CC. Additionally, we demonstrated a potential association of a HLA class I haplotype (HLA-B*14-C*08 with higher IL-10 cytokine serum levels in cervical disease, suggesting an association between HLA class I and specific cytokines in cervical carcinogenesis. However, larger studies with detailed HPV types coupled with genetic data are needed to further evaluate the effects of HLA and CC by HPV genotype.

  16. Investigation of morphological changes for the discrimination of nucleated red blood cells and other leukocytes in Sysmex XN hematology analyzer scattergrams using transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Kaido

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WNR channel of the XN-Series automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex counts white blood cells (WBCs and simultaneously performs a differential counting of basophils and nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs. The detection process involves exposing the cells to WNR-specific reagents containing an acidic detergent and a fluorescent dye and measuring the intensity of the forward scattered light (FSC and side fluorescence light (SFL. Method: We treated isolated peripheral WBCs and NRBCs with specific reagents and assessed the morphological changes in NRBCs and each leukocyte type using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: The results from a flow cytometer (FCM showed that, after exposure to the reagents, basophils appeared on the highest FSC and SFL areas compared to other leukocytes on the WNR scattergram. Owing to the hemolysis of reticulocytes and erythrocytes, NRBCs that survived the reagent treatment could be distinguished by their lower intensity than those of the other leukocytes on the WNR scattergram. We investigated the significance of the relationship between the TEM and FCM results after the reagent treatment. Conclusion: We confirmed that the WNR channel differentiates the blood cells on the WNR scattergram based on differences in the amount of residual cytoplasm and nucleic acids. Keywords: Automated hematology analyzer, Flow cytometry, Transmission electron microscopy, Leukocytes, NRBCs, Scatter light intensity, Fluorescent intensity

  17. Immunological changes in canine peripheral blood leukocytes triggered by immunization with first or second generation vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; de Andrade, Renata Aline; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Magalhães, Camila Paula; Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Campolina, Sabrina Sidney; Mello, Maria Norma; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Rocha, Luciana Morais; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2011-05-15

    In this study, we summarized the major phenotypic/functional aspects of circulating leukocytes following canine immunization with Leishvaccine and Leishmune®. Our findings showed that Leishvaccine triggered early changes in the innate immunity (neutrophils and eosinophils) with late alterations on monocytes. Conversely, Leishmune(®) induced early phenotypic changes in both, neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, Leishvaccine triggered mixed activation-related phenotypic changes on T-cells (CD4+ and CD8+ and B-lymphocytes, whereas Leishmune(®) promoted a selective response, mainly associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Mixed cytokine profile (IFN-γ/IL-4) was observed in Leishvaccine immunized dogs whereas a selective pro-inflammatory pattern (IFN-γ/NO) was induced by Leishmune® vaccination. The distinct immunological profile triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune® may be a direct consequence of the distinct biochemical composition of these immunobiological, i.e. complex versus purified Leishmania antigen along with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) versus saponin adjuvant. Both immunobiologicals are able to activate phagocytes and CD8+ T-cells and therefore could be considered as a putative vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, C; Vasile, E; Bernardini, I; Orlandini, C; Andreuccetti, M; Falcone, A

    2008-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of several baseline variables in stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer to create a model based on independent prognostic factors. A total of 320 patients were treated with last generation chemotherapy regimens. The majority of patients received treatment with cisplatin + gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone if older than 70 years or with an ECOG performance status (PS) = 2. Performance status of 2, squamous histology, number of metastatic sites >2, presence of bone, brain, liver and contralateral lung metastases and elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood were all statistically significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses whereas the other tested variables (sex, stage, age, presence of adrenal gland and skin metastases) were not. Subsequently, a multivariate Cox's regression analysis identified PS 2 (P leukocyte count (P Leukocyte count resulted the stronger factor after performance status. If prospectly validated, the proposed prognostic model could be useful to stratify performance status 2 patients in specific future trials.

  19. Social rank influences the distribution of blood leukocyte subsets in female growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Bodil Margrethe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high (DOM) and low (SUB) social rank on blood immune variables was examined in female growing pigs. Pigs were mixed with unfamiliar pigs at 9 weeks of age and kept in stable groups of 4 pigs for 5 weeks. Social rank was determined using a feeding competition test. SUB pigs showed...... reduced growth as compared to DOM pigs confirming their lower social status. Blood was sampled for immunological assessments immediately before grouping the pigs and again after the 5 weeks of social housing. White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, percentage of CD4 positive cells (CD4+), percentage of CD8...... of social housing only. From the WBC counts it was found that the percentage of neutrophils was higher in SUB pigs and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in DOM pigs. The percentage of CD4+ cells decreased with time in both DOM and SUB pigs, but only significantly in SUB pigs. The percentage...

  20. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao Ye [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China); Sun Kang, E-mail: ksun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO{sub 3}H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ({sup +}N((CH{sub 3}){sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup Circled-Minus }) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  1. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Ye; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO3H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group (⊕N((CH3)2)(CH2)3SO3⊖) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO3H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO3H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  2. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chao; Cao Ye; Sun Kang; Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO 3 H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ( + N((CH 3 ) 2 )(CH 2 ) 3 SO 3 ⊖ ) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO 3 H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO 3 H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  3. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on

  4. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Aldo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition.

  5. Changes in some Blood Micronutrients, Leukocytes and Neutrophil Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersson L

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, like mastitis, during the period around calving. Although factors contributing to increased susceptibility to infection have not been fully elucidated, impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection and changes in the concentrations of some micronutrients related with the function of the immune defence has been implicated. Most of the current information is based on studies outside the Nordic countries where the conditions for dairy cows are different. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood concentrations of the vitamins A and E, the minerals calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P, and magnesium (Mg, the electrolytes potassium (K and sodium (Na and the trace elements selenium (Se, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, as well as changes in total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC and expression of the adhesion molecules CD62L and CD18 on blood neutrophils in Swedish dairy cows during the period around calving. Blood samples were taken from 10 cows one month before expected calving, at calving and one month after calving. The results were mainly in line with reports from other countries. The concentrations of vitamins A and E, and of Zn, Ca and P decreased significantly at calving, while Se, Cu, and Na increased. Leukocytosis was detected at calving, mainly explained by neutrophilia, but also by monocytosis. The numbers of lymphocytes tended to decrease at the same time. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of CD62L and CD18 molecules on blood neutrophils remained constant over time. The proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils decreased significantly at calving. The animals were fed according to, or above, their requirements. Therefore, changes in blood levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were mainly in response to colostrum formation, changes in dry matter intake, and ruminal metabolism around calving. Decreased levels of vitamins A and E, and of Zn at calving

  6. Blood temperature profiles of diving elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia-induced reductions in metabolic rate have been proposed to suppress metabolism and prolong the duration of aerobic metabolism during dives of marine mammals and birds. To determine whether core hypothermia might contribute to the repetitive long-duration dives of the northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris, blood temperature profiles were obtained in translocated juvenile elephant seals equipped with a thermistor and backpack recorder. Representative temperature (the y-intercept of the mean temperature vs. dive duration relationship) was 37.2 degrees C +/- 0.6 degrees C (n=3 seals) in the extradural vein, 38.1 degrees C +/- 0.7 degrees C (n = 4 seals) in the hepatic sinus, and 38.8 degrees +/- 1.6 degrees C (n = 6 deals) in the aorta. Mean temperature was significantly though weakly negatively related to dive duration in all but one seal. Mean venous temperatures of all dives of individual seals ranged between 36 degrees and 38 degrees C, while mean arterial temperatures ranged between 35 degrees and 39 degrees C. Transient decreases in venous and arterial temperatures to as low as 30 degrees -33 degrees C occurred in some dives >30 min (0.1% of dives in the study). The lack of significant core hypothermia during routine dives (10-30 min) and only a weak negative correlation of mean temperature with dive duration do not support the hypothesis that a cold-induced Q(10) effect contributes to metabolic suppression of central tissues during dives. The wide range of arterial temperatures while diving and the transient declines in temperature during long dives suggest that alterations in blood flow patterns and peripheral heat loss contribute to thermoregulation during diving.

  7. Epigenome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in paired samples of adipose tissue and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Chu, Su; Loucks, Eric B; Lin, Chien-Ling; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Kelsey, Karl T

    2016-03-03

    Many epigenetic association studies have attempted to identify DNA methylation markers in blood that are able to mirror those in target tissues. Although some have suggested potential utility of surrogate epigenetic markers in blood, few studies have collected data to directly compare DNA methylation across tissues from the same individuals. Here, epigenomic data were collected from adipose tissue and blood in 143 subjects using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. The top axis of epigenome-wide variation differentiates adipose tissue from blood, which is confirmed internally using cross-validation and externally with independent data from the two tissues. We identified 1,285 discordant genes and 1,961 concordant genes between blood and adipose tissue. RNA expression data of the two classes of genes show consistent patterns with those observed in DNA methylation. The discordant genes are enriched in biological functions related to immune response, leukocyte activation or differentiation, and blood coagulation. We distinguish the CpG-specific correlation from the within-subject correlation and emphasize that the magnitude of within-subject correlation does not guarantee the utility of surrogate epigenetic markers. The study reinforces the critical role of DNA methylation in regulating gene expression and cellular phenotypes across tissues, and highlights the caveats of using methylation markers in blood to mirror the corresponding profile in the target tissue.

  8. Cord Blood Angiogenic Profile in Normotensive Pregnancies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... present study was designed to analyze heme oxygenase-1 and endoglin levels in maternal and cord blood of normotensive women. ... Also, serum blood endoglin levels were higher in maternal blood compared to cord blood of ..... Placental gene expression patterns of endoglin (CD105) in intrauterine.

  9. Abnormal directed migration of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Potential role in increased susceptibility to bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aglas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients are at higher risks of bacterial infection than healthy subjects. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN are the first line of nonspecific cellular defence against these infections. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal directed migration of PMN may be one reason for the increased infection rate of RA patients. PMN migration was investigated in 68 peripheral blood samples of 15 RA patients compared with 64 samples of healthy controls in a novel whole blood in vitro membrane filter assay. The migration of PMNs from RA patients and controls was stimulated using the bacterial chemoattractant N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP. Unstimulated PMN migration of RA patients was increased compared with healthy controls as measured by the following parameters: (a absolute number of migrant PMNs (1954 ± 87 vs. 1238 ± 58 PMN/mm2, (b percentage of PMNs migrated into the filter (total migration index, TMI (28.6 ± 0.9 vs. 24.0 ± 0.8 %, (c the distance half the migrating PMNs had covered (distribution characteristic, DC (22.6 ± 1.1 vs. 16.1 ± 0.6 mm and (d the product of TMI and DC (neutrophil migratory activity, NMA (669.0 ± 45.0 vs. 389.0 ± 18.9. fMLP stimulated PMNs of RA patients showed defective migration compared to unstimulated samples as shown by (a a reduced number of migrant PMNs (1799 ± 93 PMN/mm2, (b lower TMI (26.1 ± 0.9 %, (c unremarkable altered distribution characteristic (22.9 ± 0.8 mm and (d significant reduced migratory activity (600.0 ± 30.0. Our data suggest that the high incidence of infections in RA patients may partly be caused by defective migratory activity of PMNs to bacterial chemoattractants as demonstrated by fMLP.

  10. Cytokine and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Meng, Xueqin; Xu, Yuning; Xie, Haiyang; Yin, Shengyong; Li, Hongchun; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-10-12

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after liver and kidney transplantation has high mortality and causes diagnostic challenges. This study aims to describe the cytokine and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile in the GVHD after liver and kidney transplantation. A high-throughput detection kit was applied and altogether 18 different cytokines were tested simultaneously. GVHD patients included 23 post-liver transplantation patients; 22 post-renal transplantation patients; The control patients include 22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients without transplantation and 20 healthy controls. Their HLA characters were compared. The full spectrum of cytokines was present. The inflammatory markers were activated significantly in liver transplantation. The level of inflammatory markers in liver transplantation was higher than that in renal transplantation, HCC or healthy controls. GVHD was associated with the HLA characters; HLA characters are involved in liver GVHD occurrence and act as risk factors. Our findings confirmed that the inflammatory cytokines play a pathogenic role in GVHD and can be used as early diagnostic markers. The HLA mismatch acts as a risk factor in liver transplantation to predict GVHD occurrence.

  11. Some haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on diets containing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedmeal were evaluated using packed cell volume (PCV); haemoglobin content (Hb), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin ...

  12. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  13. Age-associated DNA methylation changes in immune genes, histone modifiers and chromatin remodeling factors within 5 years after birth in human blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Reinius, Lovisa E; Vitezic, Morana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related changes in DNA methylation occurring in blood leukocytes during early childhood may reflect epigenetic maturation. We hypothesized that some of these changes involve gene networks of critical relevance in leukocyte biology and conducted a prospective study to elucidate...... the dynamics of DNA methylation. Serial blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after birth in ten healthy girls born in Finland and participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. RESULTS......: After filtering for the presence of polymorphisms and cell-lineage-specific signatures, 794 CpG sites showed significant DNA methylation differences as a function of age in all children (41.6% age-methylated and 58.4% age-demethylated, Bonferroni-corrected P value

  14. Docking onto the endothelium: Trio directs leukocyte extravasation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation describes the process by which white blood cells (leukocytes) travel across the endothelium lining the vasculature, into the underlying tissue. Effi-cient and tightly controlled leukocyte extravasation is of key importance in physiological processes such as immune

  15. [The effect of polyester vascular prostheses on synthesis TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and NO by human peripheral blood leukocytes--in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicka, Bogusława; Czarny, Anna; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Pielka, Stanisław; Solski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Vascular prostheses produced on the basis of polyester are today commonly used in vascular surgery. To improve their biofuncionality special technologies are used, among them double knit and hydrophile feature enrichment. These modifications could cause the local activation of leukocytes to produce the mediators of inflammatory reaction, which in turn leads to hyperplasia of endothelium and other dangerous complications. In our study we used two kinds of polyester prostheses: double velour knitted hydrophilic Dallon H and standard double velour knitted prosthesis Dallon as control. The aim of this work was to compare in vitro the levels of cytokines TNF-alpha, interferon (IFN) and nitric oxide (NO) found in the supernatants of human blood leukocyte cultures after stimulation by both these above-mentioned vascular prostheses materials which are designed for use in direct blood contact. Tested implant materials Dallon H had no influence on synthesis of production of IFN, TNF-alpha and NO by human blood leukocytes. These results allow to made the initial selection of biomaterials before their in vivo evaluation.

  16. Association between polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived oxylipid biosynthesis and leukocyte inflammatory marker expression in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, W; Halbert, L; Contreras, G A; Sordillo, L M

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from periparturient cows can have exacerbated inflammatory responses that contribute to disease incidence and severity. Oxylipids derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can regulate the magnitude and duration of inflammation. Although PUFA substrate for oxylipid biosynthesis in leukocytes is known to change across the periparturient period, the plasma oxylipid profile and how this profile relates to leukocyte inflammatory phenotype is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the profile of pro- and antiinflammatory plasma oxylipids and the inflammatory phenotype of peripheral blood leukocytes during the periparturient period. Seven multiparous Holsteins were sampled from the prepartum period through peak lactation. Plasma oxylipids were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, peripheral leukocyte mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR, and PUFA content of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of several hydroxyl products of linoleic and arachidonic acid changed over time. Linoleic acid and arachidonic acid concentrations in leukocytes increased during early lactation, suggesting that substrate availability for hydroxyoctadecadienoic and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid biosynthesis may influence the oxylipid profile. Leukocyte mRNA expressions of IL-12B, IL-1B, inducible nitric oxide synthase 2, and cyclooxygenase 2 were correlated with several plasma oxylipids. These are the first observations linking leukocyte inflammatory gene responses to shifts in oxylipid biosynthesis in periparturient dairy cows. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure profile and medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated, and the blood pressure of the ... Contraceptive use was significantly associated with BMI classification (P=0.000), blood pressure classification (P=0.000) and history of hypertension among the ...

  18. LINE1 CpG-DNA Hypomethylation in Granulosa Cells and Blood Leukocytes Is Associated With PCOS and Related Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagvekar, Pooja; Mangoli, Vijay; Desai, Sadhana; Patil, Anushree; Mukherjee, Srabani

    2017-04-01

    Altered global DNA methylation is indicative of epigenomic instability concerning chronic diseases. Investigating its incidence and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is essential to understand the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. We assessed global DNA methylation differences in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) of controls and women with PCOS; and their association with PCOS and its traits. This study included a total of 102 controls and women with PCOS. Forty-one women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and 61 women not undergoing COH were recruited from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and infertility clinics. DNA methylation was measured by ELISA for 5'-methyl-cytosine content and bisulfite sequencing of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE1/L1). Total 5'-methyl-cytosine and L1 methylation levels in PBLs and CGCs were similar between controls and women with PCOS. Methylation assessed at CpG sites of L1 5'-UTR revealed a single CpG-site (CpG-4) to be consistently hypomethylated in PBLs of both PCOS groups and CGCs of stimulated PCOS group. In unstimulated women, hypomethylation at CpG-4 was strongly associated with PCOS susceptibility, whereas in stimulated group it showed strong associations with PCOS and its hormonal traits. Furthermore, CGCs demonstrated consistent global and CpG-DNA hypomethylation relative to PBLs, irrespective of normal or disease states. Our study revealed strong association of single hypomethylated CpG-site with PCOS. Identification and characterization of more such methyl-CpG signatures in repetitive elements in larger study populations would provide valuable epigenetic insights into PCOS.

  19. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni, E-mail: deni@ipb.ac.id; Estuningsih, Sri [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau (UMRI), Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Hermawan, Hendra [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University (ULaval) (Canada)

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  20. In Silico Functional Networks Identified in Fish Nucleated Red Blood Cells by Means of Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Puente-Marin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleated red blood cells (RBCs of fish have, in the last decade, been implicated in several immune-related functions, such as antiviral response, phagocytosis or cytokine-mediated signaling. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq and label-free shotgun proteomic analyses were carried out for in silico functional pathway profiling of rainbow trout RBCs. For RNA-seq, a de novo assembly was conducted, in order to create a transcriptome database for RBCs. For proteome profiling, we developed a proteomic method that combined: (a fractionation into cytosolic and membrane fractions, (b hemoglobin removal of the cytosolic fraction, (c protein digestion, and (d a novel step with pH reversed-phase peptide fractionation and final Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC ESI-MS/MS analysis of each fraction. Combined transcriptome- and proteome- sequencing data identified, in silico, novel and striking immune functional networks for rainbow trout nucleated RBCs, which are mainly linked to innate and adaptive immunity. Functional pathways related to regulation of hematopoietic cell differentiation, antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII, leukocyte differentiation and regulation of leukocyte activation were identified. These preliminary findings further implicate nucleated RBCs in immune function, such as antigen presentation and leukocyte activation.

  1. Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid Profile Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multitude of risk factors are responsible for development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with the ABO blood antigens is increasingly being reported. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and lipoprotein profiles of ...

  2. Blood-based gene expression profiles models for classification of subsyndromal symptomatic depression and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenghui; Li, Zezhi; Yu, Shunying; Yuan, Chengmei; Hong, Wu; Wang, Zuowei; Cui, Jian; Shi, Tieliu; Fang, Yiru

    2012-01-01

    Subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) is a subtype of subthreshold depressive and also lead to significant psychosocial functional impairment as same as major depressive disorder (MDD). Several studies have suggested that SSD is a transitory phenomena in the depression spectrum and is thus considered a subtype of depression. However, the pathophysioloy of depression remain largely obscure and studies on SSD are limited. The present study compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD, and matched controls (8 subjects in each group). Support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized for training and testing on candidate signature expression profiles from signature selection step. Firstly, we identified 63 differentially expressed SSD signatures in contrast to control (Pbiomarkers for SSD and MDD together, we selected top gene signatures from each group of pair-wise comparison results, and merged the signatures together to generate better profiles used for clearly classify SSD and MDD sets in the same time. In details, we tried different combination of signatures from the three pair-wise compartmental results and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures with 100% accuracy. Our finding suggested that SSD and MDD did not exhibit the same expressed genome signature with peripheral blood leukocyte, and blood cell-derived RNA of these 48 gene models may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and classifying SSD, MDD, and healthy controls.

  3. Haematological profile of cytomegalovirus antibody positive blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening forCMVantibodies was done using ELISA kit, manufactured by DIALAB, Austria. ( ). Complete blood count (PCV: Packed cell volume,WBC:White cell count-total and differential counts, and platelet counts) was done on all donors using automated coultermachine. Although the mean PCV value was higher in the ...

  4. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giometti, C.S.; Willard, K.E.; Anderson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with 125 I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture

  5. The effect of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Lima, S F; Bicalho, M L S; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Felippe, M J; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous supplementation of 300 mg of zinc, 50 mg of manganese, 25 mg of selenium, and 75 mg of copper on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at 10 ± 2 days in milk (DIM), and on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the transition period and subsequent lactation of multiparous Holstein cows. A total of 250 multiparous cows were randomly allocated into one of two treatments groups, namely, trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. Cows in the TMS group were injected at 230 and 260 days of gestation, and 35 days postpartum. Serum SOD activity was measured at enrollment, and 10, 60 and 100 DIM. Serum BHBA concentration and leukocyte function were assessed at 10 DIM. Overall serum SOD activity for TMS and control was 16.01 and 12.71 U/mL, respectively. The interaction between treatment and time of serum collection was significant. Additionally, overall serum SOD activity was 12.85 and 14.78 U/mL for cows diagnosed with mastitis and unaffected cows, respectively. Treatment did not affect leukocyte function. For parity >2, TMS cows had lower serum BHBA concentrations than control cows; BHBA concentrations were 0.41 and 0.27 mmol/L for control and TMS cows, respectively. In conclusion, cows diagnosed with mastitis had decreased serum SOD activity, and trace mineral supplementation increased serum SOD activity although leukocyte function was not affected by supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impaired Whole-Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Migration as a Possible Predictive Marker for Infections in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glasner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Steroids, used in pretermpremature rupture of membranes (pPROM, to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality of the preterm neonate, impair the maternal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN-based immune system. In spite of combination with antibiotics, prenatal and postnatal bacterial infections of mother and child are frequent. This pilot study focuses on the influence of steroids in pPROM on maternal PMN functional capacity and subsequent infections.

  7. Blood Pressure Guided Profiling of Ultrafiltration during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Reinhard

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis-induced hypotension is still a common complication in spite of the progress achieved in hemodialysis (HD treatment. Due to its multifactorial nature, dialysis-induced hypotension cannot be reliably prevented by conventional profiling of ultrafiltration in open-loop systems since they are unable to adapt themselves to actual decreases in blood pressure. A blood pressure guided closed-loop system for prevention of dialysis-induced hypotension by biofeedback-controlled profiling of ultrafiltration was clinically tested in 94 HD treatments of four patients prone to hypotension. Automatic profiling of ultrafiltration was based on frequent measurements of blood pressure at intervals of five minutes. Proper adaptation of control features to patients′ conditions was provided by the lower limit of systolic pressure which was individually set by the physician at the beginning of each treatment. During the initial and medium phases of the HD sessions, ultrafiltration rates up to 200% of the average rates were applied as long as this was tolerated. The additional ultrafiltrate volume was used for blood pressure stabilization by lowering the ultrafiltration rates in the final phase of HD session. Biofeedback-controlled profiling of ultrafiltration provides reliable blood pressure stabilization in all phases of HD. During the first half of treatment, the frequency of hypotensive episodes remained below that with conventional therapy although ultrafiltration rates up to 200% were used. During the second half of treatment, blood pressure guided reduction of ultrafiltration rate provided a decreasing frequency of hypotensive episodes in contrast to the increasing trend during conventional therapy. Stable blood pressure trends during the last hour of HD were achieved in 91% of biofeedback-controlled treatments in comparison with only 32% of conventional treatments. Ultrafiltration rates of 150%-200% and blood pressure measurements at intervals of

  8. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertension in Adolescents in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the blood pressure profile, prevalence of hypertension in apparently healthy secondary school children in Port Harcourt and the relationship between body mass index and hypertension. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study of 1,056 adolescents, aged 10-18 years, selected ...

  9. Egg quality parameters and blood biochemical profile of six strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six different poultry strains (Indigenous chicken, Broiler, Turkey, Geese, Duck and Guinea fowl) were studied under extensive system of management to investigate the effect of rearing system on their egg quality and the blood biochemical profile, respectively. Birds used for the study were obtained from four different ...

  10. Performance characteristics and blood profile of West African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve week trial was investigated to evaluate performance and blood profile of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed malted sorghum sprout with pineapple waste (MSPW) based diet. The malted sorghum sprout and pineapple waste was at ratio 1:2 (weight/weight) respectively. Sixteen WAD goats with average initial ...

  11. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was done as a part of safety assessment to determine the effects of Tartrazine E102 on some haematological indices, glucose levels and blood lipid profile in rats. An animal model was used as a basis for interpreting the situation in humans. Consequently, 40 albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each.

  12. Estimation of malaria parasite density using leukocyte counts as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukocyte counts and screening for malaria parasites were carried out on 252 apparently healthy blood donors attending a transfusion centre in Ibadan. The leukocyte count range for the donors was 2.5-9.6 x 109 /l; the mean leukocyte count being 4.98 x 109 /l. 193 (76.6%) had leukocyte count less than 6.0 x 109 /l.

  13. A mathematical model for the leukocyte filtration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, Anton; Beugeling, T.; Beugeling, Tom; Feijen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Leukocyte filters are applied clinically to remove leukocytes from blood. In order to optimize leukocyte filters, a mathematical model to describe the leukocyte filtration process was developed by modification of a general theoretical model for depth filtration. The model presented here can be used

  14. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    The binding of immune complexes (IC) to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the consequent respiratory burst (RB) were investigated in whole blood cell preparations suspended in 75% human serum, using flow cytometry. Blockade of the complement receptor (CR)1 receptor sites for C3b on whole blood...... and inhibited the IC binding to PMN in a whole blood cell preparation, with or without mAb 3D9, by approximately 40% from 15-40 min while reducing their RB over 40 min to approximately one third. Blockade of CR1 on either erythrocytes (E) or leukocytes, before mixing the populations, revealed...... that the potentiation of the RB by mAb 3D9 was associated with abrogation of E-CR1 function, whereas blockade of leukocyte-CR1 had a diminishing effect. Exposure to IC at high concentrations induced release of both specific and azurophilic granule contents from PMN. The latter was CR3 dependent in that blockade...

  15. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François, E-mail: francois.marceau@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion

  16. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-01-01

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K M 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V max . PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion trapping

  17. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam sadat Amirkalali sijavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims during which avoid from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse for about 13-17 hours. The aim of this study was surveying the effects of Islamic fasting in Ramadan on lipid profile and blood pressure.Materials and Methods: we designed this study in two phases, a week before and a week after Ramadan month. Eighty nine healthy subjects with 20-50 years old were participated in this study. Blood sampling for lipid profile measurement was done in the morning and blood pressure was measured in the afternoon with digital sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16.0 software.Results: In a week after Ramadan, body weight and body mass index (BMI decreased in both sexes, comparing with the week before Ramadan measurements (p

  18. Blood cell profiles of the tadpoles of the Dubois's tree frog, Polypedates teraiensis Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhusmita; Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a sequential study of the leukocyte profiles and the changes in morphometry and morphology of erythrocytes in the tadpoles of Polypedates teraiensis during their development and metamorphosis, that is, transfer from an aquatic mode to a terrestrial mode of life. Blood smears of 21 different stages (Gosner stage 26 to 46) of tadpoles were investigated. Population of erythrocytes was heterogeneous in population represented by various forms (oval, elliptical or rounded cells, comma shaped, teardrop shaped, schistocytes, senile erythrocytes, crenulated RBCs). Correlation between various morphometric values of erythrocytes was determined with different developing stages of tadpoles. Amongst the leucocytes, the lymphocytes were the most abundant cells followed by neutrophils. Neutrophils and monocytes showed varied morphologic forms. The percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils showed a negative whereas percentage of eosinophil, basophil, and monocytes showed a positive correlation with the developmental stages of tadpoles. Blood platelets were also observed, which were rounded in shape and found in aggregates.

  19. Association between diabetes complications and leukocyte counts in Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedigheh Moradi1, Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman2, Farzaneh Rohani1, Fereshteh Salari21Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center (Firouzgar, Hemmat Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 2Scientific Students Research Committee, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranBackground: The long term complications of diabetes can be fatal. They are also renowned for being an economic burden. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between inflammatory markers and complications of diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukocyte counts and these complications.Methods: The study included 184 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in Iran during 2007 and 2008. Data collected on the subjects were as follows: age, gender, weight, height, blood pressure, smoking history, lipid profile including low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocyte count, albuminuria, and retinopathy. Furthermore, information on cardiac history for 100 patients was collected. The subjects were split into two groups according to their leukocyte levels: low (≤7000/mm³ and high (>7000/mm³; and then analyzed by Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate.Results: The average leukocyte count in these patients was 7594 ± 1965/mm³. Leukocyte count was significantly different in patients with and without retinopathy and albuminuria (P < 0.0001. According to this analysis, a leukocyte count of 6750/mm³ with a sensitivity of 80.2% and a specificity of 56.4%, and a count of 7550/mm³ with a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 74.6% indicated at least one diabetes complication.Conclusion: An elevated leukocyte count even within the normal range was associated with chronic complications in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: leukocytes, diabetes complications, inflammation

  20. Density-Gradient Mediated Band Extraction of Leukocytes from Whole Blood Using Centrifugo-Pneumatic Siphon Valving on Centrifugal Microfluidic Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sinéad M.; Kilcawley, Niamh A.; Early, Philip L.; Glynn, Macdara T.; Ducrée, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Here we present retrieval of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by density-gradient medium based centrifugation for subsequent analysis of the leukocytes on an integrated microfluidic “Lab-on-a-Disc” cartridge. Isolation of white blood cells constitutes a critical sample preparation step for many bioassays. Centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are particularly suited for blood processing as they function without need of surface treatment and are ‘low-pass’, i.e., holding at high centrifugation speeds and opening upon reduction of the spin rate. Both ‘hydrostatically’ and ‘hydrodynamically’ triggered centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valving schemes are presented. Firstly, the geometry of the pneumatic chamber of hydrostatically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves is optimised to enable smooth and uniform layering of blood on top of the density-gradient medium; this feature proves to be key for efficient Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. A theoretical analysis of hydrostatically primed valves is also presented which determines the optimum priming pressure for the individual valves. Next, ‘dual siphon’ configurations for both hydrostatically and hydrodynamically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are introduced; here plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells are extracted through a distinct siphon valve. This work represents a first step towards enabling on disc multi-parameter analysis. Finally, the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells extraction in these structures is characterised using a simplified design. A microfluidic mechanism, which we termed phase switching, is identified which affects the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. PMID:27167376

  1. Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Moura, R R; Brandão, L A C; Crovella, S

    2016-08-26

    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals. We also determined the effect of blood acquisition time by setting time intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h after the blood meal. STR loci and amelogenin were analyzed, and the results showed that human DNA profiles could be obtained from hematophagous mosquitos at 24 h following the blood meal. It is possible that hematophagous mosquitoes can be used as biological remains at the scene of the crime, and can be used to detect human DNA profiles of up to four individuals.

  2. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  3. Blood profile of ewes during third trimester of pregnancy and lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cell and leukocyte count of ewes in group A were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those in group B. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in the potassium, bicarbonate and urea concentrations between ewes in groups A and B. The glucose, sodium and ...

  4. Characterization and differentiation of equine experimental local and early systemic inflammation by expression responses of inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    , the aim of this study was to investigate the innate peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) immune response to local inflammation in horses, and to compare this response with the PBL immune response during the early phase of acute systemic inflammation. Expression of 22 selected inflammation-related genes......Local inflammation may progress into systemic inflammation. To increase our understanding of the basic immunological processes during transition of equine local inflammation into a systemic state, investigation into the equine systemic immune response to local inflammation is warranted. Therefore...... in horses initiated an innate transcriptional response in PBLs, which differed from the transcriptional response during the early phase of systemic inflammation. This study may provide new insights into the immunobiology of PBLs during the transition of local inflammation into a systemic state....

  5. Human recombinant antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 cloned from peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals with immunity to malaria demonstrate antiparasitic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Rasmus; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Jafarshad, Ali

    2006-01-01

    against MSP-3 residues 194 to 257 (MSP-3(194-257)) on the molecular level. mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes from clinically immune individuals was used as a source of Fab (fragment antibody) genes. A Fab-phage display library was made, and three distinct antibodies designated RAM1, RAM2, and RAM3...... were isolated by panning. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 full-length antibodies have been produced in CHO cells. Reactivity with the native parasite protein was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Furthermore, the antiparasitic effect of RAM1 has been...... tested in vitro in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. Both the IgG1 and the IgG3 versions of the antibody show an inhibitory effect on parasite growth....

