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Sample records for blood index hbi

  1. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia

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    Bouchité Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Human Blood Index (HBI, proportion of bloodmeals of a mosquito population obtained from man is relevant to epidemiological assessment and to the modification of measures to interrupt malaria transmission since the vectorial capacity of the vector varies as the square of the HBI. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is a main malaria vector in South America. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning HBI values in its range of distribution and none from Bolivia where this species is considered as an important malaria vector in the central Andes. Methods The host choice of An. pseudopunctipennis has been studied in Mataral, a characteristic village of the central Andes of Bolivia. Mosquito host feeding preference experiments (equal accessibility to host in homogenous environment were monitored using baited mosquito nets in latin square designs. Host feeding selection experiments (natural feeding pattern in heterogeneous environment was measured by bloodmeal analysis, using ELISA to determine the origin of blood. Mosquito bloodmeals were collected on various occasions, using various techniques in a variety of sampling sites. A survey of the possible blood sources has also been carried out in the village. Data were analysed with the forage ratio method. Results An. pseudopunctipennis chooses amongst hosts. Sheep, goats, donkeys and humans are the preferred hosts, while dogs, pigs and chicken are rarely bitten. An. pseudopunctipennis has an opportunistic behaviour, in particular within the preferred hosts. The HBI in Mataral is ≈40% and in the central Andes, may range from 30–50%, in accordance to other findings. A high proportion of mixed meals were encountered (8%, and cryptic meals are likely more numerous. There was no difference amongst the HBI from parous and nulliparous mosquitoes. Conclusion Forage ratio analysis is a powerful tool to interpret mosquito host choices. However, refinements in sampling strategies are still

  2. Hyperbaric area index calculated from ABPM elucidates the condition of CKD patients: the CKD-JAC study.

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    Iimuro, Satoshi; Imai, Enyu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Akizawa, Tadao; Matsuo, Seiichi; Makino, Hirofumi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Hishida, Akira

    2015-02-01

    High prevalence of masked hypertension as well as persistent hypertension was observed in the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) study. We proposed a novel indicator of blood pressure (BP) load, hyperbaric area index (HBI), calculated from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) data. The characteristic of this index and its relationship with kidney function were also evaluated. The CKD-JAC study, enrolled 2,977 patients, is a prospective observational study started in September 2007. ABPM was conducted in a sub-group from September 2007 to April 2010 and baseline ABPM data of 1,075 subjects (63.4 % male, 60.7 years old) were analyzed. Mean systolic HBI of male and female patients were 242.3 and 176.5 mmHg×h, respectively. HBI sensitively reflected sex (54.7 mmHg×h higher in males than in females), seasonal effects (51.6 mmHg×h higher in winter than in summer), and advancing CKD stage [(16.5 mmHg×h higher) per -10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in eGFR]. The HBI was a significant factor to associate with reduced kidney function, after adjusting with nocturnal BP change (NBPC), sex, and other variables (p value <0.001). Our findings suggested that HBI might be a novel sensitive indicator for the reduction of kidney function, independent of patterns of NBPC.

  3. Effect of untreated bed nets on blood-fed Phlebotomus argentipes in kala-azar endemic foci in Nepal and India.

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    Picado, Albert; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Murari; Burniston, Ian; Roy, Lalita; Suman, Rijal; Dinesh, Diwakar; Coosemans, Marc; Sundar, Shyam; Shreekant, Kesari; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive; Cameron, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies in the Indian subcontinent have shown that untreated nets may be protective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of untreated nets on the blood feeding rates of Phlebotomus argentipes as well as the human blood index (HBI) in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal. The study had a 'before and after intervention' design in 58 households in six clusters. The use of untreated nets reduced the blood feeding rate by 85% (95% CI 76.5-91.1%) and the HBI by 42.2% (95% CI 11.1-62.5%). These results provide circumstantial evidence that untreated nets may provide some degree of personal protection against sand fly bites.

  4. Structural Exploration of the Two HBI Alkanes in the Chinese Maoming Oil Shale

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    Liao, J.; Lu, H.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, Y., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The Maoming oil shale is notable for its high rate of oil production and abundant biomarker compounds. Apart from the odd-numbered C31 and C33botryococcanes dominant and characteristic, two highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkanes (Fig. 1) were exclusively occurred (Brassell et al., 1986). The first identification of the two HBI alkanes in the Maoming oil shale was based on a comparison with the mass spectrum of C20 HBI (2,6,10-trimethyl-7-(3-methylbutyl)dodecane) (Yon et al., 1982; Rowland et al., 1985 ) from Rozel Point crude oil. Brassell et al (1986) thought that the characteristic ions at m/z 308 and 336 could be indicative of an additional C10 alkyl side chain on top of the characteristic ions of m/z 168 and 197 for the C20-HBI. However, the structural speculation seemed suspicious for not only their mass spectrum but also their co-chromatography results were not identical to the later synthesized C30 HBI alkane (Rowland and Robson, 1990). In addition, the source attribution of diatoms indicated by two C30 HBIs was inconsistent with the species of B race of Botryococcus braunii indicated by the dominant distribution of botryococcanes. Thus, the thirty-year-old structural assignment of the two C30 HBI alkanes may require confirmation. At first, the monomers of two HBIs were prepared by preparative gas chromatography. The HR-EI MS (436.5003) illustrated a formula of C31H64 rather than carbon numbered C30 HBIs. Moreover, two novel polymethyl alkane structures (I, II) could be yielded by 1D and 2D NMR results (Fig. 2), which completely different from that of previously speculated C30-HBIs (Fig. 2). According to the elucidated structure, the characteristic ions at m/z 308, 336, 434 and other irons at m/z 127, 211, 225, 281, 336 were mainly corresponded to relevant cleavages. Hence, their mass spectra were basically consistent with the structure determined from the NMR data. The new structural skeleton in our results for the two compounds does not support the

  5. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.

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    Marta Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys, and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme, which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting.

  6. Limited accuracy of the hyperbaric index, ambulatory blood pressure and sphygmomanometry measurements in predicting gestational hypertension and preeclampsia

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    Vollebregt, Karlijn Corien; Gisolf, Janneke; Guelen, Ilja; Boer, Kees; van Montfrans, Gert; Wolf, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to validate the hyperbaric index (HBI) for first trimester prediction of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Methods Participants were low-risk and high-risk nulliparous women and high-risk multiparous women, and were recruited between April 2004 and June

  7. Development of a method for determination of metallic iron content within hot briquette iron (HBI for steelmaking

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    Morcali M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of metallic iron in metallurgy and industrial chemical applications requires a fast, easy and cheap method for the determination of metallic iron, not merely in recyclable materials, such as iron pellets, reduced iron mill scale dust, electric arc furnace dust and pig iron, but from hot briquette iron (HBI as well. This study investigates a new method for determination of metallic iron within HBI used for steel-making materials. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and stirring rate were studied. The concentration of iron was determined via Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. After the optimization study, high-purity metallic iron powder (Sigma-Aldrich, PubChem Substance ID 24855469 was used to compare efficiencies and identify the optimum conditions; The present study was matched with international standard methods (BS ISO 5416:2006, IS 15774:2007. Results were consistent with certified values and metallic iron content could be determined within the 95% confidence level. The purposed method is easy, straightforward, and cheap.

  8. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

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    Valisa E. Hedrick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories, yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER or a physical activity group (MoveMore. Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149 (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7, p ≤ 0.001 and MoveMore (n = 143 (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2, p ≤ 0.001 participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05, over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01. Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  9. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

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    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-04

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  10. Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh

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    Bashar Kabirul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. Methods Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs, pyrethrum spray (PS, and human bait (HB from a malaria-endemic village (Kumari, Bandarban, Bangladesh during the peak months of malaria transmission (August-September. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify the host blood meals of Anopheles mosquitoes. Results In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71% was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67% and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%. All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094, 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784, whereas, six by PS (n = 549 and four species by HB (n = 29. Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (χ2 test, P Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%, followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64% and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%. Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63 and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24 showed strong relative preferences (Bi for humans among all hosts (human, bovine, goats/sheep, and others. Anopheles annularis, An. maculatus s.l. Theobald, and An. pallidus Theobald exhibited opportunistic blood-feeding behavior, in that they fed on either humans or animals, depending on whichever was

  11. On the effective refractive index of blood

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    Nahmad-Rohen, Alexander; Contreras-Tello, Humberto; Morales-Luna, Gesuri; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index {n}{eff} of blood as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm; we employed van de Hulst’s theory, together with the anomalous diffraction approximation, for the calculation. We modelled blood as a mixture of plasma and erythrocytes. Our results indicate that erythrocyte orientation has a strong effect on {n}{eff}, making blood an optically anisotropic medium except when the erythrocytes are randomly oriented. In the case in which their symmetry axis is perpendicular to the wave vector, {n}{eff} equals the refractive index of plasma at certain wavelengths. Furthermore, the erythrocytes’ shape affects their contribution to {n}{eff} in an important way, implying that studies on the effective refractive index of blood should avoid approximating them as spheres or spheroids. Finally, the effective refractive index of blood predicted by van de Hulst’s theory is different from what would be obtained by averaging the refractive indices of its constituents weighted by volume; such a volume-weighted average is appropriate only for haemolysed blood. We then measured the real part of the refractive index of various blood solutions using two different experimental setups. One of the most important results of our expriment is that {n}{eff} is measurable to a good degree of precision even for undiluted blood, although not all measuring apparatuses are appropriate. The experimental data is self-consistent and in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  12. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India

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    Molecular tools enable the collection of accurate estimates of human blood index (HBI) in P. argentipes. The refinement of a metacyclic-specific qPCR assay to identify L. donovani in P. argentipes would enable quantification of the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) for the first time. Likewise, a...

  13. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  14. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

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    Yahya, M.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy.

  15. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, M; Saghir, M Z

    2016-01-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy. (paper)

  16. Fecal Calprotectin Is Not Affected by Pregnancy: Clinical Implications for the Management of Pregnant Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

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    Julsgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian L; Gearry, Richard B; Vestergaard, Thea; Fallingborg, Jan; Svenningsen, Lise; Kjeldsen, Jens; Sparrow, Miles P; Wildt, Signe; Kelsen, Jens; Bell, Sally J

    2017-07-01

    Noninvasive biomarkers of inflammation for monitoring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are important in pregnancy. Clinical and laboratory markers are often affected by the physiological adaption that occurs during pregnancy, although, few, if any, data exist on fecal calprotectin (FC). We investigated FC concentrations in pregnant controls and IBD women, and whether FC correlated with physician global assessment (PGA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI)/Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) before and after pregnancy, as well as during each trimester. The study is a prospective multicenter study of 46 pregnant women with and 21 without IBD in Denmark, Australia, and New Zealand. Demographics, clinical parameters, and HBI/SCCAI were recorded. Stool and blood samples were obtained to determine FC and CRP concentrations. From pregnant IBD women and pregnant controls, 174 and 21 fecal samples were collected, respectively. The median FC concentration in pregnant IBD women was 131 μg/g (range 0-3600) and in controls 0 μg/g (range 0-84) (P 0.05). An FC cutoff concentration of 250 μg/g significantly correlated with active disease according to PGA in all 5 periods (P ≤ 0.0002). CRP only significantly correlated with FC (P = 0.0007) and PGA in the second trimester (P = 0.0003). No significant correlation was found between CRP and HBI/SCCAI at any timepoint (P > 0.05). The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy do not affect FC, in contrast to CRP and HBI/SCCAI. The combined use of FC and PGA seems optimal to assess disease activity in IBD during pregnancy.

  17. Complementary biomarker-based methods for characterising Arctic sea ice conditions: A case study comparison between multivariate analysis and the PIP25 index

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    Köseoğlu, Denizcan; Belt, Simon T.; Smik, Lukas; Yao, Haoyi; Panieri, Giuliana; Knies, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    The discovery of IP25 as a qualitative biomarker proxy for Arctic sea ice and subsequent introduction of the so-called PIP25 index for semi-quantitative descriptions of sea ice conditions has significantly advanced our understanding of long-term paleo Arctic sea ice conditions over the past decade. We investigated the potential for classification tree (CT) models to provide a further approach to paleo Arctic sea ice reconstruction through analysis of a suite of highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers in ca. 200 surface sediments from the Barents Sea. Four CT models constructed using different HBI assemblages revealed IP25 and an HBI triene as the most appropriate classifiers of sea ice conditions, achieving a >90% cross-validated classification rate. Additionally, lower model performance for locations in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) highlighted difficulties in characterisation of this climatically-sensitive region. CT model classification and semi-quantitative PIP25-derived estimates of spring sea ice concentration (SpSIC) for four downcore records from the region were consistent, although agreement between proxy and satellite/observational records was weaker for a core from the west Svalbard margin, likely due to the highly variable sea ice conditions. The automatic selection of appropriate biomarkers for description of sea ice conditions, quantitative model assessment, and insensitivity to the c-factor used in the calculation of the PIP25 index are key attributes of the CT approach, and we provide an initial comparative assessment between these potentially complementary methods. The CT model should be capable of generating longer-term temporal shifts in sea ice conditions for the climatically sensitive Barents Sea.

  18. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative hepatitis B virus infection among mother-teenager pairs 13 years after neonatal hepatitis B virus vaccination.

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    Yao, Qing-Qing; Dong, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Xue-Cai; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Hu, An-Qun; Liu, Hai-Yan; Wang, Yueping Alex; Yuan, Quan; Zheng, Ying-Jie

    2013-02-01

    It is unclear whether a mother who is negative for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) but positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) is at potential risk for mother-to-child transmission of HBV. This study, using a paired mother-teenager population, aimed to assess whether maternal HBsAg-negative HBV infection ((hn)HBI) is a significant source of child HBV infection (HBI). A follow-up study with blood collection has been conducted on the 93 mother-teenager pairs from the initial 135 pregnant woman-newborn pairs 13 years after neonatal HBV vaccination. Serological and viral markers of HBV have been tested, and phylogenetic analysis of HBV isolates has been done. The HBI prevalence was 1.9% (1 (hn)HBI/53) for teenage children of non-HBI mothers, compared with 16.7% (1 (hn)HBI/6) for those of (hn)HBI mothers and 2.9% (1 HBsAg-positive HBV infection [(hp)HBI]/34) for those of (hp)HBI mothers. Similar viral sequences have been found in one pair of whom both the mother and teenager have had (hn)HBI. In comparison with the (hp)HBI cases, those with (hn)HBI had a lower level of HBV load and a higher proportion of genotype-C strains, which were accompanied by differentiated mutations (Q129R, K141E, and Y161N) of the "a" determinant of the HBV surface gene. Our findings suggest that mother-to-teenager transmission of (hn)HBI can occur among those in the neonatal HBV vaccination program.

  19. Noninvasive measurement of an index of renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.A.; Rees, R.S.; Bowen, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the noninvasive measurement of an index of renal blood flow is described. The method utilizes ultrasound determined renal volume and radionuclide assessment of the mean transit time of a pertechnetate bolus through the kidneys. From this information a value for flow is calculated according to compartmental analysis principles. There is good correlation between renal blood flow estimated by this technique and that determined by microsphere injection

  20. A novel clinical index for the assessment of RVD in acute pulmonary embolism: Blood pressure index.

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    Ates, Hale; Ates, Ihsan; Kundi, Harun; Arikan, Mehmet Fettah; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of the blood pressure index (BPI), which is a new index that we developed, in detection of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in acute pulmonary embolism (APE). A total of 539 patients, (253 males and 286 females), diagnosed with APE using computer tomography pulmonary angiography were included in the study. The BPI was obtained by dividing systolic blood pressure (SBP) by diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Mean DBP (75±11mmHg vs 63±15mmHg; p<0.001, respectively) was found to be higher in RVD patients compared to those without RVD, whereas BPI (1.5±0.1 vs 1.9±0.2; p<0.001, respectively) was lower. Examining the performance of BPI in prediction of RVD using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (area under curve±SE=0.975±0.006; p<0.001), it was found that BPI could predict RVD with very high sensitivity (92.8%) and specificity (100%) and had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 42.1%. According to the analysis, the highest youden index for the optimal prediction value was found to be 0.478 and the BPI≤1.4 was found to predict mortality 68.6% sensitivity and 80.8% specificity (Area under curve±SE=0.777±0.051; p<0.001). We found that BPI was an index with high positive predictive value and low negative predictive value in detection of RVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient state index and cerebral blood flow changes during shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

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    Buget, Mehmet Ilke; Atalar, Ata Can; Edipoglu, Ipek Saadet; Sungur, Zerrin; Sivrikoz, Nukhet; Karadeniz, Meltem; Saka, Esra; Kucukay, Suleyman; Senturk, Mert N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study were to demonstrate the possible hemodynamic changes and cerebral blood flow alterations in patients who were positioned from supine to beach chair position; and to detect if the position change causes any cortical activity alteration as measured by the 4-channeled electroencephalography monitor. 35 patients were included. Before the induction, mean arterial pressure and patient state index values were recorded (T0). After the intubation, doppler-ultrasonography of the patients' internal carotid and vertebral arteries were evaluated to acquire cerebral blood flow values from the formula. In supine position, mean arterial pressure, patient state index and cerebral blood flow values were recorded (T1) and the patient was positioned to beach chair position. After 5min all measurements were repeated (T2). Measurements of patient state index and mean arterial pressure were repeated after 20 (T3), and 40 (T4)min. There was a significant decrease between T0 and T1 in heart rate (80.5±11.6 vs. 75.9±14.4beats/min), MAP (105.8±21.9 vs. 78.9±18.4mmHg) and PSI (88.5±8.3 vs. 30.3±9.7) (all pstate index values (T1-T4) showed no significant change; however, comparing only T1 and T2 resulted in a statically significant decrease in patient state index. There was a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow after beach chair position. Beach chair position was associated with a decrease in cerebral blood flow and patient state index values. Patient state index was affected by the gravitational change of the cerebral blood flow; however, both factors were not directly correlated to each other. Moreover, the decrease in patient state index value was transient and returned to normal values within 20min. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. [Patient state index and cerebral blood flow changes during shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buget, Mehmet Ilke; Atalar, Ata Can; Edipoglu, Ipek Saadet; Sungur, Zerrin; Sivrikoz, Nukhet; Karadeniz, Meltem; Saka, Esra; Kucukay, Suleyman; Senturk, Mert N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study were to demonstrate the possible hemodynamic changes and cerebral blood flow alterations in patients who were positioned from supine to beach chair position; and to detect if the position change causes any cortical activity alteration as measured by the 4-channeled electroencephalography monitor. 35 patients were included. Before the induction, mean arterial pressure and patient state index values were recorded (T0). After the intubation, doppler-ultrasonography of the patients' internal carotid and vertebral arteries were evaluated to acquire cerebral blood flow values from the formula. In supine position, mean arterial pressure, patient state index and cerebral blood flow values were recorded (T1) and the patient was positioned to beach chair position. After 5min all measurements were repeated (T2). Measurements of patient state index and mean arterial pressure were repeated after 20 (T3), and 40 (T4)min. There was a significant decrease between T0 and T1 in heart rate (80.5±11.6 vs. 75.9±14.4beats/min), MAP (105.8±21.9 vs. 78.9±18.4mmHg) and PSI (88.5±8.3 vs. 30.3±9.7) (all pstate index values (T1-T4) showed no significant change; however, comparing only T1 and T2 resulted in a statically significant decrease in patient state index. There was a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow after beach chair position. Beach chair position was associated with a decrease in cerebral blood flow and patient state index values. Patient state index was affected by the gravitational change of the cerebral blood flow; however, both factors were not directly correlated to each other. Moreover, the decrease in patient state index value was transient and returned to normal values within 20min. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Fractionated half body irradiation for palliation of multiple symptomatic bone metastases from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinya; Sunagawa, Yoshimitsu; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Nakazawa, Masanori; Yamashita, Takashi (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-06-01

    This was a phase I-II nonrandomized study that explored the toxicity and response of fractionated half-body irradiation (F-HBI) in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The patients had no premedication and received 10 Gy in 5 fractions with a dose rate of 15 cGy/min. At the Cancer Institute Hospital, 9 patients were treated by this technique (1 upper and lower F-HBI, 6 upper F-HBI, 2 lower F-HBI). All patients were female and had adenocarcinomas (8 breast and 1 lung). Adverse effects were myelosuppression, vomiting and partial alopecia. But hematologic toxicity was treated with blood transfusion or G-CSF. All toxicity was transient, and no pneumonitis nor radiation-related deaths occurred. When given as palliation, F-HBI was found to relieve pain in 80% of the patients. In 10% of the patients the pain relief was complete. The mean time to achieve pain relief in responders after F-HBI was 9 days. The pain relief was long-lasting and continued without need of reirradiation for 40% of the remaining patient's life. This treatment modality appears to be well tolerated and effective in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The optimal indications, dose and fractionation for F-HBI should be further explored in randomized trials. (author).