  6. [Estimation of Time-Dependent microRNA Expression Patterns in Brain Tissue, Leukocytes, and Blood Plasma of Rats under Photochemically Induced Focal Cerebral Ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusar, V A; Timofeeva, A V; Zhanin, I S; Shram, S I; Pinelis, V G

    2017-01-01

    miRNA expression over different time periods (24 and 48 h) using the quantitative RT-PCR and deep sequencing has been evaluated in a model of photochemically induced thrombosis. A combination of two approaches allowed us to determine the miRNA expression patterns caused by ischemia. Nine miRNAs, including let-7f-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-21-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-30a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-23a-3p, miR-22-5p, and miR-99a-5p, were differentially expressed in brain tissue and leukocytes of rats 48 h after onset of ischemia. In addition, six miRNAs were differentially expressed in the brain tissue and blood plasma of rats 24 h after exposure, among which miR-145-3p and miR-375-3p were downregulated and miR-19a-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-188-5p, and miR-532-5p were upregulated. In our opinion, miR-188-5p and miR-532-5p may be considered to be new potential markers of ischemic injury. The level of miRNA expression tended to increase 48 h after the onset of ischemia in brain tissue and leukocytes, which reflects not only the local response in brain tissue due to inflammation, vascular endothelial dysfunction, and disorders of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, but also the systemic response of the organism to multifactor molecular processes induced by ischemic injury.

  7. EFFECT OF KIMCHI INTAKE ON LIPID PROFILES AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Kim, Hyun; Han, Ji-Sook; Han, Eung-Soo; Song, Yeong-Ok

    2012-01-01

    Kimchi is a Korean fermented vegetable and has recognized as a healthy food. Some interventional studies have reported an inverse association between kimchi intake and higher lipid levels in healthy and obese people. However, kimchi intake and hypertention were still uncertain. This study is carried out to investigate whether the serum lipid profiles and blood pressure would be influenced by the amount of kimchi intake. Design for the clinical study by controlling the meal consumption and phy...

  8. Leukocyte trafficking and vascular integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, N.

    2017-01-01

    The endothelial cells that pave the inner lining of blood vessels maintain a tight barrier between the vasculature and the underlying tissues. However, disruptive stressors, such as transmigrating leukocytes and inflammatory mediators challenge blood vessel integrity every day. In this thesis, we

  9. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  10. Blood-Based Gene Expression Profiles Models for Classification of Subsyndromal Symptomatic Depression and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunying; Yuan, Chengmei; Hong, Wu; Wang, Zuowei; Cui, Jian; Shi, Tieliu; Fang, Yiru

    2012-01-01

    Subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) is a subtype of subthreshold depressive and also lead to significant psychosocial functional impairment as same as major depressive disorder (MDD). Several studies have suggested that SSD is a transitory phenomena in the depression spectrum and is thus considered a subtype of depression. However, the pathophysioloy of depression remain largely obscure and studies on SSD are limited. The present study compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD, and matched controls (8 subjects in each group). Support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized for training and testing on candidate signature expression profiles from signature selection step. Firstly, we identified 63 differentially expressed SSD signatures in contrast to control (P< = 5.0E-4) and 30 differentially expressed MDD signatures in contrast to control, respectively. Then, 123 gene signatures were identified with significantly differential expression level between SSD and MDD. Secondly, in order to conduct priority selection for biomarkers for SSD and MDD together, we selected top gene signatures from each group of pair-wise comparison results, and merged the signatures together to generate better profiles used for clearly classify SSD and MDD sets in the same time. In details, we tried different combination of signatures from the three pair-wise compartmental results and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures with 100% accuracy. Our finding suggested that SSD and MDD did not exhibit the same expressed genome signature with peripheral blood leukocyte, and blood cell–derived RNA of these 48 gene models may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and classifying SSD, MDD, and healthy controls. PMID:22348066

  11. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  12. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Blood diagnostic biomarkers for major depressive disorder using multiplex DNA methylation profiles: discovery and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shusuke; Ishii, Kazuo; Tajima, Atsushi; Iga, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinya; Umehara, Hidehiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Okada, Satoshi; Boku, Shuken; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Shimodera, Shinji; Imoto, Issei; Morinobu, Shigeru; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been reported in several previous studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with MDD have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of these previous studies has been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions. The main aim of the present study is to identify DNA methylation markers that distinguish patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of peripheral leukocytes was conducted in two set of samples, a discovery set (20 medication-free patients with MDD and 19 controls) and a replication set (12 medication-free patients with MDD and 12 controls), using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Significant diagnostic differences in DNA methylation were observed at 363 CpG sites in the discovery set. All of these loci demonstrated lower DNA methylation in patients with MDD than in the controls, and most of them (85.7%) were located in the CGIs in the gene promoter regions. We were able to distinguish patients with MDD from the control subjects with high accuracy in the discriminant analysis using the top DNA methylation markers. We also validated these selected DNA methylation markers in the replication set. Our results indicate that multiplex DNA methylation markers may be useful for distinguishing patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls.

  11. mRNA profiling for the identification of blood-Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Cordula; Hanson, E; Bär, W

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative exercise on mRNA profiling for the identification of blood was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Seven blood samples and one blood dilution series were analyzed by the participating laboratories for the reportedly blood-specific markers HBB, SPTB and PBGD, usi...

  12. The type I interferon signature in leukocyte subsets from peripheral blood of patients with early arthritis: a major contribution by granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Tamarah D; Lübbers, Joyce; Turk, Samina; Vosslamber, Saskia; Mantel, Elise; Bontkes, Hetty J; van der Laken, Conny J; Bijlsma, Johannes W; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Verweij, Cornelis L

    2016-07-13

    The type I interferon (IFN) signature in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has shown clinical relevance in relation to disease onset and therapeutic response. Identification of the cell type(s) contributing to this IFN signature could provide insight into the signature's functional consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of peripheral leukocyte subsets to the IFN signature in early arthritis. Blood was collected from 26 patients with early arthritis and lysed directly or separated into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). PBMCs were sorted into CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells, and CD14(+) monocytes by flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression of three interferon response genes (IRGs RSAD2, IFI44L, and MX1) and type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) was determined in whole blood and blood cell subsets by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. IRG expression was averaged to calculate an IFN score for each sample. Patients were designated "IFN(high)" (n = 8) or "IFN(low)" (n = 18) on the basis of an IFN score cutoff in whole peripheral blood from healthy control subjects. The difference in IFN score between IFN(high) and IFN(low) patients was remarkably large for the PMN fraction (mean 25-fold) compared with the other subsets (mean 6- to 9-fold), indicating that PMNs are the main inducers of IRGs. Moreover, the relative contribution of the PMN fraction to the whole-blood IFN score was threefold higher than expected from its abundance in blood (p = 0.008), whereas it was three- to sixfold lower for the other subsets (p ≤ 0.063), implying that the PMNs are most sensitive to IFN signaling. Concordantly, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 were upregulated compared with healthy controls selectively in patient PMNs (p ≤ 0.0077) but not in PBMCs. PMNs are the main contributors to the whole-blood type I IFN signature in patients with early arthritis, which seems due to

  13. Intraoperative blood salvage during liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: efficiency of leukocyte depletion filters in the removal of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting-Bo; Li, Dong-Lin; Liang, Liang; Li, Jun-Jian; Bai, Xue-Li; Yu, Wei; Wang, Wei-Lin; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2008-03-27

    Intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) reduces homologous transfusion in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), but may carry with it the risk of reinfusing tumor cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The use of leukocyte depletion filters (LDFs) for the removal of tumor cells is rarely reported in clinical OLT. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of tumor cell contamination in surgical field during OLT for HCC recipients and to investigate the efficiency of additional LDFs for eliminating tumor cells from IBS. Thirty-two HCC patients with preoperatively elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) underwent OLT. The blood from the surgical field was collected and processed by an autotransfusion device (Cell Saver 5), followed by 2 consecutive LDF filtrations. The HCC cells in IBS samples and filtered samples were determined using a nested RT-PCR technique to detect the AFP mRNA. The shed blood samples from 20 (62.5%) of the 32 HCC patients were contaminated with HCC cells and 15 of them remained positive after Cell Saver processing. Patients within the Milan or UCSF criteria were less likely to have HCC cell contamination and the contaminated HCC cells were more likely to be removed by the Cell Saver in these patients as compared to other patients (P<0.01). After filtration through an additional LDF, most cases (13/15) became negative except for those with ruptured tumors (P<0.05). Our results suggest that blood filtration with the LDF can efficiently remove tumor cells and the use of an additional LDF after use of the Cell Saver could markedly reduce the risk of tumor cell reintroduction during the OLT in HCC recipients with nonruptured tumors.

  14. Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aidy, Waleed K; Ebeid, Ahmad A; Sallam, Abd El-Raouf M; Muhammad, Ibrahim E; Abbas, Ayman T; Kamal, M A; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2015-11-01

    Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells.

  15. Effects of combined exposure to thaliblastine and gamma rays on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in leukocytes from rat peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhidekova, V.; Marinova, Ts.

    1987-01-01

    The action of the alkaloid thaliblastine (a Bulgarian potential antitumor drug) upon macromolecule synthesis has been studied in vitro by treating rat peripheral leukocytes with the agent solely or combined with irradiation. The concentration tested were 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml blood, which are sublethal to the cells. A 137 Cs gamma source was used to deliver a single dose of 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy. For combined exposures, the blood was exposed to a 2 Gy dose and simultaneously treated with thaliblastine. The changes in macromolecule synthesis were judged by recording incorporation of labelled precursors relative to that in non-treated controls taken as 100%. With sole thaliblastine treatments, most markedly suppressed was protein synthesis. Radiation alone inhibited to the largest extent the synthesis of DNA. With combined treatments, DNA synthesis was again the most markedly affected of the three synthesis types; the inhibitory effect proved additive, with a tendency to potentiation in the case of higher thaliblastine concentrations. Suppression of protein synthesis was less pronounced that expected on a hypothetic additivity basis. The changes observed in macromolecule synthesis under sole or combined action of thaliblastine and gamma rays indicated the two types of cytostatics to differ in mechanisms of action. For radiation, the target was DNA, whereas for thaliblastine the cell division spindle appeared to be the most likely target. The evidence obtained with combined exposure pointed to the determining role of radiation as a factor interfering with macromolecule synthesis. (author)

  16. Blood gene expression profiling of an early acetaminophen response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushel, P R; Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2017-06-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4 g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing, and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 h. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure, and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration.

  17. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  18. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process.

  19. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Survivors Experiencing Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark-Hoyvik, Hege; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Reinertsen, Kristin V.; Edvardsen, Hege; Fossa, Sophie D.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend knowledge on the mechanisms and pathways involved in maintenance of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) by performing gene expression profiling of whole blood from breast cancer (BC) survivors with and without fibrosis 3-7 years after end of radiotherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles from blood were obtained for 254 BC survivors derived from a cohort of survivors, treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer 3-7 years earlier. Analyses of transcriptional differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with fibrosis (n = 31) and BC survivors without fibrosis (n = 223) were performed using R version 2.8.0 and tools from the Bioconductor project. Gene sets extracted through a literature search on fibrosis and breast cancer were subsequently used in gene set enrichment analysis. Results: Substantial differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with and without fibrosis were observed, and 87 differentially expressed genes were identified through linear analysis. Transforming growth factor-β1 signaling was identified as the most significant gene set, showing a down-regulation of most of the core genes, together with up-regulation of a transcriptional activator of the inhibitor of fibrinolysis, Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in the BC survivors with fibrosis. Conclusion: Transforming growth factor-β1 signaling was found down-regulated during the maintenance phase of fibrosis as opposed to the up-regulation reported during the early, initiating phase of fibrosis. Hence, once the fibrotic tissue has developed, the maintenance phase might rather involve a deregulation of fibrinolysis and altered degradation of extracellular matrix components.

  20. Leukocyte Composition and Immunophenotype of the Blood Lymphocytes in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ya.A. Saienko; K.P. Zak; V.V. Popova; T.A. Semionova

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is an opinion that changes in some indicators of natural and adaptive immunity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and overweight are caused by concomitant obesity, as the adipose tissue is the potent secretory organ that produces many cytokines, particularly adipokines playing a key role in various immune responses. It is known that the level of the main adipokines, which regulate the adipose tissue, in the human peripheral blood (PB) is determined on the basis o...

  1. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  2. Studying leukocyte recruitment under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Jurzinsky, Christophe; Cuvelier, Susan L; Patel, Kamala D

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from the vasculature occurs under conditions of haemodynamic shear stress. The parallel plate flow chamber apparatus is an in vitro system that is widely used to study leukocyte recruitment under shear conditions. The flow chamber is a versatile tool for examining adhesive interactions, as it can be used to study a variety of adhesive substrates, ranging from monolayers of primary cells to isolated adhesion molecules, and a variety of adhesive particles, ranging from leukocytes in whole blood to antibody-coated latex beads. We describe here methods for studying leukocyte recruitment to cytokine-stimulated, transfected or transduced endothelial cells using both whole blood and isolated leukocyte suspensions. These methods enable multiple parameters to be measured, including the total number of recruited leukocytes, the percentage of leukocytes that are rolling or firmly adherent, and the percentage of leukocytes that have transmigrated. Although these methods are described for interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, they are broadly applicable to the study of interactions between many combinations of adhesive substrates and adhesive particles.

  3. Antimutagenic Effect of Afobazole on Blood Leukocytes in Individuals with Reproductive Dysfunction under Conditions of Anthropogenic Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chshieva, F T

    2016-12-01

    Increased frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations was revealed in 48-h cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated North Ossetia residents with impaired reproductive function. After 2-week treatment with antimutagenic drug Afobazole, the percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations significantly decreased from 3.77±0.20 to 2.48±0.24% (p<0.001). Significant differences between chromosome damage levels before and after administration of the drug suggest that Afobazole could be recommended for protective purposes to this group of patients.

  4. Regeneration of blood-forming organs after autologous leukocyte transfusion in lethally irradiated dogs. II. Distribution and cellularity of the marrow in irradiated and transfused animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.; Huegl, E.; Bruch, C.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs were given transfusions of cryopreserved autologous mononuclear blood leukocytes after 1200 roentgens (R) (midline dose) whole-body x-irradiation. Bone marrow repopulation was studied by means of histomorphological methods at days 9 and 10 after transfusion of an average of 3 x 10 9 , 7 x 10 9 , 13 x 10 9 , and 31 x 10 9 cells. The return of marrow cellularity to normal values was related to the number of cells transfused. With low cell doses (3 x 10 9 and 7 x 10 9 ), the marrow regeneration at 10 days was focal. There were groups of cells (colonies) showing either erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, or megakaryocytopoiesis in the osteal niches of the trabecular bones. Frequently such niches were seen showing complete cellular recovery next to niches with complete aplasia. With higher cell doses, all niches showed hemopoietic regeneration, and the cellularity approached normal values. No hemopoietic regeneration was observed in those skeletal parts that do not show hemopoiesis, even under normal circumstances

  5. Early CD3+/CD15+ peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism patterns correlate with long-term engraftment in non-malignant hematopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterl, T G; Flesher, M; Shanley, R; Miller, W

    2014-04-01

    Following hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) for non-malignant disorders (NMDs) variable donor chimerism among lympho-hematopoietic lines may be observed. We retrospectively evaluated early post-HSCT, lineage-sorted (CD3+ and CD15+) peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism data to characterize patterns and assess for association with long-term CD15+ engraftment. 'Early' was defined as the first value obtained between days +14 and +42, 'late' as the last recorded value after day +90. 'High' donor chimerism was defined as 80% on either fraction at all time-points. Patients were classified into four subgroups with respect to early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns (high/low) then analyzed for long-term CD15+ chimerism status. A total of 135 transplants were evaluable, with all three time-points available in 97. Underlying disease, graft source, patient age and conditioning intensity varied. 'Split' early chimerism (discordant high/low CD3+/CD15+ status) was common. Multivariable analysis revealed strong association between conditioning regimen and primary disease on early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns and a dominant predictive effect of early CD15+ chimerism on long-term CD15+ donor engraftment (observed at median day +365). These data may guide real-time clinician decisions (restraint vs intervention, when available) when faced with unfavorable or unusual early lympho-hematopoietic chimerism patterns following HSCT for NMD.

  6. The effect of core and lanthanide ion dopants in sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals on phagocytic activity of human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Liskova, Aurelia; Kuricova, Miroslava [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia); Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Dusinska, Maria [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Health Effects Laboratory, Department of Environmental Chemistry (Norway); Horvathova, Mira; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia); Rollerova, Eva [Slovak Medical University, Faculty of Public Health, Department of Toxicology (Slovakia); Podhorodecki, Artur, E-mail: artur.p.podhorodecki@pwr.edu.pl [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Tulinska, Jana, E-mail: jana.tulinska@szu.sk [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Sodium fluoride-based β-NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with lanthanide ions are promising materials for application as luminescent markers in bio-imaging. In this work, the effect of NPs doped with yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), europium (Eu), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and terbium (Tb) ions on phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes and the respiratory burst was examined. The surface functionalization of <10-nm NPs was performed according to our variation of patent pending ligand exchange method that resulted in meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) molecules on their surface. Y-core-based NCs were doped with Eu ions, which enabled them to be excited with UV light wavelengths. Cultures of human peripheral blood (n = 8) were in vitro treated with five different concentrations of eight NPs for 24 h. In summary, neither type of nanoparticles is found toxic with respect to conducted test; however, some cause toxic effects (they have statistically significant deviations compared to reference) in some selected doses tested. Both core types of NPs (Y-core and Gd-core) impaired the phagocytic activity of monocytes the strongest, having minimal or none whatsoever influence on granulocytes and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The lowest toxicity was observed in Gd-core, Yb, Tm dopants and near-infrared nanoparticles. Clear dose-dependent effect of NPs on phagocytic activity of leukocytes and respiratory burst of cells was observed for limited number of samples.

  7. Pathogenic triad in bacterial meningitis: pathogen invasion, NF-κB activation and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-He eHuang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs: pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-B activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB, which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC. This review outlines the progression of these early inter-correlated events contributing to the central nervous system (CNS inflammation and injury during the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. A better understanding of these issues is not only imperative to elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial meningitis, but may also provide the in-depth insight into the development of novel therapeutic interventions against this disease.

  8. [Salt intake profile and blood pressure in cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano Martín, S H; Díaz Martín, J J; Perillán Méndez, C; Argüelles Luis, J; Vijande Vázquez, M; Málaga Guerrero, S

    2009-05-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is not considered a problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The loss of sodium in these patients may affect their sensitivity to the taste of salt. To study the BP in a group of patients with CF and to analyse their salt intake profile and the relationship with their BP levels. Cross-sectional analytical study with control group. Index group: 20 subjects, 4-30 years old with diagnosis of CF. 73 healthy subjects. Physical examination, BP measurement and specific tests to determine the salt ingestion profile. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) values were lower in the CF group. SBP: 99.63+/-9.11mmHg vs. 111.94+/-10.71mmHg, P: 0.001. DBP: 57.84+/-7.40mmHg vs. 70.05+/-8.11mmHg, P: 0.001. When these values were adjusted for age, sex, weight and height of the participants, differences did not remain statistically significant. Values of the salt intake profile did not differ significantly between the two groups. While the control group showed a significant negative correlation between SBP and salt taste sensitivity (r: -0.341, P=0.003), this correlation was not confirmed in CF patients (r: -0.115 P=0.6). BP values and the salt intake profile values in CF patients are equivalent to the normal population values when their differences are adjusted to the potential confounding factors. There is no correlation between BP levels and salt taste sensitivity in patients with CF.

  9. West Nile virus-induced cell adhesion molecules on human brain microvascular endothelial cells regulate leukocyte adhesion and modulate permeability of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Roe

    Full Text Available Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV causes blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE. Infection with WNV (NY99 strain significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1 did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101 strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.

  10. West Nile virus-induced cell adhesion molecules on human brain microvascular endothelial cells regulate leukocyte adhesion and modulate permeability of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kelsey; Orillo, Beverly; Verma, Saguna

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE). Infection with WNV (NY99 strain) significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1) did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101) strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.

  11. Blood pressure and lipid profiles in adolescents with hypertensive parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fitriany

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescent hypertension is a significant health problem of increasing prevalence and causes high morbidity and mortality. It is found primarily in young males, with a familial history of hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease. Examination of lipid profiles has been used to detect the risk of hypertension in adolescents. Objective To compare blood pressure and lipid profiles in adolescents with and without a parental history of hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2012 on students from a senior high school in the Toba Samosir District, North Sumatera. Sixty-eight adolescents were included, aged 15 to 18 years. Group I comprised 34 adolescents with hypertensive parents, and group II comprised 34 adolescents with normotensive parents. Subjects were selected based on questionnaires. Subjects’ blood pressures were measured at rest. Three measurements were made in intervals of 10-15 minutes, then averaged for both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Lipid profiles were measured using the CardioCheck cholesterol test after subjects had fasted for 12 hours. Results The median systolic blood pressures (SBP in groups I and II were 110 mmHg (range 93.3-123.3 and 106.7 mmHg (range 96.7-123.3, respectively, (P=0.584. The median diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 73.3 mmHg (range 66.7-83.3 and 71.7 mmHg (range 63.3-80.0, respectively, (P=0.953. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels in group I were significantly higher than those levels in group II [median total cholesterol: 162.0 (range 158-170 vs. 159.0 (range 150-170, respectively; (P=0.001; and mean LDL-C: 103.5 (SD 3.72 vs. 99.1 (SD 4.63, respectively; (P=0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed a correlation of moderate strength between parental history of hypertension and increased LDL-C (P<0.001 in adolescents. Conclusion Adolescents with and without familial history of hypertension have no

  12. Impact of blood collection and processing on peripheral blood gene expression profiling in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Linda; Fuhlbrigge, Rebecca; Atkinson, Mark A; Fathman, C Garrison

    2017-08-18

    The natural history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is challenging to investigate, especially as pre-diabetic individuals are difficult to identify. Numerous T1D consortia have been established to collect whole blood for gene expression analysis from individuals with or at risk to develop T1D. However, with no universally accepted protocol for their collection, differences in sample processing may lead to variances in the results. Here, we examined whether the choice of blood collection tube and RNA extraction kit leads to differences in the expression of genes that are changed during the progression of T1D, and if these differences could be minimized by measuring gene expression directly from the lysate of whole blood. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of 901 genes is highly influenced by sample processing using the PAXgene versus the Tempus system. These included a significant number of lymphocyte-specific genes and genes whose expression has been reported to differ in the peripheral blood of at-risk and T1D patients compared to controls. We showed that artificial changes in gene expression occur when control and T1D samples were processed differently. The sample processing-dependent differences in gene expression were largely due to loss of transcripts during the RNA extraction step using the PAXgene system. The majority of differences were not observed when gene expression was measured in whole blood lysates prepared from blood collected in PAXgene and Tempus tubes. We showed that the gene expression profile of samples processed using the Tempus system is more accurate than that of samples processed using the PAXgene system. Variation in sample processing can result in misleading changes in gene expression. However, these differences can be minimized by measuring gene expression directly in whole blood lysates.

  13. The expression of GPR109A, NF-kB and IL-1β in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengxiu; Fu, Yucai; Wei, Chiju; Chen, Yongru; Ma, Shuhua; Xu, Wencan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the association between the G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to discuss the regulation of inflammatory factors by GPR109A signaling. GPR109A signaling has been confirmed to be associated with homeostasis of glucose/lipid metabolism, but the role of signaling in T2DM is still poorly understood. Peripheral blood samples and biochemical data were collected from healthy individuals (normal controls) and T2DM patients. Immunocytochemical staining was used to detect the expression of GPR109A in PBLs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure mRNA levels of GPR109A, NF-κB, and IL-1β in PBLs. Immunocytochemical staining showed that the GPR109A protein is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. RT-PCR showed that mRNA levels of GPR109A, NF-κB, and IL-1β were higher in the T2DM group than in the control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation both between GPR109A/NF-κB (r=0.376, P<0.05), and GPR109A/IL-1β (r=501, P<0.05) and between GPR109A and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (r=0.179, P<0.05) and NF-κB /FPG (r=0.358, p<0.05). Our results suggest that GPR109A signaling is associated with T2DM, playing a role in regulation of the inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  14. [Response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte to nickel stimulation in patients with systemic and contact allergy to nickel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnobilska, Ewa; Thor, Piotr; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, Jolanta; Słodowska-Hajduk, Zofia; Stobiecki, Marcin; Dyga, Wojciech; Wsołek, Katarzyna; Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    2006-01-01

    Nickel is knows as the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis, as well as diffuse eczema, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. The mechanism of contact allergy to nickel is well known. In spite of numerous investigations, the mechanism of systemic allergy to nickel is still not clear. 22 patients with positive patch tests to nickel were analyzed. On basis of clinical symptoms the patients were divided into two groups: 1. with contact allergy dermatitis to nickel--8 patients 2. with systemic allergy to nickel (allergic rhinitis and/or diffuse eczema--14 patients. The control group included non-atopic patients with negative patch test to nickel--6 patients. 10 ml of blood were taken from each patient and peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC) were isolated. In PBMC culture, NiSO4 and PHA were stimulated. The control group was non-stimulated cells. The supernatants were collected after 3 and 6 days of culture and the levels of cytokines IL-5, 4 and IFNgamma were measured (ELISA). The concentration of IFNgamma in supernatants from stimulated as well as non-stimulated cells from patients with contact allergy to nickel was higher in comparison to the control group. The concentration of IL-5 in this group was low. There was an increase in the production of IFNgamma and IL-5 after NiSO4 stimulation in patients with systemic allergy to nickel. The higher concentration of IFNgamma in the same groups of patients investigated was in supernatants from the third day of PBMC culture were compared to the sixth day. After 3 and 6 days of culture, the concentration of IL-4 (ELISA) was below detection level in all supernatants analyzed. IFNgamma plays an essential role in the mechanism of developing of contact allergy to nickel; and IFNgamma as well as IL-5 play a role in the mechanism of developing systemic allergy to nickel. The third day of PBMC culture is more reliable for IFNgamma estimation.

  15. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum SOD and T-cell subsets distribution type after leukocyte-deduced red blood cell transfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengqin; Li Keqin; Xiang Hengquan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum SOD contents and T-cell subsets distribution type after leukocyte-deduced red blood cell transfusion in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum SOD levels was measured with RIA and T-cell subsets distribution type was detected with monoclonal antibody technic both before and after leukocyte-deduced red blood cell transfusion in 32 patients with lung cancer and 35 normal controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum levels of SOD and T-cell CIM/ CD8 value were significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum SOD level and T-cell subsets distribution type is clinically useful in the management of patients with lung cancer. (authors)

  16. Parasitological Profile of Perstans filariasis among Blood Donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Filariasis transmission occurs during blood transfusion which poses a serious menace to the recipient of the blood and reduces blood availability in ... harbor filarial worms in their blood and there is a tendency to infect the recipients through blood transfusion thereby spreading ..... a topic in tropical medicine Blood Transfus.

  17. Analysis of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Peptide Binding Profiles and the Identification of T cell Epitopes by Tetramer Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers

    ) class I molecules, which are highly polymorphic peptide receptors which select and present endogenously derived peptides to circulating CTLs. Peptides that are recognized by CTLs in the context of MHC are epitopes, and represent a small sample of the pathogen proteome, making it possible for the immune...... fingerprint” of an individual can be identified by defining MHC alleles. This is classically called “tissue typing” and is done by analyzing the reactivity of peripheral blood cells with sera unique to MHC alleles. Such knowledge is paramount to analysis of the immune response regarding MHC restriction...... within a species makes immune escape almost impossible for any intruding pathogen. Characterization of the SLA class I and class II gene products and their peptide binding capacity defines the T cell epitopes of any given pathogen proteome. To date the analysis of MHC peptide interactions, strength...

  18. Phenotyping of Leukocytes and Leukocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugholm, Lotte Hatting; Bæk, Rikke; Søndergaard, Evo Kristina Lindersson; Revenfeld, Anne Louise Schacht; Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Varming, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a demonstrated involvement in modulating the immune system. It has been proposed that EVs could be used as biomarkers for detection of inflammatory and immunological disorders. Consequently, it is of great interest to investigate EVs in more detail with focus on immunological markers. In this study, five major leukocyte subpopulations and the corresponding leukocyte-derived EVs were phenotyped with focus on selected immunological lineage-specific markers and selected vesicle-related markers. The leukocyte-derived EVs displayed phenotypic differences in the 34 markers investigated. The majority of the lineage-specific markers used for identification of the parent cell types could not be detected on EVs released from monocultures of the associated cell types. In contrast, the vesicular presentation of CD9, CD63, and CD81 correlated to the cell surface expression of these markers, however, with few exceptions. Furthermore, the cellular expression of CD9, CD63, and CD81 varied between leukocytes present in whole blood and cultured leukocytes. In summary, these data demonstrate that the cellular and vesicular presentation of selected lineage-specific and vesicle-related markers may differ, supporting the accumulating observations that sorting of molecular cargo into EVs is tightly controlled.

  19. Study of LAXS Profile of Hemoglobin from Irradiated Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.S.; Elshemey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were exposed to gamma rays, at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV-visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of 2 peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1st peak, recorded at 4.65O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 0.526 nm-1), is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 1.189 nm-1), appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  20. EFFECT OF KIMCHI INTAKE ON LIPID PROFILES AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kimchi is a Korean fermented vegetable and has recognized as a healthy food. Some interventional studies have reported an inverse association between kimchi intake and higher lipid levels in healthy and obese people. However, kimchi intake and hypertention were still uncertain. This study is carried out to investigate whether the serum lipid profiles and blood pressure would be influenced by the amount of kimchi intake. Design for the clinical study by controlling the meal consumption and physical activity of the subjects for 7 days was approved by IRB at P Hospital (No.2011075. For the study, 100 volunteers assigned into 2 groups, low (15 g/day, n=50 and high kimchi intake group (210 g/day, n=50, temporarily stayed together at the dormitory during the 7-day experimental period. Three meals with different amount of kimchi were provided and subjects were asked to maintain the normal physical activity as usual. Significant decrease in the concentration of fasting blood glucose, TG, total-C, and LDL-C for the both group was observed after 7 days of kimchi intake regardless of amount of kimchi intake. Only FBG suppression effect was significantly different (p<0.01. Furthermore, people with hypercholesterolemia (≤19 mg/dL showed greater improvements in total cholesterol levels in high kimchi intake group. One notable finding in this study was that urinary Na excretion for the high kimchi intake group was significantly increased (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions by kimchi intake. Higher intake of kimchi appears to be a modest beneficial effect to lipid lowering, without any effect on blood pressure in spite of increased sodium excretion. Long-term study should be clarified whether kimchi intake associated with hypertension.

  1. [Relationship between leukocyte count and risk of hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lu; Hao, Yongchen; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Fan; Xie, Wuxiang; Li, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Jiayi; Qin, Lanping; Zhao, Dong

    2015-04-01

    To observe the association between the leukocyte count and blood pressure value and hypertension risk in a Chinese community-based population. A total of 4 188 participants who took part in the baseline examination in 1992 and the follow-up survey in 2007 from the Chinese Multi-Provincial Cohort Study were included in this study. The relationship of leukocyte and blood pressure value and hypertension risk were evaluated by cross-sectional analyses.The prospective association between baseline leukocyte count and blood pressure changes and risk of hypertension were analyzed in 2 954 normotensive individuals at baseline examination.The associations between leukocyte count and blood pressure was evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation analyses and linear regression models,and the associations between leukocyte count and risk of hypertension was evaluated with logistic regression models. (1) The cross-sectional study results showed that the correlation coefficient of leukocyte count and systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was 0.208 and 0.154 (both P leukocyte count was associated with 1.41 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) systolic blood pressure increase (95% CI: 1.20-1.63 mmHg, P leukocyte count was associated with a 15% increased risk of hypertension (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.12-1.19, P leukocyte count and systolic blood pressure change and diastolic blood pressure change was 0.062 (P = 0.003) and 0.102 (P leukocyte count was associated with 1.03 mmHg systolic blood pressure increase (95% CI: 0.74-1.32 mmHg, P leukocyte count was associated with a 9% increased risk of incident hypertension (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.13, P leukocyte count is associated with increased blood pressure value and hypertension among Chinese community-based population, suggesting that inflammation may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  2. Blood Leukocyte Concentrations, FEV1Decline, and Airflow Limitation. A 15-Year Longitudinal Study of World Trade Center-exposed Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Singh, Ankura; Aldrich, Thomas K; Hall, Charles B; Schwartz, Theresa; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Hillel W; Kelly, Kerry J; Nolan, Anna; Prezant, David J; Weiden, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Rescue/recovery work at the World Trade Center disaster site (WTC) caused a proximate decline in lung function in Fire Department of the City of New York firefighters. A subset of this cohort experienced an accelerated rate of lung function decline over 15 years of post-September 11, 2001 (9/11) follow-up. To determine if early postexposure blood leukocyte concentrations are biomarkers for subsequent FEV 1 decline and incident airflow limitation. Individual rates of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) change were calculated for 9,434 firefighters using 88,709 spirometric measurements taken between September 11, 2001, and September 10, 2016. We categorized FEV 1 change rates into three trajectories: accelerated FEV 1 decline (FEV 1 loss >64 ml/yr), expected FEV 1 decline (FEV 1 loss between 0 and 64 ml/yr), and improved FEV 1 (positive rate of change >0 ml/yr). Occurrence of FEV 1 /FVC less than 0.70 after 9/11 defined incident airflow limitation. Using regression models, we assessed associations of post-9/11 blood eosinophil and neutrophil concentrations with subsequent FEV 1 decline and airflow limitation, adjusted for age, race, smoking, height, WTC exposure level, weight change, and baseline lung function. Accelerated FEV 1 decline occurred in 12.7% of participants (1,199 of 9,434), whereas post-9/11 FEV 1 improvement occurred in 8.3% (780 of 9,434). Higher blood eosinophil and neutrophil concentrations were each associated with accelerated FEV 1 decline after adjustment for covariates (odds ratio [OR], 1.10 per 100 eosinophils/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.15; and OR, 1.10 per 1,000 neutrophils/μl; 95% CI, 1.05-1.15, respectively). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models showed that a higher blood neutrophil concentration was associated with a faster rate of FEV 1 decline (1.14 ml/yr decline per 1,000 neutrophils/μl; 95% CI, 0.69-1.60 ml/yr; P < 0.001). Higher blood eosinophil concentrations were associated with a faster rate

  3. Hyperreactivity of Blood Leukocytes in Patients with NAFLD to Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Is Modulated by Metformin and Phosphatidylcholine but Not by Alpha Ketoglutarate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zwolak

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 and proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We investigated IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα production and toll-like receptor 4 in both--obese and lean patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who met different sets of metabolic syndrome criteria and linked the results with the disease burden.95 subjects were divided into four groups depending on the following criteria: presence or absence of metabolic syndrome and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, glucose tolerance (prediabetes or normoglycemia and BMI value (obese or lean. We determined the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression in fresh blood as well as in blood cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide with or without metformin, alphaketoglutarate or phosphatidylcholine supplementation.The blood leukocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide treatment and produce elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to ex vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, they overexpress toll-like receptor-4. Hyperreactivity was typical mainly for obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease together with metabolic syndrome and decreased with the severity of disease. Metformin was the most effective in attenuation of hyperreactivity in all groups of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but in obese patients the effectiveness of metformin was weaker than in lean. The reduction of cytokine level by metformin was accompanied by the decrease in toll-like receptor-4 expression. phosphatidylcholine also attenuated hyperreactivity to lipopolysaccharide but mainly in obese patients. Alpha ketoglutarate did not modulate cytokines' level and toll-like receptor 4 expression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.Metformin and phosphatidylcholine attenuated lipopolysaccharide induced toll

  4. Profile of Blood Transfusion Requests from Hospitals to Bandung Blood Transfusion Unit, Indonesian Red Cross in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahla Nisaa Amalia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion as a part health services should be provided under appropriate indications and in a safe manner. In Indonesia, blood collection is run by the Blood Transfusion Unit of Indonesian Red Cross, where the blood is screened, processed into blood components, and finally distributed to hospitals. The purpose of this study was to describe the profile of blood transfusion requests from hospitals that do not have blood bank facility to the Bandung Blood Transfusion Unit, Indonesian Red Cross. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out using secondary data from Bandung Blood Transfusion Unit Indonesian Red Cross (UTD PMI Bandung. All blood request forms from hospitals during 2011 were collected and analyzed. Variables in this study were the amount of blood units, blood components, blood type, and indications of blood transfusion. Results: The number of blood units requested by hospitals were 35,841 units. The most blood units requested was in August 2011. The blood component requested was the packed red cell (61.1%, whole blood (17.4%, thrombocyte concentrate (10.6%, and fresh frozen plasma (7%. The total percentage of O, A, B and AB blood types were 36.1%, 28.6%, 27.5%, and 7.9% respectively. The most frequent indication for transfusion was anemia (61.7%, followed by surgery and other causes of bleeding. Conclusions: The total blood units requested by hospitals vary each month. The most blood component requested is Packed Red Cell and the type of blood is O blood type. The most frequent indication is anemia.

  5. Diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin levels in children with meningitis: a comparison with blood leukocyte count and C-reactive protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, K.A.; Wahab, A.A.A.; Ibrahim, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the level of serum procalcitonin, blood leukocyte count (TLC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children with bacterial and non bacterial meningitis and document their efficacy in differential diagnosis. Also described are procalcitonin levels variation during treatment. Methods: From March 2005 to February 2008, we evaluated 38 clinically suspected meningitis patients in the paediatric departments, Al-Jedaany Hospital, Jeddah, KSA, for Serum procalcitonin, CRP, TLC and Lumbar punctures and CSF analysis. Patients were classified into bacterial meningitis group I (18) and non bacterial meningitis group II (20). Results: Serum PCT levels were significantly higher in bacterial meningitis (BM) 9 mean 4.8 +- 3.85 ng/ml (2.9-11.6)) compared with non bacterial meningitis (NBM) (mean 0.38 +- 0.25 ng/ml(0.31-0.61)) P< 0.001). Mean of all CSF parameters, TLC (15,000 +- 2,900 cell/ml(BM) and 9,500 +-1,105 cell/ml(NBM))and CRP (20 +- 6.8 mg/l (BM) and 12.5 +-12.0 mg/l(NBM))showed a zone of overlapping between the two groups. There is a positive correlation between serum PCT, TLC and CRP in bacterial and non bacterial meningitis cases but this relation becomes highly significant with bacterial meningitis positive group. Day 3 and day 6 treatment serum PCT was less than on admission levels (P<0.001). Conclusion: PCT can be used in the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and may be a useful adjunct in differentiating bacterial and non bacterial meningitis than CRP or TLC and diminishing the value of lumbar puncture performed 48-72 hours after admission to assess treatment efficacy. (author)

  6. Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood and whole blood cell cultures associated with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Sørensen, Lars Korsbaek; Stoltze, Kaj

    2005-01-01

    Cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. An obvious question is whether patients with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis share blood cytokine profiles distinguishing them from individuals free of disease....

  7. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  8. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003584.htm Leukocyte esterase urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for ...

  9. Parasitological profile of perstans filariasis among blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at Ile – Ife, in Osun State Southwest Nigeria between March and September, 2009 with a view to determine the prevalence of blood filariasis among blood donors. The blood samples of 250 blood donors were parasitologically examined directly with wet preparation, while the thick and thin films ...

  10. The human blood DNA methylome displays a highly distinctive profile compared with other somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Slodkowicz, Greg; Goldman, Nick; Rakyan, Vardhman K

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, DNA methylation profiles vary substantially between tissues. Recent genome-scale studies report that blood displays a highly distinctive methylomic profile from other somatic tissues. In this study, we sought to understand why blood DNA methylation state is so different to the one found in other tissues. We found that whole blood contains approximately twice as many tissue-specific differentially methylated positions (tDMPs) than any other somatic tissue examined. Furthermore, a large subset of blood tDMPs showed much lower levels of methylation than tDMPs for other tissues. Surprisingly, these regions of low methylation in blood show no difference regarding genomic location, genomic content, evolutionary rates, or histone marks when compared to other tDMPs. Our results reveal why blood displays a distinctive methylation profile relative to other somatic tissues. In the future, it will be important to study how these blood specific tDMPs are mechanistically involved in blood-specific functions.

  11. [Profile of RNA cytokines in blood plasma under conditions of normal physiological state of human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchaninova, M A; Rebrikov, D V

    2009-01-01

    The level of representation of extracellular RNA 14 cytokines in blood plasma in a group of apparently healthy subjects was analyzed. The level of representation of the transcripts of these cytokines in extracellular medium is characterized by specific profile different from the profile of expression of the genes in blood cells.

  12. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Flow cytometers have a constant flow rate. This enables flow cytometers to measure leukocyte concentrations in a determined volume by acquiring data at a fixed rate over a fixed time and is called constant volume acquisition (CVA). The volume aspirated by a FACS Calibur flow cytometer in 4 min...... at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (pconcentrations

  13. Metabolic profiling of umbilical cord blood in macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Wang, Y; Wang, C; Xu, X; Wang, Y; Yan, H; Yang, X

    2017-11-21

    The term macrosomia is used to describe neonates with a birth weight of 4000 g or more. Macrosomia is a potential risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndromes in postnatal and adult life, yet little is known about its associations with metabolic difference in the early-age. We performed metabolic profiling of umbilical cord blood to discover differential metabolites of macrosomia. We conducted a case-control study of full-term singletons with normal maternal glucose tolerance [50 cases (macrosomia, birth weight ⩾4000 g); 50 controls (normal weight, birth weight 2500-3999 g)]. Metabolites in umbilical cord blood were detected using an untargeted metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We performed logistic regression to evaluate the associations between metabolites and macrosomia. We also performed pathway analysis based on KEGG and MBRole. Compared with controls, the macrosomia cases had a greater male proportion, gestational age, paternal BMI, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Forty-two metabolites differed between the cases and controls. After multivariable adjustment, 2-methylfumarate [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.232, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.102-1.376], uracil (AOR=38.494, 95% CI: 5.635-262.951), elaidic acid (AOR=0.834, 95% CI: 0.761-0.915), ribose (AOR=0.089, 95% CI: 0.021-0.378), lactulose (AOR=0.815, 95% CI: 0.743-0.894), and 4-aminobutyric acid (AOR=0.835, 95% CI: 0.764-0.912) remained significantly associated with macrosomia. Pyrimidine metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were the two top-ranking pathways enriched with those metabolites (-log P-value=3.49 and 2.47, respectively). Levels of 2-methylfumarate, uracil, ribose, elaidic acid, lactulose, and 4-aminobutyric acid were associated with the incidence of macrosomia. The alteration of pathways involving those factors might be linked with the incidence of macrosomia and relevant metabolic syndromes later in life, and further studies are

  14. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding

    2010-11-12

    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  15. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Stolle, C. (Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Pope, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology flow cytometric reference method of determining the differential leukocyte count: external quality assurance using fresh blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Y; Nagai, Y; Ogawa, E; Kondo, H

    2017-04-01

    To provide target values for the manufacturers' survey of the Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology (JSLH), accurate standard data from healthy volunteers were needed for the five-part differential leukocyte count. To obtain such data, JSLH required an antibody panel that achieved high specificity (particularly for mononuclear cells) using simple gating procedures. We developed a flow cytometric method for determining the differential leukocyte count (JSLH-Diff) and validated it by comparison with the flow cytometric differential leukocyte count of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH-Diff) and the manual differential count obtained by microscopy (Manual-Diff). First, the reference laboratory performed an imprecision study of JSLH-Diff and ICSH-Diff, as well as performing comparison among JSLH-Diff, Manual-Diff, and ICSH-Diff. Then two reference laboratories and seven participating laboratories performed imprecision and accuracy studies of JSLH-Diff, Manual-Diff, and ICSH-Diff. Simultaneously, six manufacturers' laboratories provided their own representative values by using automated hematology analyzers. The precision of both JSLH-Diff and ICSH-Diff methods was adequate. Comparison by the reference laboratory showed that all correlation coefficients, slopes and intercepts obtained by the JSLH-Diff, ICSH-Diff, and Manual-Diff methods conformed to the criteria. When the imprecision and accuracy of JSLH-Diff were assessed at seven laboratories, the CV% for lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils was 0.5~0.9%, 0.3~0.7%, 1.7~2.6%, 3.0~7.9%, and 3.8~10.4%, respectively. More than 99% of CD45 positive leukocytes were identified as normal leukocytes by JSLH-Diff. When JSLH-Diff method were validated by comparison with Manual-Diff and ICSH-Diff, JSLH-Diff showed good performance as a reference method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cross-sectional study of the relationship of peripheral blood cell profiles with severity of infection by adenovirus type 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wei; Nie, Wei-Min; Xu, Wen; Xie, Yang-Xin; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Peng; Qin, En-Qiang; Zhang, Yun-Hui; Zhang, Xiu; Li, Wen-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Ping; Lv, Ji-Yun; Zhao, Min

    2014-03-19

    The immunologic profiles of patients with human adenovirus serotype 55 (HAdV-55) infections were characterized in subjects diagnosed with silent infections (n = 30), minor infections (n = 27), severe infections (n = 34), and healthy controls (n = 30) during a recent outbreak among Chinese military trainees. Blood was sampled at the disease peak and four weeks later, and samples were analyzed to measure changes in leukocyte and platelet profiles in patients with different severities of disease. Differential lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profiles were measured by flow cytometry and Luminex xMAP®, and serum antibodies were analyzed by ELISA and immunofluorescence staining. Patients with severe HAdV infections had higher proportions of neutrophils and reduced levels of lymphocytes (p < 0.005 for both). Patients with minor and severe infections had significantly lower platelet counts (p < 0.005 for both) than those with silent infections. The silent and minor infection groups had higher levels of dendritic cells than the severe infection group. Relative to patients with silent infections, patients with severe infections had significantly higher levels of IL-17+CD4+ cells, decreased levels of IL-17+CD8+ cells, and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-α2 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Patients with different severities of disease due to HAdV-55 infection had significantly different immune responses. These data provide an initial step toward the identification of patients at risk for more severe disease and the development of treatments against HAdV-55 infection.

  18. Cord blood angiogenic profile in normotensive pregnancies | Simmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study comprised of twenty five normotensive pregnant women immediately after delivery Study samples were drawn (maternal venous blood and umbilical cord blood) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and endoglin levels were analyzed by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Heme oxygenase-1 levels ...

  19. The effect of core and lanthanide ion dopants in sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals on phagocytic activity of human blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Liskova, Aurelia; Kuricova, Miroslava; Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Horvathova, Mira; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela; Rollerova, Eva; Podhorodecki, Artur; Tulinska, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Sodium fluoride-based β-NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with lanthanide ions are promising materials for application as luminescent markers in bio-imaging. In this work, the effect of NPs doped with yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), europium (Eu), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and terbium (Tb) ions on phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes and the respiratory burst was examined. The surface functionalization of leukocytes and respiratory burst of cells was observed for limited number of samples.

  20. microRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  1. Gene expression profiling of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  2. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2015-11-11

    dose ... hypoglycemic effect in rats, no negative effect was observed on lipid profile. KEY WORDS: Tartrazine E102; glucose; haematological; cholesterol; triacylglycerol ... sulfanilic acid and aminopyrazolone. The pyrazolone ...

  3. Interesterified fat or palm oil as substitutes for partially hydrogenated fat during the perinatal period produces changes in the brain fatty acids profile and increases leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral microcirculation from the male offspring in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Vanessa; Estato, Vanessa; de Velasco, Patricia Coelho; Spreafico, Flavia Brasil; Magri, Tatiana; Dos Santos, Raísa Magno de Araújo Ramos; Fragoso, Thaiza; Souza, Amanda S; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Bonomo, Isabela T; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Oyama, Lila M; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2015-08-07

    We investigated whether maternal intake of normolipidic diets with distinct fatty acid (FA) compositions alters the lipidic profile and influences the inflammatory status of the adult offsprings׳ brains. C57BL/6 female mice during pregnancy and lactation received diets containing either soybean oil (CG), partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), or interesterified fat (IG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received control diet. The FA profile was measured in the offspring׳s brains at post-natal days 21 and 90. Brain functional capillary density as well as leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral post-capillary venules was assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy at post-natal day 90. Inflammation signaling was evaluated through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) content in brain of the adult offspring. In the 21-day old offspring, the brains of the TG showed higher levels of trans FA and reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). At post-natal day 90, TG and IG groups showed reduced levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 PUFA tended to be lower compared to CG. The offspring׳s brains exhibited an altered microcirculation with increased leukocyte rolling in groups TG, PG and IG and in TG group increased leukocyte adhesion. The TLR4 content of TG, IG and PG groups only tended to increase (23%; 20% and 35%, respectively). Maternal consumption of trans FA, palm oil or interesterified fat during pregnancy and lactation can trigger the initial steps of inflammatory pathways in the brain of offspring in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood-Based Bioenergetic Profiling Reflects Differences in Brain Bioenergetics and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, Daniel J.; Bharadwaj, Manish S.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Register, Thomas C.; Shively, Carol; Andrews, Rachel N.; Neth, Bryan; Dirk Keene, C.; Mintz, Akiva; Craft, Suzanne; Molina, Anthony J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Blood-based bioenergetic profiling provides a minimally invasive assessment of mitochondrial health shown to be related to key features of aging. Previous studies show that blood cells recapitulate mitochondrial alterations in the central nervous system under pathological conditions, including the development of Alzheimer's disease. In this study of nonhuman primates, we focus on mitochondrial function and bioenergetic capacity assessed by the respirometric profiling of monocytes, platelets, ...

  5. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  6. Stimulated Gene Expression Profiles as a Blood Marker of Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Sabine; Van Zanten, Jeroen S.; De Jong, Simone; Penninx, Brenda; van Dyck, Richard; Zitman, Frans G.; Smit, Jan H.; Ylstra, Bauke; Smit, August B.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a moderately heritable disorder with a high lifetime prevalence. At present, laboratory blood tests to support MDD diagnosis are not available. Methods: We used a classifier approach on blood gene expression profiles of a unique set of unmedicated

  7. Haematological indices and blood lipid profile of rats administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trona, a geological mineral is often used as a natural food additive in many parts of Africa. This work was done to evaluate trona for elemental content and ascertain its effect on body weight changes; lipid profile and haematological indices as part of safety assessment. Consequently twenty-four rats were divided into four ...

  8. Sex Comparison of White Fulani Cattle Blood Profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (AOVA). The results show that white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in females (17.23±1.08) than in males (12.25±0.77). Mean Corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) also showed sex differences with females having higher ...

  9. Influence of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on histology, blood profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples for hematology and serum biochemistry were collected, analyzed and recorded. Data collected on different parameters were subjected to Analysis of Variance. Results showed that no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed on all the internal organs and on the hematological parameters. There were ...

  10. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  11. Blood pressure profile in Nigerian children | Hamidu | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To observe blood pressure (BP) pattern and its correlates in primary school children of northern Nigeria. Design: Sitting BP and pulse were measured in quadruplicate, then repeated after four weeks in 1,721 healthy children aged five to 16 years. Body weight and height were also measured in their school ...

  12. [Serological Profiles of Hepatitis-B HBcAb-Positive Blood donors ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Durán, Mauricio; Berrío-Pérez, Maritza; Bermúdez-Forero, María I; Cortés-Buelvas, Armando D; Molina-Guevara, Gloria C; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo A; Forero-Matiz, Sonia P

    2014-01-01

    To assess the serological profiles for HBV in blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg in four Colombian cities. A prospective transversal study was conducted during 17 months, applying a complete serological profile for HBV in samples from blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg, results were analyzed employing descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel and Epiinfo V. 3.5.1. From donors reactive to anti-HBc, 75.0 % shown some additional infection marker for HBV. 1.3 % of blood donors had serological markers for chronical infection with hepatitis B, and a case had reactivity only for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). 6.1 % of donors showed a vaccination serological profile, only with reactivity to anti-HBsAg antibodies. With this study, anti-HBc blood screening importance was confirmed.

  13. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3...

  14. Sequence Instability in the Proviral Long Terminal Repeat and gag Regions from Peripheral Blood and Tissue-Derived Leukocytes of FIV-Infected Cats during the Late Asymptomatic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D. Eckstrand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection results in viral persistence, a prolonged asymptomatic phase, and progressive immunopathology. During the asymptomatic phase, a cohort of experimentally FIV-infected cats exhibits features of viral latency in blood suggestive of inactive viral replication. We sought to investigate viral replication activity and genomic stability of the FIV proviral long terminal repeat (LTR and the 5′ aspect of gag over time. FIV-infected cats during the asymptomatic phase demonstrated undetectable plasma FIV gag RNA transcripts and intermittent to undetectable blood-derived cell-associated FIV gag RNA. The LTR sequence demonstrated instability in blood-derived cells over time, in spite of low to undetectable viral replication. Sequence variation in the LTR was identified in CD4+ and CD21+ leukocytes from blood and surgically removed lymph nodes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the LTR were commonly identified. Promoter functionality of a common LTR SNP and rare U3 mutation were examined by reporter gene assays and demonstrated either no change or increased basal FIV promoter function, respectively. In conclusion, this cohort of asymptomatic FIV-infected cats demonstrated instability of the LTR and 5’ gag sequences during the study period, in spite of undetectable plasma and rare to undetectable viral gag RNA, which suggests that blood may not accurately represent viral activity in asymptomatic FIV-infected cats.

  15. Recent insights into endothelial control of leukocyte extravasation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    In the process of leukocyte migration from the circulation across the vascular wall, the crosstalk with endothelial cells that line the blood vessels is essential. It is now firmly established that in endothelial cells important signaling events are initiated upon leukocyte adhesion that impinge on

  16. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures.

  17. Evaluating the Stability of RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiles and Drug-Induced Immune-Related Expression Changes in Whole Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bowyer

    Full Text Available Methods were developed to evaluate the stability of rat whole blood expression obtained from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and assess changes in whole blood transcriptome profiles in experiments replicated over time. Expression was measured in globin-depleted RNA extracted from the whole blood of Sprague-Dawley rats, given either saline (control or neurotoxic doses of amphetamine (AMPH. The experiment was repeated four times (paired control and AMPH groups over a 2-year span. The transcriptome of the control and AMPH-treated groups was evaluated on: 1 transcript levels for ribosomal protein subunits; 2 relative expression of immune-related genes; 3 stability of the control transcriptome over 2 years; and 4 stability of the effects of AMPH on immune-related genes over 2 years. All, except one, of the 70 genes that encode the 80s ribosome had levels that ranked in the top 5% of all mean expression levels. Deviations in sequencing performance led to significant changes in the ribosomal transcripts. The overall expression profile of immune-related genes and genes specific to monocytes, T-cells or B-cells were well represented and consistent within treatment groups. There were no differences between the levels of ribosomal transcripts in time-matched control and AMPH groups but significant differences in the expression of immune-related genes between control and AMPH groups. AMPH significantly increased expression of some genes related to monocytes but down-regulated those specific to T-cells. These changes were partially due to changes in the two types of leukocytes present in blood, which indicate an activation of the innate immune system by AMPH. Thus, the stability of RNA-seq whole blood transcriptome can be verified by assessing ribosomal protein subunits and immune-related gene expression. Such stability enables the pooling of samples from replicate experiments to carry out differential expression analysis with acceptable power.

  18. Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

  19. RAGE controls leukocyte adhesion in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Kirsten; Tschada, Raphaela; Metzger, Marie-Sophie; Braach, Natascha; Kuss, Navina; Hudalla, Hannes; Poeschl, Johannes; Frommhold, David

    2014-11-27

    Insufficient leukocyte recruitment may be one reason for the high incidence of life-threatening infections in preterm infants. Since the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a known leukocyte adhesion molecule and highly expressed during early development, we asked whether RAGE plays a role for leukocyte recruitment in preterm and term infants. Leukocyte adhesion was analyzed in dynamic flow chamber experiments using isolated leukocytes of cord blood from extremely premature (35 weeks of gestation) and compared to the results of adults. For fluorescent microscopy leukocytes were labeled with rhodamine 6G. In the respective age groups we also measured the plasma concentration of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) by ELISA and Mac-1 and LFA-1 expression on neutrophils by flow cytometry. The adhesive functions of fetal leukocytes significantly increase with gestational age. In all age groups, leukocyte adhesion was crucially dependent on RAGE. In particular, RAGE was equally effective to mediate leukocyte adhesion when compared to ICAM-1. The plasma levels of sRAGE were high in extremely premature infants and decreased with increasing gestational age. In contrast, expression of β2-Integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 which are known ligands for RAGE and ICAM-1 did not change during fetal development. We conclude that RAGE is a crucial leukocyte adhesion molecule in both preterm and term infants.

  20. Leukocyte transendothelial migration: A local affair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Lilian; Heemskerk, Niels; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens. It serves as a protective response that involves leukocytes, blood vessels and molecular mediators with the purpose to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and to initiate tissue repair. Inflammation is tightly regulated by the body and is associated with transient crossing of leukocytes through the blood vessel wall, a process called transendothelial migration (TEM) or diapedesis. TEM is a close collaboration between leukocytes on one hand and the endothelium on the other. Limiting vascular leakage during TEM but also when the leukocyte has crossed the endothelium is essential for maintaining vascular homeostasis. Although many details have been uncovered during the recent years, the molecular mechanisms from the vascular part that drive TEM still shows significant gaps in our understanding. This review will focus on the local signals that are induced in the endothelium that regulate leukocyte TEM and simultaneous preservation of endothelial barrier function. PMID:27715453

  1. Efficiency and safety of leukocyte filtration during cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JJJ; de Vries, AJ; Gu, YJ; van Oeveren, W

    Background. Leukocyte filtration of systemic blood during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to reduce post-operative morbidity has not yet been established because of the enormous leukocyte release from the third space. This study was designed to examine the efficiency and safety of leukocyte

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  14. Phylogeny and resistance profiles of HIV-1 POL sequences from rectal biopsies and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Petersen, A B; Storgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    The phylogeny and resistance profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were compared among six patients with HIV-1 who had received numerous treatments. RNA and DNA fractions were obtained from concurrent blood and rectal biopsy...... will not be representative of the HIV-1 archived in different sites. Both the resistance profile and phylogeny of HIV-1 often differed in sequences obtained from RNA and DNA from the same site. These findings suggest that additional information regarding the antiviral resistance profile of the patient might be obtained...... samples. Phylogenetic trees and resistance profiles showed that the rectal mucosa and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harbored different HIV-1 strains. The resistance-associated mutations found in each strain corresponded to the treatment history of the patients. The resistance mutations...

  15. A practical platform for blood biomarker study by using global gene expression profiling of peripheral whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Tian

    Full Text Available Although microarray technology has become the most common method for studying global gene expression, a plethora of technical factors across the experiment contribute to the variable of genome gene expression profiling using peripheral whole blood. A practical platform needs to be established in order to obtain reliable and reproducible data to meet clinical requirements for biomarker study.We applied peripheral whole blood samples with globin reduction and performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis using Illumina BeadChips. Real-time PCR was subsequently used to evaluate the quality of array data and elucidate the mode in which hemoglobin interferes in gene expression profiling. We demonstrated that, when applied in the context of standard microarray processing procedures, globin reduction results in a consistent and significant increase in the quality of beadarray data. When compared to their pre-globin reduction counterparts, post-globin reduction samples show improved detection statistics, lowered variance and increased sensitivity. More importantly, gender gene separation is remarkably clearer in post-globin reduction samples than in pre-globin reduction samples. Our study suggests that the poor data obtained from pre-globin reduction samples is the result of the high concentration of hemoglobin derived from red blood cells either interfering with target mRNA binding or giving the pseudo binding background signal.We therefore recommend the combination of performing globin mRNA reduction in peripheral whole blood samples and hybridizing on Illumina BeadChips as the practical approach for biomarker study.

  16. Differential gene expression profiling in blood from patients with digestive system cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masao; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Sakai, Akito; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Tatsumi, Isamu; Miyazaki, Yoshitaka; Tanno, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2010-09-10

    To develop a non-invasive and sensitive diagnostic test for cancer using peripheral blood, we evaluated gene expression profiling of blood obtained from patients with cancer of the digestive system and normal subjects. The expression profiles of blood-derived total RNA obtained from 39 cancer patients (11 colon cancer, 14 gastric cancer, and 14 pancreatic cancer) was clearly different from those obtained from 15 normal subjects. By comparing the gene expression profiles of cancer patients and normal subjects, 25 cancer-differentiating genes (p3) were identified and an "expression index" deduced from the expression values of these genes differentiated the validation cohort (11 colon cancer, 8 gastric cancer, 18 pancreatic cancer, and 15 normal subjects) into cancer patients and normal subjects with 100% (37/37) and 87% (13/15) accuracy, respectively. Although, the expression profiles were not clearly different between the cancer patients, some characteristic genes were identified according to the stage and species of the cancer. Interestingly, many immune-related genes such as antigen presenting, cell cycle accelerating, and apoptosis- and stress-inducing genes were up-regulated in cancer patients, reflecting the active turnover of immune regulatory cells in cancer patients. These results showed the potential relevance of peripheral blood gene expression profiling for the development of new diagnostic examination tools for cancer patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A pilot investigation of visceral fat adiposity and gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Masaya; Maeda, Norikazu; Nakamura, Seiji; Kashine, Susumu; Nakagawa, Yasuhiko; Hiuge-Shimizu, Aki; Okita, Kohei; Imagawa, Akihisa; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Matsubara, Ken-ichi; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that visceral fat accumulation plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Excess visceral fat causes local chronic low-grade inflammation and dysregulation of adipocytokines, which contribute in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. These changes may affect the gene expression in peripheral blood cells. This study for the first time examined the association between visceral fat adiposity and gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells. The gene expression profile was analyzed in peripheral blood cells from 28 obese subjects by microarray analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using peripheral blood cells from 57 obese subjects. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m(2) according to the Japanese criteria, and the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA) was measured by abdominal bioelectrical impedance. Analysis of gene expression profile was carried out with Agilent whole human genome 4 × 44 K oligo-DNA microarray. The expression of several genes related to circadian rhythm, inflammation, and oxidative stress correlated significantly with visceral fat accumulation. Period homolog 1 (PER1) mRNA level in blood cells correlated negatively with visceral fat adiposity. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified eVFA as a significant determinant of PER1 expression. In conclusion, visceral fat adiposity correlated with the expression of genes related to circadian rhythm and inflammation in peripheral blood cells.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of whole blood cells identifies PLEK2 and C1QB in human melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Luo

    Full Text Available Developing analytical methodologies to identify biomarkers in easily accessible body fluids is highly valuable for the early diagnosis and management of cancer patients. Peripheral whole blood is a "nucleic acid-rich" and "inflammatory cell-rich" information reservoir and represents systemic processes altered by the presence of cancer cells.We conducted transcriptome profiling of whole blood cells from melanoma patients. To overcome challenges associated with blood-based transcriptome analysis, we used a PAXgene™ tube and NuGEN Ovation™ globin reduction system. The combined use of these systems in microarray resulted in the identification of 78 unique genes differentially expressed in the blood of melanoma patients. Of these, 68 genes were further analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR using blood samples from 45 newly diagnosed melanoma patients (stage I to IV and 50 healthy control individuals. Thirty-nine genes were verified to be differentially expressed in blood samples from melanoma patients. A stepwise logit analysis selected eighteen 2-gene signatures that distinguish melanoma from healthy controls. Of these, a 2-gene signature consisting of PLEK2 and C1QB led to the best result that correctly classified 93.3% melanoma patients and 90% healthy controls. Both genes were upregulated in blood samples of melanoma patients from all stages. Further analysis using blood fractionation showed that CD45(- and CD45(+ populations were responsible for the altered expression levels of PLEK2 and C1QB, respectively.The current study provides the first analysis of whole blood-based transcriptome biomarkers for malignant melanoma. The expression of PLEK2, the strongest gene to classify melanoma patients, in CD45(- subsets illustrates the importance of analyzing whole blood cells for biomarker studies. The study suggests that transcriptome profiling of blood cells could be used for both early detection of melanoma and monitoring of patients

  19. Recovery and assessment of leukocytes from LR Express filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Abby K; Roufs, Ellen K; Hewitt, Cory R; Killian, Marisela L; Gorbatenko, Oxana; Anderson, Cynthia M; Killian, M Scott

    2017-09-01

    Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are used for a variety of investigational purposes and they offer advantages over laboratory-adapted cell lines. Leukocytes that are typically discarded by blood banks during the collection of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma can often be obtained for research use. However, the available leukocytes are frequently contained within a blood filtration device, such as the Terumo LR Express (TLRE) filter. In this study, procedures were evaluated for the ability to elute viable leukocytes from TLRE filters. The recovered leukocytes were assessed for composition, growth, and functionality. The large majority (>70%) of leukocytes were eluted with a single reverse-elution procedure and the recovered cells contained representative populations of the major leukocyte subsets. Purified T cells exhibited diverse T cell receptor repertoires, characteristic growth upon mitogen stimulation, and CD4 + T cells were able to support HIV-1 propagation. Purified monocytes were able to be differentiated into phenotypically characteristic populations of macrophages and dendritic cells. Overall, TLRE filters offer an attractive source of primary human cells for research and possibly clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrophoretic detection of protein p53 in human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paponov, V.D.; Kupsik, E.G.; Shcheglova, E.G.; Yarullin, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found an acid-soluble protein with mol. wt. of about 53 kD in peripheral blood leukocytes of persons with Down's syndrome. It was present in different quantities in all 20 patients tested, but was virtually not discovered in 12 healthy blood donors. This paper determines the possible identity of this protein with protein p53 from mouse ascites carcinoma by comparing their electrophoretic mobilities, because the accuracy of electrophoretic determination of the molecular weight of proteins is not sufficient to identify them. The paper also describes experiments to detect a protein with electrophoretic mobility identical with that of a protein in the leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome in leukocytes of patients with leukemia. To discover if protein p53 is involved in cell proliferation, the protein composition of leukocytes from healthy blood donors, cultured in the presence and absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was compared. Increased incorporation of H 3-thymidine by leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome is explained by the presence of a population of immature leukocytes actively synthesizing DNA in the peripheral blood of these patients, and this can also explain the presence of protein p53 in the leukocytes of these patients

  1. Imaging Leukocyte Responses in the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterbusch, Michaela; Kitching, A Richard; Hickey, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The kidney can be negatively affected by a range of innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in alterations in the functions of the kidney and, in some cases, progression to renal failure. In many of these responses, infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes into the kidney is central to the response. In addition, a large population of mononuclear phagocytes resident in the kidney can modulate these responses. A great deal of research has investigated both the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to the kidney and the actions of immune cells resident within the kidney. Because of the dynamic nature of the processes whereby leukocytes enter sites of inflammation, in vivo imaging has been one of the key approaches used for understanding leukocyte recruitment as it occurs throughout the body, and this is also true for kidney. However, imaging this organ and its complicated microvasculature during different forms of renal pathology presents a unique set of challenges. In this review, we examine the approaches used for intravital imaging of the kidney and summarize the insights gained from these studies regarding the mechanisms of leukocyte entry into the kidney during inflammation and the actions of immune cells within this organ.