  4. [Effects of Two Placement Ways for Storage of Blood Bag on Biochemical Indexes of Leukodepleted Red Blood Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Duan, Bing-Zheng; Ju, Chun-Mei; Sui, Su-Qin; Bai, Yan; Cao, Huan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of 2 different ways of storage bag placement on some biochemical indexes of leukodepleted red blood cells (LD-RBC) to as to ensure the efficacy and safety of clinical blood transfusion. The whole blood samples of 20 donors (400 ml/donor) were selected for preparating the LP-RBC, which were divided evenly into 10 bags. The 10 bags were randomly divided into 2 groups; the bags in 1 group were placed uprightly, while the bags in another group were placed horizontally. The bags of 2 groups were stored in the same conditions. One storage bag from each group was taken randomly on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 respectively, and then the biochemical indexes of samples were detected and analyzed. The values of K(+) and LAC on day 14, the value of LDH on day 28 in the uprightly placed group were higher than those in the horizontally placed group (P value of Na(+) on day 28, and the value of Glu on day 35 in the uprightly placed group were lower than those in horizontally placed group (P 0.05). The storage bags placed by different ways during the storage show different influence on some biochemical indexes of LD-RBC in the storage period.

  5. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  6. Validation of the "German Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (GIBDI)": An Instrument for Patient-Based Disease Activity Assessment in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppe, Angelika; Langbrandtner, Jana; Häuser, Winfried; Raspe, Heiner; Bokemeyer, Bernd

    2018-05-09

     Assessment of disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is usually based on the physician's evaluation of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and biomarker analysis. The German Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index for CD (GIBDI CD ) and UC (GIBDI UC ) uses data from patient-reported questionnaires. It is unclear to what extent the GIBDI agrees with the physicians' documented activity indices.  Data from 2 studies were reanalyzed. In both, gastroenterologists had documented disease activity in UC with the partial Mayo Score (pMS) and in CD with the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI). Patient-completed GIBDI questionnaires had also been assessed. The analysis sample consisted of 151 UC and 150 CD patients. Kappa coefficients were determined as agreement measurements.  Rank correlations were 0.56 (pMS, GIBDI UC ) and 0.57 (HBI, GIBDI CD ), with p < 0.001. The absolute agreement for 2 categories of disease activity (remission yes/no) was 74.2 % (UC) and 76.6 % (CD), and for 4 categories (none/mild/moderate/severe) 60.3 % (UC) and 61.9 % (CD). The kappa values ranged between 0.47 for UC (2 categories) and 0.58 for CD (4 categories).  There is satisfactory agreement of GIBDI with the physician-documented disease activity indices. GIBDI can be used in health care research without access to assessments of medical practitioners. In clinical practice, the index offers a supplementary source of information. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  8. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge S. M. van der Wurff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST, D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60. Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039, and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007. This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  9. [Relation of the blood pressure, lipids and body mass index by smoking status among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Young Soon; Lee, Hea Shoon

    2007-10-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure, lipids and body mass index by smoking status among adolescents. This study was designed as a descriptive correlational study. General and smoking characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. The smoking group consisted of 42 (33%) students and the non smoking group 85 (67%) students. Blood pressure, lipids, height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated to kg/m2. The collected data was analyzed by the n(%), chi2-test, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient (SPSS 12.0). 1. The smoking level was different between grade, smoking status among the family, the contentment of their relationship with their parents, school life and teachers. 2. The smoking group's systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index were higher than those of the non smoking group. 3. The smoking amount had a significant positive correlation between total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The result of this study offered basic data to develop intervention programs to prevent hypertension and hyperlipidemia in smoking adolescents.

  10. Using Blood Indexes to Predict Overweight Statuses: An Extreme Learning Machine-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Chen

    Full Text Available The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01. According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.

  11. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  12. Changes in cardiac index and blood pressure on positioning children prone for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Z E; Görges, M; Cooke, E; Malherbe, S; Dumont, G A; Ansermino, J M

    2013-07-01

    In this prospective observational study we investigated the changes in cardiac index and mean arterial pressure in children when positioned prone for scoliosis correction surgery. Thirty children (ASA 1-2, aged 13-18 years) undergoing primary, idiopathic scoliosis repair were recruited. The cardiac index and mean arterial blood pressure (median (IQR [range])) were 2.7 (2.3-3.1 [1.4-3.7]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 73 (66-80 [54-91]) mmHg, respectively, at baseline; 2.9 (2.5-3.2 [1.7-4.4]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 73 (63-81 [51-96]) mmHg following a 5-ml.kg(-1) fluid bolus; and 2.5 (2.2-2.7 [1.4-4.8]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 69 (62-73 [46-85]) mmHg immediately after turning prone. Turning prone resulted in a median reduction in cardiac index of 0.5 l.min(-1).m(-2) (95% CI 0.3-0.7 l.min(-1).m(-2), p=0.001), or 18.5%, with a large degree of inter-subject variability (+10.3% to -40.9%). The changes in mean arterial blood pressure were not significant. Strategies to predict, prevent and treat decreases in cardiac index need to be developed. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information

  14. Effect of dextran-induced changes in refractive index and aggregation on optical properties of whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangqun; Wang, Ruikang K; Elder, James B; Tuchin, Valery V

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate systematically the mechanisms of alterations in the optical properties of whole blood immersed in the biocompatible agent dextran, and to define the optimal concentration of dextrans required for blood optical clearing in order to enhance the capability of light penetration depth for optical imaging applications. In the experiments, dextrans with different molecular weights and various concentrations were employed and investigated by the use of the optical coherence tomography technique. Changes in light attenuation, refractive index and aggregation properties of blood immersed in dextrans were studied. It was concluded from the results that the mechanisms for blood optical clearing are characteristic of the types of dextrans employed, their concentrations and the application stages. Among the substances applied, Dx500 at a concentration at 0.5 g dl -1 gives the best result in improving light penetration depth through the blood. The increase of light transmission at the beginning of the addition of dextrans is mainly attributed to refractive index matching between the scattering centres and the ground matter. Thereafter, the transmission change is probably due to a dextran-induced aggregation-disaggregation effect. Overall, light scattering in the blood could be effectively reduced by the application of dextrans. It represents a promising approach to increasing the imaging depth for in vivo optical imaging of biological tissue, for example optical coherence tomography

  15. Radiotracer transit measurements as an index of regional cerebral blood flow. Pt. 1. Methodological and clinical results in chronic alcoholics cortical blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, T.

    1975-01-01

    The numerical mean values of the cerebral radiorheographic index in healthy control subjects and in patients with cerebrovascular disease were not significantly different from the values of regional cerebral blood flow reported, respectively, by other authors using a modification of the Xe-133 method. In the group of chronic alcoholics there was a significant correlation between the duration of alcoholism and certain numerical values of the cerebral radiorheographic index. (author)

  16. Association between different measurements of blood pressure variability by ABP monitoring and ankle-brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Estefânia; Fuchs, Sandra C; Fuchs, Flávio D; Moreira, Leila B; Ferlin, Elton; Cichelero, Fábio T; Moreira, Carolina M; Neyeloff, Jeruza; Moreira, Marina B; Gus, Miguel

    2010-11-05

    Blood pressure (BP) variability has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, but there is no consensus about the more effective method to measure it by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We evaluated the association between three different methods to estimate BP variability by ABPM and the ankle brachial index (ABI). In a cross-sectional study of patients with hypertension, BP variability was estimated by the time rate index (the first derivative of SBP over time), standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour SBP; and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP. ABI was measured with a doppler probe. The sample included 425 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 12 years, being 69.2% women, 26.1% current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI (≤ 0.90 or ≥ 1.40) was present in 58 patients. The time rate index was 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min in patients with abnormal ABI versus 0.476 ± 0.124 mmHg/min in patients with normal ABI (P = 0.007). In a logistic regression model the time rate index was associated with ABI, regardless of age (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04). In a multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age, SBP and diabetes, the time rate index was strongly associated with ABI (P < 0.01). None of the other indexes of BP variability were associated with ABI in univariate and multivariate analyses. Time rate index is a sensible method to measure BP variability by ABPM. Its performance for risk stratification of patients with hypertension should be explored in longitudinal studies.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of home versus clinic-based management of chronic heart failure: Extended follow-up of a pragmatic, multicentre randomized trial cohort - The WHICH? study (Which Heart Failure Intervention Is Most Cost-Effective & Consumer Friendly in Reducing Hospital Care).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Shoko; Byrnes, Joshua; Carrington, Melinda J; Chan, Yih-Kai; Thompson, David R; Stewart, Simon; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-12-15

    To assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of two multidisciplinary management programs for elderly patients hospitalized with chronic heart failure (CHF) and how it is influenced by patient characteristics. A trial-based analysis was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial of 280 elderly patients with CHF discharged to home from three Australian tertiary hospitals. Two interventions were compared: home-based intervention (HBI) that involved home visiting with community-based care versus specialized clinic-based intervention (CBI). Bootstrapped incremental cost-utility ratios were computed based on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and total healthcare costs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were constructed based on incremental net monetary benefit (NMB). We performed multiple linear regression to explore which patient characteristics may impact patient-level NMB. During median follow-up of 3.2 years, HBI was associated with slightly higher QALYs (+0.26 years per person; p=0.078) and lower total healthcare costs (AU$ -13,100 per person; p=0.025) mainly driven by significantly reduced duration of all-cause hospital stay (-10 days; p=0.006). At a willingness-to-pay threshold of AU$ 50,000 per additional QALY, the probability of HBI being better-valued was 96% and the incremental NMB of HBI was AU$ 24,342 (discounted, 5%). The variables associated with increased NMB were HBI (vs. CBI), lower Charlson Comorbidity Index, no hyponatremia, fewer months of HF, fewer prior HF admissions <1 year and a higher patient's self-care confidence. HBI's net benefit further increased in those with fewer comorbidities, a lower self-care confidence or no hyponatremia. Compared with CBI, HBI is likely to be cost-effective in elderly CHF patients with significant comorbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between different measurements of blood pressure variability by ABP monitoring and ankle-brachial index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Leila B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP variability has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, but there is no consensus about the more effective method to measure it by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. We evaluated the association between three different methods to estimate BP variability by ABPM and the ankle brachial index (ABI. Methods and Results In a cross-sectional study of patients with hypertension, BP variability was estimated by the time rate index (the first derivative of SBP over time, standard deviation (SD of 24-hour SBP; and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP. ABI was measured with a doppler probe. The sample included 425 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 12 years, being 69.2% women, 26.1% current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI (≤ 0.90 or ≥ 1.40 was present in 58 patients. The time rate index was 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min in patients with abnormal ABI versus 0.476 ± 0.124 mmHg/min in patients with normal ABI (P = 0.007. In a logistic regression model the time rate index was associated with ABI, regardless of age (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04. In a multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age, SBP and diabetes, the time rate index was strongly associated with ABI (P Conclusion Time rate index is a sensible method to measure BP variability by ABPM. Its performance for risk stratification of patients with hypertension should be explored in longitudinal studies.

  19. Discrepancy between growth of Coccidioides immitis in bacterial blood culture media and a radiometric growth index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampel, N.M.; Wieden, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Spherules of Coccidioides immitis grew readily after inoculation in vented trypticase soy broth, biphasic brain heart infusion media, and aerobic tryptic soy broth bottles used in a radiometric system (BACTEC). However, visible growth was not accompanied by a significant radiometric growth index. Growth of C. immitis can be visually detected in routine bacterial blood culture media while the radiometric growth index remains negative

  20. A CORRELATION BETWEEN ABO BLOOD GROUPS AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND ABO blood groups are associated with some important chronic diseases, obesity being the major risk factor is rising rapidly globally. The present study seeks to determine if there is any association between ABO blood groups and body mass index. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study involve 200 medical students, 102 boys and 98 girls in the age group of 18-23 years in the Government Medical College, Amritsar. Weight, height for BMI and blood groups were determined in order to find any association between ABO blood group and BMI. RESULTS Overweight and obesity was found more prevalent in boys than girls, 22.5% students were overweight and 15.5% were obese. The prevalence of overweight was (24.52% boys and 20.40% girls and prevalence of obesity was (25.49% boys and 5.10% girls. Blood group B was reported the most common blood groups (37.5% followed by blood group O (32.0%, while blood groups A and AB were found 19.5% and 11% of participants, respectively. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 among participants based on blood group O, A, AB and B was 29.69%, 25.64%, 18.18%, 16.00%, while obesity (BMI >30 among participants based on blood groups B, O, A and AB was 24.00%, 10.94%, 10.26% and 9.09%. CONCLUSION Prevalence of overweight and obesity was more in blood group O and B respectively and was more in males than females

  1. [Comparative study on promoting blood effects of Danshen-Honghua herb pair with different preparations based on chemometrics and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cheng; Tang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Xu-Qin; Zhou, Gui-Sheng; Shang, Er-Xin; Shang, Li-Li; Guo, Jian-Ming; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of Danshen-Honghua(DH) herb pair with different preparations (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) on blood rheology and coagulation functions in acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the best preparation method of DH based on principal component analysis(PCA), hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods. Ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline were both used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. Then the blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with DH (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) extracts. The whole blood viscosity(WBV), plasma viscosity(PV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and haematocrit(HCT) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations and doses on hemorheology of blood stasis rats; the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and plasma fibrinogen(FIB) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations on blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation of blood stasis rats. Then PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were all used to comprehensively evaluate the total promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of DH herb pair with different preparations. The hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group had significant differences with normal blank group. As compared with the model group, the DH herb pair with different preparations at low, middle and high doses could improve the blood hemorheology indexes and coagulation parameters in acute blood stasis rats with dose-effect relation. Based on the PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods, the high dose group of 50% alcohol extract had the best effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood

  2. Assessment of the Contribution of Dietary and Beverage Intake Quality to Obesity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Saniye; Mortaş, Hande; Kocaadam, Betül; Köksal, Eda

    2018-04-13

    Low dietary quality is an important indicator of unhealthy eating patterns that can lead to some consequences such as obesity, so policy is a very powerful tool that can affect the consumption of both healthy and unhealthy foods. Indices that assess whether nutritional policies are applied contribute to the assessment of the quality of the population's diet. This study was conducted to investigate the quality of diets and beverages consumed by Turkish adults, and the factors affecting them. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 352 adults aged between 18 and 58 years. The quality of diet and beverage was measured through the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) and Healthy Beverage Index (HBI), respectively, using 2-day (weekday and weekend) dietary recall data. The total HBI scores were 79.1 ± 11.8 and 81.0 ± 11.6; total HEI-2010 scores were 45.9 ± 12.3 and 52.3 ± 11.0, of men and women, respectively (p empty calories (p > 0.05). Sugar-sweetened beverage (HBI subcomponent) was significantly correlated with the scores of HEI-2010 and empty calorie (HEI-2010 subcomponent), as expected (p empty calories is considered.

  3. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old...

  4. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  5. Blood Metabolic Signatures of Body Mass Index: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in the EPIC Cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carayol, Marion; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Stepien, Magdalena; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Agudo, Antonio; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Key, Timothy J; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is now widely used to characterize metabolic phenotypes associated with lifestyle risk factors such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of body mass index (BMI) with 145 metabolites measured in blood samples in the European Prospective

  6. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  7. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Erik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43% and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%. Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when provided in both small and large meals. The same was true for the serum glucose response but only in large meals. Glycemic load was useful in predicting the acute impact on blood glucose and insulin responses within the context of mixed meals.