  2. Blood profile and organ2.O-somatic indices of albino rats exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects Used Engine Oil (UEO) otherwise known as mineral-based crankcase oil on blood profile and organo-somatic indices of albino rats were studied. Twenty four male albino rats divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 rats each were used. Rats in three groups (A, B and C) received graded dose levels of UEO ...

  3. miRNA Expression Profiles in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Nygaard, Ann-Britt; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    in the cell-free fractions of CSF and blood were analyzed by a microarray technique (miRCURY LNA™ microRNA Array, Exiqon A/S, Denmark) using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) platform containing 378 miRNA primers. In total, 183 different miRNAs were detected in the CSF, of which two miRNAs (let-7c and miR-221-3p......The aims of the study were (1) to determine whether miRNAs (microRNAs) can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with ischemic stroke and (2) to compare these miRNA profiles with corresponding profiles from other neurological patients to address whether the mi......RNA profiles of CSF or blood have potential usefulness as diagnostic biomarkers of ischemic stroke. CSF from patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 10) and patients with other neurological diseases (n = 10) was collected by lumbar puncture. Blood samples were taken immediately after. Expression profiles...

  4. Cognitive profiles and regional cerebral blood flow patterns in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Bruhn, P; Schmidt, E

    1994-01-01

    Individual cognitive profiles and correlations between cognitive functions and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were analyzed in 20 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). CBF was measured with high resolution single photon emission computed...

  5. Pengimbuhan Vitamin-E dalam Ransum Kaya Asam Lemak Tidak Jenuh Terhadap Profil Darah Induk Domba Laktasi§ (VITAMIN-E SUPPLEMENTATION ON RICH POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACID RATION TO BLOOD PROFILE OF LACTATION EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilla Mareistia Fassah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is a source of rich poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA mainly Linoleic acid. PUFA on theewes ration was very useful due to its function as the precursors of prostaglandin. It plays an importantrole in the health and reproduction regulation. Early lactation was the critical period where the bodymetabolism is on an increasing stage. However, high level of PUFA on ewe’s lactation ration was also verysusceptible to induce lipid peroxidation which can cause health problems in the affected animals. Thesupplementation of vitamin E as antioxidant is needed to prevent the PUFA from oxidation damage. Theaim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation in the rich PUFA diet on theblood profile of lactating ewes. Fifteen ewes on lactation period were used in completely randomizednested design. The level of vitamin E supplementation was 30 IU, 60 IU and 90 IU then the blood profileevaluation was carried out on 28 and 56 days of lactation. The measured variables were haemoglobin,packed cell volume (PCV, erythrocytes, leukocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The number of erythrocytesof ewes was 5.53-9.85 x 106/mm3, the MCV value was 32.19-46.20 fl and the MCH value was 10.91-17.27pg on day-28. The results showed that Vitamin E supplementation has significant effect on the number oferythrocytes (p<0,05, and the high significant effect on MCV as well as MCH values(P<0.01 of lactationewes blood. The Vitamin E supplementation until 90 IU was able to maintain the ewe’s blood profile onthe lactation periods.

  6. Phylogeny and resistance profiles of HIV-1 POL sequences from rectal biopsies and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Petersen, A B; Storgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    The phylogeny and resistance profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were compared among six patients with HIV-1 who had received numerous treatments. RNA and DNA fractions were obtained from concurrent blood and rectal biopsy...... samples. Phylogenetic trees and resistance profiles showed that the rectal mucosa and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harbored different HIV-1 strains. The resistance-associated mutations found in each strain corresponded to the treatment history of the patients. The resistance mutations...... acquired during earlier treatment regimens were detected in the sequences obtained from the rectal samples and in the PBMCs in several of the patients. Also, differences in the resistance profiles were observed between anatomical sites and between RNA and DNA fractions. Thus, a single sample probably...

  7. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Keustermans

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children.13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed.Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI. The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also

  8. Quality standards in Biobanking: authentication by genetic profiling of blood spots from donor's original sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sergio; Valverde, Laura; Odriozola, Adrian; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2010-07-01

    The field of Biobanking requires extensive work to maintain traceability of samples. However, sometimes the necessity to authenticate a sample may arise. To address these circumstances, we herein present a method for authenticating derivatives by using a blood spot from each donor, attached to a sample authentication form, by means of genetic profiling. Blood spots are collected at the time a blood sample is donated at a health centre and before processing the blood sample at the biobank. To test the validity of our approach over time, we analyzed 26 blood spots stored at room temperature in our facilities for more than 15 years. DNA was successfully extracted from the three storage materials tested in this study and 15 STR markers plus amelogenin were subsequently analyzed. The storage of a small blood spot attached to a sample authentication form proved to be efficient for genetic profiling and, therefore, may constitute a long-lasting (at least 15 years), cost-effective and effortless approach for genetic authentication of samples in biobanks.

  9. Optimal deconvolution of transcriptional profiling data using quadratic programming with application to complex clinical blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Hartmann, Nicole; Kohane, Isaac S; Brinkmann, Volker; Staedtler, Frank; Letzkus, Martin; Bongiovanni, Sandrine; Szustakowski, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale molecular profiling technologies have assisted the identification of disease biomarkers and facilitated the basic understanding of cellular processes. However, samples collected from human subjects in clinical trials possess a level of complexity, arising from multiple cell types, that can obfuscate the analysis of data derived from them. Failure to identify, quantify, and incorporate sources of heterogeneity into an analysis can have widespread and detrimental effects on subsequent statistical studies.We describe an approach that builds upon a linear latent variable model, in which expression levels from mixed cell populations are modeled as the weighted average of expression from different cell types. We solve these equations using quadratic programming, which efficiently identifies the globally optimal solution while preserving non-negativity of the fraction of the cells. We applied our method to various existing platforms to estimate proportions of different pure cell or tissue types and gene expression profilings of distinct phenotypes, with a focus on complex samples collected in clinical trials. We tested our methods on several well controlled benchmark data sets with known mixing fractions of pure cell or tissue types and mRNA expression profiling data from samples collected in a clinical trial. Accurate agreement between predicted and actual mixing fractions was observed. In addition, our method was able to predict mixing fractions for more than ten species of circulating cells and to provide accurate estimates for relatively rare cell types (<10% total population). Furthermore, accurate changes in leukocyte trafficking associated with Fingolomid (FTY720) treatment were identified that were consistent with previous results generated by both cell counts and flow cytometry. These data suggest that our method can solve one of the open questions regarding the analysis of complex transcriptional data: namely, how to identify the optimal mixing

  10. Gene expression profiling in whole blood identifies distinct biological pathways associated with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorman Shelby A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and represents a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Methods To explore the relationship between increased body mass and gene expression in blood, we conducted whole-genome expression profiling of whole blood from seventeen obese and seventeen well matched lean subjects. Gene expression data was analyzed at the individual gene and pathway level and a preliminary assessment of the predictive value of blood gene expression profiles in obesity was carried out. Results Principal components analysis of whole-blood gene expression data from obese and lean subjects led to efficient separation of the two cohorts. Pathway analysis by gene-set enrichment demonstrated increased transcript levels for genes belonging to the "ribosome", "apoptosis" and "oxidative phosphorylation" pathways in the obese cohort, consistent with an altered metabolic state including increased protein synthesis, enhanced cell death from proinflammatory or lipotoxic stimuli, and increased energy demands. A subset of pathway-specific genes acted as efficient predictors of obese or lean class membership when used in Naive Bayes or logistic regression based classifiers. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the whole blood transcriptome in obesity and demonstrates that the investigation of gene expression profiles from whole blood can inform and illustrate the biological processes related to regulation of body mass. Additionally, the ability of pathway-related gene expression to predict class membership suggests the feasibility of a similar approach for identifying clinically useful blood-based predictors of weight loss success following dietary or surgical interventions.

  11. Profil Hematologi dan Status Metabolit Darah Domba Garut yang Diberi Pakan Limbah Tauge pada Pagi atau Sore Hari (BLOOD HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AND METABOLITE STATUS OF GARUT LAMB FED DIETS MUNG BEAN SPROUT WASTE IN THE MORNING OR EVENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet containing mung bean sprout waste (MBSW and feeding times on the hematological profiles and metabolite status of garut lambs. Experimental design used in this study was a factorial randomized block design with two factors of diet and two feeding times. Two factors of diets were 60% concentrate 1+40% natural grass and 60% concentrate 2+40% MBSW. Feeding times were in the morning (6:00-7:00 am or the evening (5:00-6:00 pm. The animals were reared in individual cages and fed with 5% DM/kg body weight/day. The hematological profiles of the goat were examined and analyzed with Anova. The results showed the treatment of rations significant effect on blood glucose, whereas feeding time very significant to glucose, erythrocytes and hemoglobin, and the interaction of both treatments significantly affect hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose level. Meanwhile,leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils/lymphocyte ratio (N/L, urea-N, and blood cholesterol were not affected by the treatments and their interactions. But overall the number of erythrocytes 8.72-12.78x106/mm3, hemoglobin 7.6-10.02 g/dL, leukocytes 8.94-12.27x103/mm3, neutrophils 33.00-52.20%, lymphocytes 38.80-52.40%, N/L 0.78-1.66, glucose 41.94-54.24 mg/dL, urea-N 29.91-35.87 mg/dL, and blood cholesterol 24.57-30.28 mg/dL. These results suggest that diets containing 40% MBSW together with a morning or an evening feeding time did not cause disturbances in haematological profile and blood metabolite status of garut lamb. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi efek ransum mengandung hijauan limbah tauge dan waktu pemberian yang berbeda terhadap profil hematologi dan status metabolit darah domba garut. Materi penelitian berupa 20 ekor domba garut berumur 6-7 bulan (bobot badan 15,42 ± 2,42 kg dipelihara selama tiga bulan dan dikandangkan secara individu serta diberi pakan sebanyak 5% bahan kering/kg berat badan

  12. Gene expression profiles are different in venous and capillary blood: Implications for vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D F; O'Connor, D; Blohmke, C J; Sadarangani, M; Pollard, A J

    2016-10-17

    Detailed analysis of the immunological pathways leading to robust vaccine responses has become possible with the application of systems biology, including transcriptomic analysis. Venous blood is usually obtained for such studies but others have obtained capillary blood (e.g. finger-prick). Capillary samples are practically advantageous, especially in children. The aim of this study was to compare gene expression profiles in venous and capillary blood before, 12h and 24h after vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide or trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines. Gene expression at baseline was markedly different between venous and capillary samples, with 4940 genes differentially expressed, and followed a different pattern of changes after vaccination. At baseline, multiple pathways were upregulated in venous compared to capillary blood, including transforming growth factor-beta receptor signalling and toll-like receptor cascades. After vaccination with the influenza vaccine, there was enrichment for T and NK cell related signatures in capillary blood, and monocyte signatures in venous blood. By contrast, after vaccination with the pneumococcal vaccination, there was enrichment of dendritic cells, monocytes and interferon related signatures in capillary blood, whilst at 24h there was enrichment for T and NK cell related signatures in venous blood. These data show differences between venous and capillary gene expression both at baseline, and post vaccination, which may impact on the conclusions regarding immunological mechanisms drawn from studies using these different sampling methodologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endothelial signaling in leukocyte transmigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration is a multistep process coordinated by chemokine receptors, integrins and cell adhesion molecules. The interaction between leukocytes and endothelial cells is accompanied by bidirectional signaling in both cell types, which is initiated following formation of

  14. RNA Expression Profiles from Blood for the Diagnosis of Stroke and its Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Frank R; Jickling, Glen C; Stamova, Boryana; Tian, Yingfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Ander, Bradley P; Cox, Christopher; Kuczynski, Beth; Liu, DaZhi

    2013-01-01

    A blood test to detect stroke and its causes would be particularly useful in babies, young children, and patients in intensive care units, and for emergencies when imaging is difficult to obtain or unavailable. Using whole genome microarrays, we first showed specific gene expression profiles in rats 24 hours after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, hypoxia, and hypoglycemia. These proof-of-principle studies revealed that groups of genes (called gene profiles) can distinguish ischemic stroke patients from controls 3 hours to 24 hours after the strokes. In addition, gene expression profiles have been developed that distinguish stroke due to large-vessel atherosclerosis from cardioembolic stroke. These profiles will be useful for predicting the causes of cryptogenic stroke. Our results in adults suggest similar diagnostic tools could be developed for children. PMID:21636778

  15. Blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles characterize the oxidant, hemolytic, and inflammatory stress of sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jison, Maria L.; Munson, Peter J.; Barb, Jennifer J.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Talwar, Shefali; Logun, Carolea; Raghavachari, Nalini; Beigel, John H.; Shelhamer, James H.; Danner, Robert L.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    In sickle cell disease, deoxygenation of intra-erythrocytic hemoglobin S leads to hemoglobin polymerization, erythrocyte rigidity, hemolysis, and microvascular occlusion. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, plasma hemoglobin-mediated nitric oxide consumption, and free radical generation activate systemic inflammatory responses. To characterize the role of circulating leukocytes in sickle cell pathogenesis we performed global transcriptional analysis of blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients in steady-state sickle cell disease (10 patients treated and 17 patients untreated with hydroxyurea) compared with 13 control subjects. We used gender-specific gene expression to validate human microarray experiments. Patients with sickle cell disease demonstrated differential gene expression of 112 genes involved in heme metabolism, cell-cycle regulation, antioxidant and stress responses, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Inducible heme oxygenase-1 and downstream proteins biliverdin reductase and p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase, were up-regulated, potentially contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and absence of atherosclerosis in patients with sickle cell disease despite endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Hydroxyurea therapy did not significantly affect leukocyte gene expression, suggesting that such therapy has limited direct anti-inflammatory activity beyond leukoreduction. Global transcriptional analysis of circulating leukocytes highlights the intense oxidant and inflammatory nature of steady-state sickle cell disease and provides insight into the broad compensatory responses to vascular injury. PMID:15031206

  16. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  17. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets and age-matched uninfected controls. The key observation in the present study is that high levels of CD8+ cells constitute a dominant feature in peripheral blood and BALF of piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. In BALF...

  18. Luminex® xMAP® technology is an effective strategy for high-definition human leukocyte antigen typing of cord blood units prior to listing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarene, Marco; Badulli, Carla; Cremaschi, Anna L; Sbarsi, Ilaria; Cacciatore, Rosalia; Tinelli, Carmine; Pasi, Annamaria; Bergamaschi, Paola; Perotti, Cesare G

    2018-03-01

    Allele-level donor-recipient match at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1 loci impacts the outcome after cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancies and modifies the strategy of donor selection. High definition of both class I and II HLA loci at time of listing is a way to improve the attractiveness of cord blood bank inventories, reducing the time for donor search and procurement and simplifying donor choice, in particular, for patients of non-European heritage. In 2014, Luminex ® xMAP ® technology was introduced in our laboratory practice and was applied to cord blood units typing. In this study, we evaluated the impact of this strategy in comparison with the platform in use until 2013, relying on LiPA reverse polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (revPCR-SSO) plus polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP). In 2014, the time for testing was shorter (141 vs 181 days on average), the number of test repetitions was lower (in particular for HLA-A locus, p = 0.026), and the cost reduced (240.7 vs 395.6 euros per unit on average) compared to 2013, demonstrating that Luminex xMAP technology is superior to the previous approach. Luminex xMAP platform has useful application in cord blood banking programs, to achieve high-definition HLA typing of cord blood units at the time of banking in a quick, accurate, and cost-effective manner.

  19. Influence of 1-phenoxy-2-propanol on blood profile of common carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-phenoxy-2-propanol is a common and effective anaesthetic for aquatic organisms such as bivalves and pulmonates. However, there are no data regarding its influence on fish organisms. In the present study the anaesthetic efficacy of 1-phenoxy-2-propanol and its influence on biochemical and haematological blood indices of juvenile common carp were studied. For blood profile test, fish were divided into four groups (n = 10. The haematological and blood biochemical profiles of common carp were evaluated 10 min and 24 h after anaesthesia with 1-phenoxy-2-propanol (400 mg·dm-3 and compared to non-anaesthetized control groups. Significant changes (P < 0.05 in red blood cell indices and in white blood cell count were found as well. Increased concentrations of glucose, ammonia and inorganic phosphates indicate that stress reaction occurred. No changes in total protein, globulin, triacylglycerols, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and calcium were found. Although exposure to 1-phenoxy-2-propanol caused a moderate, temporary stress response in examined fish, we can state that 1-phenoxy-2-propanol can be used as an effective anaesthetic for common carp.

  20. Numerical study of a centrifugal blood pump with different impeller profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guoliang; Chua, Leok Poh; Lim, Tau Meng

    2010-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations of the Kyoto-NTN magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with 16 forward-bending blades (16FB), 16 straight blades (16SB), and eight backward-bending blades (8BB) impellers were performed in this study. Commercial CFD software package FLUENT were used as the solver. The purpose of this study is to find out how the impeller blade profiles affect the inner flow and the performance of the centrifugal blood pump. The simulations were carried out with the same impeller rotating speed of 2,000 rpm and pump flow rate of 5 L/min to compare the three pump models. It was found that the 16SB impeller can produce higher pressure head than the 16FB and 8BB impellers under the same impeller rotating speed and pump flow rate. The flow particle tracing was carried out to estimate the blood damage level caused by the three different impeller profiles. It was found that the 16FB and 8BB models have caused the highest and lowest blood damage, respectively. The 16SB is recommended among the three pumps because it can generate the highest pressure head and induce mild blood damage index, although it was higher than that of the 8BB model.

  1. Red blood cell trans-18:1 isomeric profile correlates with subcutaneous fat and muscle profiles in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldai, Noelia; Dugan, Michael E R; Rolland, David C; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2012-06-01

    Due to significant variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products in beef it would be useful to determine if levels of trans-18:1 isomers in samples collected ante-mortem are correlated with those collected post-mortem. Beef blood (RBC), subcutaneous fat (SC) and muscle (intramuscular fat; IM) samples were collected from an experiment with dietary vitamin E with/without flaxseed (n=80) and fatty acids analyzed. Across treatments, correlation analysis of total and individual trans-18:1 isomers were performed between tissues. Correlations between SC and IM were highly significant for all individual and total trans-18:1. RBC trans-18:1 were also well correlated with other tissues except for vaccenic acid. Levels of 10t-, 12t- and 13t/14t- were amongst the best correlated between RBC and SC and IM profiles. Levels of 6t/7t/8t-, 9t-, and 15t-18:1 showed significant but lower correlation factors particularly between RBC and SC. These results confirm the possibility of utilizing blood as a non-destructive sample to predict the total and isomeric profile of trans-18:1 in beef. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicating ex vivo in blood from HIV- and HIV+ subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Ryndak

    Full Text Available Hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb occurs during both primary and reactivated tuberculosis (TB. Although hematogenous dissemination occurs in non-HIV TB patients, in ∼80% of these patients, TB manifests exclusively as pulmonary disease. In contrast, extrapulmonary, disseminated, and/or miliary TB is seen in 60-70% of HIV-infected TB patients, suggesting that hematogenous dissemination is likely more common in HIV+ patients. To understand M. tb adaptation to the blood environment during bacteremia, we have studied the transcriptome of M. tb replicating in human whole blood. To investigate if M. tb discriminates between the hematogenous environments of immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals, we compared the M. tb transcriptional profiles during replication in blood from HIV- and HIV+ donors. Our results demonstrate that M. tb survives and replicates in blood from both HIV- and HIV+ donors and enhances its virulence/pathogenic potential in the hematogenous environment. The M. tb blood-specific transcriptome reflects suppression of dormancy, induction of cell-wall remodeling, alteration in mode of iron acquisition, potential evasion of immune surveillance, and enhanced expression of important virulence factors that drive active M. tb infection and dissemination. These changes are accentuated during bacterial replication in blood from HIV+ patients. Furthermore, the expression of ESAT-6, which participates in dissemination of M. tb from the lungs, is upregulated in M. tb growing in blood, especially during growth in blood from HIV+ patients. Preliminary experiments also demonstrate that ESAT-6 promotes HIV replication in U1 cells. These studies provide evidence, for the first time, that during bacteremia, M. tb can adapt to the blood environment by modifying its transcriptome in a manner indicative of an enhanced-virulence phenotype that favors active infection. Additionally, transcriptional modifications in

  3. Leukocyte adhesion and polarization: Role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Dion D; Fernandez-Borja, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte traffic out of the blood stream is crucial for an adequate immune response. Leukocyte extravasation is critically dependent on the binding of leukocyte integrins to their endothelial counterreceptors. This interaction enables the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the luminal side of the vascular wall and allows for leukocyte polarization, crawling and diapedesis. Leukocyte adhesion, polarization and migration requires the orchestrated regulation of integrin adhesion/de-adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Adhesion strength depends on conformational changes of integrin molecules (affinity) as well as the number of integrin molecules engaged at adhesion sites (valency). These two processes can be independently regulated and several molecules modulate either one or both processes. Cholesterol-rich membrane domains (lipid rafts) participate in integrin regulation and play an important role in leukocyte adhesion, polarization and motility. In particular, lipid raft-resident glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) have been reported to regulate leukocyte adhesion, polarization and motility in both integrin-dependent and independent manners. Here, we present our recent discovery concerning the novel role of the GPI-AP prion protein (PrP) in the regulation of β1 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, migration and shape polarization in the context of existing literature on GPI-AP-dependent regulation of integrins.

  4. Computerized detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Ya; Wang, Xiangzhou; Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Detection of leukocytes is critical for the routine leukorrhea exam, which is widely used in gynecological examinations. An elevated vaginal leukocyte count in women with bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of vaginal or cervical infections. In the routine leukorrhea exam, the counting of leukocytes is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the viewing and counting of leukocytes from multiple high-power viewing fields on a glass slide under a microscope leads to subjectivity, low efficiency, and low accuracy. To date, many biological cells in stool, blood, and breast cancer have been studied to realize computerized detection; however, the detection of leukocytes in microscopic leukorrhea images has not been studied. Thus, there is an increasing need for computerized detection of leukocytes. There are two key processes in the computerized detection of leukocytes in digital image processing. One is segmentation; the other is intelligent classification. In this paper, we propose a combined ensemble to detect leukocytes in the microscopic leukorrhea image. After image segmentation and selecting likely leukocyte subimages, we obtain the leukocyte candidates. Then, for intelligent classification, we adopt two methods: feature extraction and classification by a support vector machine (SVM); applying a modified convolutional neural network (CNN) to the larger subimages. If different methods classify a candidate in the same category, the process is finished. If not, the outputs of the methods are provided to a classifier to further classify the candidate. After acquiring leukocyte candidates, we attempted three methods to perform classification. The first approach using features and SVM achieved 88% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and 92.5% accuracy. The second method using CNN achieved 95% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and 89.5% accuracy. Then, in the combination approach, we achieved 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and 93.5% accuracy. Finally, the images

  5. Effect of probiotics on lipid profiles and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Han, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of probiotics on blood lipid and blood pressure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on the randomized controlled studies. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database were searched by the index words to identify the qualified randomized control trial. The latest research was done in the January 2017. Mean difference (MD) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to analyze the included outcomes. Results: Ten trials were included at last with 297 patients in the treatment group and 294 patients in the control group. Probiotics significantly decreased the value of total cholesterol (SMD −0.57, 95% CI −0.92 to 0.21), triglyceride (SMD −0.66, 95% CI −0.93 to 0.39), low-density lipoprotein (SMD −0.40, 95% CI −0.79 to 0.01), systolic blood pressure (WMD −5.04, 95% CI −8.8 to 1.20), diastolic blood pressure (SMD −0.39, 95% CI −0.62 to 0.17), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (SMD 3.54, 95% CI 1.94–5.15) compared with the placebo treatment. Apart from this, probiotics could significantly improve the value of high-density lipoprotein (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.03–0.73). Conclusion: Probiotics may decrease the indexes of lipid profile, blood pressure, and FBG in patients with T2DM; application of probiotics might be a new method for lipid profiles and blood pressure management in T2DM. PMID:29390450

  6. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3.......04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid (r = 0.34, P dose. The observed effects of fish oil are in accordance with findings in adults. The long-term health implications......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...

  7. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  8. Peripheral blood DNA methylation profiles are indicative of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Scott M.; Koestler, Devin C; Christensen, Brock C; Butler, Rondi A; Wiencke, John K; Nelson, Heather H; Houseman, E Andres; Marsit, Carmen J

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck cancer accounts for an estimated 47,560 new cases and 11,480 deaths annually in the United States, the majority of which are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). The overall 5 year survival is approximately 60% and declines with increasing stage at diagnosis, indicating a need for non-invasive tests that facilitate the detection of early disease. DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic modification that is amenable to measurement and readily available in peripheral blood. We used a semi-supervised recursively partitioned mixture model (SS-RPMM) approach to identify novel blood DNA methylation markers of HNSCC using genome-wide methylation array data for peripheral blood samples from 92 HNSCC cases and 92 cancer-free control subjects. To assess the performance of the resultant markers, we constructed receiver operating characteristic (RJC) curves and calculated the corresponding area under the curve (AUC). Cases and controls were best differentiated by a methylation profile of six CpG loci (associated with FGD4, SERPINF1, WDR39, IL27, HYAL2 and PLEKHA6), with an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.62–0.82). After adjustment for subject age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption and HPV16 serostatus, the AUC increased to 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76–0.92). We have identified a novel blood-based methylation profile that is indicative of HNSCC with a high degree of accuracy. This profile demonstrates the potential of DNA methylation measured in blood for development of non-invasive applications for detection of head and neck cancer. PMID:22430805

  9. Blood-Based Bioenergetic Profiling Reflects Differences in Brain Bioenergetics and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Tyrrell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-based bioenergetic profiling provides a minimally invasive assessment of mitochondrial health shown to be related to key features of aging. Previous studies show that blood cells recapitulate mitochondrial alterations in the central nervous system under pathological conditions, including the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study of nonhuman primates, we focus on mitochondrial function and bioenergetic capacity assessed by the respirometric profiling of monocytes, platelets, and frontal cortex mitochondria. Our data indicate that differences in the maximal respiratory capacity of brain mitochondria are reflected by CD14+ monocyte maximal respiratory capacity and platelet and monocyte bioenergetic health index. A subset of nonhuman primates also underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET imaging to assess brain glucose metabolism. Our results indicate that platelet respiratory capacity positively correlates to measures of glucose metabolism in multiple brain regions. Altogether, the results of this study provide early evidence that blood-based bioenergetic profiling is related to brain mitochondrial metabolism. While these measures cannot substitute for direct measures of brain metabolism, provided by measures such as FDG-PET, they may have utility as a metabolic biomarker and screening tool to identify individuals exhibiting systemic bioenergetic decline who may therefore be at risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Blood haematological profile and meat colour of calves slaughtered in summer and autumn season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Z; Florek, M; Kedzierska-Matysek, M; Skałecki, P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the haematological profile and meat colour of calves slaughtered in summer and autumn. The material covered 42 calves chosen randomly i.e. 22 slaughtered in summer (June-August) and 20 in autumn (October-December). Haematological analyses included haematocrit (HCT), haemoglobin level (HGB), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT). The morphology of the erythrocytes and platelets, and differentiation of leucocytes were examined. The colour of meat was evaluated instrumentally by Minolta CIE L*a*b* and haematin pigment content was determined. The blood haemoglobin content in calves in the compared seasons was similar (11.3 g/L) and found within a normal range. Blood of calves from the autumn season showed higher HCT, RBC, and MCV values with concurrent lower MCH and MCHC values in comparison to the summer season. Blood of calves slaughtered in summer showed a higher content of WBC and a significantly higher percentage of lymphocytes as against blood of calves from the autumn. Meat of calves from the summer season was paler (higher L* value), and had a significantly (p meat from calves presented for slaughter in the summer season was noted along with a lower content of haematin pigments. Significant correlations were found between haematological variables (HGB, HCT and RBC, particularly) and haematin pigment content and meat lightness (L*) and redness (a*).

  11. Clopidogrel affects leukocyte dependent platelet aggregation by P2Y12 expressing leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Philipp; Olivier, Christoph; Halscheid, Christoph; Helbing, Thomas; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Up to 30% of all patients who are treated with a coronary stent do not respond sufficiently to antiplatelet therapy. This condition results in an increased risk for thrombotic complications such as stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The aim of the study was to determine clinical parameters modulating ASA and clopidogrel responsiveness. Patients were enrolled into three groups: (A) Patients with coronary artery disease without recent PCI treated with 100 mg/day ASA (n = 67). (B) Patients who underwent coronary stent implantation taking 100 mg/day ASA and 75 mg/day clopidogrel (n = 87). (C) Patients in whom CAD was excluded by angiography and who were not treated with anti-platelet medication served as controls (n = 32). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregometry using the Multiplate point of care device. Drug response was differentiated by stimulation of whole blood with arachidonic acid (AA, ASA responsiveness) or adenosine diphosphate (ADP, clopidogrel responsiveness). P2Y(12) receptor expression was determined by RT-PCR. ADP induced platelet aggregation correlated with the leukocyte count (r = 0.61, p leukocytes interact functionally. Clopidogrel treatment abolished the influence of leukocytes on platelets and caused decreased leukocyte activation. We detected the expression of the clopidogrel target P2Y(12) on leukocytes suggesting that clopidogrel may act directly on these cells and not only on platelets. In contrast to ASA responsiveness, clopidogrel response correlated with body mass index (r = 0.34; p = 0.001). In conclusion, (1) leukocytes influence ADP induced platelet aggregation most likely by expression of the P2Y(12) receptor. This interaction is abolished by clopidogrel. Therefore, clopidogrel may act directly on leukocytes via the P2Y(12) receptor. (2) Clopidogrel may be under dosed in obese patients.

  12. Profiling of exercise-induced transcripts in the peripheral blood cells of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, Teruaki; Kikuchi, Mio; Kakoi, Hironaga; Hirota, Kei-Ichi; Mukai, Kazutaka; Aida, Hiroko; Nakamura, Seiji; Nagata, Shun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses based on DNA microarray technology have been used to investigate gene expression profiles in horses. In this study, we aimed to identify exercise-induced changes in the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral blood of Thoroughbred horses using DNA microarray technology (15,429 genes on 43,603 probes). Blood samples from the jugular vein were collected from six horses before and 1 min, 4 hr, and 24 hr after all-out running on a treadmill. After the normalization of microarray data, a total of 26,830 probes were clustered into four groups and 11 subgroups showing similar expression changes based on k-mean clustering. The expression level of inflammation-related genes, including interleukin-1 receptor type II (IL-1R2), matrix metallopeptidase 8 (MMP8), protein S100-A8 (S100-A8), and serum amyloid A (SAA), increased at 4 hr after exercise, whereas that of c-Fos (FOS) increased at 1 min after exercise. These results indicated that the inflammatory response increased in the peripheral blood cells after exercise. Our study also revealed the presence of genes that may not be affected by all-out exercise. In conclusion, transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood cells could be used to monitor physiological changes induced by various external stress factors, including exercise, in Thoroughbred racehorses.

  13. EFFECT OF FERMENTED Sauropus androgynus LEAVES ON BLOOD LIPID FRACTION AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effect of fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves on blood lipid fractions and haematological profiles in broilers. One hundred and twelve broilers were distributed to 7 treatment groups. One group was fed diets without Sauropus androgynus leaves as the control, and other six groups were fed Sauropus androgynus leaves fermented by Neurospora crassa, Lactobacillus sp. or Saccharomyces cerevisiae at level of 25 g or 50 g/kg diet. Experimental results showed that the treatments had no effect on cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and atherogenic index, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c and triglyceride concentration (P>0.05. It was shown that fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected red blood count (RBC, white blood count (WBC, packed cell volume (PCV, trombosit dan erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (P

  14. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2011-02-04

    Abstract Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  15. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. RESULTS: Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  16. Immune invasion of the central nervous system parenchyma and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, but not leukocyte extravasation from blood, are prevented in macrophage-depleted mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hoekstra, K; van Rooijen, N

    1998-01-01

    role of peripheral macrophages in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a Th1-mediated demyelinating disease that serves as a an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), by their depletion using mannosylated liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP). Here we describe....../J mice was abrogated by Cl2MDP-mnL treatment. CD4+ T cell and MHC II+ B220+ B cell extravasation from blood vessels and Th1 cytokine production were not inhibited. However, invasion of the central nervous system intraparenchymal tissues by lymphocytes, F4/80+, Mac-1+, and MOMA-1+ macrophages was almost....../microglial activation, was inhibited. This intervention reveals a role for macrophages in regulating the invasion of autoreactive T cells and secondary glial recruitment that ordinarily lead to demyelinating pathology in EAE and multiple sclerosis....

  17. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  18. Comparison of Plasmagel with LeucoPREP-Macrodex methods for separation of leukocytes for virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G L; Proffitt, M R

    1987-10-01

    Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, NY), which can separate both polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cells from other blood components, and LeucoPREP (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, Mountain View, CA), which can separate mononuclear cells from other blood components, were used to harvest leukocytes from whole blood for the purpose of virus isolation. Macrodex was combined with the later, in a second step, for recovery of PMN. Of 90 peripheral blood specimens examined, cytomegalovirus was recovered from 10: in six by both methods, in three from Plasmagel prepared cells only, and in one from cells from the LeucoPREP-Macrodex preparation only. Total leukocyte counts, differential counts, and leukocyte viability did not differ significantly for the two methods. Plasmagel provided an efficient, inexpensive means of harvesting leukocytes from whole blood for virus isolation.

  19. Leukocyte invasion of the brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracsko, Eva; Javidi, Ehsan; Na, Shin-Young; Kahn, Alexandra; Liesz, Arthur; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-07-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes contribute to secondary neuronal damage after intracerebral hemorrhage. We aimed to characterize the time course of brain immigration of different leukocyte subsets after striatal injection of either autologous blood or collagenase in mice. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by injection of either autologous blood (20 μL) or collagenase (0.03 U) in C57Bl/6J mice. Hematoma volumetry was performed on cryosections. Blood volume was measured by hemoglobin spectrophotometry. Leukocytes were isolated from hemorrhagic hemisphere 1, 3, 5, and 14 days after intracerebral hemorrhage, stained for leukocyte markers, and measured by flow cytometry. Heterologous blood injection from CD45.1 mice was used to investigate the origin of brain-invading leukocytes. Collagenase injection induced a larger hematoma volume but a similar blood content compared with blood injection. Cerebral leukocyte infiltration in the hemorrhagic hemisphere was similar in both models. The majority of leukocytes isolated from the brain originated from the circulation. CD4+ T lymphocytes were the predominant brain leukocyte population in both models. However, cerebral granulocyte counts were higher after collagenase compared with blood injection. Brain infiltration of systemic immune cells is similar in both murine intracerebral hemorrhage models. The pathophysiological impact of invading leukocytes and, in particular, of T cells requires further investigation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Blood profiles in elite cross-country skiers: a 6-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morkeberg, J; Saltin, B; Belhage, B

    2009-01-01

    the introduction of an enlarged blood testing program, the mean [Hb] values were lowered to close to normal levels, but over the last 2-3 years there has been a small elevation and an increase in OFF-model scores, which may indicate a change in the manipulations used to elevate the [Hb].......Following the doping scandals at the World Championships in cross-country skiing in 2001, the International Ski Federation decided to generate individual blood profiles. From 2001 to 2007, 7081 blood samples from 1074 male and female elite cross-country skiers were collected and analyzed...... for hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and % reticulocytes (%rets). Data were applied to blood algorithms wherefrom blood model scores were calculated. From 1997-1999 to 2001-2002, the mean [Hb] was reduced by 0.9 g/dL to 15.3 g/dL in male skiers and by 0.4 g/dL to 13.8 in female skiers. From 2002-2003 to 2006...

  1. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Jinghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA and Caucasians (CAU, and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. Results A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU. The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value Conclusions These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  2. Repopulation of lymph nodes of dogs after 1200 R whole-body x-irradiation and intravenous administration of mononuclear blood leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.; Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.; Bruch, C.; Schnappauf, H.P.; Flad, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    Fresh and cryopreserved autologous or allogeneic mononuclear blood cells (MBCs) intravenously injected in 1200 R total-body x-irradiated dogs repopulated lymph nodes within 10 days after transfusion. Several parameters of the lymphopoietic regeneration were correlated with the number of cells transfused and with the number of colony-forming units contained in the cell suspension when they were cultured in agar (CFU/sub c/). Values within the normal or close to normal range were reached in the mesenteric nodes of most of the animals transfused with 10 x 10 9 MBC or more. These values were obtained when 5 x 10 5 CFU/sub c/ or more were transfused. Axillary nodes showed lower values than mesenteric nodes. They were mostly under the normal range but well over those of the irradiated controls. Frozen and thawed MBCs seem to be as effective as fresh cells for lymphopoietic restoration. The mesenteric nodes of dogs transfused with allogeneic MBCs showed higher cellularity and larger cortical-paracortical areas than those of dogs transfused with approximately the same number of autologous cells. The repopulation of lymph nodes parallels that of the marrow

  3. The repopulation of lymph nodes of dogs after 1200 R whole-body x-irradiation and intravenous administration of mononuclear blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B; Calvo, W; Fliedner, T M; Herbst, E; Bruch, C; Schnappauf, H P; Flad, H D

    1976-08-01

    Fresh and cryopreserved autologous or allogeneic mononuclear blood cells (MBCs) intravenously injected in 1200 R total-body x-irradiated dogs repopulated lymph nodes within 10 days after tranfusion. Several parameters of the lymphopoietic regeneration were correlated with the number of cells transfused and with the number of colony-forming units contained in the cell suspension when they were cultured in agar (CFUc). Values within the normal or close to normal range were reached in the mesenteric nodes of most of the animals transfused with 10 X 10(9) MBC or more. These values were obtained when 5 X 10(5) CFUc or more were transfused. Axillary nodes showed lower values than mesenteric nodes. They were mostly under the normal range but well over those of the irradiated controls. Frozen and thawed MBCs seem to be as effective as fresh cells for lymphopoietic restoration. The mesenteric nodes of dogs transfused with allogeneic MBCs showed higher cellularity and larger cortical-paracortical areas than those of dogs tranfused with approximately the same number of autologous cells. The repopulation of lymph nodes parallels that of the marrow.

  4. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  5. Impact of visceral fat on gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells in obese Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Yoshinari; Maeda, Norikazu; Yamada, Yuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Nakamura, Seiji; Yamaoka, Masaya; Tanaka, Yoshimitsu; Masuda, Shigeki; Nagao, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Shiro; Fujishima, Yuya; Kita, Shunbun; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsubara, Ken-Ichi; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-11-29

    Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects. All 17 enrolled subjects were hospitalized to receive diet therapy for obesity (defined as body mass index, BMI, greater than 25 kg/m 2 ). VFA and SFA were measured at the umbilical level by computed tomography (CT). Blood samples were subjected to gene expression profile analysis by using SurePrint G3 Human GE Microarray 8 × 60 k ver. 2.0. The correlation between various clinical parameters, including VFA and SFA, and peripheral blood gene expression levels was analyzed. Among the 17 subjects, 12 had normal glucose tolerance or borderline diabetes, and 5 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes without medications [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); 6.3 ± 1.3%]. The mean BMI, VFA, and SFA were 30.0 ± 5.5 kg/m 2 , 177 ± 67 and 245 ± 131 cm 2 , respectively. Interestingly, VFA altered the expression of 1354 genes, including up-regulation of 307 and down-regulation of 1047, under the statistical environment that the parametric false discovery rate (FDR) was less than 0.1. However, no significant effects were noted for SFA or BMI. Gene ontology analysis showed higher prevalence of VFA-associated genes than that of SFA-associated genes, among the genes associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, immune response, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. Accumulation of visceral fat, but not subcutaneous fat, has a significant impact on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells in obese Japanese subjects.

  6. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong; Song, YoonJu

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Red blood cell micromanipulation with elliptical laser beam profile optical tweezers in different osmolarity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2011-07-01

    In this work optical tweezers with elliptical beam profiles have been developed in order to examine the effect of optical force on fresh red blood cells (RBC) in isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic buffer solutions. Considering that the optical force depends essentially on the cell surface and the cytoplasmic refractive index, it is obvious that biochemical modifications associated with different states of the cell will influence its behaviour in the optical trap. Line optical tweezers were used to manipulate simultaneously more than one red blood cell. After we have been manipulated a RBC with an elliptical laser beam profile in an isotonic or hypertonic buffer, we noticed that it rotates by itself when gets trapped by optical tweezers and undergoes folding. Further shape deformations can be observed attributed to the competition between alignment and rotational torque which are transferred by laser light to the cell. In hypotonic buffer RBCs become spherical and do not rotate or fold since the resultant force due to rays emerging from diametrically opposite points of the cell leads to zero torque. Manipulation of fresh red blood cells in isotonic solution by line optical tweezers leads to folding and elongation of trapped RBCs. Membrane elasticity properties such as bending modulus can be estimated by measuring RBC's folding time in function with laser power.

  8. Probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus influences the blood profile in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, A; Kiron, V; Satoh, S; Watanabe, T

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the effect of feeding probiotic diets on blood profiles in rainbow trout. Two experiments were performed: in the first, fish of average weight 75 g were offered either a commercial feed or the same incorporated with 10(9) CFU g(-1) of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 30 days; in the second study performed for a similar duration, fish of average weight 126 g were offered formulated diets that either contained the same bacteria in heat-killed or freeze-dried form (nearly 10(11) CFU g(-1)), or the basal diet without the bacteria. Blood samples were collected at different times after commencement of probiotic feeding to determine the total cholesterol, triglyceride contents, the plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, plasma protein and hematocrit value. The plasma cholesterol significantly increased upon probiotic feeding in the first experiment. A significant elevation (Pfeeding. Thus, alterations in the blood profiles could serve as supplementary information when examining the benefits of probiotics for fish.

  9. Association between dietary patterns and blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Jia, Xiaofang; Huang, Feifei; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women. In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG. Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS. We studied 2468 women aged 18-80 years from the CHNS. We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=-0·68; 95 % CI -1·22, -0·14; Ppattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; Ppattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; Ppatterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.

  10. COMPARISON OF NEBIVOLOL AND ATENOLOL ON BLOOD PRESSURE, BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

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    Anand Dev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Beta-blocker is considered to be a very effective antihypertensive drug to control hypertension. But National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE recommended that it should no longer be used as first-line drug as the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension. This recommendation was based on the various studies showing increased risk of new onset Diabetes Mellitus and derangement of lipid metabolism with the use of beta-blocker. These studies were mainly based on Atenolol with or without diuretics. We are in need of a beta-blocker that has effective antihypertensive properties without altering the metabolic profile like blood sugar level and lipid metabolism. Nebivolol, a b1-selective blocker, has got more or less the similar properties. It increases insulin sensitivity in patients with insulin resistance due to its vasodilator properties. Also, antioxidant properties of nebivolol, and increase in nitric oxide properties by reducing its oxidative inactivation may be responsible for beneficial lipid and carbohydrate metabolic profile. MATERIALS AND METHOD A prospective study was conducted between December 2011 to August 2013 on 60 patients at medicine outpatient department (OPD of Katihar Medical College, Katihar, after getting approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. The patients meeting the inclusion criteria were explained in detail about the nature of the trial, its purpose, procedures, and followup. They were provided with detailed trial information sheet. Written informed consent was obtained from those who volunteered to participate in the trial. RESULTS In our study, the mean difference of systolic blood pressure from baseline and at 24 weeks was 40.20±1.74 in the Atenolol group and 43.80±1.405 in the Nebivolol group. Similarly, in Atenolol group, diastolic blood pressure is decreased by 17±1.3 and 19.4±1.223 in Nebivolol group. In our study, the mean difference of blood sugar level from baseline and

  11. Leukocyte count and incidence of hospitalizations due to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo

    2009-05-01

    Leukocyte concentration in blood is a classical marker of systemic inflammation. Whether high leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of heart failure (HF) is unknown. This population-based study explored whether the leukocyte concentrations were associated with incidence of hospitalizations due to HF. Leukocyte counts were measured in 16 940 men from the general population (mean age 44 years) without history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Incidence of hospitalizations due to HF (primary diagnosis) was monitored over 23 years of follow-up, in relation to quartiles of leukocytes. Subjects with myocardial infarction during follow-up were censored in the main analysis. During the follow-up, 436 men were hospitalized due to HF. Incidence of HF hospitalizations was increased in men with high leukocyte counts. After adjustments for confounding factors, the adjusted hazards ratio (HR, 95% CI) for HF hospitalization was 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.93 to 1.7), 1.24 (0.91 to 1.7), and 1.73 (1.3 to 2.3), respectively, for men with leukocytes in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th (highest) quartiles (trend, Pleukocyte counts in middle-aged men were associated with increased long-term incidence of HF hospitalizations.

  12. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were ...

  13. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  14. A Leukocyte image fast scanning based on max–min distance clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A leukocyte image fast scanning method based on max-min distance clustering is proposed. Because of the lower proportion and uneven distribution of leukocytes in human peripheral blood, there will not be any leukocyte in lager quantity of the captured images if we directly scan the blood smear along an ordinary zigzag scanning routine with high power (100x objective. Due to the larger field of view of low power (10x objective, the captured low power blood smear images can be used to locate leukocytes. All of the located positions make up a specific routine, if we scan the blood smear along this routine with high power objective, there will be definitely leukocytes in almost all of the captured images. Considering the number of captured images is still large and some leukocytes may be redundantly captured twice or more, a leukocyte clustering method based on max–min distance clustering is developed to reduce the total number of captured images as well as the number of redundantly captured leukocytes. This method can improve the scanning efficiency obviously. The experimental results show that the proposed method can shorten scanning time from 8.0–14.0min to 2.5–4.0min while extracting 110 nonredundant individual high power leukocyte images.

  15. Blood Cytokine Profiles Associated with Distinct Patterns of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; McDonald, Scott A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Tyson, Jon E; Stoll, Barbara J; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2016-07-01

    To explore differences in blood cytokine profiles among distinct bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patterns. We evaluated blood spots collected from 943 infants born at ≤1000 g and surviving to 28 days on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for 25 cytokines. Infants were assigned to the following lung disease patterns: (1) no lung disease (NLD); (2) respiratory distress syndrome without BPD; (3) classic BPD (persistent exposure to supplemental oxygen until 28 days of age); or (4) atypical BPD (period without supplemental oxygen before 28 days). Median cytokine levels for infants with BPD were compared with the IQR of results among infants with NLD. The distribution of enrolled infants by group was as follows: 69 (NLD), 73 (respiratory distress syndrome), 381 (classic BPD), and 160 (atypical BPD). The remaining 260 infants could not be classified because of missing data (104) or not fitting a predefined pattern (156). Median levels of 3 cytokines (elevated interleukin [IL]-8, matrix metalloproteinase-9; decreased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) fell outside the IQR for at least 2 time points in both infants with atypical and classic BPD. Profiles of 7 cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, C-reactive protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) differed between infants with classic and atypical BPD. Blood cytokine profiles may differ between infants developing classic and atypical BPD. These dissimilarities suggest the possibility that differing mechanisms could explain the varied patterns of pathophysiology of lung disease in extremely premature infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Getting Leukocytes to the Site of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    There is no “response” in either the innate or adaptive immune response unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. They do this through the process of diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders (paracellular transmigration) and in some cases through the endothelial cell itself (transcellular migration). This review summarizes the steps leading up to diapedesis, then focuses on the molecules and mechanisms responsible for transendothelial migration. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration, including a major role for membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed. PMID:23345459

  17. Influence of water quality deterioration on blood profile of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, H. M.; Samir, Y. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of water quality deterioration on the haematological indices and blood profile of cultured fish, which was most frequently used in pathophy-siological investigations in fish reared in the ponds and tanks culture conditions, compared with normal healthy fish in natural water (White Nile River). The results showed that water quality characteristics of experimental tanks level of NH 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 concentration significantly (p 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 ) with moderate regression factors. Relationship between RBC, and water quality characteristics was positive and with very low regression factors. (Author)

  18. [LEVELS OF OBESITY, METABOLIC PROFILE, CONSUMPTION OF TABACO AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN SEDENTARY YOUTHS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Delgado Floody, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    in Chile, the National Health Survey (ENS) conducted in 2009-2010 reported high prevalence of overweight, sedentary lifestyle, high cholesterol and metabolic syndrome in the population. to determine the prevalence in young sedentary obesity and consumption of tabaco and analyze their association with the metabolic profile, body fat percentage and blood pressure. 125 young sedentary, 26 men and 99 women, aged between 17 and 29 years old were evaluated. Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (% fat), waist contour (CC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides: measurements were performed, glycemia and consumption of snuff. HDL-C (p = 0.000) and% MG (p = 0.043) were higher in women. 37.6% of young people turned smoker. 35, 2% of the sample showed excessive malnutrition. Obese subjects had higher levels: waist contour (p = 0.000) and% FM (p = 0.000). When analyzing obesity DC, this showed significant differences in BMI,% fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. BMI presented positive association with CC,% fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p consumption of tabaco in the study sample, while other variables are not high-risk categories, it is an opportune time to intervene and reverse these negative health trends now. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteriological Profile of Blood Culture Positive Sepsis in Newborn at BPKIHS, Dharan Nepal

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    Piush Kanodia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Neonatal infections currently cause about 1.6 million deaths annually in developing countries. Sepsis and meningitis is responsible for most of these deaths. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profiles and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolates from blood cultures of neonates admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Nepal.Materials & Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at pediatric department from January, 2014 to December 2014. Total 1009 newborns blood sample with suspected and clinical sepsis were cultured by using standard microbiological technique and antibiotic sensitivity patterns were studied. Results: The positive blood culture was 32.4% (327/1009. Gram positive bacteria were more common 231(71% than gram negative bacteria 96(29%. Staphylococcus aureus 174 (53.2% and acinetobacter 46(14.1% were the commonest isolates in blood culture. Most of the organisms showed sensitivity with aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin and third generation cephalosporins.Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella species remain the principal organisms causing neonatal sepsis and antibiotics like amino glycosides should be first choice of drugs.

  20. Effect of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, and Curcuma longa L. on Th1- and Th2-cytokine responses and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huang-Pin; Lin, Yin-Ku

    2018-05-10

    Many traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), such as Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, and Curcuma longa L., have been reported to have various immune-modulatory effects. To determine the effects of extracts from these three TCM on type 1 T help (Th1)- and Th2-cytokine responses and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from septic patients. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs of healthy controls and septic patients were cultured for 48 hs with or without 0.05/0.1 mg/ml of TCM extract. HLA-DR expression in monocytes was detected using flow cytofluorimetry. The interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin (IL)- 2, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 levels in supernatants were measured with a human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with either 0.05 or 0.1 mg/ml of C. longa L. extract significantly restored the percentage of HLA-DR-positive monocytes, which was decreased by LPS in control and patient groups. Treatment with 0.05 or 0.1 mg/ml E. ulmoides Oliv. and C.longa L. extract decreased IL-10 production from LPS-stimulated PBMCs of controls and patients. In patients with sepsis, C. longa L. extract decreased IL-10 production to a greater degree than did E. ulmoides Oliv extract. Although IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-13 productions from LPS-stimulated PBMCs were influenced by E. ulmoides Oliv., G. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, or C. longa L. in control or sepsis groups in this study, only the influence of IL-10 was consistent in both control and sepsis groups. By enhancing monocyte HLA-DR expression and decreasing IL-10 production, C. longa L. might help restore inflammatory responses in septic patients to eradicate pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECTS OF STORAGE, RNA EXTRACTION, GENECHIP TYPE, AND DONOR SEX ON GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HUMAN WHOLE BLOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Gene expression profiling of whole blood may be useful for monitoring toxicological exposure and for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. Several methods are available that can be used to transport, store, and extract RNA from whole blood, but it is not clear...

  2. Pre-pregnancy weight status, early pregnancy lipid profile and blood pressure course during pregnancy: The ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J. J. M.; Busschers, Wim B.; Spierings, Eline J. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Gademan, Maaike G. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in

  3. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinghe; Ai, Junmei; Zhou, Xinchun; Shenwu, Ming; Ong, Manuel; Blue, Marketta; Washington, Jasmine T; Wang, Xiaonan; Deng, Youping

    2011-12-23

    Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CAU), and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU) and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU). The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value <0.05). These known genes were mainly clustered in three functional categories: immune responses, lipid metabolism, and organismal injury/abnormaly. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that 574 genes were differentially expressed in AA diseased versus AA control, compared to 200 genes in CAU subjects. Pathway study revealed that "Communication between innate and adaptive immune cells"/"Primary immunodeficiency signaling" are significantly down-regulated in AA patients and "Interferon signaling"/"Complement System" are significantly down-regulated in CAU patients. These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  4. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  5. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  6. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  7. THE EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES ON CHANGE IN BLOOD PROFILE IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Estiyani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum anemia among mothers is a health problem in Indonesia. Consuming Moringa Oleifera is assumed as one of the efforts to deal with anemia. However, lack of the study conducted in the working in the working area of health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of Moringa Oleifera on blood profile in postpartum mothers. Methods: The study was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. The sample in this study were all postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. It was 30 respondents recruited by purposive sampling, divided into intervention group (15 respondents who received Moringa leaf capsule and iron tablet; and control group (15 respondents were given iron tablet. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test. Results: Findings showed a significant difference in the mean of hemoglobin level (Intervention group 11.9467; control group 11.0600, hematocrit (Intervention group 38.3867; Control group 33.8133, thrombocyte (Intervention group 3.02536; Control group 2.35805, and erythrocyte (Intervention group 4.30137; Control group 3.78206 with p-value < 0.05. Conclusion: there was a significant effect of Moringa Oleifera on changes in blood profile (hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte, thrombocyte in postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Thus, it is suggested that Moringa leaves could be used to prevent anemia in postpartum mothers.

  8. Gene expression profiling of blood for the prediction of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Xu, Huichun; Jickling, Glen; Bushnell, Cheryl; Tian, Yingfang; Ander, Bradley P; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, Dazhi; Turner, Renee; Adamczyk, Peter; Khoury, Jane C; Pancioli, Arthur; Jauch, Edward; Broderick, Joseph P; Sharp, Frank R

    2010-10-01

    A blood-based biomarker of acute ischemic stroke would be of significant value in clinical practice. This study aimed to (1) replicate in a larger cohort our previous study using gene expression profiling to predict ischemic stroke; and (2) refine prediction of ischemic stroke by including control groups relevant to ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke (n=70, 199 samples) were compared with control subjects who were healthy (n=38), had vascular risk factors (n=52), and who had myocardial infarction (n=17). Whole blood was drawn ≤3 hours, 5 hours, and 24 hours after stroke onset and from control subjects. RNA was processed on whole genome microarrays. Genes differentially expressed in ischemic stroke were identified and analyzed for predictive ability to discriminate stroke from control subjects. The 29 probe sets previously reported predicted a new set of ischemic strokes with 93.5% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity. Sixty- and 46-probe sets differentiated control groups from 3-hour and 24-hour ischemic stroke samples, respectively. A 97-probe set correctly classified 86% of ischemic strokes (3 hour+24 hour), 84% of healthy subjects, 96% of vascular risk factor subjects, and 75% with myocardial infarction. This study replicated our previously reported gene expression profile in a larger cohort and identified additional genes that discriminate ischemic stroke from relevant control groups. This multigene approach shows potential for a point-of-care test in acute ischemic stroke.

  9. Optimized DNA extraction from neonatal dried blood spots: application in methylome profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) represent an inexpensive method for long-term biobanking worldwide and are considered gold mines for research for several human diseases, including those of metabolic, infectious, genetic and epigenetic origin. However, the utility of DBS is restricted by the limited amount and quality of extractable biomolecules (including DNA), especially for genome wide profiling. Degradation of DNA in DBS often occurs during storage and extraction. Moreover, amplifying small quantities of DNA often leads to a bias in subsequent data, particularly in methylome profiles. Thus it is important to develop methodologies that maximize both the yield and quality of DNA from DBS for downstream analyses. Results Using combinations of in-house-derived and modified commercial extraction kits, we developed a robust and efficient protocol, compatible with methylome studies, many of which require stringent bisulfite conversion steps. Several parameters were tested in a step-wise manner, including blood extraction, cell lysis, protein digestion, and DNA precipitation, purification and elution. DNA quality was assessed based on spectrophotometric measurements, DNA detectability by PCR, and DNA integrity by gel electrophoresis and bioanalyzer analyses. Genome scale Infinium HumanMethylation450 and locus-specific pyrosequencing data generated using the refined DBS extraction protocol were of high quality, reproducible and consistent. Conclusions This study may prove useful to meet the increased demand for research on prenatal, particularly epigenetic, origins of human diseases and for newborn screening programs, all of which are often based on DNA extracted from DBS. PMID:24980254

  10. Blood amino acids profile responding to heat stress in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of heat stress on milk protein and blood amino acid profile in dairy cows. Methods Twelve dairy cows with the similar parity, days in milk and milk yield were randomly divided into two groups with six cows raised in summer and others in autumn, respectively. Constant managerial conditions and diets were maintained during the experiment. Measurements and samples for heat stress and no heat stress were obtained according to the physical alterations of the temperature-humidity index. Results Results showed that heat stress significantly reduced the milk protein content (p<0.05. Heat stress tended to decrease milk yield (p = 0.09. Furthermore, heat stress decreased dry matter intake, the concentration of blood glucose and insulin, and glutathione peroxidase activity, while increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde (p<0.05. Additionally, the concentrations of blood Thr involved in immune response were increased under heat stress (p<0.05. The concentration of blood Ala, Glu, Asp, and Gly, associated with gluconeogenesis, were also increased under heat stress (p<0.05. However, the concentration of blood Lys that promotes milk protein synthesis was decreased under heat stress (p<0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, this study revealed that more amino acids were required for maintenance but not for milk protein synthesis under heat stress, and the decreased availability of amino acids for milk protein synthesis may be attributed to competition of immune response and gluconeogenesis.

  11. Temporarily decreasing progesterone after timed artificial insemination decreased expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in blood leukocytes, serum pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations, and embryo size in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Consentini, C C; Weaver, S R; Barleta, R V; Hernandez, L L; Fricke, P M

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of temporarily decreasing progesterone (P4) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on embryonic growth in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 80) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol for first TAI and were assigned randomly to receive 12.5 mg of PGF 2α 5 d after the last GnRH treatment (LowP4) or remain untreated (control). Blood samples were collected thrice weekly from 5 to 29 d after TAI for all cows and from 32 to 67 d for pregnant cows, and were analyzed for P4 and pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations. Expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed in blood leukocyte mRNA 18 and 20 d after TAI. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed weekly using ultrasound from 32 to 67 d after TAI, and embryonic crown-rump length was measured 32, 39, and 46 d after TAI. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. The LowP4 cows had less P4 than control cows from 6 to 11 d after TAI; however, pregnancy outcomes 32 d after TAI and pregnancy loss from 32 to 67 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. Control cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI had greater expression of ISG15 20 d after TAI than LowP4 cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI, and pregnant control cows had greater pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations from 25 to 67 d after TAI than pregnant LowP4 cows. Embryo size did not differ between treatments 32 and 39 d after TAI, but control cows had larger embryos 46 d after TAI. In conclusion, temporarily decreasing P4 after TAI decreased embryonic growth during early pregnancy in lactating Holstein cows but did not affect pregnancies per artificial insemination or pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of low-frequency vibrations on hepatic profile of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damijan, Z.

    2008-02-01

    Body vibrations training has become popular in sports training, fitness activity, it is still a rare form of physical rehabilitation.. Vibrations are transmitted onto the whole body or some body parts of an exercising person via a vibration platform subjected to mechanical vertical vibrations. During the training session a participant has to maintain his body position or do exercises that engage specific muscles whilst vibrations of the platform are transmitted onto the person's body. This paper is the continuation of the earlier study covering the effects of low-frequency vibrations on selected physiological parameters of the human body. The experiments were conducted to find the answer to the question if vibration exposure (total duration of training sessions 6 hours 20 min) should produce any changes in hepatic profile of blood. Therefore a research program was undertaken at the University of Science and Technology AGH UST to investigate the effects of low-frequency vibration on selected parameters of hepatic profile of human blood. Cyclic fluctuations of bone loading were induced by the applied harmonic vibration 3.5 Hz and amplitude 0.004 m. The experiments utilizing two vibrating platforms were performed in the Laboratory of Structural Acoustics and Biomedical Engineering AGH-UST. The applied vibrations were harmless and not annoying, in accordance with the standard PN-EN ISO 130901-1, 1998. 23 women volunteers had 19 sessions on subsequent working days, at the same time of day. during the tests the participants remained in the standing position, passive. The main hypothesis has it that short-term low-frequency vibration exposure might bring about the changes of the hepatic profile of blood, including: bilirubin (BILIRUBIN), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin (ALBUMIN) levels. Research data indicate the low-frequency vibrations exposure produces statistically significant decrease of

  13. α4 integrin is a regulator of leukocyte recruitment after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Ambler, William G; Ai, Youxi; Sansing, Lauren H

    2014-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is swiftly followed by an inflammatory response. A key component of this response is the recruitment of leukocytes into the brain, which promotes neurological injury in rodent models. However, the mechanisms by which leukocytes transmigrate across the endothelium into the injured brain are unclear. The present study examines leukocyte adhesion molecules (α4 integrin, L-selectin, and αLβ2 integrin) on 4 leukocyte subtypes to determine which are important for leukocyte recruitment after ICH. We used the blood injection mouse model of ICH, whereby 25 μL of blood was injected into the striatum. Flow cytometry was used to quantify leukocyte populations and adhesion molecule expression in brain and blood. An α4 integrin-blocking antibody was administered to evaluate the contribution of α4 integrin in leukocyte migration and neurological injury. α4 integrin was elevated on all leukocyte populations in brain after ICH, whereas L-selectin was unchanged and αLβ2 was increased only on T cells. Antagonism of α4 resulted in decreased leukocyte transmigration and lessened neurobehavioral disability. α4 integrin is an important cell adhesion molecule involved in neuroinflammation after ICH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Multi-organ expression profiling uncovers a gene module in coronary artery disease involving transendothelial migration of leukocytes and LIM domain binding 2: The Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study

    KAUST Repository

    Hägg, Sara

    2009-12-04

    Environmental exposures filtered through the genetic make-up of each individual alter the transcriptional repertoire in organs central to metabolic homeostasis, thereby affecting arterial lipid accumulation, inflammation, and the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). The primary aim of the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study was to determine whether there are functionally associated genes (rather than individual genes) important for CAD development. To this end, two-way clustering was used on 278 transcriptional profiles of liver, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat (n =66/tissue) and atherosclerotic and unaffected arterial wall (n =40/tissue) isolated from CAD patients during coronary artery bypass surgery. The first step, across all mRNA signals (n =15,042/12,621 RefSeqs/genes) in each tissue, resulted in a total of 60 tissue clusters (n= 3958 genes). In the second step (performed within tissue clusters), one atherosclerotic lesion (n =49/48) and one visceral fat (n =59) cluster segregated the patients into two groups that differed in the extent of coronary stenosis (P=0.008 and P=0.00015). The associations of these clusters with coronary atherosclerosis were validated by analyzing carotid atherosclerosis expression profiles. Remarkably, in one cluster (n =55/54) relating to carotid stenosis (P =0.04), 27 genes in the two clusters relating to coronary stenosis were confirmed (n= 16/17, P<10 -27and-30). Genes in the transendothelial migration of leukocytes (TEML) pathway were overrepresented in all three clusters, referred to as the atherosclerosis module (A-module). In a second validation step, using three independent cohorts, the Amodule was found to be genetically enriched with CAD risk by 1.8-fold (P<0.004). The transcription co-factor LIM domain binding 2 (LDB2) was identified as a potential high-hierarchy regulator of the A-module, a notion supported by subnetwork analysis, by cellular and lesion expression of LDB2, and by the

  15. Contour Detection of Leukocyte Cell Nucleus Using Morphological Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, R.; Satrio, G. P.; Ramadhani, Y.; Siswandari, W.