  8. Hemoglobin binding of aromatic amines: molecular dosimetry and quantitative structure-activity relationships for N-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, G

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic amines are important intermediates in industrial manufacturing. N-Oxidation to N-hydroxyarylamines is a key step in determining the genotoxic properties of aromatic amines. N-Hydroxyarylamines can form adducts with DNA, with tissue proteins, and with the blood proteins albumin and hemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. The determination of hemoglobin adducts is a useful tool for biomonitoring exposed populations. We have established the hemoglobin binding index (HBI) [(mmole compound/mole hemoglobin)/(mmole compound/kg body weight)] of several aromatic amines in female Wistar rats. Including the values from other researchers obtained in the same rat strain, the logarithm of hemoglobin binding (logHBI) was plotted against the following parameters: the sum of the Hammett constants(sigma sigma = sigma p + sigma m), pKa, logP (octanol/water), the half-wave oxidation potential (E1/2), and the electronic descriptors of the amines and their corresponding nitrenium ions obtained by semi-empirical calculations (MNDO, AMI, and PM3), such as atomic charge densities, energies of the highest occupied molecular orbit and lowest occupied molecular orbit and their coefficients, the bond order of C-N, the dipole moments, and the reaction enthalpy [MNDOHF, AM1HF or PM3HF = Hf(nitrenium) - Hf(amine)]. The correlation coefficients were determined from the plots of all parameters against log HBI for all amines by means of linear regression analysis. The amines were classified in three groups: group 1, all parasubstituted amines (maximum, n = 9); group 2, all amines with halogens (maximun, n = 11); and group 3, all amines with alkyl groups (maximum, n = 13).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8319626

  9. A research on relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index among Turkish seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Selçuk; Fışkın, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate and to reveal the relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index (BMI) and obesity among Turkish seafarers by using the health examination reports data obtained from 2009 to 2016. The data on age, gender, weight, height and blood groups obtained from 298,247 medical examination reports of Turkish seafarers were used with the official permission of Directorate General of Health for Border and Coastal Areas. Only 116,871 reports included blood group data. Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed to survey relationship between variables. The results of the study were compared with other studies in the related literature. It has been revealed that AB Rh (-) group was associated the highest mean BMI value (mean: 25.952). It is suggested that seafarers with AB Rh (-) blood group, who have the highest mean BMI value, should pay special attention to their weight.

  10. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  11. Biological assessment and streambed-sediment chemistry of streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 2003–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2003–2008, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 13 sites in the Indianapolis metropolitan area in Indiana for benthic invertebrates, fish communities, and streambed-sediment chemistry. Data from seven White River sites and six tributary sites complement surface-water chemistry data collected by the Indianapolis Department of Public Works. The information is being used to assess changes in water quality in conjunction with the City's programs to reduce combined sewer overflows and other point and nonpoint sources of pollution in the Indianapolis area. During the study, 233 benthic-invertebrate taxa were identified from which the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Index, the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and the Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) were calculated. EPT index scores ranged from 2 to 16 on the White River and from 2 to 17 on the tributaries. EPT index scores indicate that these pollution-intolerant taxa are more prevalent upstream from and away from the combined-sewer areas of Indianapolis. HBI scores from sites on the White River ranged from 4.67 (good) to 9.55 (very poor), whereas on the tributaries, scores ranged from 4.21 (very good) to 8.14 (poor). Lower HBI scores suggest that less organic pollution was present and, like the EPT scores, indicate better conditions where combined-sewer overflows (CSOs) are not present. Similarly, ICI scores indicated better conditions upstream from the CSO outfalls on the White River. White River scores ranged from 12 to 46, where higher ICI scores indicate better conditions in the benthic-invertebrate community. ICI scores at the tributary sites ranged from 12 to 52, with the highest scores on streams without CSOs.

  12. Associations between body mass index, ambulatory blood pressure findings, and changes in cardiac structure: relevance of pulse and nighttime pressures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedecostante, M.; Spannella, F.; Giulietti, F.; Espinosa, E.; Dessi-Fulgheri, P.; Sarzani, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is central in the management of hypertension. Factors related to BP, such as body mass index (BMI), may differently affect particular aspects of 24-hour ABPM profiles. However, the relevance of BMI, the most used index of adiposity, has been

  13. Blood Pressure and Its Association with Gender, Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Family History among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein H. Alhawari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the major risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we will assess the frequency of hypertension among healthy university students and its association with gender, body mass index, smoking, and family history of both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. We screened healthy university students ranging from 18 to 26 years of age. For each participant, we performed blood pressure measurements using a previously validated device and obtained demographic data, body mass index (BMI, smoking status, and family history of both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Out of the total number of 505 participants included in this study, 35.2% have blood pressure between 130/80 and 139/89, and 13.5% have blood pressure of more than 140/90. We found significant gender differences in both systolic pressure (p = 0.003 with mean difference = 18.08 mmHg (CI: 16.13 to 19.9 and diastolic pressure (p = 0.011 with mean difference = 3.6 mmHg (CI: 2.06 to 5.14, higher in males than in females. Upon comparing the mean difference in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure with BMI, we found significant differences in both systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.002 blood pressure. We also found that smokers have significantly (p = 0.025 higher systolic blood pressure (mean difference = 4.2 mmHg, CI: 3.2 mmHg to 8.8 mmHg, but no significant difference for diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.386, compared to nonsmokers. First-degree family history of both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases affected systolic but not diastolic blood pressure. Taking into account the adverse short- and long-term effect of hypertension, we recommend adopting an awareness program highlighting the importance of screening blood pressure in young adolescent populations, keeping in mind that both high BMI and smoking are important modifiable factors.

  14. Evaluation of the use of shock index in identifying acute blood loss in healthy blood donor dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Erin E; Marryott, Kimberly; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Reineke, Erica L

    2017-09-01

    To determine if shock index (SI) would increase following blood donation and if it would be a more sensitive assessment of acute blood loss as compared with heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and plasma lactate. Prospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty client-owned clinically normal dogs. Peripheral venous blood measurements and blood donation. Data were collected at 3 time points: prior to donation (T pre ), immediately after donation (T 0 ), and 10 minutes following completion of donation (T 10 ). HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded and used to calculate SI at time points T pre , T 0 , and T 10 . Packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP), and plasma lactate were evaluated from a peripheral venous blood sample at T pre and T 10. The mean SI was significantly increased at both time points following blood donation as compared to baseline (SI pre = 0.88 ± 0.19 vs SI 0 = 1.17 ± 0.21 vs SI 10 = 1.12 ± 0.25 (P = 0.0002 and 0.0003, respectively). Following blood donation, the mean SBP was significantly lower (SBP pre = 149 ± 24 mm Hg, SBP 0 = 118 ± 20 mm Hg; P = 0.0001, SBP 10 = 133 ± 21 mm Hg; P = 0.011). The mean HR was not significantly different at T 0 but was significantly increased at T 10 (HR pre = 128 ± 21/min, HR 0 = 136 ± 25/min, P = 0.193; HR 10 = 146 ± 29/min, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in mean PCV (PCV pre = 50 ± 4%, PCV 10 = 48 ± 4%, P = 0.08). The mean TPP and plasma lactate were significantly different following donation but still within the reference interval (TPP pre = 6.8 ± 0.4 g/dL, TPP 10 = 6.4 ± 0.4 g/dL, P = 0.0014; Lac pre = 1.7 ± 0.7mmol/L, Lac 10 = 1.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.04). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis comparing area under the curve (AUC) for SI, HR, and SBP at T 0 and T 10 compared to T pre found that SI (AUC at T 0 : 0.858, CI: 0.730, 0.984 AUC at T 10 : 0.769 CI: 0.617, 0.921) was a better indicator of blood loss

  15. Simple pain measures reveal psycho-social pathology in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odes, Shmuel; Friger, Michael; Sergienko, Ruslan; Schwartz, Doron; Sarid, Orly; Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Singer, Terri; Chernin, Elena; Vardi, Hillel; Greenberg, Dan; Israel Ibd Research Nucleus

    2017-02-14

    To determine whether pain has psycho-social associations in adult Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Patients completed demographics, disease status, Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index (P-HBI), Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), and five socio-psychological questionnaires: Brief Symptom Inventory, Brief COPE Inventory, Family Assessment Device, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Pain sub-scales in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ measures were recoded into 4 identical scores for univariate and multinomial logistic regression analysis of associations with psycho-social variables. The cohort comprised 594 patients, mean age 38.6 ± 14.8 years, women 52.5%, P-HBI 5.76 ± 5.15. P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ broadly agreed in their assessment of pain intensity. More severe pain was significantly associated with female gender, low socio-economic status, unemployment, Israeli birth and smoking. Higher pain scores correlated positively with psychological stress, dysfunctional coping strategies, poor family relationships, absenteeism, presenteeism, productivity loss and activity impairment and all WPAI sub-scores. Patients exhibiting greater satisfaction with life had less pain. The regression showed increasing odds ratios for psychological stress (lowest 2.26, highest 12.17) and female gender (highest 3.19) with increasing pain. Internet-recruited patients were sicker and differed from hardcopy questionnaire patients in their associations with pain. Pain measures in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ correlate with psycho-social pathology in CD. Physicians should be aware also of these relationships in approaching CD patients with pain.

  16. Impact of body mass index on high blood pressure among obese children in the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Mahjoub, Areej O

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on high blood pressure among obese children and adolescents in western region, Saudi Arabia.  Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 306 (female: 140, male: 166) child, between August 2016 and March 2017. A questioner was filled by health professionals at ambulatory pediatric clinic followed by waist-hip circumference, height, weight, and blood pressure measurement. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were adjusted to gender, height, and age. World Health Organization growth standards were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Results: The mean age of subjects was 10.1 years. Body mass index increased SBP by 1.722 mmHg (p=0.001), and DBP by 0.901 mmHg (p=0.006) in boys, and 0.969 mmHg (p=0.036), and DBP by 0.704 mmHg (p=0.045) in girls. Waist hip ratio showed significant difference p=0.041, (p=0.0001) between male and female. Of the baseline characteristics, age greater than 11 years showed significant difference. Symptomatic manifestation of high blood pressure, family history of hypertension, level of activity, income level and post-secondary education in parents, did not show any significant results. Conclusion: Elevated BMI is associated with significantly increased diastolic and systolic blood pressure in obese children, especially in children older than 11 years.

  17. Impact of body mass index on high blood pressure among obese children in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI on high blood pressure among obese children and adolescents in western region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 306 (female: 140, male: 166 child, between August 2016 and March 2017. A questioner was filled by health professionals at ambulatory pediatric clinic followed by waist-hip circumference, height, weight, and blood pressure measurement. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were adjusted to gender, height, and age. World Health Organization growth standards were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Results: The mean age of subjects was 10.1 years. Body mass index increased SBP by 1.722 mmHg (p=0.001, and DBP by 0.901 mmHg (p=0.006 in boys, and 0.969 mmHg (p=0.036, and DBP by 0.704 mmHg (p=0.045 in girls. Waist hip ratio showed significant difference p=0.041, (p=0.0001 between male and female. Of the baseline characteristics, age greater than 11 years showed significant difference. Symptomatic manifestation of high blood pressure, family history of hypertension, level of activity, income level and post-secondary education in parents, did not show any significant results. Conclusion: Elevated BMI is associated with significantly increased diastolic and systolic blood pressure in obese children, especially in children older than 11 years.

  18. Central aortic blood pressure and augmentation index: comparison between Vasotens® and SphygmoCor® technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogoza AN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatoliy N Rogoza,1 Aleksandr A Kuznetsov21Cardiology Research Complex, Moscow, Russian Federation; 2Therapy Research Institute, Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Novosibirsk, Russian FederationIntroduction: The aim of this study is the comparison of Vasotens® technology as used in a device with an oscillometric method of blood pressure measurement (BPLab, Petr Telegin Ltd, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation against the validated tonometric system (SphygmoCor®, AtCor Medical Pty Ltd, West Ryde, Australia.Methods: The examinations were carried out in two medical centers. Exclusion criteria included atrial fibrillation, severe cardiac anomalies, heart failure, arrhythmia, decompensated diabetes, the presence of an artificial pacemaker, pregnancy, and BMI > 30. Overall, 160 patients and healthy volunteers were examined. Central aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP and augmentation index (aAIx were obtained by means of applanation tonometry and the oscillometric method was compared.Results: aSBP and aAIx measured using the BPLab device equates significantly with the same parameters measured by SphygmoCor.Conclusion: This finding allows the recommendation of Vasotens technology, which can be used with the 24-hour BPLab monitoring system for wide clinical use.Keywords: central aortic blood pressure, augmentation index, validation, Vasotens®, BPLab®

  19. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  20. The blood flow channel index as novel predictor of abdominal aortic aneurysm impending rupture based on the intraluminal thrombus angio-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiernicki, Ireneusz; Szumilowicz, Pawel; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rutkowski, Donald; Gutowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study the hypothesis that the thickness of the thinnest part of the thrombus, combined with bleeding into the intraluminal thrombus (ILT), is associated with a possible higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture was investigated, independently of aneurysm diameter, by using angio-CT. This article describes blood flow channel index based on the CT imaging findings that may help identify impending rupture prior to complete rupture. Methods: Computed tomographic images of 310 hospitalized patients with infrarenal AAA, were collected over a three-year period. They were divided into two main groups: 125 with bleeding into the ILT and control group 185 without the presence of blood in the thrombus. Patients were also analyzed in subgroups with ruptured, symptomatic and asymptomatic AAAs. A blood flow channel index was formulated as: maximal/minimal thickness ratio of thrombus from the same CT scan. Results: In dissected ILT group blood flow channel index was over a twofold higher than in group with intact ILT (19.0 [1.2–89.3] vs. (9.7 [1.3–38.9]; p < 0.001), respectively. Median thickness at the thinnest part of the ILT in dissected thrombus group was lower (1.3 mm [0.3–16.0]) than in group with intact ILT (1.7 mm [0.2–23.4]; p < 0.003). Conclusion: An association between a high blood flow channel index and bleeding into the ILT based on angio-CT study was demonstrated, and can suggest the aneurysm propensity for rupture

  1. The blood flow channel index as novel predictor of abdominal aortic aneurysm impending rupture based on the intraluminal thrombus angio-CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, Ireneusz, E-mail: irekwie@wp.eu [Department of Vascular Surgery and Angiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland); Szumilowicz, Pawel; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz [Department of Vascular Surgery and Angiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland); Falkowski, Aleksander; Rutkowski, Donald [Department of Interventional Radiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland); Gutowski, Piotr [Department of Vascular Surgery and Angiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Objective: In this study the hypothesis that the thickness of the thinnest part of the thrombus, combined with bleeding into the intraluminal thrombus (ILT), is associated with a possible higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture was investigated, independently of aneurysm diameter, by using angio-CT. This article describes blood flow channel index based on the CT imaging findings that may help identify impending rupture prior to complete rupture. Methods: Computed tomographic images of 310 hospitalized patients with infrarenal AAA, were collected over a three-year period. They were divided into two main groups: 125 with bleeding into the ILT and control group 185 without the presence of blood in the thrombus. Patients were also analyzed in subgroups with ruptured, symptomatic and asymptomatic AAAs. A blood flow channel index was formulated as: maximal/minimal thickness ratio of thrombus from the same CT scan. Results: In dissected ILT group blood flow channel index was over a twofold higher than in group with intact ILT (19.0 [1.2–89.3] vs. (9.7 [1.3–38.9]; p < 0.001), respectively. Median thickness at the thinnest part of the ILT in dissected thrombus group was lower (1.3 mm [0.3–16.0]) than in group with intact ILT (1.7 mm [0.2–23.4]; p < 0.003). Conclusion: An association between a high blood flow channel index and bleeding into the ILT based on angio-CT study was demonstrated, and can suggest the aneurysm propensity for rupture.

  2. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts as a diagnostic and prognostic index in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Ruan, Jianqing Q; Chen, Jie; Li, Na; Ke, Changqiang Q; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge; Wang, Jiyao Y

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is mainly based on clinical investigation. There is currently no prognostic index. This study evaluated the quantitative measurement of blood pyrrole-protein adducts (PPAs) as a diagnostic and prognostic index for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced HSOS. Suspected drug-induced liver injury patients were prospectively recruited. Blood PPAs were quantitatively measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients' age, sex, biochemistry test results, and a detailed drug history were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups, ie, those with HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing drugs and those with liver injury induced by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The relationship between herb administration, clinical outcomes, blood sampling time, and blood PPA concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS patients was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Forty patients met the entry criteria, among whom 23 had pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS and 17 had liver injury caused by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Among the 23 patients with pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS, ten recovered, four developed chronic disease, eight died, and one underwent liver transplantation within 6 months after onset. Blood PPAs were detectable in 24 of 40 patients with concentrations from 0.05 to 74.4 nM. Sensitivity and specificity of the test for diagnosis of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS were 100% (23/23) and 94.1% (23/24), respectively. The positive predictive value was 95.8% and the negative predictive value was 100%, whereas the positive likelihood ratio was 23.81. The level of blood PPAs in the severe group (died or received liver transplantation) was significantly higher than that in the recovery/chronicity group (P=0.004). Blood PPAs measured by ultra-performance liquid

  3. Effect of a 21-day balneotherapy program on blood cell counts, ponogen levels, and blood biochemical indexes in servicemen in sub-health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wu, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xing, Wenrong; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Shu; Su, Zongyi

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to explore the changes in the blood of servicemen in sub-health conditions during a 21-day balneotherapy program. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 129 servicemen in sub-health condition were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into either the balneotherapy group (70) or the control group (59). Subjects in the balneotherapy group received whole-body immersion bath therapy in thermomineral water (30 min daily) for 21 days. Their blood samples were examined 1 day before and after balneotherapy. The parameters studied included mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), lactic acid (LAC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose (GLU), and triglycerides (TG) levels. [Results] After 21 days of balneotherapy, MCH levels and MCHC increased significantly and WBC counts increased significantly. LAC levels decreased significantly. ALT, GLU, and TG levels decreased significantly. In the control group, there were no statistical differences before and after tap water baths following the same procedure. [Conclusion] A 21-day balneotherapy program significantly improved blood cell counts and blood biochemical indexes and reduced ponogen levels in servicemen in sub-health condition.

  4. The full spectrum of handlebar injuries in children: a decade of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraja, R M; Palmer, C S; Arul, G S; Bevan, C; Crameri, J

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic paediatric handlebar injury (HBI) is known to occur with different vehicles, affect different body regions, and have substantial associated morbidity. However, previous handlebar injury research has focused on the specific combination of abdominal injury and bicycle riding. Our aim was to fully describe the epidemiology and resultant spectrum of injuries caused by a HBI. Retrospective data analysis of all paediatric patients (trauma registry over a 10-year period. Primary outcome was the HBI, its location and management. The effects of patient age, vehicle type, the impact region, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were also evaluated. HBI patients were compared against a cohort injured while riding similar vehicles, but not having sustained a HBI. 1990 patients were admitted with a handlebar-equipped vehicle trauma; 236 (11.9%) having sustained a HBI. HBI patients were twice as likely to be aged between 6 and 14 years old compared with non-HBI patients (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.2). 88.6% of the HBI patients sustained an isolated injury, and 45.3% had non-abdominal handlebar impact. There were no significant differences in median ISS (p=0.4) or need for operative intervention (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.5) between HBI and non-HBI patients. HBI patients had a significantly longer LOS (1.8 days vs. 1.2 days; p=0.001), and more frequently required a major operation (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.2-5.4). The majority of splenic, renal and hepatic injuries were managed conservatively. Although the majority of paediatric HBI is associated with both intra-abdominal injury and bicycle riding, it produces a spectrum of potentially serious injuries and patients are more likely to undergo major surgery. Therefore these patients should always be treated with a high degree of suspicion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A method for matching the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a blood analog for flow visualization in hydraulic cardiovascular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T; Biadillah, Y; Mongrain, R; Brunette, J; Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F

    2004-08-01

    In this work, we propose a simple method to simultaneously match the refractive index and kinematic viscosity of a circulating blood analog in hydraulic models for optical flow measurement techniques (PIV, PMFV, LDA, and LIF). The method is based on the determination of the volumetric proportions and temperature at which two transparent miscible liquids should be mixed to reproduce the targeted fluid characteristics. The temperature dependence models are a linear relation for the refractive index and an Arrhenius relation for the dynamic viscosity of each liquid. Then the dynamic viscosity of the mixture is represented with a Grunberg-Nissan model of type 1. Experimental tests for acrylic and blood viscosity were found to be in very good agreement with the targeted values (measured refractive index of 1.486 and kinematic viscosity of 3.454 milli-m2/s with targeted values of 1.47 and 3.300 milli-m2/s).