    2017-04-01

    Leukocytes are blood cells that do not contain color pigments. Leukocyte function to the tool body’s defenses. Abnormal forms of leukocytes can be a sign of serious diseases such example is leukemia. Most laboratories still use cell morphology examination to assist the diagnosis of illness associated with white blood cells such example is leukemia because of limited resources, both infrastructure, and human resources as happens in developing nations, such as Indonesia. This examination is less expensive and quicker process. However, morphological review requires the expertise of a specialist clinical pathology were limited. This process is sometimes less valid cause in some cases trying to differentiate morphology blast cells into the type of myoblasts, lymphoblast, monoblast, or erythroblast thus potentially misdiagnosis. The goal of this research is to develop a detection device types of blood cells automatically as lower-priced, easy to use and accurate so that the tool can be distributed across all units in existing health services throughout Indonesia and in particular for remote areas. However, because the variables used in the identification of abnormal leukocytes are very complex, in this paper, we emphasize on the contour detection of leukocyte cell nucleus using the morphological image. The results show that this method is promising for further development.

  16. Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M Kurian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression.We used DNA microarrays, tandem mass spectroscopy proteomics and bioinformatics to identify genomic and proteomic markers of mild and moderate/severe CAN in peripheral blood of two distinct cohorts (n = 77 total of kidney transplant patients with biopsy-documented histology.Gene expression profiles reveal over 2400 genes for mild CAN, and over 700 for moderate/severe CAN. A consensus analysis reveals 393 (mild and 63 (moderate/severe final candidates as CAN markers with predictive accuracy of 80% (mild and 92% (moderate/severe. Proteomic profiles show over 500 candidates each, for both stages of CAN including 302 proteins unique to mild and 509 unique to moderate/severe CAN.This study identifies several unique signatures of transcript and protein biomarkers with high predictive accuracies for mild and moderate/severe CAN, the most common cause of late allograft failure. These biomarkers are the necessary first step to a proteogenomic classification of CAN based on peripheral blood profiling and will be the targets of a prospective clinical validation study.

  17. Profile of whole blood gene expression following immune stimulation in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Richard; Andreson, Reidar; Hõrak, Peeter

    2014-06-27

    Immunoecology aims to explain variation among hosts in the strength and efficacy of immunological defences in natural populations. This requires development of biomarkers of the activation of the immune system so that they can be collected non-lethally and sampled from small amounts of easily obtainable tissue. We used transcriptome profiling in wild greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) to detect whole blood transcripts that most profoundly indicate upregulation of antimicrobial defences during acute phase response. The more general aim of this study was to obtain a functional annotation of a substantial portion of the greenfinch transcriptome that would enable to gain access to more specific genomic tools in subsequent studies. The birds received either bacterial lipopolysaccharide or saline injections and RNA-seq transcriptional profiling was performed 12 h after treatment to provide initial functional annotation of the transcriptome and assess whole blood response to immune stimulation. A total of 66,084 transcripts were obtained from de novo Trinty assembly, out of which 23,153 could be functionally annotated. Only 1,911 of these were significantly upregulated or downregulated. The manipulation caused marked upregulation of several transcripts related to immune activation. These included avian-specific antimicrobial agents avidin and gallinacin, but also some more general host response genes, such as serum amyloid A protein, lymphocyte antigen 75 and copper-transporting ATPase 1. However, links with avian immunity for most differentially regulated transcripts remained rather hypothetical, as a large set of differentially expressed transcripts lacked functional annotation. This appears to be the first large scale transcriptional profiling of immune function in passerine birds. The transcriptomic data obtained suggest novel markers for the assessment of the immunological state of wild passerines. Characterizing the function of those possible novel infection markers

  18. Impact of lipid profile and high blood pressure on endothelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Tomonori; Dohi, Yasuaki; Yamashita, Sumiyo; Yamamoto, Koji; Wakamatsu, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Satoru; Kimura, Genjiro

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial damage is an early component of atherosclerosis; however, the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on endothelial function is not clearly understood. We investigated the impact of lipid profiles and high blood pressure on damage. Japanese male outpatients with grade I or II hypertension, along with gender and age-matched normotensive subjects (both n = 25), were enrolled. Subjects with severe cardiovascular risk factors or illness or those taking medications were excluded. Blood was sampled for laboratory analysis and endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (total-C/HDL-C) was inversely correlated with the FMD value and positively correlated with both malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values. Stepwise regression analysis revealed total-C/HDL-C and systolic blood pressure were significant determinants of FMD. Hypertensive subjects had lower FMD values and similar lipid profiles to normotensive subjects. Grouping subjects according to total-C/HDL-C levels showed that those with high values had lower FMD values. Hypertensive subjects with low total-C/HDL-C had similar endothelial index values to those in normotensive subjects with high total-C/HDL-C. Logistic regression indicated hypertension and high total-C/HDL-C were significantly associated with low FMD values. Impaired endothelial function was associated with increased total-C/HDL-C values, possibly as the result of increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the early stages of atherosclerosis, the impact of both total-C/HDL-C and BP may be similar in terms of endothelial damage. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  20. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  1. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2012-09-01

    Considering the importance of glucose as a brain substrate, the postprandial rate of glucose delivery to the blood could be expected to affect cognitive functions. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the rate of glucose absorption affected measures of cognitive performance in the postprandial period. In addition, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to individual glucoregulation. A white wheat bread (WWB) enriched with guar gum (G-WWB) with the capacity to produce a low but sustained blood glucose net increment was developed. The G-WWB was evaluated in the postprandial period after breakfast with respect to effects on cognitive function (working memory and selective attention (SA)) in 40 healthy adults (49-71 years, body mass index 20-29 kg/m(2)), using a high glycaemic index WWB for comparison in a randomised crossover design. The G-WWB improved outcome in the cognitive tests (SA test) in the later postprandial period (75-225 min) in comparison with the WWB (Pimportance of carbohydrate foods that induces a low but sustained blood glucose profile in enhancing postprandial cognitive functions.

  2. Effect of Sumac (Rhus coriaria Extract on Blood Lipid Profile in White Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HamidReza Soltani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounf: Hyperlipidemia is one of the chronic diseases whose current solutions are the proper diet and chemical drugs. Evaluation of accessible medicinal plant recourses has an important role to prevent and treat the hyperlipidemia. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of sumac (Rhus coriaria extract on blood lipid profile in white Wistar rat. Methods: This laboratory animal experiment was conducted on 21 white Wistar rats during four weeks. The research units divided into three groups separately were fed by normal diet, fatty diet without sumac extract and fatty diet with sumac extract. The samples were excluded after appearing sick-like behaviors. Finally, data were analyzed in SPSS ver. 16 software using ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: The mean weight of rats was 310±26 gram. The mean blood cholesterol had significant difference in fatty diet with sumac group in compared with control group from the second week to the end of study (P0.05. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the use of sumac with fatty diet can be effective to reduce blood cholesterol in prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  3. Evaluation of two types of leukocyte removal filters on transfusion dependent thalassaemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, R; Mazeni, N R; Hussin, H

    2000-12-01

    The advent of leukocyte filters has enabled effective removal of leukocytes from certain blood products thus avoiding many adverse effects of blood transfusion. Many different materials have been incorporated into these filters to achieve >95% leukocyte removal. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of leukocyte removal of two different filters, using actual bedside transfusion settings involving patients with transfusion dependent thalassaemia. Fifty-one transfusion events were randomised to use either a polyurethane filter or a non-woven polyester filter. We found that the two filters achieved 98.4% and 96.2% leukocyte removal respectively (p = 0.022). We also found no significant correlation between pre-filtration white blood cell count and the volume transfused with the efficacy of leukodepletion. No untoward events or transfusion reactions were observed during the study.

  4. Pathogens Causing Blood Stream Infections and their Drug Susceptibility Profile in Immunocompromised Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Mirza, I.A.; Ikram, A.; Hussain, A.; Ghafoor, T.; Shujat, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the types of pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2012. Methodology: Blood culture bottles received from immunocompromised patients were dealt by two methods, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth based manual method and automated BACTEC system. The samples yielding positive growth from either of two methods were further analyzed. The identification of isolates was done with the help of biochemical reactions and rapid tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was carried out as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Out of the 938 blood culture specimens received from immunocompromised patients, 188 (20%) yielded positive growth. Out of these, 89 (47.3%) isolates were Gram positive and Gram negative each, while 10 (5.3%) isolates were fungi (Candida spp.). In case of Gram positive isolates, 75 (84.3%) were Staphylococcus spp. and 51 (67%) were Methicillin resistant. Amongst Gram negative group 49 (55.1%) isolates were of enterobacteriaceae family, while 40 (44.9%) were non-lactose fermenters (NLF). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci revealed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid. The enterobacteriaceae isolates had better susceptibility against amikacin 85.7% compared to tigecycline 61.2% and imipenem 59.2%. For NLF, the in vitro efficacy of aminoglycosides was 72.5%. Conclusion: The frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients was equal. Vancomycin in case of Gram positive and amikacin for Gram negative organisms revealed better in vitro efficacy as compared to other antibiotics. (author)

  5. The Effect of Phytosterol-Rich Fraction from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate on Blood Serum Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Kgs; Oktafa, Huda; Estiasih, Teti

    2018-01-16

    Phytosterol-rich fraction (PRF) obtained from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) was investigated for its effect on blood serum lipid profile of dyslipidemia rats. Dyslipidemia was induced by force feeding cholesterol to five groups of rats; one group was a control or normal group. Cholesterol force-fed groups were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg PRF/kg/day for 4 weeks. All groups of rats were fed standard diet. A normal group was fed standard diet without PRF treatment and cholesterol force feeding. Lipid profile was measured every week (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). Four-week treatment resulted in significant blood serum lipid profile improvement. PRF improved blood serum lipid profile by decreasing total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level and increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level. The doses of PRF significantly affected blood serum lipid profile as well as duration of PRF treatment. PRF inhibited cholesterol absorption, which delayed blood serum total cholesterol rise. Cholesterol absorption inhibition was also indicated by higher fecal cholesterol concentration after PRF feeding. These results indicate the beneficial effect of PRF in the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  6. [Effect of ZL-004 on raising leukocyte count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Yan; Li, Chun-Gang; Xiao, Lin; Wang, Guo-Ping; Liu, Quan-Hai

    2010-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of ZL-004 on normal mouse and mice with leukopenia induced by chemotherapeutic agents. 5-Fluorouracil were administered intraperitoneally to mice to develop leucopenia, and the mice were treated with ZL-004. The number of peripheral leukocytes and the percentage of granulocyte in total WBC were examined. The results are that ZL-004 markedly raise peripheral blood leukocytes in the normal mice and the mice model of leukopenia. So, ZL-004 could protect mice against 5-fluorouracil damage and raise peripheral blood leukocyte. Features of bone marrow smears is myeloproliferative hyperactivity in the mice, particularly the matured granulocytic series were observed. The mechanism of ZL-004 is to act on the mouse bone marrow causing proliferation and differentiation.

  7. Donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies were associated with primary graft failure after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation: a prospective study with randomly assigned training and validation sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yu; Han, Wei; Chen, Huan; Wang, Feng-Rong; Mo, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Huo, Ming-Rui; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Y, Kong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-07-10

    Small studies suggest an association of donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSAs) with primary graft failure (GF) following haploidentical stem cell transplantation, but primary graft rejection (GR) was not discriminated from primary poor graft function (PGF). In this study, we aimed to determine the association of DSAs with primary GF, including GR and PGF, in patients who underwent unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation. A total of 345 subjects were prospectively recruited and randomly selected as training group (n = 173) and validation group (n = 172). Patient plasma/serum was screened. For HLA antibody positive samples with a median fluorescent intensity (MFI) >500, DSAs were further tested using a LABScreen Single Antigen Kit (One Lambda). A total of 342 patients (99.1%) achieved sustained myeloid engraftment. The median times to neutrophil engraftment and platelet engraftment were 13 days (range, 8-28 days) and 18 days (range, 6-330 days), respectively. The cumulative incidence of primary GF was 6.4 ± 1.3% and included GR (0.9 ± 0.5%) and PGF (5.5 ± .2%). Of the 345 cases tested, 39 (11.3%) were DSA positive. Multivariate models showed that DSAs (MFI ≥ 10,000) were correlated to primary GR (P < 0.001) and that DSAs (MFI ≥ 2000) were strongly associated with primary PGF (P = 0.005). All patients were classified into three groups for analysis. Group A included cases that were DSA negative and those with a DSA MFI <2000 (n = 316), group B included cases with a 2000 ≤ MFI < 10,000 (n = 19), and group C included cases with a MFI ≥ 10,000 (n = 10). The DSAs were associated with an increased incidence of the primary GF (3.2 vs. 31.6 vs. 60%, for groups A, B, and C, respectively, P < 0.001), transplant-related mortality (TRM) rate (17.2 vs. 14.7 vs. 33.3%, for groups A, B, and C, respectively, P = 0.022), and inferior overall survival (OS, 77.3 vs. 85.3 vs. 44.4%, for groups A, B, and C

  8. The metalloproteinase ADAM8 promotes leukocyte recruitment in vitro and in acute lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Schumacher, Julian; Fellendorf, Sandra; Hess, Franz Martin; Seifert, Anke; Babendreyer, Aaron; Bartsch, Jörg W; Ludwig, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Alveolar leukocyte recruitment is a hallmark of acute lung inflammation and involves transmigration of leukocytes through endothelial and epithelial layers. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 8 is expressed on human isolated leukocytic cells and can be further upregulated on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines. By shRNA-mediated knockdown we show that leukocytic ADAM8 is required on monocytic THP-1 cells for chemokine-induced chemotaxis as well as transendothelial and transepithelial migration. Furthermore, ADAM8 promotes α L -integrin upregulation and THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells. On endothelial cells ADAM8 enhances transendothelial migration and increases cytokine-induced permeability. On epithelial cells the protease facilitates migration in a wound closure assay but does not affect transepithelial leukocyte migration. Blood leukocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from ADAM8-deficient mice show suppressed chemotactic response. Intranasal application of LPS to mice is accompanied with ADAM8 upregulation in the lung. In this model of acute lung inflammation ADAM8-deficient mice are protected against leukocyte infiltration. Finally, transfer experiments of BMDM in mice indicate that ADAM8 exerts a promigratory function predominantly on leukocytes. Our study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence that ADAM8 on leukocytes holds a proinflammatory function in acute lung inflammation by promoting alveolar leukocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Fibrinogen modulates leukocyte recruitment in vivo during the acute inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino de Almeida, V; Silva-Herdade, A; Calado, A; Rosário, H S; Saldanha, C

    2015-01-01

    Besides playing an important role in blood hemostases, fibrinogen also regulates leukocyte function in inflammation. Our previous in vitro studies showed that the adhesive behaviour of the neutrophil is modulated by soluble fibrinogen when present at a physiological concentration. This led us to propose that this plasma glycoprotein might further influence leukocyte recruitment in vivo and thus contribute to the inflammatory response. To address this in vivo, leukocyte recruitment was here investigated under acute inflammatory conditions in the absence of soluble fibrinogen in the blood circulation. For such, intravital microscopy on mesentery post-capillary venules was performed on homozygous fibrinogen α chain-deficient mice ((α-/-) mice). Acute inflammatory states were induced by perfusing platelet activating factor (PAF) over the exposed tissue. As control animals, two groups of mice expressing soluble fibrinogen in circulation were used, namely, C57BL/6 wild type animals and heterozygous fibrinogen α chain-deficient mice ((α+/-) mice). Under acute inflammatory conditions, an abnormal pattern of recruitment was observed for leukocytes in homozygous (α-/-) mice in comparison to both control groups. In fact, the former exhibited a significantly decreased number of rolling leukocytes that nevertheless, migrated with increased rolling velocities when compared to leukocytes from control animals. Consistently, homozygous mice further displayed a diminished number of adherent leukocytes than the other groups. Altogether our observations led us to conclude that leukocyte recruitment in homozygous (α-/-) mice is compromised what strongly suggests a role for soluble fibrinogen in leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

  10. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  11. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    that the potentiation of the RB by mAb 3D9 was associated with abrogation of E-CR1 function, whereas blockade of leukocyte-CR1 had a diminishing effect. Exposure to IC at high concentrations induced release of both specific and azurophilic granule contents from PMN. The latter was CR3 dependent in that blockade...

  12. Bacteriologic profile and antibiogram of blood culture isolates from a children's hospital in Kabul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Tariq Mahmud

    2014-06-01

    To identify the bacterial pathogens causing paediatric septicaemia in Kabul and to determine their antibiogram to improve empirical antibiotic therapy. Cross-sectional study. Microbiology Laboratory of FMIC, Kabul, Afghanistan, from January 2010 to June 2012. Blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis were processed in BD (Becton Dickinson, USA) for culture BACTEC™ 9240 Blood Culture System. Positive growths were examined and isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Bacteria were identified to the species level using various Analytical Profile Index (API) identification strips. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Drug resistant strains were studied for extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production by combination disk method and for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by Cefoxitin disk diffusion method. Out of a total 3360 blood cultures received from in-patients, 410 yielded monomicrobial growth; hence the frequency of positive blood culture was 12.2%. Out of a total 410 isolates, 212 (51.71%) were gram-negative bacilli and 184 (44.88%) were gram-positive cocci. In addition, 14 (3.41%) Candida species were also isolated. The frequently isolated species of gram-negative bacteria belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and included 66 Klebsiella (16.1%), 42 Enterobacter (10.2%), 35 Escherichia (E.) coli (8.5%) and 16 Serratia (3.9%) species. In addition, 21 (5.12%) Pseudomonas species were also isolated. Correspondingly, amongst gram-positive cocci, the most frequently isolated species were 108 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (26.34%) followed by 49 Staphylococcus aureus (11.95%) and 21 Streptococcus species (5.12%). Among gram-negative isolates, those that produced ESBL i.e., 110 out of 212 (51.9%) were found to be multidrug-resistant and showed high resistance to commonly used antibiotics namely Ampicillin, Gentamicin, 3rd generation Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones and

  13. Expression profiling feline peripheral blood monocytes identifies a transcriptional signature associated with type two diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Caroline A; Sedhom, Mamdouh; Reeve-Johnson, Mia; Mallyon, John; Irvine, Katharine M

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease of cats and is similar to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans, especially with respect to the role of obesity-induced insulin resistance, glucose toxicity, decreased number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic amyloid deposition. Cats have thus been proposed as a valuable translational model of T2D. In humans, inflammation associated with adipose tissue is believed to be central to T2D development, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are important in the inflammatory cascade which leads to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. PBM may thus provide a useful window to study the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in cats, however feline monocytes are poorly characterised. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Feline 1.0ST array to profile peripheral blood monocytes from 3 domestic cats with T2D and 3 cats with normal glucose tolerance. Feline monocytes were enriched for genes expressed in human monocytes, and, despite heterogeneous gene expression, we identified a T2D-associated expression signature associated with cell cycle perturbations, DNA repair and the unfolded protein response, oxidative phosphorylation and inflammatory responses. Our data provide novel insights into the feline monocyte transcriptome, and support the hypothesis that inflammatory monocytes contribute to T2D pathogenesis in cats as well as in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripheral blood RNA gene expression profiling in illicit methcathinone users reveals effect on immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eSikk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Methcathinone (ephedrone is relatively easily accessible for abuse. Its users develop an extrapyramidal syndrome and it is not known if this is caused by methcathinone itself, by side-ingredients (manganese, or both. In the present study we aimed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. We analyzed whole genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from 20 methcathinone users and 20 matched controls. Gene expression profile data was analyzed by Bayesian modelling and functional annotation. In order to verify the genechip results we performed quantitative real-time (RT PCR in selected genes. 326 out of analyzed 28,869 genes showed statistically significant differential expression with FDR adjusted p-values below 0.05. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed differential expression for the most of selected genes. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated that most of the genes were related to activation immunological disease, cellular movement and cardiovascular disease gene network (enrichment score 42. As HIV and HCV infections were confounding factors, we performed additional stratification of patients. A similar functional activation of the immunological disease pathway was evident when we compared patients according to the injection status (past versus current users, balanced for HIV and HCV infection. However, this difference was not large therefore the major effect was related to the HIV status of the patients. Mn-methcathinone abusers have blood transcriptional patterns mostly caused by their HIV and HCV infections.

  15. Influence of physical and emotional activity on the metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Bayeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article data are presented on dynamics of the level of indicators of metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses of the Ukrainian riding breed in the conditions of physical and emotional loading. Clinically healthy race horses were the object of  research. Blood was taken from the jugular vein to obtain serum and for further biochemical research. For the research 12 race horses from a training group were chosen. From time to time the animals took part in competitions; they were not specially used in races and were mostly used for the training of junior riders and sportsmen of different levels. Blood was taken in conditions of relative rest after ordinary training and after emotional stress during the entertainment performances when a large number of people were present and loud music was played. In the blood serum the following biochemical indicators were defined: whole protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin and its fractions, glucose, cholestererol, triacylglycerol, calcium, ferrum, lactate, pyruvate, activity of the AlAT, SGOT, GGTP, LDH, an alkaline phosphatase – which makes it possible to determine reasonably accurately the adaptation potential of a horse under various types of loading. We established that during training and psychoemotional loading of racing horses of the training group of the Ukrainian riding breed, multidirectional changes in the level of biochemical indicators of blood serum occurred, which is evidence of stress in the metabolic processes in the animals’ organisms. Concentration of a biomarker of an oxidative stress, uric acid, increased after physical loading by 8.6%, and after emotional loading by 55.1%, which demonstrates that emotional stress had the more negative effect, indicating insufficient adaptation by the horses before demonstration performances. After physical loading, reaction of transamination in the horses’ liver cells intensified, and after emotional loading its intensity

  16. Prenatal diagnostic procedure for leukocyte adhesion deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening, R. S.; Bredius, R. G.; Wolf, H.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which leads to recurrent severe infections due to impaired leukocyte functions. The disorder is caused by an absence or deficiency of leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (LeuCAMs) on the leukocyte membranes. The diagnosis is

  17. Diagnosis of partial body radiation exposure in mice using peripheral blood gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Meadows

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a terrorist-mediated attack in the United States using radiological or improvised nuclear weapons, it is expected that hundreds of thousands of people could be exposed to life-threatening levels of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that genome-wide expression analysis of the peripheral blood (PB can generate gene expression profiles that can predict radiation exposure and distinguish the dose level of exposure following total body irradiation (TBI. However, in the event a radiation-mass casualty scenario, many victims will have heterogeneous exposure due to partial shielding and it is unknown whether PB gene expression profiles would be useful in predicting the status of partially irradiated individuals. Here, we identified gene expression profiles in the PB that were characteristic of anterior hemibody-, posterior hemibody- and single limb-irradiation at 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy in C57Bl6 mice. These PB signatures predicted the radiation status of partially irradiated mice with a high level of accuracy (range 79-100% compared to non-irradiated mice. Interestingly, PB signatures of partial body irradiation were poorly predictive of radiation status by site of injury (range 16-43%, suggesting that the PB molecular response to partial body irradiation was anatomic site specific. Importantly, PB gene signatures generated from TBI-treated mice failed completely to predict the radiation status of partially irradiated animals or non-irradiated controls. These data demonstrate that partial body irradiation, even to a single limb, generates a characteristic PB signature of radiation injury and thus may necessitate the use of multiple signatures, both partial body and total body, to accurately assess the status of an individual exposed to radiation.

  18. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  19. Changes in the thyroid hormone level and blood profile after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbac, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Exacerbation of hyperthyroidism has been reported to occur as early as 3 days after administration of radioiodine (I-131) therapy. The hematological effects of radioiodine also have been reported but mainly confined in thyroid cancer cases wherein high doses are administered. This study was undertaken to determine the possible acute changes in the thyroid hormone concentration and blood picture of patients one week after therapy. Twelve hyperthyroid patients (8 females, 4 males), with ages ranging from 27-56 years, were followed with measurements of serum thyroid hormone levels and blood profile a week after I-131 therapy. All patients were pretreated with antithyroid medications. Radioiodine doses given ranged from 8 mCi up to 16 mCi, all based from the computed dose of 160 uCi/g. Only two out of twelve (2/12) exhibited an increase in FT3 level. Two patients showed a decrease while the remaining 8 patients showed no significant difference. Six out of 12 (50%) exhibited an increase in FT4 level. Five patients showed a decrease while only one had no significant difference. Hematologically, there were 5/12, 1/12, 3/12, 5/12 and 1/12 patients who showed a decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, WBC and platelet counts, respectively. Four out of 12, 2/12, and 1/12 patients, however, showed an increase in hemoglobin, RBC and platelet, respectively. The rest exhibited no significant change. FT4 level was observed to be more affected than FT3 levels but there was no consistent pattern established. A significant decrease in WBC count was observed. Although a high percentage of decreased hemoglobin was noted, no pattern was established. Radioiodine therapy caused no significant increase of serum FT3 and FT4 concentrations in the majority of patients after one week of therapy. In the followup of patients, determination of complete blood count of patients is also important. (author)

  20. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Xerxa

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE, are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic

  1. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Trend

    Full Text Available Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood.Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age, very preterm (28-31 wk, and moderately preterm (32-36 wk, as well as term (37-41 wk infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2-5, transitional (d8-12 and mature milk (d26-30 samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry.The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed.Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  2. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm ( larva on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01, average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.01. During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08. In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01, ADFI (p<0.05 and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07 during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05. In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05 and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03 were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  3. Isoelectric leukocyte focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leise, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    Modified electrophoretic separation procedure yields 70 to 80 percent visible cells for small-scale immunological and clinical profiling. All reagents and preparations used in separation and characterization procedures are commercially available.

  4. Four-part leukocyte differential count based on sheathless microflow cytometer and fluorescent dye assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wendian; Guo, Luke; Kasdan, Harvey; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2013-04-07

    Leukocyte differential count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals. This paper reports a point-of-care test for the leukocyte count by using a microflow cytometer and a fluorescent dye assay. The dye assay relied on fluorescent detection alone to count leukocytes in blood and to identify leukocyte subtypes. By combining the fluorescent assay with a sheathless microflow design, the proposed method achieved a minimal sample volume by eliminating excessive dilution and sheath flow. In this paper, a four-part leukocyte differential count including lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil was demonstrated, and the whole test consumed only a small amount of blood (5 μL) and reagents (68 μL in total). The merits of minimal sample volume, long reagent shelf life and portable instrument made this method optimal for point-of-care applications.

  5. Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood.

  6. Trends in the profile of blood donors at a large blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Thelma; Sabino, Ester C; Chamone, Dalton F

    2003-01-01

    To describe the trends in the profile of blood donors from 1995 through 2001 at a large blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, particularly following the initiation in 1998 of marketing strategies aimed at substituting replacement donors with altruistic repeat donors. Using an information system that had been established at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo) in 1994, we collected information on sex, age, and type of donation for the years 1995-2001. We classified blood donors as either replacement blood donors (if they stated that the reason for donating was that they had a friend or relative in the hospital) or as altruistic donors. First-time blood donors were those who had not donated in our institution since the establishment of the information system. The percentage of repeat altruistic blood donors increased over time as first-time replacement donors declined for both genders. The proportion of altruistic donors climbed from 20% of all blood donors in 1995 to 57% in 2001. In 2001, first-time blood donors represented only 52% of all donors, as contrasted to 88% in 1995. Female donors increased from 20% to 37% of the donors over the period studied. Our data provide evidence that the São Paulo population has responded well to the marketing strategies that have been introduced in our institution. We believe that similar promotional efforts elsewhere in Brazil would produce comparable, positive results.

  7. Reduction in mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral leukocytes after onset of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Hvidberg; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Sørensen, Sven Asger

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by movement disorder, cognitive symptoms and psychiatric symptoms with predominantly adult-onset. The mutant huntingtin protein leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in blood leukocytes. This discovery led...

  8. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis

  9. The Effects of Physical Training on Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaigne, B. N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) participated in a 12-week exercise program to determine whether such training would bring about changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles. The findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for individuals with IDDM. (MT)

  10. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Viremic profiles in asymptomatic and symptomatic chikungunya fever: a blood transfusion threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appassakij, Hatsadee; Khuntikij, Paiwon; Kemapunmanus, Marisa; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Silpapojakul, Khachornsakdi

    2013-10-01

    The presence of a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak could have an impact on transfusion safety when there are a large number of infected persons during an epidemic. Serosurveys have found that 3% to 28% of infected persons remain asymptomatic and are potential disseminators of transfusion-associated chikungunya. However, the viremic profiles of asymptomatic chikungunya patients, the major determinant of the transfusion risk, are unknown. Data on CHIKV viremic profiles were obtained from a case-control study carried out in a chikungunya-affected area during the 2009 epidemic in Songkhla, Thailand. CHIKV-infected individuals were classified based on a combination of the patient's history and clinical and laboratory findings. There were 134 laboratory-proven CHIKV-infected cases, of whom 122 (91.0%) were symptomatic and 12 (9.0%) were asymptomatic. The viremic levels in the symptomatic infected individuals peaked on the first 3 days and lasted up to 8 days as defined by viral isolates. CHIKV genomic products were detected as late as Day 17 of illness. The viral loads observed in the symptomatic individuals (median, 5.6 × 10(5) plaque-forming units per milliliter [pfu/mL]; range, 1.3 × 10(1) -2.9 × 10(8) pfu/mL) were higher than but not significantly different from those observed in the viremic asymptomatic individuals (median, 3.4 × 10(3) pfu/mL; range, 8.4 × 10(1) -2.9 × 10(5) pfu/mL [p = 0.22, Wilcoxon test]). CHIKV infection is highly symptomatic and is associated with high-titred viremia. The viremic levels in asymptomatic CHIKV-infected individuals were in the range known to be capable of transmitting the disease to experimental animals. Asymptomatic CHIKV viremia individuals could be potential disseminators of transfusion-associated chikungunya. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Gene expression profile of peripheral blood monocytes: a step towards the molecular diagnosis of celiac disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Galatola

    Full Text Available AIM: Celiac disease (CD is a multifactorial autoimmune disease induced by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Despite technological progress, the diagnosis of CD is still based on duodenal biopsy as it was 50 years ago. In this study we analysed the expression of CD-associated genes in small bowel biopsies of patients and controls in order to explore the multivariate pathway of the expression profile of CD patients. Then, using multivariant discriminant analysis, we evaluated whether the expression profiles of these genes in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs differed between patients and controls. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven patients with active and 11 with treated CD, 40 healthy controls and 9 disease controls (Crohn's disease patients were enrolled. RESULTS: Several genes were differentially expressed in CD patients versus controls, but the analysis of each single gene did not provided a comprehensive picture. A multivariate discriminant analysis showed that the expression of 5 genes in intestinal mucosa accounted for 93% of the difference between CD patients and controls. We then applied the same approach to PBMs, on a training set of 20 samples. The discriminant equation obtained was validated on a testing cohort of 10 additional cases and controls, and we obtained a correct classification of all CD cases and of 91% of the control samples. We applied this equation to treated CD patients and to disease controls and obtained a discrimination of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The combined expression of 4 genes allows one to discriminate between CD patients and controls, and between CD patients on a gluten-free diet and disease controls. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complex interactions among CD-associated genes, and they may represent a starting point for the development of a molecular diagnosis of celiac disease.

  13. Leukocytes respiratory burst activity as indicator of innate immunity of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the assay to quantify the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu as an indicator of the innate immune system, using the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan as a measure of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to assess the accuracy of the assay, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after challenge. The A. hydrophila infection increased the leukocyte respiratory burst activity. The protocol showed a reliable and easy assay, appropriate to determine the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu, a neotropical fish, in the present experimental conditions.

  14. Haematological and blood biochemical profile in lactating buffaloes in and around Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Hagawane

    Full Text Available Forty buffaloes in early, mid and late lactation with a drop in a milk production were screened for haematological and blood biochemical profile. In early stage of lactation haemoglobin concentration showed lowered trend as compared to recorded means in other groups of lactating buffaloes.  The mean value of TLC in dry pregnant group of buffaloes was 10.05± 0.89 X 103 /cmm showed slightly higher trend than the normal healthy control group. The blood glucose was significantly higher in dry buffaloes (52.72±4.22 mg/dl than the early and late lactating buffaloes (48.23±3.44 mg/dl. During early stage of lactation the serum total protein values (8.36±0.47 g/dl was slightly elevated than the normal healthy control (8.00±0.57 g/dl. The urea nitrogen values differ significantly (P<0.05 amongst different groups of lactating buffaloes. The descending trend in the serum cholesterol concentration in dry pregnant buffaloes compared to lactating buffaloes was observed. There was drop in calcium level during early stage of lactation (8.19±0.83 mg/dl than the normal healthy buffaloes (11.21±0.19 mg/dl. As the stage of lactation progresses the serum calcium level increased. Serum magnesium concentration in various groups of buffaloes did not differ significantly. Early lactation showed highest susceptibility for ketosis and hypocalcaemia. The metabolic disorder associated with hypophosphatemia was significantly high in dry (advance pregnant buffaloes. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 467-469

  15. Heparan sulphate as a regulator of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana V; Katakam, Sampath K; Urbanowitz, Ann-Kathrin; Gotte, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A key event in inflammatory disease is the transendothelial recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. Intense research in the past decades indicates that the polyanionic carbohydrate heparan sulphate (HS) modulates multiple steps in the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Leukocyte recruitment is initiated by endothelial cell activation and presentation of chemokines to rolling leukocytes, which, via integrin activation, results in adhesion and diapedesis through the vessel wall. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) immobilize the chemokines on the luminal endothelial cells, rendering them more robust against mechanical or hydrodynamic perturbations. During inflammation, endothelial HSPGs serve as ligands to L-selectin on leukocytes, transport chemokines in a basolateral to apical direction across the endothelium, and present chemokines at the luminal surface of the endothelium to circulating cells. HSPGs also promote chemokine oligomerization, which influences chemokine receptor signaling. Furthermore, proteoglycans of the syndecan family are involved in modulating integrin-mediated tight adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. Creation of a chemokine gradient by a localized chemokine release influences the speed of leukocyte recruitment from the blood to the tissue by attracting crawling neutrophils to optimal sites for transmigration. The directionality of intraluminal crawling is thought to be influenced by both mechanotactic and haptotactic signals, which are modulated by HS-dependent signaling processes. Finally, diapedesis is influenced by HS regarding transendothelial chemokine gradient formation and integrin- CAM interactions, and further enhanced by heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial basement membrane. Overall, the multifunctional role of HS in inflammation marks it as a potential target of glycan-centered therapeutic approaches.

  16. Insulin radioreceptor assay on murine splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, F.; Kahn, R.

    1982-01-01

    Insulin radioreceptor assays were developed using splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes from individual mice. Splenic leukocytes were prepared using an NH 4 Cl buffer which did not alter insulin binding, but gave much higher yields than density gradient methods. Mouse erythrocytes were isolated from heparinized blood by three passages over a Boyum gradient, and a similar buffer was used to separate cells from free [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at the end of the binding incubation. Insulin binding to both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes had typical pH, temperature, and time dependencies, and increased linearly with an increased number of cells. Optimal conditions for the splenic leukocytes (6 x 10 7 /ml) consisted of incubation with [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.0. In cells from 20 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 2.6 +/- 0.1% (SEM), and nonspecific binding was 0.3 +/- 0.04% (10.6% of total binding). Erythrocytes (2.8 x 10 9 /ml) were incubated with [ 125 ]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.2. In cells from 25 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 4.5 +/- 0.2%, and nonspecific binding was 0.7 +/- 0.03% (13.6% of total binding). In both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes, analysis of equilibrium binding data produced curvilinear Scatchard plots with approximately 3500 binding sites/leukocyte and 20 binding sites/erythrocyte. These data demonstrate that adequate numbers of splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes can be obtained from individual mice to study insulin binding in a precise and reproducible manner

  17. Current pesticide profiles in blood serum of adults in Jiangsu Province of China and a comparison with other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chunxin; Chen, Minjian; Gao, Jiawei; Luo, Jia; Wu, Keqin; Dong, Tianyu; Zhou, Kun; He, Xiaowei; Hu, Weiyue; Wu, Wei; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Meeker, John D; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2017-05-01

    Although various pesticides were used globally, the pesticides profiles in human blood serum remain largely unknown. We determined pesticide exposure profiles using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography tandem with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in 200 human blood serum samples from the adult population in Jiangsu Province, China. A systematic and comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify the articles investigating pesticide exposure and compare exposure data. Of the 88 pesticides, 76 were found in the blood serum of the population in Jiangsu Province. To the best of our knowledge, 58 pesticides were reported in human blood serum for the first time, and among these pesticides, parathion-methyl, pyrimethanil, fluacrypyrim, simazine, cloquintocet-mexyl and barban were debatable in more than half of the samples. By statistical comparison of the blood serum levels of pesticides between this study and other countries, we found the levels of several organochlorine pesticides were significantly higher in the female population of Jiangsu Province. Health risks related to the pesticide profiling were then revealed, which identified higher carcinogenic toxicity and teratogenic toxicity risk in the female adults of Jiangsu Province caused by organochlorine pesticide exposure. This study not only provides a high-throughput pesticide screening method for future studies of the exposome, but also presents the first human data on exposure to a number of pesticides. It may provide a knowledge database for the risk assessment and management of the pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were used to derive dietary patterns. Factor analysis was conducted to ascertain the dietary patterns, and analysis of covariance was fitted to assess the relation between blood profiles, body weight and adherence to dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified, Vegetable & Poultry, Western and Semi-healthy. After control for potential confounders, body mass index (b = -0/03, p fasting blood glucose (b = 0.014, p related to HDL-cholesterol (b = 0.006 p related to body weight, semi healthy related to lower LDL and higher HDL cholesterol whereas western related to higher fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol. Further studies are necessary to confirm the benefits of the dietary patterns for diabetes.

  19. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Magallanes, Jorge; Zupan, Jure; Líberman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: ► We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. ► Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. ► The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. ► It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. ► The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  20. Effect of N'-nitrosodimethylamine on red blood cell rheology and proteomic profiles of brain in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Areeba; Fatima, Ravish; Maheshwari, Veena; Ahmad, Riaz

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the effects of N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) induced toxicity on red blood cell rheology in male rats and identified bands in proteomic profiles of brain which can be used as novel markers. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) profiles exhibited constitutive as well as induced expression of the polypeptides. Remarkably, the molecular weight range of the polypeptides (8-150 kDa) corresponded to that of the family of heat shock proteins. Our results revealed significant changes in blood parameters and showed the presence of acanthocytes, tear drop cells, spicules and cobot rings in the treated categories. Lactate dehydrogenase and esterase zymograms displayed a shift to anaerobic metabolism generating hypoxia-like conditions. This study strongly suggests that NDMA treatment causes acute toxicity leading to cell membrane destruction and alters protein profiles in rats. It is therefore recommended that caution should be exercised in using NDMA to avoid risks, and if at all necessary strategies should be designed to combat such conditions.

  1. Finger stick blood collection for gene expression profiling and storage of tempus blood RNA tubes [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darawan Rinchai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With this report we aim to make available a standard operating procedure (SOP developed for RNA stabilization of small blood volumes collected via a finger stick. The anticipation that this procedure may be improved through peer-review and/or readers public comments is another element motivating the publication of this SOP. Procuring blood samples from human subjects can, among other uses, enable assessment of the immune status of an individual subject via the profiling of RNA abundance using technologies such as real time PCR, NanoString, microarrays or RNA-sequencing. It is often desirable to minimize blood volumes and employ methods that are the least invasive and can be practically implemented outside of clinical settings. Finger stick blood samples are increasingly used for measurement of levels of pharmacological drugs and biological analytes. It is a simple and convenient procedure amenable for instance to field use or self-collection at home using a blood sample collection kit. Such methodologies should also enable the procurement of blood samples at high frequency for health or disease monitoring applications.

  2. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  3. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shiwa

    Full Text Available Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03 when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50 when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14 by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45 and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17. These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  4. Bacteriologic Profile and Antibiogram of Blood Culture Isolates from a Children's Hospital in Kabul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, O. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the bacterial pathogens causing paediatric septicaemia in Kabul and to determine their antibiogram to improve empirical antibiotic therapy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Laboratory of FMIC, Kabul, Afghanistan, from January 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: Blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis were processed in BD (Becton Dickinson, USA) for culture BACTEC 9240 Blood Culture System. Positive growths were examined and isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Bacteria were identified to the species level using various Analytical Profile Index (API) identification strips. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Drug resistant strains were studied for extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production by combination disk method and for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by Cefoxitin disk diffusion method. Results: Out of a total 3360 blood cultures received from in-patients, 410 yielded monomicrobial growth; hence the frequency of positive blood culture was 12.2%. Out of a total 410 isolates, 212 (51.71%) were gram-negative bacilli and 184 (44.88%) were gram-positive cocci. In addition, 14 (3.41%) Candida species were also isolated. The frequently isolated species of gram-negative bacteria belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and included 66 Klebsiella (16.1%), 42 Enterobacter (10.2%), 35 Escherichia (E.) coli (8.5%) and 16 Serratia (3.9%) species. In addition, 21 (5.12%) Pseudomonas species were also isolated. Correspondingly, amongst gram-positive cocci, the most frequently isolated species were 108 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (26.34%) followed by 49 Staphylococcus aureus (11.95%) and 21 Streptococcus species (5.12%). Among gram-negative isolates, those that produced ESBL i.e., 110 out of 212 (51.9%) were found to be multidrug-resistant and showed high resistance to commonly used antibiotics namely

  5. Cognitive profiles and regional cerebral blood flow changes in individuals with Asperger's disorder and Schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motoichiro; Hayashi, Mika; Nozaki, Syoko

    2008-01-01

    Described are differences of the profiles and blood flow (CBF) changes in the title between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). Children with AD syndrome have been suggested to have reasoning and fluid intelligence superior to normally developed ones, and to be of cognitive disability for the spatial composition which is thought to reflect the impairment in the right hemisphere. These characteristics are not suggested in SZ. Presented are examinations by authors of 99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with Patlak method of 7 AD males (average age 24.4 y), 4 AD females (25.5 y), and 4 males and 2 females with SZ (25.8 y). Image analysis is done by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) with standardized brain. Control with the matched age and sex is obtained from database of the normal healthy ones. In AD, clearly lowered CBF is observed in the right lateral and medial parietal lobe and right superior temporal convolution (particularly, in females), and in SZ, in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial regions of frontal lobe of both sides. The finding in the right superior temporal convolution in AD is considered to be important from the aspect of impairment of eye gaze processing. (R.T.)

  6. Transcriptional profiling of rat skeletal muscle hypertrophy under restriction of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shouyu; Liu, Xueyun; Chen, Zhenhuang; Li, Gaoquan; Chen, Qin; Zhou, Guoqing; Ma, Ruijie; Yao, Xinmiao; Huang, Xiao

    2016-12-15

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) under low-intensity resistance training (LIRT) can produce similar effects upon muscles to that of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) while overcoming many of the restrictions to HIRT that occurs in a clinical setting. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of BFR induced muscle hypertrophy remain largely unknown. Here, using a BFR rat model, we aim to better elucidate the mechanisms regulating muscle hypertrophy as induced by BFR and reveal possible clinical therapeutic targets for atrophy cases. We performed genome wide screening with microarray analysis to identify unique differentially expressed genes during rat muscle hypertrophy. We then successfully separated the differentially expressed genes from BRF treated soleus samples by comparing the Affymetrix rat Genome U34 2.0 array with the control. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) we also analyzed other related differentially expressed genes. Results suggested that muscle hypertrophy induced by BFR is essentially regulated by the rate of protein turnover. Specifically, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways act as positive regulators in controlling protein synthesis where ubiquitin-proteasome acts as a negative regulator. This represents the first general genome wide level investigation of the gene expression profile in the rat soleus after BFR treatment. This may aid our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating and controlling muscle hypertrophy and provide support to the BFR strategies aiming to prevent muscle atrophy in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01. The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01. In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics.

  8. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce leukocyte-derived bioactive substance accumulation in patients operated for burn trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Krarup, Annabel Lee

    1999-01-01

    Adverse effects of perioperative blood transfusion appear to be storage-time-dependent and may be related to extracellular accumulation of bioactive substances in blood products. In this study the clinical effects of leukofiltered and non-filtered blood products in patients undergoing surgery for...... died in group A and 2 in group B; all with a Bull and Fischer index between 1.0 and 2.0. Prestorage leukocyte filtration may reduce transfusion related accumulation of various bioactive substances and the requirement for blood in burn trauma patients....

  9. Scintigraphic demonstration of abscesses with radioactive gallium labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, R.L.; Holman, B.L.; Tow, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Autologous peripheral blood leukocytes, labeled in vitro with 67 Ga citrate, have been studied in 20 patients as a radioactive carrier for the scintigraphic visualization of septic inflammatory areas. 67 Ga citrate was added to venous whole blood; following incubation, the blood was centrifuged, and the packed cells were reinfused. Scintiscans were obtained four and 24 hours later. The inflammatory process was demonstrated in nine of nine patients with confirmed sepsis. Eleven patients without sepsis had normal scans. There were no false-negative scans and one false-positive scan. The selective accumulation of the gallium labeled leukocytes in areas of septic inflammation was sufficient to allow scintigraphic demonstration of the inflammatory area

  10. Gene expression profiling of whole blood: Comparison of target preparation methods for accurate and reproducible microarray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Kristina; Slottke, Rachel; Johnstone, Timothy; Casale, Amanda; Planck, Stephen R; Choi, Dongseok; Smith, Justine R; Rosenbaum, James T; Harrington, Christina A

    2009-01-01

    Background Peripheral blood is an accessible and informative source of transcriptomal information for many human disease and pharmacogenomic studies. While there can be significant advantages to analyzing RNA isolated from whole blood, particularly in clinical studies, the preparation of samples for microarray analysis is complicated by the need to minimize artifacts associated with highly abundant globin RNA transcripts. The impact of globin RNA transcripts on expression profiling data can potentially be reduced by using RNA preparation and labeling methods that remove or block globin RNA during the microarray assay. We compared four different methods for preparing microarray hybridization targets from human whole blood collected in PAXGene tubes. Three of the methods utilized the Affymetrix one-cycle cDNA synthesis/in vitro transcription protocol but varied treatment of input RNA as follows: i. no treatment; ii. treatment with GLOBINclear; or iii. treatment with globin PNA oligos. In the fourth method cDNA targets were prepared with the Ovation amplification and labeling system. Results We find that microarray targets generated with labeling methods that reduce globin mRNA levels or minimize the impact of globin transcripts during hybridization detect more transcripts in the microarray assay compared with the standard Affymetrix method. Comparison of microarray results with quantitative PCR analysis of a panel of genes from the NF-kappa B pathway shows good correlation of transcript measurements produced with all four target preparation methods, although method-specific differences in overall correlation were observed. The impact of freezing blood collected in PAXGene tubes on data reproducibility was also examined. Expression profiles show little or no difference when RNA is extracted from either fresh or frozen blood samples. Conclusion RNA preparation and labeling methods designed to reduce the impact of globin mRNA transcripts can significantly improve the

  11. Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

  12. Role of sudarshan kriya and pranayam on lipid profile and blood cell parameters during exam stress: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Swapna; Elango, Tamilselvi; Malligarjunan, Hemamalini; Kochupillai, Vinod; Dayalan, Haripriya

    2012-01-01

    Yoga is a science practiced in India over thousands of years. It produces constituent physiological changes and has sound scientific basis. Since exam stress modifies lipid profile and hematological parameters, we conducted an investigation on the effect of sudarshan kriya (SK and P) program on these parameters. Blood samples of 43 engineering students were collected at four intervals namely baseline (BL), exam stress (ES), three and six weeks practice of SK and P during exam stress. Lipid profile and hematological parameters were measured at all four intervals. ES elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Hematological parameters affected by ES included neutrophil, lymphocytes, platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV) and mean cell volume (MCV). Three and six weeks practice of SK and P reduced the elevated lipid profile, hematological parameters and improved lymphocyte levels. Our study indicates that SK and P practice has the potential to overcome ES by improving lipid profile and hematological parameters.

  13. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  14. Hydrodynamic forces on a wall-bound leukocyte due to interactions with flowing red cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2011-11-01

    As part of both healthy and pathologically physiological mechanisms sphere-like white blood cells (leukocytes) adhere to the walls of small blood vessels. We use quantitative numerical simulations to compare the forces from flowing red blood cells on a wall-adhered leukocyte to a homogenized model of blood at the same flow conditions. We model the highly flexible red blood cells using a fast O (N log N) boundary integral formulation. These elastic membranes deform substantially but strongly resist surface dilatation. They enclose a higher than plasma viscosity hemoglobin solution. The no-slip condition is enforced on the stationary leukocyte as well as the vessel walls. Vessel diameters of 10 to 20 microns are studied. Different hematocrits, leukocyte shapes, and flow conditions are examined. In vessels comparable to the size of the cells, we show that the particulate character of blood significantly affects the magnitude of the forces that the leukocyte experiences, transiently increasing it well above the homogenized-blood prediction: for example, for a tube hematocrit of 25 % and a spherical protrusion with a diameter 0.75 that of the tube, the average forces are increased by about 40 % and the local forces by more than 100 % relative to those expected for a blood model homogenized by its effective viscosity.

  15. Long-Term Leukocyte Filtration Should Be Avoided during Extracorporeal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiali; Tao, Kaiyu; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Chongwei; Gong, Lina; Luo, Nanfu

    2013-01-01

    Filtration during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) not only removes but also activates leukocytes; therefore, long-term leukocyte filtration may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by priming ECC with 300 mL of canine blood and examining filtration effects in 3 groups (n = 6 each) during 60 min ECC. In the control group (Group C) blood was filtrated with an arterial filter for 60 min; in long-term (Group L) and short-term (Group S) groups, blood was filtrated with a leukocyte filter for 60 and 5 min. We found that about 90% of leukocytes were removed after 5 min of filtration in both Groups L and S. Although leukocyte count continued to reduce, mean fluorescent intensities of CD11/CD18, free hemoglobin, and neutrophil elastase increased in Group L and were higher than those in Groups C and S at 60 min. Leukocyte rupture, cytoplasmic leakage, and circulating naked nuclei were also found in Group L. The data support our hypothesis that long-term filtration can induce inflammation and lead to leukocyte destruction. PMID:24453424

  16. The Effectivity of Green Coconut Water To Reduce Mercury Level In The Blood And To Improve Blood Profiles And Liver Cells Appearance (Study In Sprague Dawley Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrzag, Ehmeeda M.; Nur Kristina, Tri; Suwondo, Ari; Sunoko, Henna Rya

    2018-02-01

    When people are exposed to mercury chloride, it can produce a variety of health effects in the blood and liver. Coconut water contains Zn, Fe, Vit. C, Vit B11, Vit. B6, and Se to reduce mercury chloride level in the blood and improve blood profile and liver cells. Aim of this study was to analysis the effect of green coconut water supplementation in overcoming the toxic effect of Hg chlorid in the blood and liver of Sprague dawley rats exposed to Hg chloride. Samples were randomly about 36 animals rats exposed to HgCl2 through forced feeding by 20 mg/kgBW sondage per day for 14 days, which divided into control group, and intervention groups were given fresh green coconut water in each by 6, 8, and 10 mL/kgBW for intervention 7 and 17 days. The result of this study showed that there is a significant effect and the decrease in mercury levels in the blood. There is no significant affect on the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and platelet count with the treatment of green coconut water in the mice with exposure Hg. There is no significant effect between treatments using green coconut water with SGPT levels; there is a decrease in SGPT levels at the increasing number of doses of green coconut water and the length of treatment.

  17. The Effectivity of Green Coconut Water To Reduce Mercury Level In The Blood And To Improve Blood Profiles And Liver Cells Appearance (Study In Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmeeda M Abdulrzag

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When people are exposed to mercury chloride, it can produce a variety of health effects in the blood and liver. Coconut water contains Zn, Fe, Vit. C, Vit B11, Vit. B6, and Se to reduce mercury chloride level in the blood and improve blood profile and liver cells. Aim of this study was to analysis the effect of green coconut water supplementation in overcoming the toxic effect of Hg chlorid in the blood and liver of Sprague dawley rats exposed to Hg chloride. Samples were randomly about 36 animals rats exposed to HgCl2 through forced feeding by 20 mg/kgBW sondage per day for 14 days, which divided into control group, and intervention groups were given fresh green coconut water in each by 6, 8, and 10 mL/kgBW for intervention 7 and 17 days. The result of this study showed that there is a significant effect and the decrease in mercury levels in the blood. There is no significant affect on the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and platelet count with the treatment of green coconut water in the mice with exposure Hg. There is no significant effect between treatments using green coconut water with SGPT levels; there is a decrease in SGPT levels at the increasing number of doses of green coconut water and the length of treatment.

  18. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

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    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  19. Copeptin levels and blood lipid profile in borderline patients with or without self-mutilation

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    Sevda Korkmaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Self-mutilation, known as self-harming behaviour of an individual without the intention of suicide, is commonly observed in individuals with borderline personality disorder. The objective of this study is to compare copeptin levels that are known to be related to aggressive behaviour and blood lipid profiles in borderline patients with and without self-mutilation. Methods: Twenty patients with self-mutilation [SM(+] and 20 patients without self-mutilation [SM(−] between the ages of 18 and 49, diagnosed with borderline personality disorder based on DSM-IV-TR(8 diagnostic criteria and attended to by Fırat University Psychiatry Polyclinic, participated in the study. Socio-demographic and clinical data form, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA and Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS were applied to all participants. Copeptin levels and plasma lipid levels were studied in the blood samples taken from the participants. Results: Mean copeptin level found in SM(+ group (37.54 ± 18.8 ng/mL was statistically significantly higher than SM(− group (18.53 ± 16.6 ng/mL (p = 0.002. A negative correlation was found between mean copeptin and mean total cholesterol levels (r = −0.436; p = 0.005, and between copeptin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL levels (r = −0.403; p = 0.01 in both SM(+ and SM(− patient groups. HAMA mean score for SM(+ group was found as 36.45 ± 13.2, and for SM(− group, it was found as 35.7 ± 12.9. There was a statistically significant difference between the depression points achieved by the two groups (p = 0.046. BIS total points average for SM(+ group was determined as 71 ± 9.71, whereas it was determined as 66.8 ± 7.92 in SM(− group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups based on anxiety points. Barrat planning, Barrat motor and Barrat attention points for SM(+ group were higher than the SM(− group. However, the difference was not

  20. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins.

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    Tess Pallister

    Full Text Available Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]. Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6, overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown, including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17, ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22, and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears: including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8 and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9, and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21. With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the

  1. VARIABILITY OF LEUKOCYTE COUNT AS AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AMONG HYPERTENSIVES

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    Brinda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hypertension, a globally prevailing non communicable disease has been linked to various pathophysiological mechanisms. The new spotlight is on the inflammatory mechanism, which has been embarked on this study by utilising the White blood cell counts as the predominant marker. The pathogenesis behind this concept is the endothelial alteration which occurs in hypertension, causing increased oxidative stress and release of inflammatory mediators and further causing damage to the vascular walls and may result in sustained hypertension. OBJECTIVE To substantiate the difference in leukocyte count among the hypertensives and normotensives, to assess the variation in the leukocyte count among varied grades of hypertension. METHODS 80 subjects and 40 controls of both sex and age between 20-60 years were taken. Subjects with other chronic medical disorders, pregnancy, menstruation phase, history of infections in past 3 months, obesity, smokers and regular alcoholics were excluded. Three recordings of blood pressure were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The differential leukocyte count was estimated with an automated counter. RESULTS Statistical analysis was done using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. Total Leukocyte count (Mean = 8397.50 ± 1666.57 was raised significantly among the hypertensives, with P value <0.001. Comparison was done on the total count with the varied hypertensive years, which was suggestive of increase in total count among the pre hypertensives (systolic pressure and there was linear increase in total count with diastolic pressure though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The elevation of white blood cell count is suggestive of underlying inflammatory mechanism among the hypertensives. The onset of inflammation could be at the onset of hypertension, as there is rise in total leukocyte count among the pre hypertensives which could also lead to sustained hypertension.

  2. Comparative expression profile of microRNAs in Anopheles anthropophagus midgut after blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenquan; Hao, Zhenhua; Huang, Liyang; Chen, Lingzi; Wei, Qimei; Cai, Liya; Liang, Shaohui

    2017-02-16

    Anopheles anthropophagus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. In a former study, we have investigated the global miRNA profiles in relation to sex in An. anthropophagus. However, the miRNAs contributing to the blood-feeding and infection with Plasmodium are still unknown. High-throughput sequencing was performed to identify miRNA profiles of An. anthropophagus midguts after blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection. The expression patterns of miRNA in different midgut libraries were compared based on transcripts per million reads (TPM), and further confirmed by Northern blots. Target prediction and pathway analysis were carried out to investigate the role of regulated miRNAs in blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection. We identified 67 known and 21 novel miRNAs in all three libraries (sugar-feeding, blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection) in An. anthropophagus midguts. Comparing with the sugar-feeding, the experssion of nine (6 known and 3 novel) and ten (9 known and 1 novel) miRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated respectively after blood-feeding (P anti-parasite immunity.

  3. Improving health profile of blood donors as a consequence of transfusion safety efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Tran, Trung Nam; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted...... in improvements. Mortality and cancer incidence among blood donors in Sweden and Denmark was investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All computerized blood bank databases were compiled into one database, which was linked to national population and health data registers. With a retrospective cohort study design, 1......,110,329 blood donors were followed for up to 35 years from first computer-registered blood donation to death, emigration, or December 31, 2002. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios expressed relative risk of death and cancer comparing blood donors to the general population. RESULTS: Blood donors had...

  4. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2......), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some...

  5. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-12-01

    The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = -9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, -1.53 mg/dl and - 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = -4.82 P syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  6. Compensatory gain of crossbred heifers supplemented in pastures under evaluation hormonal profile and blood parameters

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    Geraldo Trindade Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to verify the effect of nutritional management that alternates periods of energy/protein restriction and refeeding of grazing crossbred heifers during their prepuberty on the hormonal profile and blood parameters. The study was conducted at Princesa do Mateiro farm in Ribeirão do Largo, in the southwest region of the state of Bahia. Twenty crossbred heifers 5/8 Dairy Guzerat x 3/8 Dutch with an average age of 12 months and average body weight of 187 ± 13.74 kg were used at the beginning of the experiment. It lasted 238 days, 14 out of them were for the animals’ adaptation. The animals were kept in rotational grazing of Brachiariabrizantha cv. Marandú pastures and randomly assigned to two treatments: Control (T100 = animals receiving concentrate supplement to supply 100% of the nutrients requirement to gain 750 g day-1 of live weight and Compensatory Nutrition (CN. The animals of the CN treatment alternated periods of Restriction (T80 = receiving concentrate supplement to meet 80% of the demand for nutrients of the (T100 and periods of Refeeding (T120 = getting concentrate supplement to supply 120% of the nutrient requirements of the (T100 The final plasma concentrations of IGF-I, glucose and urea were higher (P0.05. There were positive correlations (P<0.05 between IGF-I, insulin, glucose and cholesterol, and a negative correlation (P<0.05 between IGF-I and urea. There were also positive correlation (P<0.05 between insulin and glucose and positive correlation (P<0.05 between glucose and cholesterol. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 of the urea with cholesterol, progesterone and protein. Progesterone also showed a positive correlation (P<0.05 with the protein.

  7. microRNA expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Klinefelter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUI, WEIGUO; OU, MINGLIN; CHEN, JIEJING; LI, HUAN; LIN, HUA; ZHANG, YUE; LI, WUXIAN; XUE, WEN; TANG, DONGE; GONG, WEIWEI; ZHANG, RUOHAN; LI, FENGYAN; DAI, YONG

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs are a type of small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, and the characterization of microRNA expression profiling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with Klinefelter syndrome requires further investigation. In this study, PBMCs were obtained from patients with Klinefelter syndrome and normal controls. After preparation of small RNA libraries, the two groups of samples were sequenced simultaneously using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, and novel and known microRNAs were analyzed. A total of 9,772,392 and 9,717,633 small RNA reads were obtained; 8,014,466 (82.01%) and 8,104,423 (83.40%) genome-matched reads, 64 and 49 novel microRNAs were identified in the library of Klinefelter syndrome and the library of healthy controls, respectively. There were 71 known microRNAs with differential expression levels between the two libraries. Clustering of over-represented gene ontology (GO) classes in predicted targets of novel microRNAs in the Klinefelter syndrome library showed that the most significant GO terms were genes involved in the endomembrane system, nucleotide binding and kinase activity. Our data revealed that there are a large number of microRNAs deregulated in PBMCs taken from patients with Klinefelter syndrome, of which certain novel and known microRNAs may be involved in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome. Further studies are necessary to determine the roles of microRNAs in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome in the future. PMID:23226734

  8. Scaling deterministic lateral displacement arrays for high throughput and dilution-free enrichment of leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David W.; Lord, Megan; Nordon, Robert E.

    2011-05-01

    A disposable device for fractionation of blood into its components that is simple to operate and provides throughput of greater than 1 mL min-1 is highly sought after in medical diagnostics and therapies. This paper describes a device with parallel deterministic lateral displacement devices for enrichment of leukocytes from blood. We show capture of 98% and approximately ten-fold enrichment of leukocytes in whole blood. We demonstrate scaling up through the integration of six parallel devices to achieve a flow rate of 115 µL of undiluted blood per minute per atmosphere of applied pressure.

  9. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF LEUKOCYTE REMOVAL FILTERS DURING BEDSIDE LEUKOCYTE FILTRATION OF RED-CELL CONCENTRATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GU, YJ; OBSTER, R; DEHAAN, J; HUET, RCGG; VANOEVEREN, W

    1992-01-01

    The biocompatibility of leukocyte removal filters was evaluated in four different types of leukocyte filters made from different materials during bedside leukocyte filtration of red cell concentrates (RCC). Two units of banked RCC were filtrated through each leukocyte filter inserted into the

  10. In vivo vascular flow profiling combined with optical tweezers based blood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Robert; Sugden, Wade W.; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Denz, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    In vivo wall shear rate is quantified during zebrafish development using particle image velocimetry for biomedical diagnosis and modeling of artificial vessels. By using brightfield microscopy based high speed video tracking we can resolve single heart-beat cycles of blood flow in both space and time. Maximum blood flow velocities and wall shear rates are presented for zebrafish at two and three days post fertilization. By applying biocompatible optical tweezers as an Optical rail we present rerouting of red blood cells in vivo. With purely light-driven means we are able to compensate the lack of proper red blood cell blood flow in so far unperfused capillaries.

  11. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood pressure profile in maharashtrian adolescent boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Suchitra B Parkhad; Sachin B Palve

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine how physical activity level and physical fitness affects the blood pressure profile of Maharashtrian adolescents to help in developing preventive strategies for the local population, as ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 Marathi Indian adolescent girls and boys of age group 14 -18 years. Physical activity level was assessed using Johnson Space Center/NASA Physical Activity...