  6. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  7. Congestive index of portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, H. K.; Lee, S. C.; Han, S. H.; Han, K. H.; Chung, J. B.; Choi, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with portal hypertension, the blood flow volume is maintained despite decreased blood flow velocity due to enlargement of the vascular cross sectional area. Thus, the 'congestion index' of the portal vein, which is the ratio between the cross sectional area (cm2) and the blood flow velocity (cm/sec) determined by a Doppler ultrasonography, may be a sensitive index by which to assess portal hypertension. We performed Doppler ultrasonography on 24 normal subjects, 14 patients with biopsy proved chronic active hepatitis and 55 patients with liver cirrhosis in order to assess the diagnostic value of the congestion index. The cross sectional area of the portal vein was significantly enlarged and the mean blood flow velocity was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with controls. However, the blood flow volume was no difference. The congestion index of the portal vein was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis (0.113+0.035) compared with patients with chronic active hepatitis(0.078+0.029) (p<0.001) and controls (0.053+0.016) (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the congestion index for detection of patients with the cirrhosis of the liver were 76.4%, 100% and 100% respectively, when the normal range was set at mean+2SD. The results suggest that the congestion index of the portal vein may pla a significant role in diagnosis of portal hypertensive patients

  8. Examiner's finger-mounted near-infrared spectroscopy is feasible to analyze cerebral and skeletal muscle oxygenation in conscious Chihuahuas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, Keisuke; Doi, Kimiaki; Mizuno, Risuke; Yokosuka, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    To measure regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) of hemoglobin and total hemoglobin index (HbI) in the brain (through the molera of the head) and skeletal muscle (musculus gracilis) of conscious Chihuahua dogs using an examiner's finger-mounted near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device, Toccare, we investigated brain and skeletal muscle NIRS in 48 Chihuahuas without severe disease. To measure rSO2 and total HbI, a Toccare probe was placed on the molera of the head and musculus gracilis of each dog for real-time recording. Stable NIRS values were obtained within 10 s. We also examined the effect of anesthesia on rSO2 and total HbI of a Chihuahua. Cerebral rSO2 values (59%±7%) were significantly lower than those obtained at femoral regions (67%±6%), whereas total HbI values in the brain (0.38±0.09) were significantly higher than those of the musculus gracilis (0.20±0.05). Sedation with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine decreased cerebral rSO2 along with a corresponding reduction in heart rate. Sevoflurane anesthesia with 100% O2 maintained rSO2 in the brain with an even lower heart rate. In conclusions, we measured brain and skeletal muscle rSO2 of hemoglobin in conscious Chihuahuas using a newly developed NIRS device, Toccare, and found that changes in cerebral oxygenation levels were associated with administration of anesthetics.

  9. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. McBurney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%. At baseline, the average age (n = 834 was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8% than women (5.2%, as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA concentrations (p < 0.05. Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01 at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02. In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.

  10. Touch screens as a tool in patient care in the IBD outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lone; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Fallingborg, Jan; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius; Jess, Tine

    2016-09-01

    We have introduced online touch screens in the waiting room for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) for recording of symptoms before their consultation. This has made disease activity scores readily available to the physician in our newly established database, 'Gastrobio'. We wanted to validate the use of touch screens compared to paper questionnaires. A total of 54 patients with UC and 74 patients with CD were included in the study. The UC patients filled out the Short Health Scale (SHS) and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SSCAI). The CD patients filled out the SHS and Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Paper questionnaires and touch screen versions were used in random order and comparison between the two modalities was made by Spearman correlation test, Bland-Altman plots, and Kappa-statistics. Among the 128 patients, the two SHS scores (SHS touch versus SHS paper) were found to be highly correlated (Spearman correlation; 0.92 for UC and 0.92 for CD). Also, on average, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated a difference close to zero between the two modalities. Agreement between paper version and touch screen version of SCCAI and HBI scores was also high (Kappa-statistics; 78% raw and 98% weighted for SCCAI; 65% raw and 97% weighted for HBI). It is feasible to introduce touch screens in the outpatient clinic and to have patients record their symptoms before the consultation. However, the study may not be representative for elderly patients.

  11. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented

  12. [Correlation analysis of the pre-pregnant body mass index, the gestational weight gain and umbilical cord blood C peptide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X L; Han, Y; Zhao, X M; Liu, Y; Lü, J J

    2017-01-03

    Objective: To explore the correlation among the pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG) and umbilical cord blood C peptide, and to investigate the influence of maternal weight management on the incidence of baby long-term metabolic syndrome. Methods: During May to Aug.2015, 485 pregnant women in Zhejiang Taizhou first people's hospital and Taizhou Huangyan maternal &child care service centre were selected in random and divided into four groups according to pre-pregnant BMI: low body mass, normal body mass, over body mass and obese group, and also divided into two groups for getting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or not. According to the gestational weight gain (GWG), all the cases were divided into two groups: above the Institute Of Medicine (IMO) 2009 recommendations or not. According to the outcome, the GDM group which had received weight control treatment, was divided into successful treat group or not. At last, we tested the umbilical cord blood C peptide and birth weight of each newborn and compared the difference in all subgroups. The correlation between the umbilical cord blood C peptide and birth weight were analysed. Results: (1) In the pre-pregnant BMI groups, there were significant differences of incidence of GDM ( P 0.05). (2) Newborn birth weight and the umbilical cord blood C peptide were positively correlated ( r =0.673, P newborn birth weight in all subgroups. (4) All groups showed correlations with neonatal umbilical cord blood C peptide, the GDM mostly (β=0.58), pre-pregnant BMI secondly (β: 0.36, 0.38) , and GWG weakly (β=0.17). (5) By stratification analysis, in GDM group, low body mass was negatively correlated with umbilical cord blood C peptide ( P gestational weight gain and umbilical cord blood C peptide. Suitable maternal weight control especially pre-pregnant body mass index control will lower the baby long-term metabolic syndrome incidence.

  13. A Survey of Blood Request Versus Blood Utilization at a University Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Peivandi Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reservation of blood leads to blood wastage if the blood is not transfused. Therefore, in some centers only blood type and screen are evaluated. In this study, the efficacy of a blood crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio was measured and then compared with the standard levels. Methods: This prospective study was conducted during one year in a university hospital. During this period, 398 patients for whom blood had been requested were studied. In these patients, at the first surgical type, the laboratory tests (hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet count, and prothrombin time and the number of preoperative crossmatched and intraoperative transfused blood units were recorded. Then the crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio, transfusion probability, transfusion index, and correlation between related factors, and the transfusion ratio were evaluated. Results: In this cross-sectional study, blood was requested for 398 patients. According to available blood unit deficiency, from 961 blood unit requisitions, only 456 units were crossmatched and 123 units were transfused. The crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio, transfusion probability, and transfusion index were 3.71 (7.81 if all requisitions were crossmatched, 16.83%, and 0.31, respectively. The most unfavorable indexes were observed in patients who had ear, nose, and throat surgeries (0 transfused from 19 crossmatched blood units and obstetric and gynecologic surgery (crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio was 18.6. The best indexes were related to thoracic surgery and neurosurgery (crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio was 1.53 and 1.54, respectively. There were no significant correlations between hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and prothrombin time with the number of transfused blood units (P = 0.2, 0.14, 0.26, and 0.06, respectively. Conclusion: The data for the crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio, transfusion probability, and transfusion index were suboptimal at this center, especially for ear, nose, and throat

  14. Effect of Dan seven soft capsule adjuvant therapy on serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes in patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Gui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Dan seven soft capsule on the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease and the influence of serum inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes. Methods: A total of 112 cases of patients with acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, according to the random data table were divided into the control group (n=57 and observation group (n=55, the patients in the control group received routine treatment combined with edaravone, on the basis of the treatment of the control group, the observation group was treated with Dan seven soft capsule. The serum levels of inflammatory factors, coagulation function and blood rheology indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant difference in the inflammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6, blood coagulation function (FIB, PT and APTT and hemorheology (high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity levels between the control group and observation group. Compared with the levels of the same group before treatment, two groups of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, FIB, high cut whole blood viscosity, low cut whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity level after treatment were significantly decreased, and levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group; Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of PT and APTT in the two groups were significantly increased, and the observation group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Dan seven soft capsule in the treatment of acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease can effectively reduce the level of serum inflammatory factors, improve coagulation function and blood rheology index, it has an important clinical value.

  15. FEATURES OF METABOLIC INDEXES OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN THE PATIENTS WITH EPIDURAL FIBROSIS FOLLOWING LUMBAR MICRODISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Isaeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A complex immunologic examination of fifty patients with clinically significant postoperative fibrosis has been performed. Immunogram indexes were determined, and activities of basic oxidation-reduction enzymes were investigated in blood lymphocytes. What concerned immune status of the patients under study, some peculiar features have been revealed, with respect to cellular and humoral compartments, i.e., relative increase in CD3+ population, a shift to CD4+ cells in the ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations, higher indexes of immune regulation and phagocytosis, increased IgG level, and lower content of IgA, as compared to appropriate controls. Metabolic parameters of lymphocytes reflect their functional activation, being expressed as an enhanced ability for intracellular synthetic processes, elevated functional activity of lymphocytes, and increased immune response. The general pattern of changes in immune status and metabolic indexes of lymphocytes allow us to assume participation of autoimmune component in progression of epidural fibrosis. The data obtained may be used in combined diagnostics and correction of this disorder. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 6, pp 589-592.

  16. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-09-15

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery.

  17. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts as a diagnostic and prognostic index in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Gao,1,* Jianqing Q Ruan,2,* Jie Chen,1 Na Li,2 Changqiang Q Ke,3 Yang Ye,3–5 Ge Lin,2,4,5 Jiyao Y Wang1,61Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Joint Research Laboratory for Promoting Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, 5Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 6Center of Evidence-Based Medicine Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: The diagnosis of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is mainly based on clinical investigation. There is currently no prognostic index. This study evaluated the quantitative measurement of blood pyrrole-protein adducts (PPAs as a diagnostic and prognostic index for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced HSOS.Methods: Suspected drug-induced liver injury patients were prospectively recruited. Blood PPAs were quantitatively measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients’ age, sex, biochemistry test results, and a detailed drug history were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups, ie, those with HSOS induced by pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing drugs and those with liver injury induced by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The relationship between herb administration, clinical outcomes, blood sampling time, and blood PPA concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS patients was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis.Results: Forty patients met the entry criteria, among whom 23 had pyrrolizidine alkaloid-associated HSOS and 17 had liver injury caused by drugs without pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Among the 23

  18. Assessing Health Status in Inflammatory Bowel Disease using a Novel Single-Item Numeric Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, Bijal; Spiegel, Brennan; Ippoliti, Andrew; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Simpson, Peter; Shih, David; Targan, Stephan; McGovern, Dermot; Melmed, Gil Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current instruments used to measure disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are often cumbersome, time-consuming, and expensive; although used in clinical trials, they are not convenient for clinical practice. A numeric rating scale (NRS) is a quick, inexpensive, and convenient patient-reported outcome (PRO) that can capture the patient’s overall perception of health. Aims To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of an NRS and evaluate its use in clinical practice in patients with CD and UC. Methods We prospectively evaluated patient-reported NRS scores and measured correlations between NRS and a range of severity measures, including physician-reported NRS, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI), Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI), inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with CD. Subsequently, we evaluated the correlation between the NRS and standard measures of health status (HBI or simple colitis clinical activity index [SCCAI]) and laboratory tests (sedimentation rate [ESR], CRP, and fecal calprotectin) in patients with CD and UC. Results The patient-reported NRS showed excellent correlation with CDAI (R2=0.59, p<0.0001), IBDQ (R2=0.66, p<0.0001), and HBI (R2=0.32, p<0.0001) in patients with CD. The NRS showed poor, but statistically significant correlation with SCCAI (R2=0.25, p<0.0001) in patients with UC. The NRS did not correlate with CRP, ESR, or calprotectin. The NRS was reliable and responsive to change. Conclusions The NRS is a valid, reliable, and responsive measure that may be useful to evaluate patients with CD and possibly UC. PMID:23250673

  19. Blood urea nitrogen/creatinine index is a predictor of prerenal damage in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidajet Paçarizi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a disease whose etiology is not very clearly explained. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of blood urea nitrogen (BUN/creatinine ratio in diagnosing preeclampsiaand evaluating prognosis.Methods: The patients in this research were examined and diagnosed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo. Control group included 25 pregnant women with a normalblood pressure and with a gestational age of more than 20 weeks, whereas the investigation group included 25 women diagnosed with preeclampsia. The patients were not administered therapy four days before the examination. For the determination of biochemical parameters we used end point bichromatic enzymatic rate and enzymatic conductivity rate.Results: BUN/Creatinine index in the preeclamptic group was 19±7.7, uric acid 280±70 μmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase198±63 U/L, while the number of platelets was 195±5061 x 109/L. In control group BUN/Creatinine index was 12±3, lactate dehydrogenase was 165±57 U/L, uric acid 197±79 μmol/La and the platelet numberwas 243±61 x109/L. Albumin/Globulin index in the preeclamptic group was 0.8±0.12, whereas in the control group it was 0.9±0.16.Conclusions: BUN/Creatinine ratio in pregnant women with preeclampsia was significantly increased (t=-4.14; p=0.00013 in comparison to the control group. It indicates the prerenal source of azotemia. This indexcan be important for the evaluation of preeclampsia severity.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 2005 ... Issue, Title. Vol 92, No 4 (2015), Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban Slum in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract. GI Ahaneku, CU Osuji, OC Oguejiofor, BC Anisiuba, VO Ikeh, JE Ahaneku. Vol 80, No 10 (2003):, Blood pressure control in a population where antihypertensives are ...

  1. Body fat and blood rheology: Evaluation of the association between different adiposity indices and blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina Barbara; Gnasso, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, new measures of body adiposity have been introduced: lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and body shape index (ABSI). These indices have been demonstrated to better associate with cardiovascular disease than other measures of adiposity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if LAP or BAI better associate with blood viscosity than other measures of adiposity (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; waist-to-hip ratio, W/HR; waist-to-height ratio, W/HtR). 344 subjects were recruited for the present investigation. Exclusion criteria were: diabetes, elevated triglycerides, smoking and drug use. Blood lipids and glucose were measured by routine methods. Blood and plasma viscosity were measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Adiposity measures were computed as previously described. In simple correlation analyses, blood viscosity (BV) correlated with BMI, BAI, and LAP in males and with LAP in females. Correlations between plasma viscosity and adiposity indices were weak and not statistically significant. Other variables significantly related with BV were: gender, HDL- and LDL-Cholesterol, and triglycerides (p index is strongly associated to blood viscosity. This result, along with previous evidence, identifies LAP index as a potential cardiovascular risk marker.

  2. Relationship between Blood Stasis Syndrome Score and Cardioankle Vascular Index in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Ho Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis syndrome (BSS in traditional Asian medicine has been considered to correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis, which can be estimated using the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Here, the diagnostic utility of CAVI in predicting BSS was examined. The BSS scores and CAVI were measured in 140 stroke patients and evaluated with respect to stroke risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CAVI for the diagnosis of BSS. The BSS scores correlated significantly with CAVI, age, and systolic blood pressure (SBP. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that CAVI was a significant associate factor for BSS (OR 1.55, P=0.032 after adjusting for the age and SBP. The ROC curve showed that CAVI and age provided moderate diagnostic accuracy for BSS (area under the ROC curve (AUC for CAVI, 0.703, P<0.001; AUC for age, 0.692, P=0.001. The AUC of the “CAVI+Age,” which was calculated by combining CAVI with age, showed better accuracy (0.759, P<0.0001 than those of CAVI or age. The present study suggests that the CAVI combined with age can clinically serve as an objective tool to diagnose BSS in stroke patients.

  3. Summer Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) species richness and community structure in the lower Illinois River basin of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R.E.; Webb, D.W.; Harris, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) species richness is useful for monitoring stream health, but no published studies in Illinois quantitatively document EPT richness or assemblage structure. The objectives of this study were to characterize adult EPT richness and structure and relate these to relative water quality at eight stream sites (160-69,300 km3 area) in the lower Illinois River basin. Adults were ultra-violet light trapped in June, July, and August 1997. Nutrient enrichment by nitrate and nitrite nitrogen was strongly evident, especially in smaller drainages, while critical loss of stable habitat was observed in larger water bodies. Seventy EPT species were identified from 17,889 specimens. Trichoptera were by far the most speciose (41 species), followed by Ephemeroptera (26), and Plecoptera (3). Caddisflies also dominated species richness across sites, contributing 18.0 of the average 28.9 total EPT species collected. Site EPT richness varied significantly (F = 5.51, p = 0.003, df = 7), with smaller drainages supporting greater richness, generally. Differences were also evident for months (F = 21.7, p = 0.0001, df = 2), with June being lower (11.8 average) than either July (20.6) or August (18.1) values. Hilsenhoff biotic index (HBI) scores did not vary significantly across sites (F = 0.7, p = 0.7, df = 7), but were different across months (F = 5.4, p = 0.02, df = 2). June (4.23) and July (4.53) means were not different, but both were lower (of better quality) than August (5.33) scores. The relationship of EPT to HBI scores was not investigated statistically due to problems of sample size and interdependence of monthly samples, but graphical analysis suggested no consistent relationship. This suggested a decoupling of the HBI from the EPT and implied that the gain in taxonomic resolution achieved by using adults outstripped the resolution of the HBI. Use of the HBI to characterize adult aquatic insect communities is discouraged. New state

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  5. Cooperative protein structural dynamics of homodimeric hemoglobin linked to water cluster at subunit interface revealed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Goo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Homodimeric hemoglobin (HbI consisting of two subunits is a good model system for investigating the allosteric structural transition as it exhibits cooperativity in ligand binding. In this work, as an effort to extend our previous study on wild-type and F97Y mutant HbI, we investigate structural dynamics of a mutant HbI in solution to examine the role of well-organized interfacial water cluster, which has been known to mediate intersubunit communication in HbI. In the T72V mutant of HbI, the interfacial water cluster in the T state is perturbed due to the lack of Thr72, resulting in two less interfacial water molecules than in wild-type HbI. By performing picosecond time-resolved X-ray solution scattering experiment and kinetic analysis on the T72V mutant, we identify three structurally distinct intermediates (I1, I2, and I3 and show that the kinetics of the T72V mutant are well described by the same kinetic model used for wild-type and F97Y HbI, which involves biphasic kinetics, geminate recombination, and bimolecular CO recombination. The optimized kinetic model shows that the R-T transition and bimolecular CO recombination are faster in the T72V mutant than in the wild type. From structural analysis using species-associated difference scattering curves for the intermediates, we find that the T-like deoxy I3 intermediate in solution has a different structure from deoxy HbI in crystal. In addition, we extract detailed structural parameters of the intermediates such as E-F distance, intersubunit rotation angle, and heme-heme distance. By comparing the structures of protein intermediates in wild-type HbI and the T72V mutant, we reveal how the perturbation in the interfacial water cluster affects the kinetics and structures of reaction intermediates of HbI.

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon ...

  7. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.F.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    .2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for Hb......I-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1...... cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....

  8. A quantitative index of regional blood flow in canine myocardium derived noninvasively with N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Ratib, O.; Gambhir, S.S.; Krivokapich, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine (USA))

    1991-01-01

    To derive a quantitative index of regional myocardial blood flow, the arterial input function of the flow tracer N-13 ammonia and the regional myocardial N-13 activity concentrations were noninvasively determined in 29 experiments in eight dogs. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and cross-sectional images were acquired dynamically using an ECAT III positron emission tomograph with an effective in-plane resolution of 13.46 mm full-width half-maximum. Time-activity curves were derived from the serial images by assigning regions of interest to the left ventricular myocardium and left ventricular blood pool. Tracer net extractions were estimated from the myocardial time-activity concentrations at various times after tracer injection and the integral of the arterial input function. Myocardial blood flow was altered by intravenous dipyridamole, morphine, propranolol and partial or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and ranged from 9 to 860 ml/min per 100 g. Estimates of tracer net extractions were most accurate when determined from the myocardial N-13 activity concentrations at 60 s divided by the integral of the arterial input function to that time. These estimates correlated with regional myocardial blood flows determined independently by the microsphere technique by y = x (1 - 0.64(e-114/x); SEE = 22.9; r = 0.94). First pass extraction fractions of N-13 ammonia determined noninvasively with this approach declined with higher flows in a nonlinear fashion and were similar to those determined invasively by direct intracoronary N-13 ammonia injections. The findings indicate that an accurate index of regional myocardial blood flow can be obtained noninvasively by high temporal sampling of arterial and myocardial tracer activity concentrations with positron emission tomography.

  9. [Prevalence of high blood pressure and their association with body mass index in children between 5 and 11 years of Nahbalam, Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saury-Paredes, Leonel Alejandro

    To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure in children aged between 5-11 years in the community of Nahbalam, Yucatan, and its association with the body mass index. A transversal study with children of the primary school "Lazaro Cardenas del Rio" was performed, measuring blood pressure, height, and weight of 259 girls and boys; systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure equal or greater than percentile 95 for gender, age, and height at three measures was considered as hypertension; prehypertension was considered as blood pressure equal or greater than percentile 90 but lower than percentile 95. A prevalence of 11.9% prehypertension and 6.1% hypertension was found. There is an association between hypertension and overweight and obesity (p ≤ 0.001). The prevalence of high blood pressure in children of the community of Nahbalam, Yucatan, is 18%. The children with overweight and obesity have an almost tenfold greater risk of hypertension than the eutrophic children (OR: 9.896; 95% CI: 2.738-35.764).

  10. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Noriaki; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-04-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia.

  11. Frequency of different blood groups and its association with BMI and blood pressure among the female medical students of Faisalabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Shireen; Zia, Sadaf; Tariq, Sundus

    2017-08-01

    To determine the frequency of different blood groups among female medical students and to find the association of blood groups and body mass index with blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was performed at the University Medical and Dental College, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from March to April 2016, and comprised female medical students. Participants were divided into groups on the basis of their ABO blood groups and on body mass index criteria. Blood groups were determined by simple conventional slide method. Blood pressure was estimated by manual auscultatory technique with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Data was analysed usingSPSS20. There were 145 students with an overall mean age of18.4±0.75 years (range: 17-23 years). Blood group B was the predominant group 65(44.8%). Besides, 130(89.6%) subjects were rhesus positive and 23(53%) subjects of blood group O were pre-hypertensive. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant positive association of blood group O with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.002, 0.001). However, subsequent logistic regression showed significant association only with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001). Relative risk of pre-hypertension for obese (p=0.001) was greater than non-obese subjects. Body mass index was significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.004, 0.042). Blood group B was the most common blood group. Blood group O was associated with diastolic pre-hypertension, while body mass index was associated with both systolic and diastolic pre-hypertension.

  12. The Effects of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs Applied to Elite Wrestlers on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Nurcan; Özbay, Serhat; Kaya, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs applied to elite wrestlers on body mass index (BMI) and blood lipids. 20 elite wrestlers, whose average age is (experimental group; 15.20 ± 4.61, n = 10), control group; 15.90 ± 2.08, n = 10), participated in the study and they were randomly divided into…

  13. A phase I/II study to evaluate the effect of fractionated hemibody irradiation in the treatment of osseous metastases--RTOG 88-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarantino, C.W.; Caplan, R.; Rotman, M.; Coughlin, C.; Demas, W.; Delrowe, J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was initiated to determine the maximum tolerated total dose that can be delivered by fractionated hemibody irradiation (HBI), as defined by the acute hematological and non hematological toxicity. Although it was designed as a dose searching trial, the influence of higher doses on occult and overt disease were considered equally important. The study was not designed to evaluate pain relief. The results were compared to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 82-06, which employed single high-dose HBI, to determine if either single or fractionated HBI is more effective in controlling occult or overt disease. Methods and Materials: A total of 144 patients were entered from September 1989 to April 1993. Only patients with a single symptomatic bone metastases from either prostate or breast cancer primaries and a KPS ≥ 60 were eligible. All patients initially received 30.0 Gy in 10 fractions to the symptomatic area followed by HBI in 2.50 Gy fractions to one of five arms: I--10.0 Gy (37 patients); II--12.5 Gy (23 patients); III--15.0 Gy (18 patients); IV--17.5 Gy (40 patients), and V--20.0 Gy (26 patients). A dose limiting toxicity was defined as an observed toxicity of ≥ Grade 3 lasting more than 30 days post completion of HBI. If three or more dose-limiting toxicities occurred at any dose level, the previous dose was considered as the maximum tolerable dose. Results: Thirty-six of 142 patients experienced ≥ Grade 3 hematological toxicity at some time following HBI. The distribution of dose-limiting hematological toxicity in each arm was: I--two patients; II--one patient; III--zero patients; IV--one patient; and V--three patients. The major non hematological toxicity was gastrointestinal and occurred in 10 patients. None were dose limiting. At 12 months from the initiation of treatment, the percent of patients with new disease were: Arms I--19%; II-9%; III-17%; IV--19%; V--13%; the percent of patients requiring additional treatment in

  14. Study on time-based variation of blood circulation index, pulse wave energy, and RAI of healthy adult men after different eating times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Cheol Kim

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Different eating times can bring about changes on blood circulation index, E, and RAI. These changes show a certain tendency and coincide with the physiological factors that eating causes a rise of HR, an increase of systolic cardiac pump performance, and a reduction of peripheral vascular resistance.

  15. [Immunologic indexes, enzyme status of lymphocytes and functional activity of blood neutrophils in children with infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtasova, L M; Tolstikova, A E; Savchenko, A A

    2013-01-01

    Explore the immunological parameters, levels of activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases lymphocytes, interferon status parameters, phagocytic activity and chemiluminescence response of neutrophils in the blood of children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. 65 children at the age of 4-6 years old with infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV in acute phase were observed. Such indexes as cell-mediated, humoral and interferon immunity, NAD(P)-depended dehydrogenases activity in blood lymphocyte, phagocytes activity, levels of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence ofperipheral blood neutrophils were studied. Children with EVB-infection have immunophenotype spectrum changes and changes of enzymes status of blood lymphocytes against the increasing in leucocytes and the useful increasing in lymphocytes. The useful increasing in IgA, IgM, IgG contenting in serum blood were found. The decreasing of spontaneous production of IFN alpha and the decreasing of induced production of IFNalpha, IFNgamma were determined. The breach of phagocytes activity and chemiluminescent response of blood neutrophils were found. The children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, there are changes in the immune status, changes the activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases in blood lymphocytes, marked changes in functional and metabolic state of peripheral blood neutrophils.

  16. Characterization and Expression of the Lucina pectinata Oxygen and Sulfide Binding Hemoglobin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garriga, Juan; Cadilla, Carmen L.

    2016-01-01

    The clam Lucina pectinata lives in sulfide-rich muds and houses intracellular symbiotic bacteria that need to be supplied with hydrogen sulfide and oxygen. This clam possesses three hemoglobins: hemoglobin I (HbI), a sulfide-reactive protein, and hemoglobin II (HbII) and III (HbIII), which are oxygen-reactive. We characterized the complete gene sequence and promoter regions for the oxygen reactive hemoglobins and the partial structure and promoters of the HbI gene from Lucina pectinata. We show that HbI has two mRNA variants, where the 5’end had either a sequence of 96 bp (long variant) or 37 bp (short variant). The gene structure of the oxygen reactive Hbs is defined by having 4-exons/3-introns with conservation of intron location at B12.2 and G7.0 and the presence of pre-coding introns, while the partial gene structure of HbI has the same intron conservation but appears to have a 5-exon/ 4-intron structure. A search for putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) was done with the promoters for HbII, HbIII, HbI short and HbI long. The HbII, HbIII and HbI long promoters showed similar predicted TFBSs. We also characterized MITE-like elements in the HbI and HbII gene promoters and intronic regions that are similar to sequences found in other mollusk genomes. The gene expression levels of the clam Hbs, from sulfide-rich and sulfide-poor environments showed a significant decrease of expression in the symbiont-containing tissue for those clams in a sulfide-poor environment, suggesting that the sulfide concentration may be involved in the regulation of these proteins. Gene expression evaluation of the two HbI mRNA variants indicated that the longer variant is expressed at higher levels than the shorter variant in both environments. PMID:26824233

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  18. Pulsatility Index of Blood Echogenicity of the Human Radial and Common Carotid Arteries: Relation with Age and Stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, Tae Hoon; Kong, Qi; Nam, Kweon Ho; Choi, Jay Chol; Paeng, Dong Guk

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, the ultrasound blood images were measured at both the human radial artery(RA) and common carotid artery(CCA), depending on the age, and the pulsatility index of blood echogenicity(PIBE) was analyzed. In addition, the ultrasound blood images were measured at both RA and CCA of both the stroke patients and the control group, and PIBE was compared. PIBE of RA for the young group was similar with that for the old group (0.13±0.21 and 0.16±0.03). PIBE of CCA for the young group, however, was larger than that for the old group (0.70±0.21 and 0.32±0.01), and was more variable depending on the subject. Similarly, the fibrinogen concentrations of the patients (336±61 and 340±126 mg/dl) were more than that of the control group (264±38 and 43 mg/dl), for both RA and CCA. The results indicate the possibility of the ultrasonic test on the correlation between erythrocyte aggregation and stroke, and it is expected that the in-vivo EA measurement would be clinically useful.

  19. Assessment of various systolic phase indexes for the detection of coronary artery disease by multi-gated blood pool imaging at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru; Kanao, Keisuke

    1982-01-01

    After Tc-99m was labeled with red blood cells in vivo, multi-gated blood pool imaging (MGBPI) was obtained at anterior and 40-degree left anterior oblique (LAO) position at rest. In addition to left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion (WM) abnormality, first-third EF, mean normalized systolic ejection rate, SdV/dt/EDV (LV peak ejection rate normalized by end-diastolic volume) and SdV/dt/V (peak ejection rate normalized by LV volume at the peak ejection) were calculated. Patients were divided into 3 groups; Normal (n = 14), coronary artery disease (CAD) with normal EF (> = 55%) and normal WM (Group I, n = 16), and CAD with abnormal EF and/or WM abnormality (Group II, n = 31). In all subjects of Normal and 13 patients of Group I, graded supine exercise stress MGBPI was performed at LAO position by using bicycle ergometer. All systolic phase indexes were correlated well with EF (r > = 0.77, p - 1 , p - 1 as a criteria of CAD, sensitivity of this index was 91% (100% in Group II and 75% in Group I). This sensitivity in Group I was identical with that of exercise stress MGBPI. Specificity of SdV/dt/V (86%) was a little inferior to that of exercise stress MGBPI (93%), but it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, SdV/dt/V is a useful systolic phase index to detect CAD. (J.P.N.)

  20. Value of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index in determining failure to control bleed in patients with variceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Khalid, Abdullah B; Awan, Safia; Shah, Hasnain A; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. Among the criteria that were proposed in Baveno conferences, the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index (ABRI) has not been validated prospectively in clinical practice. We therefore aim to evaluate the measurement of ABRI as a marker of failure to control bleeding and to evaluate the consistency of ABRI in relation to other criteria of failure to control variceal bleeding. All patients with variceal bleeding who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 who were administered transfusion of packed red blood cells were included after obtaining informed consent. All patients were managed as per the standard protocol with intravenous terlipressin along with band ligation and injection of cyanoacrylate in cases of esophageal and fundal varices, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured every 6 h for 48 h and then every 12 h until 5 days of index bleed in each patient. Packed cells were transfused if hemoglobin decreased below 8 g/dl. The number of blood units transfused, change in hemoglobin values, and ABRI were calculated after each unit of blood transfusion till 120 h. In patients in whom bleed could not be controlled, an ABRI value of 0.75 or more was compared with other Baveno IV-based parameters that define failure to control variceal bleeding. During the study period, 137 eligible patients with variceal bleed were admitted. The mean age of the patients was 52±12 years. The majority of patients (50.4%) were in Child-Pugh class B, followed by 38% in Child-Pugh class C. According to the Baveno IV criteria, overall failure to control acute variceal bleeding occurred in 52 (37.9%) patients. Excluding ABRI, failure to control bleeding was found in 22/137 (16%) patients, whereas ABRI-based criteria showed that in 34/137 (24.8%) patients, bleeding could not be controlled. There were only four (2.9%) patients with variceal bleeding in whom ABRI and

  1. Increase in body mass index and waist circumference is associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Reyes de la Cruz, Lorenzo; Santos, José Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem affecting even children and yet little is known about its role as a determinant of high blood pressure in this age group. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the relationship between the increment of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children and teenagers. The study was performed in Mexico City schools. Overweight was established if BMI ranged from >or=85(th) to th) percentiles and obesity if BMI was >or=95(th) percentile. WC was classified in two categories, one ranging between the 75(th) and 89.9(th) percentiles and >90(th) percentile. Blood pressure was measured four times during one visit by the auscultatory method. High blood pressure was defined if the levels were >or=90(th) percentile according to the guidelines of the 2004 North American Task Force. Ages of the study population ranged from 5-8 (n = 474), 9-12 (n = 643) and 13-17 (n = 912) years, respectively. The levels of blood pressure and prevalence of high blood pressure were higher in overweight and obese children and adolescents. In both genders, the prevalence of SBP and DBP increased directly correlated with increments in age, BMI and WC, although prevalence and odd ratios of high blood pressure were higher in individuals with increased WC in comparison to BMI. Increases in WC and BMI are parameters directly associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 16, No 4 (2010), Origin and generation mechanisms of ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Osmotic fragility index of HBAA red blood cells in the presence of ... (2004), Photovoltaic cells, efficiency and optimization, Abstract PDF.

  3. A meta-analysis of the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on blood pressure, glycemia and the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-bao; Xing, Yue; Tang, Lu; Zheng, Xiao-yong; Wang, Zi-cheng; Gao, Yu-wei; Li, Min-xia; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in the effect of insulin resistance (IR) as assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic patients. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify studies published before December 2012 that investigated the use of ARBs and CCBs to determine the effect on the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetics. Parameters on IR and blood pressure were collected. Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 12.0 were used to perform the meta-analysis. Fixed and random effects models were applied to various aspects of the meta-analysis, which assessed the therapeutic effects of the two types of drug using the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetic patients. The meta-analysis included five clinical trials. Patient comparisons before and after treatment with ARBs and CCBs revealed that ARBs reduced the HOMA-IR index (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.93 to -0.38) and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) (WMD -2.01, 95% CI -3.27 to -0.74) significantly more than CCBs. No significant differences in the therapeutic effects of these two types of drug on blood pressure were observed. Given that there are no significant differences in the therapeutic effects of ARBs and CCBs on blood pressure, as ARBs are superior to CCBs in their effect on the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetics, they might be a better choice in hypertension patients without diabetes. © 2013.