  12. Receptor cleavage and P-selectin-dependent reduction of leukocyte adhesion in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Y.; Ha, Jessica N.; DeLano, Frank A.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2012-01-01

    The SHR, a genetic model for hypertension and the metabolic syndrome, has attenuated leukocyte adhesion to the postcapillary endothelium by an unknown mechanism. Based on recent evidence of elevated levels of MMPs in plasma and on microvascular endothelium of the SHR with cleavage of several receptor types, we hypothesize that the reduced leukocyte-endothelial interaction is a result of enhanced proteolytic cleavage of P-selectin on the postcapillary endothelium and PSGL-1 on leukocytes. The attenuated rolling interactions of SHR leukocytes with the endothelium were restored by chronic treatment with a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (CGS) for 24 weeks. The SHR MMP levels, in plasma and mesentery, as well as the systolic blood pressure, decreased significantly with treatment. In the SHR mesentery, labeling of P-selectin in the postcapillary venules by immunohistochemistry demonstrated, on average, a 31% lower extracellular P-selectin density compared with the normotensive WKY. A significantly lower extracellular PSGL-1 density on the membranes of SHR neutrophils compared with the WKY also supported our hypothesis. In vivo stimulation of the mesenteric postcapillary venules with histamine demonstrated that the SHR had an attenuated response, as measured by leukocyte rolling velocity on the endothelium. The reduced P-selectin and PSGL-1 density, on SHR postcapillary endothelium and on SHR leukocytes, respectively, was restored significantly by chronic MMP inhibition. The impaired ability of SHR leukocytes to reduce rolling velocity upon inflammatory stimulation led to fewer firmly adhered leukocytes to the endothelium as a contributor to immune suppression. PMID:22566571

  13. The ways of correction of fatty-acid profile of the blood in infants with food allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrin O.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examination of the fatty-acid profile of the lipid fraction of blood in infants with food allergy (FA and the effectiveness of dietary correction of violations. Patients and methods. The study involved 45 children in the age from 6 months to 3 years. All children underwent examination of the fatty-acid profile of the lipid blood fractions. A total of 25 children with FA in the complex therapy had received a dietary supplement «Smart omega® baby lemon» within a month. Results. According to the results of analysis of the fatty-acid profile of the lipid blood fraction in children with FA was found a fatty acids imbalance due to the increasing of the proportion of omega-6 PUFA, which is certifies about the proinflammatory direction of lipid metabolism. The inclusion to the complex therapy FA dietary supplement «Smart omega® baby lemon» has led to positive changes in the ratio of omega-3 / omega-6 PUFAs. In patients of the main group of observation was marked a reduction of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and skin improvement. Conclusions. For infants was recommended application of preparations containing omega-3 PUFAs taking into account the identified violations of the ratio of omega-3 / omega-6 PUFA as in children with FA so in practically healthy.

  14. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is concerned with the health risks to astronauts, particularly those risks related to radiation exposure. Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of (A) peripheral leukocyte distribution; (B) plasma cytokine levels; (C) cytokine production profiles following whole blood stimulation of either T cells or monocytes.

  15. Leukocyte adhesion - a fundamental process in leukocyte physiology

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    Gahmberg C.G.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion is of pivotal functional importance. The adhesion involves several different adhesion molecules, the most important of which are the leukocyte ß2-integrins (CD11/CD18, the intercellular adhesion molecules, and the selectins. We and others have extensively studied the specificity and binding sites in the integrins and the intercellular adhesion molecules for their receptors and ligands. The integrins have to become activated to exert their functions but the possible mechanisms of activation remain poorly understood. Importantly, a few novel intercellular adhesion molecules have been recently described, which seem to function only in specific tissues. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that changes in integrins and intercellular adhesion molecules are associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases.

  16. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (pguava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (pguava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  17. Supplementation of Mangosteen Pericarp Meal and Vitamin E on Egg Quality and Blood Profile of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rusli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the supplementation effects of mangosteen pericarp meal (MPM and vitamin E (VE in the diets on the egg quality and blood profile of laying hens. This research used 160 laying hens of Lohman strains 24 weeks of age. The observation was conducted for 11 weeks. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications (10 birds each was used in this experiment. The treatments consisted of R0 (control diet, R1 (R0 + 1 g MPM/kg ration, R2 (R0 + 2 g MPM/kg ration and R3 (R0 + 200 mg VE/kg ration. Variables measured were egg quality, yolk cholesterol, and blood profiles. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA and any significant difference between the treatment means were further tested by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of 1 g MPM/kg ration in the diet significantly (P0.05 egg quality (except shell thickness, blood cholesterol, and HDL, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation of 1 g MPM/kg in the diet of laying hens could decrease blood triglycerides.

  18. Transcriptomic profiling of peripheral blood nucleated cells in dogs with and without clinical signs of chronic mitral valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garncarz Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to demonstrate differences in the gene expression of signalling pathways between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic mitral valve disease in different heart failure groups. Blood samples were collected from 49 dogs of various breeds between 1.4 and 15.2 years of age. Isolated RNA samples were analysed for quality and integrity and the gene expression profile was determined. The study demonstrated that nucleated cells from peripheral blood can be used to assess the status of heart failure in dogs. Furthermore, significant differences in the expression of the genes were noticed between healthy dogs and dogs with clinical signs of chronic mitral valve disease. This is a preliminary non-invasive study showing the feasibility of genetic testing from peripheral blood nucleated cells, which at the same time has made it possible to set the future directions of genetic studies in clinical cases of canine chronic mitral valve disease.

  19. A high-throughput microfluidic approach for 1000-fold leukocyte reduction of platelet-rich plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Strachan, Briony C.; Gifford, Sean C.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2016-10-01

    Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current ‘leukoreduction’ filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional ‘dead end’ filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed ‘controlled incremental filtration’ (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime. Leukocytes are separated from platelets within the PRP by progressively syphoning clarified PRP away from the concentrated leukocyte flowstream. Filtrate PRP collected from an optimally-designed CIF device typically showed a ~1000-fold (i.e. 99.9%) reduction in leukocyte concentration, while recovering >80% of the original platelets, at volumetric throughputs of ~1 mL/min. These results suggest that the CIF approach will enable users in many fields to now apply the advantages of microfluidic devices to particle separation, even for applications requiring macroscale flowrates.

  20. Routinely analyzed leukocyte characteristics improve prediction of mortality after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsberts, Crystel M; Ellenbroek, Guilielmus Hjm; Ten Berg, Maarten J; Huisman, Albert; van Solinge, Wouter W; Asselbergs, Folkert W; den Ruijter, Hester M; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique Pv; Hoefer, Imo E

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation and leukocyte infiltration are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Clinically routine hematology analyzers mostly perform an entire differential blood count by default, irrespective of the requested parameter. We hypothesize that these normally unreported leukocyte characteristics associate with coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and can improve prediction of mortality in coronary angiography patients. We studied coronary angiography patients suspected of CAD (n = 1015) from the Utrecht Coronary Biobank cohort. Leukocyte characteristics were routinely assessed in blood drawn directly prior to angiography using an automated hematology analyzer and extracted from the Utrecht patient oriented database (UPOD) database. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 805 days, during which 65 patients died. We evaluated the association of leukocyte characteristics with synergy between PCI with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score as a measure of CAD severity, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). In order to determine the improvement of risk prediction, we calculated continuous net reclassification improvement (cNRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Monocyte percentage showed strong independent predictive value for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44 (1.19-1.74), p leukocyte characteristics for all-cause mortality confirmed the improvement in mortality risk prediction. No significantly predictive leukocyte characteristics were found for MACEs. Readily available yet unreported leukocyte characteristics from routine hematology analyzers significantly improved prediction of mortality in coronary angiography patients on top of clinical characteristics. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  1. Demographic profile of blood donors in Brazil: Results from the International REDS II Study, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Proietti, AB; Sabino, EC; Sampaio, D; Proietti, FA; Gonçalez, TT; Oliveira, CDL; Ferreira, JE; Liu, J; Custer, B; Schreiber, GB; Murphy, EL; Busch, MP

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The profile of blood donors changed dramatically in Brazil over the past 20 years, from remunerated to non-remunerated and then from replacement to community donors. Donor demographic data from three major blood centers establish current donation profiles in Brazil, serving as baseline for future analyses and tracking longitudinal changes in donor characteristics. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data were extracted from the blood center, compiled in a data warehouse, and then sent to a coordinating center for analysis. Population data were obtained from Brazilian census. RESULTS During 2007–2008 there were 615,379 blood donations from 410,423 donors. 426,142 (69.2%) were from repeat (Rpt) and 189,237 (30.8%) from first time donors (FT). 20% of FT returned to donate in the period. FT were more likely to be younger, and Rpt to be community donors. All were predominantly male. Differences in gender, age, and community/replacement status by blood center were significant. Mean percentage of the potentially apt general population who were donors was 1.3% for the three centers (FPS=0.9%, FH-MG=1.8% and FH-PE=3.4%). Adjusting for the catchment’s area, FPS and FH-MG were comparable (approximately 2%). CONCLUSION Donors in the three Brazilian centers tended to be younger with a higher proportion of males than in the general population. Donation rates were lower than desirable, with variability among the three centers. Replacement donors still represent 50% of FT and 30% of the Rpt donors. Studies on the safety, donation frequencies and motivations of donors are in progress to orient efforts to enhance the availability of blood. PMID:20003051

  2. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  3. Changes in blood lactate and respiratory gas exchange measures in sports with discontinuous load profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekal, Gerhard; von Duvillard, Serge P; Pokan, Rochus; Tschan, Harald; Baron, Ramon; Hofmann, Peter; Wonisch, Manfred; Bachl, Norbert

    2003-06-01

    This study compares two different sport events (orienteering = OTC; tennis = TEC) with discontinuous load profiles and different activity/recovery patterns by means of blood lactate (LA), heart rate (HR), and respiratory gas exchange measures (RGME) determined via a portable respiratory system. During the TEC, 20 tennis-ranked male subjects [age: 26.0 (3.7) years; height: 181.0 (5.7) cm; weight: 73.2 (6.8) kg; maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max): 57.3 (5.1) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] played ten matches of 50 min. During the OTC, 11 male members of the Austrian National Team [age: 23.5 (3.9) years; height: 183.6 (6.8) cm; weight: 72.4 (3.9) kg; VO(2)max: 67.9 (3.8) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] performed a simulated OTC (six sections; average length: 10.090 m). In both studies data from the maximal treadmill tests (TT) were used as reference values for the comparison of energy expenditure of OTC and TEC. During TEC, the average VO(2) was considerably lower [29.1 (5.6) ml(.)kg(-1.)min(-1)] or 51.1 (10.9)% of VO(2)max and 64.8.0 (13.3)% of VO(2) determined at the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) on the TT. The short high-intensity periods (activity/recovery = 1/6) did not result in higher LA levels [average LA of games: 2.07 (0.9) mmol.l(-1)]. The highest average VO(2 )value for a whole game was 47.8 ml.kg(-1.)min(-1) and may provide a reference for energy demands required to sustain high-intensity periods of tennis predominantly via aerobic mechanism of energy delivery. During OTC, we found an average VO(2) of 56.4 (4.5) ml.kg(-1).min(-1) or 83.0 (3.8)% of VO(2)max and 94.6 (5.2)% of VO(2) at IAT. In contrast to TEC, LA were relatively high [5.16 (1.5) mmol.l(-1)) although the average VO(2) was significantly lower than VO(2) at IAT. Our data suggest that portable RGEM provides valuable information concerning the energy expenditure in sports that cannot be interpreted from LA or HR measures alone. Portable RGEM systems provide valuable assessment of under- or over-estimation of

  4. Analysis of leukocyte binding to depletion filters: role of passive binding, interaction with platelets, and plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschler, R; Rüster, B; Steimle, A; Hansmann, H L; Walker, W; Montag, T; Seifried, E

    2005-08-01

    Since limited knowledge exists on the mechanisms which regulate cell binding to leukocyte removal filter surfaces, we investigated the binding patterns of leukocytes to individual layers of leukocyte depletion filters. After passage of 1 unit of whole blood, blotting of isolated filter layers on glass slides or elution of cells from filter layers revealed that most leukocytes were located within the first 10 of a total of 28 filter layers, peaking at layers 6 to 8, with granulocytes binding on average to earlier filter layers than lymphocytes. Leukocytes preincubated with inhibitors of actin activation showed unchanged distribution between filter layers, suggesting that cytoskeletal activation does not significantly contribute to their binding. When leukocytes were directly incubated with single filter layers, binding of up to 30% of input cells was recorded in the absence of Ca(2+). Immunohistological analyses showed colocalization of platelets and leukocytes, with co-clustering of platelets and leukocytes. Monocytes and to some degree lymphocytes but not granulocytes competed with platelets for filter binding. Precoating of filter layers with individual plasma components showed that hyaluronic acid, plasma type fibronectin, and fibrinogen all increased the binding of leukocytes compared with albumin coating. In conclusion, leukocytes can bind passively to filters in a process which does not require Ca(2+), which is independent of cytoskeletal activation and which may depend on individual plasma components. These results are of importance when new selective cell enrichment or depletion strategies through specific filters are envisaged.

  5. Variation in RNA-Seq transcriptome profiles of peripheral whole blood from healthy individuals with and without globin depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesun Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular profile of circulating blood can reflect physiological and pathological events occurring in other tissues and organs of the body and delivers a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. Blood has been useful in studying the pathobiology of many diseases. It is accessible and easily collected making it ideally suited to the development of diagnostic biomarker tests. The blood transcriptome has a high complement of globin RNA that could potentially saturate next-generation sequencing platforms, masking lower abundance transcripts. Methods to deplete globin mRNA are available, but their effect has not been comprehensively studied in peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data. In this study we aimed to assess technical variability associated with globin depletion in addition to assessing general technical variability in RNA-Seq from whole blood derived samples. RESULTS: We compared technical and biological replicates having undergone globin depletion or not and found that the experimental globin depletion protocol employed removed approximately 80% of globin transcripts, improved the correlation of technical replicates, allowed for reliable detection of thousands of additional transcripts and generally increased transcript abundance measures. Differential expression analysis revealed thousands of genes significantly up-regulated as a result of globin depletion. In addition, globin depletion resulted in the down-regulation of genes involved in both iron and zinc metal ion bonding. CONCLUSIONS: Globin depletion appears to meaningfully improve the quality of peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data, and may improve our ability to detect true biological variation. Some concerns remain, however. Key amongst them the significant reduction in RNA yields following globin depletion. More generally, our investigation of technical and biological variation with and without globin depletion finds that high-throughput sequencing by RNA

  6. Variation in RNA-Seq transcriptome profiles of peripheral whole blood from healthy individuals with and without globin depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heesun; Shannon, Casey P; Fishbane, Nick; Ruan, Jian; Zhou, Mi; Balshaw, Robert; Wilson-McManus, Janet E; Ng, Raymond T; McManus, Bruce M; Tebbutt, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    The molecular profile of circulating blood can reflect physiological and pathological events occurring in other tissues and organs of the body and delivers a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system. Blood has been useful in studying the pathobiology of many diseases. It is accessible and easily collected making it ideally suited to the development of diagnostic biomarker tests. The blood transcriptome has a high complement of globin RNA that could potentially saturate next-generation sequencing platforms, masking lower abundance transcripts. Methods to deplete globin mRNA are available, but their effect has not been comprehensively studied in peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data. In this study we aimed to assess technical variability associated with globin depletion in addition to assessing general technical variability in RNA-Seq from whole blood derived samples. We compared technical and biological replicates having undergone globin depletion or not and found that the experimental globin depletion protocol employed removed approximately 80% of globin transcripts, improved the correlation of technical replicates, allowed for reliable detection of thousands of additional transcripts and generally increased transcript abundance measures. Differential expression analysis revealed thousands of genes significantly up-regulated as a result of globin depletion. In addition, globin depletion resulted in the down-regulation of genes involved in both iron and zinc metal ion bonding. Globin depletion appears to meaningfully improve the quality of peripheral whole blood RNA-Seq data, and may improve our ability to detect true biological variation. Some concerns remain, however. Key amongst them the significant reduction in RNA yields following globin depletion. More generally, our investigation of technical and biological variation with and without globin depletion finds that high-throughput sequencing by RNA-Seq is highly reproducible within a large dynamic

  7. Hubungan Kadar Merkuri (Hg dengan Profil Darah Pekerja Pertambangan Emas Tradisional di Desa Jendi Kecamatan Selogiri Kabupaten Wonogiri

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    Lenci Aryani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: mercury is neurotoxic substance which can produce some health effect, depends on impact ofduration of exposure and quantity mercury used. Gold miner had a high risk of continously impact which maycause many health disorder, one of them is blood profile interference.The purpose of this reasearch was to know the relationship between mercury concentration in blood with bloodprofile of traditional mining gold worker in Jendi village, Selogiri Sub District, Wonogiri District.Methods: The study design was an analytic observational research. Research subject were whole of workers whowere working in mining gold. Variables in this research were mercury (Hg in blood and blood profile. Datacollection using interview, observation, and measurement technique. Data would be analyzed using Kendal’s Taucorrelation.Result: The results showed that the average of Hg in blood was 7,819 ppb. It was over toxic level (eˆ 5,8 ppb andaverage blood profile consist of haemoglobin, erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, andMCHC were 14,771 gr/dl; 4,9536 jt/mmk; 7,5679 rb/mmk; 334,26 rb/mmk; 43,833%, 88,6333 fl; 29,8833 pg;33,6976. Bivariate analysis showed the significant relationship between mercury (Hg in blood with bloodprofile (amount of leukocyte p-value 0,017 and rho 0,257.Conclusion: The conclusion of the research was Hg rates in blood had a toxic limit standard so it can change theblood profile (decreased amount of leukocyte. It was recommended for gold miner to used a personal protectiveequipment like mask, lowering smoking habbit, checked-up, and make lots of green area at mining gold. Keywords : mercury in blood, blood profile, mining gold worker

  8. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly J; Janson, Susan L; Lee, Kathryn A

    To compare leukocyte telomere length (LTL) by race and describe demographic, health, and psychosocial factors associated with LTL in postmenopausal women. Descriptive study with comparative analyses and correlations. Data were collected at the University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco Clinical and Translational Science Institute. Thirty-nine African American and White postmenopausal women between 58 and 65 years of age (mean age = 61.3 ± 1.83 years). Measures included demographics, blood pressure, anthropometrics, scores on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, and blood samples for LTL. African American women (n = 14) had greater PSS-10 and CES-D scores, greater blood pressure, and greater body mass index than White women (n = 25; p stress (p = .036) were related to shorter LTL. Findings from this small sample support the association between age and LTL. The association between perceived stress, number of children, and shorter LTL in postmenopausal women requires further research and replication of findings in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunophenotypic profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes on the day of embryo transfer in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Baczkowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of different types of lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood has unknown and controversial significance in diagnosis of infertility. The aim of the study was to evaluate selected blood lymphocytes in patients treated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS
    women were divided into three groups: (1 control fertile group (n=18, (2 infertile women that achieved (n=32, and (3 did not achieve a pregnancy after ICSI (n=26. The following types of leukocytes were analyzed by three-colour flow cytometry by detection of specific CD antigens: lymphocytes T (CD3+, B (CD19+ and CD5+CD19+, T and B (CD5+, NK cells (CD56+CD16-, CD56-CD16+, CD56+CD16+, CD56brightCD16-, CD56dimCD16+. Additionally, the antigen of early activation (CD69 was evaluated on T, B and NK cells. The results were presented as a percentage and total counts of all lymphocytes.

    RESULTS
    The percentage of total NK cells (CD56+CD16+, CD56+CD16- and CD56-CD16+ did not differ between pregnant and non pregnant women and was lower comparing to control group. Fractions of CD56-CD16+ cells were higher in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. The percentages of CD56brightCD16- NK cells were higher in control group comparing to both ICSI treated groups. Other fractions of lymphocyte subpopulations, including activated cells (with CD69 expression did not differ between the analyzed groups. Total counts of CD56-CD16+ cells were higher in pregnant vs. non-pregnant group, and the CD56brightCD16- cells was more abundant in control group vs. women with unsuccessful ICSI.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Testing of peripheral blood NK cells and the others lymphocytes has limited value as a prognostic factor in ICSI treated patients. The antigen of early lymphocytic activation (CD69 has not any predictive value in prognosis of ICSI outcome.

  10. Assessing leukocyte-endothelial interactions under flow conditions in an ex vivo autoperfused microflow chamber assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulki, Lama; Sweigard, J Harry; Connor, Kip M

    2014-12-30

    Leukocyte-endothelial interactions are early and critical events in acute and chronic inflammation and can, when dysregulated, mediate tissue injury leading to permanent pathological damage. Existing conventional assays allow the analysis of leukocyte adhesion molecules only after the extraction of leukocytes from the blood. This requires the blood to undergo several steps before peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can be ready for analysis, which in turn can stimulate PBLs influencing the research findings. The autoperfused micro flow chamber assay, however, allows scientists to study early leukocytes functional dysregulation using the systemic flow of a live mouse while having the freedom of manipulating a coated chamber. Through a disease model, the functional expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules can be assessed and quantified in a micro-glass chamber coated with immobilized endothelial adhesion molecules ex vivo. In this model, the blood flows between the right common carotid artery and left external jugular vein of a live mouse under anesthesia, allowing the interaction of native PBLs in the chamber. Real-time experimental analysis is achieved with the assistance of an intravital microscope as well as a Harvard Apparatus pressure device. The application of a flow regulator at the input point of the glass chamber allows comparable physiological flow conditions amongst the experiments. Leukocyte rolling velocity is the main outcome and is measured using the National Institutes of Health open-access software ImageJ. In summary, the autoperfused micro flow chamber assay provides an optimal physiological environment to study leukocytes endothelial interaction and allows researchers to draw accurate conclusions when studying inflammation.

  11. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Tra...

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood From Kidney Transplant Recipients for the Early Detection of Digestive System Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, M; Okamoto, M; Takenaka, M; Sasaki, H; Fukami, N; Kataoka, K; Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Hoshinaga, K; Shiroki, R

    2017-06-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer in comparison with the general population. To effectively manage post-transplantation malignancies, it is essential to proactively monitor patients. A long-term intensive screening program was associated with a reduced incidence of cancer after transplantation. This study evaluated the usefulness of the gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples obtained from kidney transplant patients and adopted a screening test for detecting cancer of the digestive system (gastric, colon, pancreas, and biliary tract). Nineteen patients were included in this study and a total of 53 gene expression screening tests were performed. The gene expression profiles of blood-delivered total RNA and whole genome human gene expression profiles were obtained. We investigated the expression levels of 2665 genes associated with digestive cancers and counted the number of genes in which expression was altered. A hierarchical clustering analysis was also performed. The final prediction of the cancer possibility was determined according to an algorithm. The number of genes in which expression was altered was significantly increased in the kidney transplant recipients in comparison with the general population (1091 ± 63 vs 823 ± 94; P = .0024). The number of genes with altered expression decreased after the induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (1484 ± 227 vs 883 ± 154; P = .0439). No cases of possible digestive cancer were detected in this study period. The gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows for the early detection of cancer of the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential MSC activation leads to distinct mononuclear leukocyte binding mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Daniel J.; Dicarlo, Bryan; Hetz, Robert A.; Smith, Philippa; Cox, Charles S.; Olson, Scott D.

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the field of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal cell (MSC) biology have demonstrated that MSCs can improve disease outcome when `activated' to exert immunomodulatory effects. However, the precise mechanisms modulating MSC-immune cells interactions remain largely elusive. In here, we activated MSC based on a recent polarization paradigm, in which MSCs can be polarized towards a pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotype depending on the Toll-like receptor stimulated, to dissect the mechanisms through which MSCs physically interact with and modulate leukocytes in this context. Our data show that MSCs activated through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 dependent binding of leukocytes. On the other hand, TLR3 stimulation strongly increases leukocytes affinity to MSC comparatively, through the formation of cable-like hyaluronic acid structures. In addition, TLR4 activation elicited secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by MSCs, whereas TLR3-activated MSCs displayed a milder pro-inflammatory phenotype, similar to inactivated MSCs. However, the differently activated MSCs maintained their ability to suppress leukocyte activation at similar levels in our in vitro model, and this immunomodulatory property was shown here to be partially mediated by prostaglandin. These results reinforce the concept that alternate activation profiles control MSC responses and may impact the therapeutic use of MSCs.

  14. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions

  15. Hepatitis B virus genotypes and evolutionary profiles from blood donors from the northwest region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV is prevalent in China and screening of blood donors is mandatory. Up to now, ELISA has been universally used by the China blood bank. However, this strategy has sometimes failed due to the high frequency of nucleoside acid mutations. Understanding HBV evolution and strain diversity could help devise a better screening system for blood donors. However, this kind of information in China, especially in the northwest region, is lacking. In the present study, serological markers and the HBV DNA load of 11 samples from blood donor candidates from northwest China were determined. The HBV strains were most clustered into B and C genotypes and could not be clustered into similar types from reference sequences. Subsequent testing showed liver function impairment and increasing virus load in the positive donors. This HBV evolutionary data for China will allow for better ELISA and NAT screening efficiency in the blood bank of China, especially in the northwest region.

  16. Changes in the cytokine profile of patients blood with premature rupture of amniotic membranes and their pathogenic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov А.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pathogenetic study of new diagnostic and prognostic criteria for evaluation of pregnancy in terms of the cytokine profile of blood. Materials and methods: The analysis of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood of 50 pregnant women with preterm rupture of membranes in gestation of 22-34 weeks, who were treated at the Department of Pathology in pregnancy of Saratov Perinatal Center in 2012, was performed. The method of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using test systems «Vector— Best» (Novosibirsk, Russia. Results:.Clinical and laboratory examination revealed an increase levels of IL-1(3, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, while reducing the content of IL-4, IL-10 in blood. Conclusion: Manifest signs of possibility of prenatal rupture of membranes and premature labour in 22-34 weeks gestation are combined with increasing of IL-1(3, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IL-2 and with decreasing of IL-10, IL-4 level in the blood, which indicates the need for monitoring the content of these cytokines in the blood for the diagnosis and prognosis of pregnancy.

  17. Leukocyte integrins: role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vasileia I; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2015-03-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signaling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1-integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  19. Activation of human leukocytes on tantalum trabecular metal in comparison to commonly used orthopedic metal implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, T A; Peter, E; Muhr, G; Köller, M

    2009-02-01

    We analyzed leukocyte functions and cytokine response of human leukocytes toward porous tantalum foam biomaterial (Trabecular Metaltrade mark, TM) in comparison to equally sized solid orthopedic metal implant materials (pure titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, pure tantalum, and tantalum coated stainless steel). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) were cocultured with equally sized metallic test discs for 24 h. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to the other used test materials there was a significant increase in the release of IL (interleukin)-1ra and IL-8 from PMN, and of IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha from PBMC in response to the TM material. The cytokine release correlated with surface roughness of the materials. In contrast, the release of IL-2 was not induced showing that mainly myeloid leukocytes were activated. In addition, supernatants of these leukocyte/material interaction (conditioned media, CM) were subjected to whole blood cell function assays (phagocytosis, chemotaxis, bacterial killing). There was a significant increase in the phagocytotic capacity of leukocytes in the presence of TM-conditioned media. The chemotactic response of leukocytes toward TM-conditioned media was significantly higher compared to CM obtained from other test materials. Furthermore, the bactericidal capacity of whole blood was enhanced in the presence of TM-conditioned media. These results indicate that leukocyte activation at the surface of TM material induces a microenvironment, which may enhance local host defense mechanisms.

  20. Leukocyte Reference Intervals for Free-Ranging Hummingbirds in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Noa; Christopher, Mary M; Ernest, Holly B; Bandivadekar, Ruta; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-04-04

      Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores and important ecological pollinators that are the focus of conservation efforts as well as scientific investigations of metabolism and flight dynamics. Despite their importance, basic information is lacking about hummingbird blood cells. We aimed to establish reference intervals for total and differential leukocyte counts from healthy free-ranging hummingbirds in northern California. Hummingbirds were captured in five counties in spring and summer of 2012. A drop of blood was used to prepare smears for total white blood cell estimate and 200-cell differential leukocyte counts. Reference Value Advisor was used for descriptive statistics and calculation of reference intervals. Blood smears from 42 Anna's Hummingbirds ( Calypte anna) and 33 Black-chinned Hummingbirds ( Archilochus alexandri) were included. The only significant differences in leukocyte counts were due to age, and juvenile hummingbirds had significantly higher lymphocyte counts than adult hummingbirds ( Phummingbirds.

  1. In-vivo blood velocity and velocity gradient profiles downstream of stented and stentless aortic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Jonas A; Frost, Markus W; Ringgaard, Steffen; Klaaborg, Kaj-Erik; Wierup, Per; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Nygaard, Hans; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal flow conditions across aortic bioprosthetic valves may result in degenerative processes. Thus, it is important to implant biological valve prostheses with velocity profiles similar to those of native valves. The study aim was to compare blood velocity and velocity gradient profiles downstream of stented and stentless aortic valves implanted in pigs, and in native porcine valves. Stented valve prostheses (Mitroflow, n = 7) or stentless valve prostheses (Solo, n = 5 or Toronto SPV, n = 7) were implanted into pigs; the native valve was retained in eight animals. After weaning the animals from cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed to determine the blood velocities and velocity gradient profiles. The native valves had a significantly lower peak velocity (92 +/- 26 cm/s) than the artificial valves (Solo: 247 +/- 107 cm/s; Toronto: 252 +/- 41 cm/s; Mitroflow: 229 +/- 18 cm/s). The native valves exhibited a flat velocity profile during systole, whereas the Solo valve, and especially the Toronto SPV valve, displayed more parabola-shaped velocity profiles; velocity profiles downstream of the Mitroflow valve exhibited a flat shape. The native valves had a lower mean velocity gradient at peak systole (p valve (0.14 +/- 0.11; p valve had a percentage of 0.57 +/- 0.09, which was lower than the Solo valve (0.69 +/- 0.12; p = 0.074), and significantly lower than the Toronto valve (0.70 +/- 0.08; p = 0.015). All valves displayed high velocity gradients adjacent to the aortic wall; in particular, the Toronto SPV which also had high velocity gradients at the center of the vessel. All of the artificial valves tested had a significantly higher mean velocity gradient and peak velocity than the native valves. However, the Mitroflow had a mean velocity and a velocity gradient percentage lower than the two stentless valves. The Solo and Mitroflow valves displayed velocity profiles most like native valves, while the Toronto valve had a more

  2. Elevated leukocyte count as a harbinger of systemic inflammation, disease progression, and poor prognosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Piotr Paweł; Strzelec, Bartłomiej

    2017-10-24

    Total leukocyte count increases significantly in response to infection, trauma, inflammation, and certain diseases. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults include sex, hormonal milieu, genetic inheritance, stress level, diet, nutrition, and lifestyle (e.g. tobacco-induced inflammatory changes, chronic psychological stress, etc.). To date, numerous studies have reported that high but normal leukocyte counts at baseline predict increased cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in older adults. Recent findings suggest that elevated leukocyte count within the normal range, but especially neutrophil and monocyte counts, may be a harbinger of increased systemic inflammation and subclinical disease. Moreover, elderly people who tend to have high but normal leukocyte counts are at greater risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some other age-related conditions, and they also have increased all-cause mortality. These results indicate that strong and reliable inflammatory markers, such as leukocyte count, may reflect the rate of ageing and therefore can predict long-term survival in the elderly. Remarkably, leukocyte count correlates positively with genuine markers of systemic inflammation like C-reactive protein and interleukin 6. Interestingly, some authors conclude that leukocyte counts have a stronger prognostic ability with regard to total and cardiovascular mortality than total cholesterol or low-density lipoproteins. The fact that these inflammatory markers are clinically useful predictors of long-term survival in the elderly is quite remarkable as these blood parameters are included in routine medical check-ups. Therefore, they can be used as simple and reliable morphological indicators of chronic systemic inflammation, disease progression, and poor prognosis, especially among individuals who are likely to develop age-related conditions. Nevertheless, the pathomechanism that links elevated but normal leukocyte counts to increased

  3. Effect of antioxidant rich diets on lipid profile and blood pressure in cardiovascular patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Ashraf, S.; Bhatty, N.; Ahmad, N.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 200 patients was randomly selected and interviewed. Various data related to their food consumption in previous weeks and other behavioral attitudes were recorded. Their blood pressure was measured and blood was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Spearman's correlation coefficient was worked out between blood pressure, serum lipid parameters and tea, vitamin C and fibre intake. Tea showed significant correlation with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (-0.2373; P<0.02), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-0.2299; P<0.02) and TC (-0.3454; P<0.01). Vitamin C showed a negatively significant correlation with TC (-0.4676; P<0.01), and LDL-C (-2661; P<0.01) and significant positive correlation with HDL-C (+0.2227; P < 0.05). The tea intake was found strongly correlated with blood pressure as compared to vitamin C, while vitamin C had stronger correlation with TC as compared to tea intake. Fibre was not found significantly correlated with any of the studied parameters. A 30-day control trial on 50 subjects revealed that antioxidant therapy during fat-restricted diet period significantly affected blood pressure and serum lipids. Comparative effect showed that lemon juice showed best results. Lemon juice decreased DBP, SBP, TC, TG and increased HDL-C, while tea added with lemon only significantly decreased DBP, SBP and TC. Salad, especially onion, only improved HDL-C and LDLC levels. Vitamin C supplement also significantly lowered DBP, SBP, TC, LDL-C and TG. Tea had negative correlation with blood pressure and TC, while vitamin C has showed relationship with TC, LDL-C and positive with HDL-C. It is conceivable, therefore, that dietary antioxidants cause a significant improvement in blood pressure and serum lipids than vitamin C supplement and simple fat-restricted diets. (author)

  4. Effect of different commercial fat sources on brain, liver and blood lipid profiles of rats in growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis-Pereira, Michel Cardoso de; Barcelos, Maria de Fátima Píccolo; Pereira, Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro; Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; Souza, Raimundo Vicente de

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the fatty acid c