  4. Blood pressure, body mass index, heart rate and levels of blood cholesterol and glucose of volunteers during National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, K L; Tan, H; Liew, Y M; Sambhi, J S; Aljafri, A M; Hatijah, A

    2000-12-01

    The paper presents the results of a health screening programme conducted in 10 major centers in Malaysia--Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Alor Star, Kuala Terengganu, Malacca, Kota Bahru, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu during the National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997. There were 6,858 participants of both sexes aged between 6 years to 81 years old. The parameters involved in the screening programme were body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol and glucose. The following are the results of the study:- 1. The mean and standard deviation for the body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), total cholesterol (TC) and non fasting (random) blood glucose (GL) of the volunteers studied were 24.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m2, 128.3 +/- 21.1 mmHg, 79.6 +/- 11.9 mmHg, 77.2 +/- 12.1 bpm, 5.33 +/- 1.37 mmol/l and 5.11 +/- 1.97 mmol/l respectively. 2. There was a rising trend for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and GL with age. The HR was higher in the younger age group of those below 20 years. Males tended to have higher mean values than females except for HR which was similar in both sexes. 3. The Malays, Chinese and Indians seemed to have closely similar mean values for SBP, DBP and HR but the Indians possessed the highest BMI (25.62 +/- 3.90 kg/m2), TC (5.61 +/- 1.48 mmol/l) and GL (5.41 +/- 2.43 mmol/l) among the three major ethnic groups. While the Ibans had highest TC (6.07 + 1.09 mmol/l), their GL level was the lowest (4.76 +/- 1.15 mmol/l). The Kadazans had the lowest TC level (4.94 +/- 1.39 mmol/l) among all the ethnic groups. 4. Among the participants screened, 31.9% were overweight (BMI > or = 25), 7.6% were obese (BMI > or = 30); 26.8% had raised SBP (> or = 140 mmHg) and 19.3% had raised DBP (> or = 90 mmHg); 13.6% of the participants had increased HR (> or = 90 bpm), 22% had raised TC (> or = 6.20 mmol/l) and 2% had raised GL (> or = 11.00 mmol/l). There was a higher prevalence for abnormal values with increasing age

  5. A 5-year prospective observational study of the outcomes of international treatment guidelines for Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Garret

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapeutic strategies for patients with Crohn\\'s disease are based on American and European guidelines. High rates of corticosteroid dependency and low remission rates are identified as weaknesses of this therapy and as justification for early introduction of biologic agents (top-down treatment) in moderate\\/severe Crohn\\'s disease. We reviewed outcomes and corticosteroid-dependency rates of patients with moderate-to-severe disease who were treated according to the international guidelines. METHODS: Consecutive patients (102) newly diagnosed with Crohn\\'s disease in 2000-2002 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Severity of disease was scored using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Disease was classified by Montreal classification. Five-year follow-up data were recorded. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients had moderate\\/severe disease at diagnosis (HBI >8). Fifty-four (75%) had nonstricturing, nonpenetrating disease (B1). Sixty-four (89%) received corticosteroids, and 44 (61%) received immunomodulators. Twenty-one patients (29%) received infliximab. Thirty-nine patients (54%) required resection surgery. At a median of 5 years, 66 of 72 (92%) patients with moderate\\/severe disease were in remission (median HBI, 1). Twenty-five patients (35%) required neither surgery nor biologic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: When international treatment guidelines are strictly followed, Crohn\\'s disease patients can achieve high rates of remission and low rates of morbidity at 5 years. Indiscriminate use of biologic agents therefore is not appropriate for all patients with moderate-to-severe disease.

  6. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chao Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA. An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Methods: Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR] were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Results: Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%. The area under the curve (AUC of receiver operating characteristic: AUC VBI = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC VR = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  7. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Bao; Chen, Yu; Ni, Leng; Liu, Chang-Wei

    2015-06-20

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV) after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP) after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI) was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR]) were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%). The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic: AUC(VBI) = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC(VR) = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  8. Heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden older adults with low and normal ankle-brachial pressure index: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nami; Sugama, Junko; Okuwa, Mayumi; Inagaki, Misako; Matsuo, Junko; Nakatani, Tosio; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden adults older than 65 years. The patients were divided into three groups based on ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO₂): (1) patients with an ABI ≥ 0.8 (Group A); (2) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ ≥ 10 mmHg (Group B); and (3) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg (Group C). Heel blood flow was monitored using tcPO₂ sensors. Data were collected with the heel (1) suspended above the bed surface (preload), (2) on the bed surface for 30 min (loading), and (3) again suspended above the bed surface for 60 min (off-loading). Heel blood flow during off-loading was assessed using three parameters: oxygen recovery index (ORI), total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min, and change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading. ORI in Group C (n = 8) was significantly shorter than in Groups A (n = 22) and B (n = 15). Total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min of off-loading in Group C was significantly less than that in Groups A and B. Change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading in Group C was less than in Group A. Based on these findings, additional preventive care against heel blood flow decrease in older adults with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg might be necessary after loading.

  9. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed; Kremser, Christian; Pallwein, Leo; Aigner, Friedrich; Schocke, Michael; Peschel, Reinhard; Pedross, Florian; Pinggera, Germar-Michael; Wolf, Christian; Alsharkawy, Mostafa A M; Jaschke, Werner; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2010-10-01

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12h before and 12h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (pESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  11. Choice of marker for assessment of RV dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism : NT-proBNP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure, or blood pressure index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, H; Ates, I; Kundi, H; Yilmaz, F M

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to examine the value of NT-proBNP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), blood pressure index (BPI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the determination of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). A total of 547 patients diagnosed with APE were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions of patients were recorded in patient files. For blood pressure measurement, a calibrated digital blood pressure monitor was used at regular intervals. Blood samples were taken from patients at the time of admission for hemogram, biochemical, and hemostasis blood tests. Echocardiography was performed on all patients to detect RVD and evaluate pulmonary artery pressure. PASP (p blood pressure (p blood cell (p AUC ± SE = 0.975 ± 0.006; p < 0.001) was found to be the best predictor of RVD with a higher sensitivity (92.8%) and specificity (100%). We found that BPI had a better diagnostic discrimination for RVD compared with PASP and NT-proBNP.

  12. Correlations between hemoglobin type and temperature preference of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Gräns, Albin; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exhibits polymorphic hemoglobin variants with the HbI locus showing a strong North-South geographic cline in frequency distribution of three main types (1/1, 1/2 and 2/2). This may indicate selective advantages of the different HbI types under various temperature re...... inconsistent thermoregulatory behavior. To obtain a more definitive picture of the extent to which thermal niches are realized under natural conditions field observations in areas where the 3 HbI types co-exist should be performed...

  13. Decrease in blood pressure, body mass index and glycemia after aerobic training in elderly women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luciana Zaranza; Fiani, Cássio Ricardo Vaz; Freitas, Maria Cristina Foss de; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Foss, Milton César

    2010-10-01

    The aging process is associated with the development of several diseases, which can be attenuated by the practice of physical activities. Aerobic training is an effective method to maintain and improve cardiovascular function. Additionally, it has a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of several chronic-degenerative diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. } To verify the effect of a 13-week aerobic training program on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and glycemia levels in elderly women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Eleven sedentary elderly women with DM2, aged 61.0 ± 9.1 years, were submitted a 13-week aerobic training program, constituting group G2. Eleven controlled elderly women (aged 60.2 ± 6.8 years) were not submitted to the aerobic training, constituting the control group (G1). G1 attended educational lectures once a week, whereas G2 walked three times a week. Both groups presented a significant decrease in glycemia and diastolic blood pressure levels. No significant decreases in BMI were observed after the aerobic training in either group. The 13-week aerobic training program was enough to promote significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure and glycemia levels; therefore, this type of exercise training decreases the risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  14. Better Renal Resistive Index Profile in Subjects with Beta Thalassemia Minor .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basut, Fahrettin; Keşkek, Şakir Özgür; Gülek, Bozkurt

    2018-05-03

    Beta thalassaemia minor is a common genetic disorder without any characteristic symptoms except mild anemia. It is found to be associated with some cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The renal resistive index (RRI) is a measure of renal arterial resistance to blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the renal resistive index in subjects with beta thalassaemia minor (BTM). A total of 253 subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 148 subjects with BTM and the control group consisted of 105 healthy subjects. Beta thalassaemia minor was diagnosed by complete blood count and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Blood pressure measurement and biochemical tests were performed. Renal resistive index of all subjects was measured using renal Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects with beta thalassemia minor had lower renal resistive indices compared to healthy subjects (0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.60 ± 0.06, p = 0.0016). Additionally, the RRI levels of subjects with BTM were correlated with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.017, r = 0.194). In this study, lower renal resistive index was found in subjects with BTM. This may be associated with decreased vascular resistance and blood viscosity in these subjects. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Blood thixotropy in patients with sickle cell anaemia: role of haematocrit and red blood cell rheological properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vent-Schmidt

    Full Text Available We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells' (RBC rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS and healthy individuals (AA. Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a "loop" protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s-1 and increased progressively to 922 s-1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two groups and at 25% and 40% haematocrit for the AA and SS individuals, respectively. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties by laser backscatter versus time. AA at native haematocrit had higher blood thixotropic index than SS at native haematocrit and AA at 25% haematocrit. At 40% haematocrit, SS had higher blood thixotropic index than AA. While RBC deformability and aggregation were lower in SS than in AA, the strength of RBC aggregates was higher in the former population. Our results showed that 1 anaemia is the main modulator of blood thixtropy and 2 the low RBC deformability and high RBC aggregates strength cause higher blood thixotropy in SS patients than in AA individuals at 40% haematocrit, which could impact blood flow in certain vascular compartments.

  16. Cardio-ankle vascular index and subclinical heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Giuseppe; Battista, Francesca; Settimi, Laura; Anastasio, Fabio; Pucci, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV), and the left ventricle is confounded by the effects of blood pressure. We evaluated the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a less pressure-dependent measurement of the stiffness constant (β) of the aorta and the iliac, femoral and tibial arteries, and obtained prognostically relevant measurements of left ventricular structure and systolic function. CAVI, carotid-femoral PWV and echocardiographic left ventricular mass and systolic function were determined in 133 subjects with either hypertension or high-normal blood pressure (33% treated; 56 ± 16 years, blood pressure 145/89 ± 21/12 mm Hg). Carotid-femoral PWV exhibited a direct relationship with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.33/0.26, P 0.1). Both CAVI and PWV correlated significantly with left ventricular mass index (r = 0.31, P0.1). In a multivariate regression model, CAVI was independently associated with inappropriate left ventricular mass (β = 0.40, P < 0.001), along with body mass index. CAVI also demonstrated a negative relationship with left ventricular midwall fractional shortening (r = -0.41, P = 0.001) that was independent of age, sex, blood pressure and left ventricular mass in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a high CAVI is associated with inappropriately high left ventricular mass and low midwall systolic function. As a marker of arterial diastolic-to-systolic stiffening, CAVI may have a relationship with left ventricular structure and function that is independent of blood pressure levels.

  17. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  18. Relationship between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level are sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Galarza, C R; Magi, M I; Vasvari, F; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, M I

    1995-12-01

    Sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were analyzed by means of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance according to the level of daytime ambulatory blood pressure. In addition, we assessed the relations between ambulatory blood pressure measurements and systemic hemodynamics in male and female patients. We prospectively included 52 women and 53 men referred to our unit for evaluation of arterial hypertension. Women and men were grouped according to the level of daytime mean arterial pressure: or = 110 mm Hg. Patients underwent noninvasive evaluation of resting hemodynamics (impedance cardiography) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Compared with women men with lower daytime blood pressure had a 12% higher systemic vascular resistance index (P = NS) and a 14% lower cardiac index (P < .02), whereas men with higher daytime blood pressure had a 25% higher vascular resistance (P < .003) and a 21% lower cardiac index (P < .0004). Furthermore, in men systemic vascular resistance correlated positively with both daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas cardiac index correlated negatively only with daytime diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, women did not exhibit any significant correlation between hemodynamic parameters and ambulatory blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were more pronounced in the group with higher daytime hypertension. The relations between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level depended on the sex of the patient. In men a progressive circulatory impairment underlies the increasing level of ambulatory blood pressure, but this was not observed in women.

  19. The index of abdominal obesity as a marker of disorder of blood serum triglicerides fatty-acid spectrum in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Миколаївна Кушнарьова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. To determine the possibility to use the visceral obesity index (VOI for diagnostics of lipid metabolism disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 on the base of the study of adipose tissue and triglycerides fatty acids content in the blood serum of patients.Materials and methods. There were determined the body mass, height, waist size, blood serum  lipid fraction (triglycerides, LPHD, calculated the body mass index and VOI in 19 patients with DM type 2 older then 50 years. There were determined the content of fatty acids (palmitic С16:0, stearin С18:0, oleic С18:1 and linoleic С18:2 in triglycerides using the method of liquid-gas chromatography.Results. Examined patients were separated into 3 groups according to VOI value. There was detected that the higher VOI values in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (upper tertile were associated with the most intensive unfavorable changes of the fatty-acid spectrum of triglyceride fraction in the blood serum at the expense of an increase of saturated palmitic and stearin fatty acids fraction and decrease of unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids content. There were revealed the correlations between VOI and the levels of saturated and unsaturated triglyceride fatty acids.Conclusion. The calculation of VOI in patients with DM type 2 can be the useful indicator of the lipid metabolism disorder, especially the deviations of triglyceride fatty-acid spectrum

  20. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed, E-mail: dr_m_hamdy2006@hotmail.co [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pallwein, Leo, E-mail: leo.pallwein-prettner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Aigner, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.Aigner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schocke, Michael, E-mail: michael.schocke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Peschel, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.peschel@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pedross, Florian, E-mail: florian.pedross@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Medical Statistics Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pinggera, Germar-Michael, E-mail: germar.pinggera@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Christian, E-mail: christian.wolf@bkh-reutte.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Alsharkawy, Mostafa A.M., E-mail: drmostafamri@yahoo.co [Assiut University, Radiology Dept., Assiut (Egypt); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Frauscher, Ferdinand, E-mail: ferdinand.frauscher@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  1. A C-25 highly branched isoprenoid alkene and C-25 and C-27 n-polyenes in the marine diatom Rhizosolenia setigera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damste, J.S; Rijpstra, W.I C; Schouten, S; Peletier, H.; van der Maarel, M.J.E.C.; Gieskes, W.W C

    1999-01-01

    A North Atlantic strain of the marine diatom Rhizosolenia setigera was examined for the presence of hydrocarbons. This strain biosynthesizes a highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) C-25 pentaene, in contrast to Australian strains of R. setigera which produce HBI C-30 alkenes. The more widespread

  2. Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Crohn’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lv, Samei; Liu, Xiaojing; Song, Bin; Shi, Liping

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Stem cell therapy has been applied to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases, including Crohn’s disease (CD), but few studies have examined the use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). This trial sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of UC-MSCs for the treatment of CD. Methods Eighty-two patients who had been diagnosed with CD and had received steroid maintenance therapy for more than 6 months were included in this study. Forty-one patients were randomly selected to receive a total of four peripheral intravenous infusions of 1×106 UC-MSCs/kg, with one infusion per week. Patients were followed up for 12 months. The Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI), Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI), and corticosteroid dosage were assessed. Results Twelve months after treatment, the CDAI, HBI, and corticosteroid dosage had decreased by 62.5±23.2, 3.4±1.2, and 4.2±0.84 mg/day, respectively, in the UC-MSC group and by 23.6±12.4, 1.2±0.58, and 1.2±0.35 mg/day, respectively, in the control group (pUC-MSC vs control, respectively). Four patients developed a fever after cell infusion. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions UC-MSCs were effective in the treatment of CD and produced mild side effects. PMID:28873511

  3. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria I; Mazzucco, Sara; Biolo, Gianni; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Monti, Massimo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC) patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition. Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day). Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 10 days of supplementation (T1) to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in red blood cells (RBC) membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P -value DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls ( P DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03). No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as "good seafood consumers" showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to "low seafood consumers" ( P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively). After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was greater in "low seafood consumers" with respect to "good seafood consumers" ( P DHA supplementation was associated with increased DHA levels and omega-3 index in RBC membranes of BC cancer patients, independent of the type of BC presentation, and in controls. BRCA1/2 mutation, as well as low seafood consuming habits in both BC patients and healthy

  4. Influence of sleep apnea severity on blood pressure variability of patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhorst, Ana P; Gonçalves, Sandro C; Oliveira, Ana T; Massierer, Daniela; Gus, Miguel; Fuchs, Sandra C; Moreira, Leila B; Martinez, Denis; Fuchs, Flávio D

    2014-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Apnea overloads the autonomic cardiovascular control system and may influence blood pressure variability, a risk for vascular damage independent of blood pressure levels. This study investigates the hypothesis that blood pressure variability is associated with OSA. In a cross-sectional study, 107 patients with hypertension underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and level III polysomnography to detect sleep apnea. Pressure variability was assessed by the first derivative of blood pressure over time, the time rate index, and by the standard deviation of blood pressure measurements. The association between the apnea-hypopnea index and blood pressure variability was tested by univariate and multivariate methods. The 57 patients with apnea were older, had higher blood pressure, and had longer duration of hypertension than the 50 patients without apnea. Patients with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 10 had higher blood pressure variability assessed by the standard deviation than patients with AHI variability assessed by the time rate index presented a trend for association during sleep (P = 0.07). Daytime blood pressure variability was not associated with the severity of sleep apnea. Sleep apnea increases nighttime blood pressure variability in patients with hypertension and may be another pathway linking sleep abnormalities to cardiovascular disease.

  5. Hemibody irradiation. An effective second-line therapy in drug-resistance multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.R.; Tobias, J.S.; Giles, F.; Rudd, G.N.; Blackman, G.M.; Richards, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the results of treatment of 41 patients with melphalan-resistant multiple myeloma using single half-body irradiation (HBI) or double half-body irradiation (DHBI). Patients were grouped using prognostic classification reported by the Medical Research Council. Patients in group I and II showed the best response to therapy with reduction in serum of urinary paraprotein and improvement in symptoms, most notably a marked reduction in bone pain. In these groups five patients have survived over 2 years after therapy. The therapeutic response appeared better in those patients who received DHBI as opposed to those whom treated with single HBI. Patients in group III did not achieve prolonged survival but effective relief of bone pain was a consistent finding in these patients also. Thus HBI represents an alternative to combination chemotherapy as second-line treatment of patients with melphalan-resistant multiple myeloma. A comparative study of HBI versus combination chemotherapy is now indicated to establish which therapeutic approach is most effective

  6. Cerebral blood flow and oximetry response to blood transfusion in relation to chronological age in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, J; Leung, T S; Aladangady, N

    2016-06-01

    Preterm infants frequently receive blood transfusion (BT) and the aim of this study was to measure the effect of BT on cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in preterm infants in relation to chronological age. Preterm infants undergoing intensive care recruited to three chronological age groups: 1 to 7 (Group 1; n=20), 8 to 28 (Group 2; n=21) & ≥29days of life (Group 3; n=18). Pre and post-BT anterior cerebral artery (ACA) time averaged mean velocity (TAMV) and superior vena cava (SVC) flow were measured. Cerebral Tissue Haemoglobin Index (cTHI) and Oxygenation Index (cTOI) were measured from 15-20min before to 15-20min post-BT using NIRS. Vital parameters and blood pressure were measured continuously. Mean BP increased significantly, and there was no significant change in vital parameters following BT. Pre-BT ACA TAMV was higher in Group 2 and 3 compared to Group 1 (pBlood transfusion increased cTOI and cTHI and decreased ACA TAMV in all groups. PDA had no impact on the baseline cerebral oximetry and blood flow as well as changes following blood transfusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load of Pounded yam in Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incremental area under the blood glucose curve (IAUC) was used to determine the glycaemic index. Glycaemic load was determined using the percentage of available carbohydrate in the meal multiplied by the glycaemic index. Result: The glycaemic index of pounded yam was 61 and 59 in the diabetic type-2 and healthy ...

  8. Reliability of Doppler and stethoscope methods of determining systolic blood pressures: considerations for calculating an ankle-brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesbro, Steven B; Asongwed, Elmira T; Brown, Jamesha; John, Emmanuel B

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the interrater and intrarater reliability of systolic blood pressures using a stethoscope and Doppler to determine an ankle-brachial index (ABI), and (2) to determine the correlation between the 2 methods. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 8 to 12 million people in the United States, and nearly half of those with this disease are asymptomatic. Early detection and prompt treatment of PAD will improve health outcomes. It is important that clinicians perform tests that determine the presence of PAD. Two individual raters trained in ABI procedure measured the systolic blood pressures of 20 individuals' upper and lower extremities. Standard ABI measurement protocols were observed. Raters individually recorded the systolic blood pressures of each extremity using a stethoscope and a Doppler, for a total of 640 independent measures. Interrater reliability of Doppler measurements to determine SBP at the ankle was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.93-0.99) compared to moderate to strong reliability using a stethoscope (ICC, 0.64-0.87). Agreement between the 2 devices to determine SBP was moderate to very weak (ICC, 0.13-0.61). Comparisons of the use of Doppler and stethoscope to determine ABI showed weak to very weak intrarater correlation (ICC, 0.17-0.35). Linear regression analysis of the 2 methods to determine ABI showed positive but weak to very weak correlations (r2 = .013, P = .184). A Doppler ultrasound is recommended over a stethoscope for accuracy in systolic pressure readings for ABI measurements.

  9. Uteroplacental blood flow in diabetic pregnancy: measurements with indium 113m and a computer-linked gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylund, L.; Lunell, N.O.; Lewander, R.; Persson, B.; Sarby, B.

    1982-01-01

    The uteroplacental blood flow index in the last trimester of pregnancy in 26 women with diabetes mellitus was compared to that in 41 healthy control subjects. After an intravenous injection of 1 mCi of indium 113m, the radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked gamma camera. From time-activity analysis of the isotope accumulation curve, a uteroplacental blood flow index could be calculated. In the diabetic pregnant women, the maternal-placental blood flow index was reduced 35% to 45% compared to that in healthy women. The blood flow index tended to be further impaired in those diabetic women who had higher blood glucose values

  10. The associations between metals/metalloids concentrations in blood plasma of Hong Kong residents and their seafood diet, smoking habit, body mass index and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Yan; Leung, Clement Kai Man; Lin, Che Kit; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of metals/metalloids in blood plasma collected from 111 healthy residents (51 female, 60 male) in Hong Kong (obtained from the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, from March to April 2008) were quantified by means of a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Results showed that concentrations of these toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb in Hong Kong residents were not serious when compared with other countries. Males accumulated significantly higher (p diet habit, body mass index (BMI), and age. More intensive studies involving more samples are needed before a more definite conclusion can be drawn, especially on the causal relationships between concentrations of metals/metalloids with dietary preference and lifestyle of the general public.

  11. A systematic review of the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Carvalho Pacagnella

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This systematic review examines the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs and explores its use to trigger clinical interventions in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out using a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies presenting data on the relationship of clinical signs & symptoms and blood loss. Methodological quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist and the general guidelines of MOOSE. RESULTS: 30 studies were included and five were performed in women with pregnancy-related haemorrhage (other studies were carried in non-obstetric populations. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP and shock index were the parameters most frequently studied. An association between blood loss and HR changes was observed in 22 out of 24 studies, and between blood loss and SBP was observed in 17 out of 23 studies. An association was found in all papers reporting on the relationship of shock index and blood loss. Seven studies have used Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves to determine the accuracy of clinical signs in predicting blood loss. In those studies the AUC ranged from 0.56 to 0.74 for HR, from 0.56 to 0.79 for SBP and from 0.77 to 0.84 for shock index. In some studies, HR, SBP and shock index were associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: We found a substantial variability in the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs, making it difficult to establish specific cut-off points for clinical signs that could be used as triggers for clinical interventions. However, the shock index can be an accurate indicator of compensatory changes in the cardiovascular system due to blood loss. Considering that most of the evidence included in this systematic review is derived from studies in non-obstetric populations, further research on the use of the shock index in obstetric populations is needed.

  12. Body mass index, triglycerides, glucose, and blood pressure as predictors of type 2 diabetes in a middle-aged Norwegian cohort of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Sakshaug, Solveig; Strøm, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We wanted to assess the risk associated with these three factors alone and in combination, and the relative importance of these and several other risk factors (eg, nonfasting glucose) as predictors of T2D. Risk factors in a Norwegian population (n = 109,796) aged 40-45 years were measured in health studies in 1995-1999. Blood glucose-lowering drugs dispensed in 2004-2009 were used to estimate the incidence of T2D. Groups based on combinations of body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides were defined by using the 50% and 90% quantiles for each variable for men and women. The relative importance of BMI, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, and year of birth for predicting T2D was assessed using deviance from univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. All biomarkers were measured in nonfasting blood samples. In the various groups of BMI, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure, the incidence of T2D ranged from 0.5% to 19.7% in men and from 0.15% to 21.8% in women. BMI was the strongest predictor of incident T2D, followed by triglyceride levels in women and glucose levels in men. The inclusion of risk factors other than BMI, glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure in multivariate models only marginally improved the prediction. BMI was the strongest predictor of type 2 diabetes. At defined levels of BMI, the incidence of T2D varied substantially with triglyceride levels and blood pressure. Thus, controlling triglycerides and blood pressure in middle-aged individuals should be targeted to prevent later onset of T2D.

  13. Blood transfusion in preterm infants improves intestinal tissue oxygenation without alteration in blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, J; Leung, T S; Aladangady, N

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the splanchnic blood flow velocity and oximetry response to blood transfusion in preterm infants according to postnatal age. Preterm infants receiving blood transfusion were recruited to three groups: 1-7 (group 1; n = 20), 8-28 (group 2; n = 21) and ≥29 days of life (group 3; n = 18). Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) peak systolic (PSV) and diastolic velocities were measured 30-60 min pre- and post-transfusion using Doppler ultrasound scan. Splanchnic tissue haemoglobin index (sTHI), tissue oxygenation index (sTOI) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (sFTOE) were measured from 15-20 min before to post-transfusion using near-infrared spectroscopy. The mean pretransfusion Hb in group 1, 2 and 3 was 11, 10 and 9 g/dl, respectively. The mean (SD) pretransfusion SMA PSV in group 1, 2 and 3 was 0·63 (0·32), 0·81 (0·33) and 0·97 (0·40) m/s, respectively, and this did not change significantly following transfusion. The mean (SD) pretransfusion sTOI in group 1, 2 and 3 was 36·7 (19·3), 44·6 (10·4) and 41·3 (10·4)%, respectively. The sTHI and sTOI increased (P transfusion in all groups. On multivariate analysis, changes in SMA PSV and sTOI following blood transfusion were not associated with PDA, feeding, pretransfusion Hb and mean blood pressure. Pretransfusion baseline splanchnic tissue oximetry and blood flow velocity varied with postnatal age. Blood transfusion improved intestinal tissue oxygenation without altering mesenteric blood flow velocity irrespective of postnatal ages. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  15. Effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Methods: Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who were treated in Meizhou Maternal and Child Heath Hospital between May 2014 and March 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the group A who received subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump and the group B who received intravenous small-dose insulin injection by micropump. The indexes of ketone body, blood gas and stress were measured before and after treatment. Results: 12 h and 24 h after treatment, serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those before treatment, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of group A were significantly lower than those of group B while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those of group B. Conclusion: Subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump can improve ketone body metabolism, acidosis status and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  16. Impaired blood rheology is associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hideki; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Araki, Osamu; Kimura, Takao; Nara, Makoto; Ogiwara, Takayuki; Murakami, Masami

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood rheology and endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors, brachial arterial flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), an index of endothelial function and blood passage time (BPT), an index of blood rheology, and fasting blood cell count, glucose metabolism, and plasma fibrinogen, lipid, C-reactive protein, and whole blood viscosity levels were measured in 95 patients with coronary risk factors and 37 healthy controls. Brachial arterial FMD after reactive hyperemia was assessed by ultrasonography. BPT was assessed using the microchannel method. In healthy controls, BPT significantly correlated with FMD (r = - 0.325, p index (BMI; r = 0.530, p measurement of blood rheology using the microchannel method may be useful in evaluating brachial arterial endothelial function as a marker of atherosclerosis in these patients.

  17. Correlation study on waist circumference-triglyceride (WT) index and coronary artery scores in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R-F; Liu, X-Y; Lin, Z; Zhang, G

    2015-01-01

    Coronary disease is analyzed through common lipid profiles, but these analyses fail to account for residual risk due to abdominal weight and elevated TG levels. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the waist circumference × triglyceride index (WT index) and the Coronary Artery Score (CAS) in patients with coronary heart disease. 346 patients in our Cardiology Department were recruited from September 2007 to August 2011 and divided into two groups according to whether the patients presented with metabolic syndrome. We performed coronary angiography using the standard Judkins method. The severity of coronary artery stenosis and the CAS were calculated and analyzed with a computerized quantitative analysis system. The signs index, which includes the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip-ratio, and waist-height-ratio, the blood glucose and blood lipid index of all the patients were collected and used to calculate the WT index (waist circumference x triglyceride index. We performed a correlative analysis with age, gender, body mass index, blood glucose and blood lipid, blood pressure and other risk indicators of all patients as the dependent variables and the CAS as the independent variable. We show that the CAS is positively correlated to the WT index. Several lipid profiles and waist circumference were significantly associated with the CAS. The WT index is correlated to the CAS and is a good predictor for the development of coronary artery disease; it can be applied in the clinic for early intervention in populations at risk for coronary heart disease.

  18. Decreased cord-blood phospholipids in young age-at-onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Daria; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Larsson, Helena E; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ivarsson, Sten A; Lernmark, Ake; Oresic, Matej

    2013-11-01

    Children developing type 1 diabetes may have risk markers already in their umbilical cord blood. It is hypothesized that the risk for type 1 diabetes at an early age may be increased by a pathogenic pregnancy and be reflected in altered cord-blood composition. This study used metabolomics to test if the cord-blood lipidome was affected in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age. The present case-control study of 76 index children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age and 76 healthy control subjects matched for HLA risk, sex, and date of birth, as well as the mother's age and gestational age, revealed that cord-blood phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were significantly decreased in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 4 years of age. Reduced levels of triglycerides correlated to gestational age in index and control children and to age at diagnosis only in the index children. Finally, gestational infection during the first trimester was associated with lower cord-blood total lysophosphatidylcholines in index and control children. In conclusion, metabolomics of umbilical cord blood may identify children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Low phospholipid levels at birth may represent key mediators of the immune system and contribute to early induction of islet autoimmunity.

  19. Half body irradiation of patients with multiple bone metastases: A phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Randi; Yilmaz, Mette; Høyer, Morten

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF STUDY: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of half-body irradiation (HBI) on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with multiple bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side effects of the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 44 patients received...... lower (n = 37), upper (n = 5), or sequential HBI (n = 2). The dose for lower HBI was 8 Gy in one fraction and for upper HBI 7 Gy in one fraction, with reduction of the lung dose to 6 Gy in one fraction by partial shielding. The majority of patients (n = 41) were males with prostate cancers (93......%). Outcome and side effects were measured by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (QLQ-C30), and by the doctors' toxicity scores in the medical record. Pain relief was defined as a reduction of more than 10 points on the QLQ-C30 scale. Evaluations were performed before and 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks...

  20. Triglyceride glucose index and common carotid wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Scavelli, Faustina B; de Franceschi, Maria S; Esposito, Teresa; Carallo, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in wall shear stress contribute to both clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. Several conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity can impair shear stress, but the role of insulin resistance has never been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin resistance assessed by TyG Index associates with wall shear stress in the common carotid artery. One hundred six individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and cigarette smoking were evaluated. TyG Index was calculated as log[fasting triglycerides × fasting glucose / 2]. Subjects underwent blood viscosity measurement and echo-Doppler evaluation of carotid arteries to calculate wall shear stress. The association between TyG Index and carotid wall shear stress was assessed by simple and multiple regression analyses. TyG Index was significantly and inversely associated with carotid wall shear stress both in simple (r = -0.44, P glucose greater than 100 mg/dL, and triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dL. The present findings suggest that increasing insulin resistance, as assessed by TyG Index, associates with atherosclerosis-prone shear stress reduction in the common carotid artery.

  1. Skeletal blood flow, iliac histomorphometry, and strontium kinetics in osteoporosis: a relationship between blood flow and corrected apposition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, J.; Arlot, M.; Wootton, R.; Edouard, C.; Tellez, M.; Hesp, R.; Green, J.R.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    In 20 untreated patients with idiopathic or postmenopausal osteoporosis, kinetic studies of skeletal blood flow (using 18 F) and bone turnover (using 85 Sr) were combined with dynamic histomorphometry performed on transiliac biopsies taken within 6 weeks of each other. In 8 patients the combined studies were repeated after treatment. A further 5 patients were studied only while receiving treatment. As expected, skeletal blood flow measured by 18 F correlated with an index of 85 Sr uptake into the exchangeable pools of bone. Additionally and independently, skeletal blood flow correlated with an index of the work rate of the osteoblasts in each multicellular unit of bone (the corrected apposition rate of Parfitt). These correlations were statistically significant in both the untreated patients (P less than 0.05) and the whole group (P less than 0.001). Further indices related to bone turnover at the level of the skeleton as a whole were significantly associated with skeletal blood flow only in the combined group

  2. A Low Glycaemic Index Diet in Pregnancy Induces DNA Methylation Variation in Blood of Newborns: Results from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling A. Geraghty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic profile of the developing fetus is sensitive to environmental influence. Maternal diet has been shown to influence DNA methylation patterns in offspring, but research in humans is limited. We investigated the impact of a low glycaemic index dietary intervention during pregnancy on offspring DNA methylation patterns using a genome-wide methylation approach. Sixty neonates were selected from the ROLO (Randomised cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet to prevent macrosomia study: 30 neonates from the low glycaemic index intervention arm and 30 from the control, whose mothers received no specific dietary advice. DNA methylation was investigated in 771,484 CpG sites in free DNA from cord blood serum. Principal component analysis and linear regression were carried out comparing the intervention and control groups. Gene clustering and pathway analysis were also explored. Widespread variation was identified in the newborns exposed to the dietary intervention, accounting for 11% of the total level of DNA methylation variation within the dataset. No association was found with maternal early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, infant sex, or birthweight. Pathway analysis identified common influences of the intervention on gene clusters plausibly linked to pathways targeted by the intervention, including cardiac and immune functioning. Analysis in 60 additional samples from the ROLO study failed to replicate the original findings. Using a modest-sized discovery sample, we identified preliminary evidence of differential methylation in progeny of mothers exposed to a dietary intervention during pregnancy.

  3. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jia-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. Findings The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR, human blood index (HBI, and the parous rates (M. Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site. About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of

  4. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (Pgroup, high dose group (Pgroup (Pblood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  5. Simultaneously Measured Interarm Blood Pressure Difference and Stroke: An Individual Participants Data Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Mastumoto, Chisa; Kario, Kazuomi; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Maeda, Yasutaka; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Watada, Hirotaka; Munakata, Masanori; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Ito, Norihisa; Nakamura, Michinari; Shoji, Tetsuo; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Yamashina, Akira

    2018-06-01

    We conducted individual participant data meta-analysis to examine the validity of interarm blood pressure difference in simultaneous measurement as a marker to identify subjects with ankle-brachial pressure index blood pressure difference >5 mm Hg as being associated with a significant odds ratio for the presence of ankle-brachial pressure index blood pressure difference >15 mm Hg was associated with a significant Cox stratified adjusted hazard ratio for subsequent stroke (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-4.60; P blood pressure differences, measured simultaneously in both arms, may be associated with vascular damage in the systemic arterial tree. These differences may be useful for identifying subjects with an ankle-brachial pressure index of blood pressure in both arms at the first visit. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Child Health, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Abstract. Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. ..... and treatment of high blood pressure in children and ad- olescents.

  7. The Blood Compatibilities of Blood Purification Membranes and Other Materials Developed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Abe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibilities in blood purification therapy are defined as “a concept to stipulate safety of blood purification therapy by an index based on interaction in the body arising from blood purification therapy itself.” The biocompatibilities are associated with not only materials to be used but also many factors such as sterilization method and eluted substance. It is often evaluated based on impacts on cellular pathways and on humoral pathways. Since the biocompatibilities of blood purification therapy in particular hemodialysis are not just a prognostic factor for dialysis patients but a contributory factor for long-term complications, it should be considered with adequate attention. It is important that blood purification therapy should be performed by consistently evaluating not only risks associated with these biocompatibilities but also the other advantages obtained from treatments. In this paper, the biocompatibilities of membrane and adsorption material based on Japanese original which are used for blood purification therapy are described.

  8. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and

  9. Comparison of three commercial fecal calprotectin ELISA test kits used in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Bachmann Holmetoft, Ulla; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of intestinal inflammation used to distinguish between functional and organic bowel diseases and to evaluate disease activity among patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to compare three different ELISA tests...... and 18 to 67 years, respectively. Disease activity in the patients was established using the following clinical activity indices: the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI), the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) and the Modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (MPDAI). Three ELISA calprotectin tests...... (EK-CAL, CALPRO and HK325) were performed on fecal specimens and results compared. RESULTS: The CALPRO calprotectin ELISA test was shown to have the best specificity of 96% compared to the HK325 and the EK-CAL calprotectin ELISA tests with 28% specificity and 74% specificity, respectively...

  10. Relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco J; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose A; Gonzalez, Carmen; Martín, Joaquin; Pascual, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass. Cross-sectional study that included 392 never treated hypertensive individuals. Measurement of office, 24-h ambulatory, and central blood pressure (obtained using applanation tonometry) and determination of left ventricular mass by echocardiography were performed in all patients. In a multiple regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender and metabolic syndrome, 24-h blood pressure was more closely related to ventricular mass than the respective office and central blood pressures. Systolic blood pressures always exhibited a higher correlation than diastolic blood pressures in all 3 determinations. The correlation between left ventricular mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure was higher than that of office (P<.002) or central systolic blood pressures (P<.002). Changes in 24-h systolic blood pressure caused the greatest variations in left ventricular mass index (P<.001). In our population of untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients, left ventricular mass index is more closely related to 24-h ambulatory blood pressure than to office or central blood pressure. Central blood pressure does not enable us to better identify patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of different dietary cation-anion balance and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xuejia; Sun Yongqiang; Zheng Guoping; Li Mangxue; Liu Dasen

    2007-01-01

    Five sheep with average live weight of 38 kg were selected and fitted with permanent ruminal fistulae for the study of the influence of DCAB and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep. With the design of 5 x 5 Latin square, the goats were undergone four groups of treatments. As sheep in control group were only fed with basic feed, other treatments were fed with basic feed and additives. Those additives were: treatment 1 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary), treatment 2 with DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM), treatment 3 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM) and treatment 4 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB2 (40 mEq/100 g DM). The results show that different DCAB and cellulase had no apparent influence on the concentrations of T 3 and T 4 (P>0.05), but they had significant influence on the concentration of insulin (P 0.05). The study indicated that addition of 0.2% cellulase to dietary while adjusting DCAB to 0.2-40 mEq/100 g DM respectively did not destroy tissues and organs of sheep. (authors)

  12. Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital A Patient’s Guide Hyperglycemia is the medical term for blood glucose (sugar) ... org/guidelines/index.cfm). www.hormone.org Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital Patient Guide ...

  13. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Tom M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.......To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index....

  15. Effect of blood transfusion on intestinal blood flow and oxygenation in extremely preterm infants during first week of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayanta; Leung, Terence S; Aladangady, Narendra

    2016-04-01

    Extremely preterm infants receive frequent blood transfusions in the first week of life. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of blood transfusion on intestinal blood flow and oxygenation during the first week of life in extremely preterm infants. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) and diastolic velocities were measured 30 to 60 minutes before and after transfusion. Splanchnic tissue hemoglobin index (sTHI), splanchnic tissue oxygenation index (sTOI), and splanchnic fractional tissue oxygen extraction (sFTOE) were measured continuously from 15 to 20 minutes before to after transfusion along with vital variables. Twenty infants were studied (median gestational age, 26 weeks). Ten infants were partially fed (15-68 mL/kg/day). Heart rate and SaO2 remained unaltered; blood pressure increased significantly (p transfusion. Mean SMA PSV (p = 0.63) and diastolic velocity (p = 0.65) remained unaltered. Mean pretransfusion SMA PSV was similar in partially fed (0.78 m/sec) compared to unfed infants (0.52 m/sec; p = 0.06) and the response to transfusion was not dissimilar. There was a significant increase in sTHI (mean difference, 32.3%; p transfusion. There was no significant difference in sTHI or sTOI between fed and unfed infants and their response to transfusion. Blood transfusion increased blood pressure and intestinal tissue oxygenation but did not alter blood flow velocities. Partial feeding had no impact on intestinal blood flow and tissue oxygenation changes. © 2015 AABB.

  16. Lack of association between systolic blood pressure and blood viscosity in normotensive healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina; Loprete, Antonio; Merante, Valentina; Gnasso, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    A direct relationship between blood pressure and viscosity has frequently been reported, although clear data are not available. To better understand the relationship between these two variables, we evaluated blood viscosity and blood pressure in a group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors. Healthy subjects were selected from participants in a campaign of prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 103). They underwent blood sampling for measurement of plasma and blood viscosity, haematocrit, blood lipids and glucose. The quantity and distribution of body fat was assessed by body mass index and waist/hip ratio, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated significantly with age (r = 0.222) and waist/hip ratio (r = 0.374). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) correlated significantly with waist/hip ratio (r = 0.216), haematocrit (r = 0.333) and blood viscosity (r = 0.258). Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the only variable significantly associated with SBP was age, while haematocrit was the only variable significantly associated with DBP. Blood viscosity was closely related to waist/hip ratio. These findings show that SBP, in healthy subjects, is not influenced by haematocrit and blood viscosity. In contrast, DBP is related to the values of haematocrit. Among classical cardiovascular risk factors, waist/hip ratio is closely related to blood viscosity.

  17. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition.Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 10 days of supplementation (T1 to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in red blood cells (RBC membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group, 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group, 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group, and 10 healthy controls (C group. DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls (P < 0.001. No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03. No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as “good seafood consumers” showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to “low seafood consumers” (P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively. After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was

  18. Effect of centrifuge test on blood serum lipids index of cadet pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochyński, Zbigniew; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Kłossowski, Marek; Sobiech, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the lipid index (WS) in the examined cadets and duration of exposure to +Gz in the human centrifuge. The study involved 19 first-year cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. Tests in the human centrifuge were repeated twice, i.e. prior to (test I) and 45 days after (test II). After exposure to +Gz, the examined cadets were divided into 2 groups. Group I (N=11) included cadets subjected to a shorter total duration of exposure to +Gz, while group II (N=8) included cadets with a longer total duration of exposure to +Gz. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), and apolipoproteins A1 and B were assayed in blood serum prior to (assay A) and after (assay B) both exposures to +Gz. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) level was estimated from the Friedewald formula. WS is an own mathematical algorithm. WS was higher in group II, assay A - 10.0 and B - 10.08 of test I in the human centrifuge than in group I where the WS values were 6.91 and 6.96, respectively. WS was also higher in group II in assay A - 10.0 and B -10.1 of test II in the human centrifuge than in group I - 6.96 and 6.80, respectively. The higher value of WS in group II, both after the first and second exposure to +Gz in human centrifuge, in comparison with group I, indicated its usefulness for determination of the maximum capability of applying acceleration of the interval type during training in the human centrifuge.

  19. Impact of antihypertensive combination and monotreatments on blood pressure variability: assessment by old and new indices. Data from a large ambulatory blood pressure monitoring database.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    High 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) variability is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. We analysed a large ABP monitoring database containing data from hypertensive patients treated with telmisartan\\/amlodipine combination or various monotherapies with the aim of quantifying the 24-h distribution of blood pressure (BP) reduction by treatment through the smoothness index and of developing and testing a new treatment-on-variability index (TOVI) to quantify the effects of treatment on both mean BP and BP variability.

  20. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  1. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  2. Influence of ABO blood group on sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Gandini, Giorgio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Skafidas, Spyros; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico

    2017-06-01

    Despite being a recessive trait, the O blood group is the most frequent worldwide among the ABO blood types. Since running performance has been recognized as a major driver of evolutionary advantage in humans, we planned a study to investigate whether the ABO blood group may have an influence on endurance running performance in middle-aged recreational athletes. The study population consisted of 52 recreational, middle-aged, Caucasian athletes (mean age: 49±13 years, body mass index, 23.4±2.3 kg/m 2 ), regularly engaged in endurance activity. The athletes participated to a scientific event called "Run for Science" (R4S), entailing the completion of a 21.1 km (half-marathon) run under competing conditions. The ABO blood type status of the participants was provided by the local Service of Transfusion Medicine. In univariate analysis, running performance was significantly associated with age and weekly training, but not with body mass index. In multiple linear regression analysis, age and weekly training remained significantly associated with running performance. The ABO blood group status was also found to be independently associated with running time, with O blood type athletes performing better than those with non-O blood groups. Overall, age, weekly training and O blood group type explained 62.2% of the total variance of running performance (age, 41.6%; training regimen, 10.5%; ABO blood group, 10.1%). The results of our study show that recreational athletes with O blood group have better endurance performance compared to those with non-O blood group types. This finding may provide additional support to the putative evolutionary advantages of carrying the O blood group.

  3. Effect of in-ovo injection of metformin on blood parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood parameters, including glucose, cholesterol, LDL (low density ... triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL concentrations were significantly reduced by ... of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  4. Change of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Hua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and investigate the change state of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: A total of 92 patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion in our hospital from June 2013 to July 2015 were selected as the observation group and 92 women with health delivery history at the same time were selected as the control group,then the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of two groups were detected and compared and the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were compared too. Results:The peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of observation group and control group all had obvious differences,and those blood indexes levels' differences of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were obvious too, all P<0.05 and the differences were significant. Conclusions: The T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion show abnormal state and the differences of detection results of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times are relatively obvious,so those indexes should be monitored and improved intentinonally.

  5. [Prognostic Doppler ultrasound examination of fetal arteries blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroszewski, Piotr; Sabatowska, Małgorzata; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata; Suzin, Jacek

    2002-08-01

    Early detection of fetal risk is one of the main issues in today obstetrics. Ultrasound diagnostics plays a significant role, as the introduction of Doppler imaging method in the evaluation of blood flow has enabled non-invasive assessment of uteroplacental circulation. Therefore, we have analysed foetal three arteries: umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery after determining the normal range for the analysed parameters. 1. Comparison of the obtained blood flow indices (S/D, RI, PI) in the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery of foetuses from normal and complicated full-term pregnancies. 2. Determination of indices: umbilical-cerebral and renal-cerebral in normal and pathological pregnancy. 3. Evaluation of feasibility of the analysed flow parameters for the detection of intrauterine foetal hypoxia. We have examined 151 women, who were divided into control group--101 pregnant women with normal pregnancy and study group--50 pregnant women with complicated pregnancy. All pregnant women underwent ultrasound examination using the Hitachi EUB 515 C (Japan) scanner with 3.5 MHz convex probe, connected to the colour pulsed Doppler. The study consisted of the biometric measurements and evaluation of the spectrum of blood flow in the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and renal artery. We have determined following indices: a) systolic-diastolic ratio S/D, resistance index RI, pulsatility index PI, b) umbilical-cerebral ratio P/M. (PI ua/PI mca), renal--cerebral ratio N/M (PI ra/PI mca). Statistically significant difference was found between the study and control groups for all the flow indices assessed (S/D, RI, PI) for the middle cerebral artery, for the indices P/M and N/M. (p < 0.001) and pulsatility index in the renal artery (p < 0.01). Similar, although slightly smaller difference (p < 0.05) was seen for the values of flow parameters in the umbilical artery. 1) Evaluation of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery, and in

  6. Is it possible to predict the presence of colorectal cancer in a blood test? A probabilistic approach method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Rodríguez, José Manuel; Gallego Plazas, Javier; Borrás Rocher, Fernando; Calpena Rico, Rafael; Ruiz Macia, José Antonio; Morcillo Ródenas, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of the state of immunosurveillance (the ability of the organism to prevent the development of neoplasias) in the blood has prognostic implications of interest in colorectal cancer. We evaluated and quantified a possible predictive character of the disease in a blood test using a mathematical interaction index of several blood parameters. The predictive capacity of the index to detect colorectal cancer was also assessed. We performed a retrospective case-control study of a comparative analysis of the distribution of blood parameters in 266 patients with colorectal cancer and 266 healthy patients during the period from 2009 to 2013. Statistically significant differences (p indexes (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio), hemoglobin, hematocrit and eosinophil levels. These differences allowed the design of a blood analytical profile that calculates the risk of colorectal cancer. This risk profile can be quantified via a mathematical formula with a probabilistic capacity to identify patients with the highest risk of the presence of colorectal cancer (area under the ROC curve = 0.85). We showed that a colorectal cancer predictive character exists in blood which can be quantified by an interaction index of several blood parameters. The design and development of interaction indexes of blood parameters constitutes an interesting research line for the development and improvement of programs for the screening of colorectal cancer.

  7. Change of blood rheology in newborn and its cerebrovascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage in newborn whose hematocritg (HCT are among 60%-65%. Methods: A total of 100 cases newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% with blood routine examination were set as observation group, 100 cases newborn whose HCT <60% were set as control group, compared the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage between two groups. Results: The HCT, whole blood viscosity (high, whole blood viscosity (low shear, erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, aspertate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, Vs, Vs and the abnormal rate of aEEG examination in observation group were significantly higher than the control group, the difference had statistical significance, RI in observation group were significantly lower than the control group, the difference had statistical significance. Conclusions: newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% but not with polycythemia have appeared and cerebrovascular lesions, it should cause clinical positive value.

  8. Blood pressure levels and body mass index in Brazilian adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pucci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased life expectancy among people with Down syndrome (DS has introduced new environmental factors that may affect blood pressure (BP and/or lead to obesity in this population. The aim here was to investigate BP levels and body mass index (BMI in adults with DS, correlating these data with the patients' sex and age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional observational study conducted in special schools in Curitiba (PR, Brazil. METHODS: 97 adult patients were included. BP was measured in accordance with the established guidelines. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight by the height squared (kg/m2. RESULTS: Sex had no influence on BMI; nor did systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP. The age range was from 18 to 56 years. No correlation was observed between increasing age and greater BMI or BP. Eighty-six individuals (88.7% presented normal BP, eleven (11.3% prehypertension and none hypertension. Twenty patients (20.4% presented BP lower than 90 × 60 mmHg. BMI ranged from 18 to 48 kg/m2 (mean of 28.8 ± 3.92 kg/m2: 21.9% had normal weight; 40.7% were overweight; and 25.3% had obesity class I, 9.9% class II and 2.2% class III. Higher BMI was associated with significantly greater SBP and DBP (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.0015. CONCLUSION: Sex and age did not influence SBP, DBP or BMI in Brazilian adults with DS. Higher BMI was associated with greater BP (both systolic and diastolic.

  9. Prediction of Massive Transfusion in Trauma Patients with Shock Index, Modified Shock Index, and Age Shock Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Shyuan Rau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The shock index (SI and its derivations, the modified shock index (MSI and the age shock index (Age SI, have been used to identify trauma patients with unstable hemodynamic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate their use in predicting the requirement for massive transfusion (MT in trauma patients upon arrival at the hospital. Participants: A patient receiving transfusion of 10 or more units of packed red blood cells or whole blood within 24 h of arrival at the emergency department was defined as having received MT. Detailed data of 2490 patients hospitalized for trauma between 1 January 2009, and 31 December 2014, who had received blood transfusion within 24 h of arrival at the emergency department, were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System of a level I regional trauma center. These included 99 patients who received MT and 2391 patients who did not. Patients with incomplete registration data were excluded from the study. The two-sided Fisher exact test or Pearson chi-square test were used to compare categorical data. The unpaired Student t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Parameters including systolic blood pressure (SBP, heart rate (HR, hemoglobin level (Hb, base deficit (BD, SI, MSI, and Age SI that could provide cut-off points for predicting the patients’ probability of receiving MT were identified by the development of specific receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. High accuracy was defined as an area under the curve (AUC of more than 0.9, moderate accuracy was defined as an AUC between 0.9 and 0.7, and low accuracy was defined as an AUC less than 0.7. Results: In addition to a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and worse outcome, the patients requiring MT presented with a significantly higher HR and lower SBP, Hb, and BD, as well as significantly increased SI, MSI, and Age SI. Among

  10. Hemorheology index changes in a rat acute blood stasis model: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese Medical Journal Database (CMJD), ... Extracted data were analyzed using Revman 5.3; heterogeneity was tested using ... Subgroup analysis showed that whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and ...

  11. The variability of ankle-arm blood pressure difference and ankle-brachial index in treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kaiwu; Xu, Jinsong; Sun, Hanjun; Li, Ping; Li, Juxiang; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Su, Hai

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ankle-arm blood pressure (BP) difference (An-a) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are consistent in treated hypertensive patients with obvious BP variation. This study enrolled 414 hypertensive patients (200 males; mean age, 61.3 ± 13.3 years) admitted to our hospital. BP of four limbs was simultaneously measured using four automatic BP measurement devices on the day of admission, and three and six day after admission. The An-a differences on systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean artery pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) in both sides were calculated, respectively. The relative decrease amplitude (RDA) of BP was calculated using the formula: RDA = (BP1 - BPn)/BP1. The ABI of the right side was calculated. From the first to the third measurement, arm SBP and DBP levels of both arms significantly decreased (right arm: SBP: 163.7 ± 18.4, 147.7 ± 15.3 vs. 135.4 ± 11.7 mm Hg; P differences on SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP are generally consistent, but sABI is associated with underlying SBP levels.

  12. Counting Carbs? Understanding Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compare how single servings of different foods affect blood sugar. It takes into account both the quality and quantity of carbs in a serving. . Some studies suggest that sticking to foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent ...

  13. Body-mass index, blood pressure, and cause-specific mortality in India: a prospective cohort study of 500 810 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Lacey, Ben; Kanimozhi, Vendhan; Sherliker, Paul; Peto, Richard; Lewington, Sarah

    2018-07-01

    The association between cause-specific mortality and body-mass index (BMI) has been studied mainly in high-income countries. We investigated the relations between BMI, systolic blood pressure, and mortality in India. Men and women aged 35 years or older were recruited into a prospective study from the general population in Chennai, India between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2001. Participants were interviewed (data collected included age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, medical history, tobacco smoking, and alcohol intake) and measured (height, weight, and blood pressure). Deaths were identified by linkage to Chennai city mortality records and through active surveillance by household visits from trained graduate non-medical fieldworkers. After the baseline survey, households were visited once in 2002-05, then biennially until 2015. During these repeat visits, structured narratives of any deaths that took place before March 31, 2015, were recorded for physician coding. During 2013-14, a random sample of participants was also resurveyed as per baseline to assess long-term variability in systolic blood pressure and BMI. Cox regression (standardised for tobacco, alcohol, and social factors) was used to relate mortality rate ratios (RRs) at ages 35-69 years to systolic blood pressure, BMI, or BMI adjusted for usual systolic blood pressure. 500 810 participants were recruited. After exclusion of those with chronic disease or incomplete data, 414 746 participants aged 35-69 years (mean 46 [SD 9]; 45% women) remained. At recruitment, mean systolic blood pressure was 127 mm Hg (SD 15), and mean BMI was 23·2 kg/m 2 (SD 3·8). Correlations of resurvey and baseline measurements were 0·50 for systolic blood pressure and 0·88 for BMI. Low BMI was strongly associated with poverty, tobacco, and alcohol. Of the 29 519 deaths at ages 35-69 years, the cause was vascular for 14 935 deaths (12 504 cardiac, 1881 stroke, and 550 other). Vascular mortality was strongly

  14. Body-mass index, blood pressure, and cause-specific mortality in India: a prospective cohort study of 500 810 adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendhan Gajalakshmi, PhD

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The association between cause-specific mortality and body-mass index (BMI has been studied mainly in high-income countries. We investigated the relations between BMI, systolic blood pressure, and mortality in India. Methods: Men and women aged 35 years or older were recruited into a prospective study from the general population in Chennai, India between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2001. Participants were interviewed (data collected included age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, medical history, tobacco smoking, and alcohol intake and measured (height, weight, and blood pressure. Deaths were identified by linkage to Chennai city mortality records and through active surveillance by household visits from trained graduate non-medical fieldworkers. After the baseline survey, households were visited once in 2002–05, then biennially until 2015. During these repeat visits, structured narratives of any deaths that took place before March 31, 2015, were recorded for physician coding. During 2013–14, a random sample of participants was also resurveyed as per baseline to assess long-term variability in systolic blood pressure and BMI. Cox regression (standardised for tobacco, alcohol, and social factors was used to relate mortality rate ratios (RRs at ages 35–69 years to systolic blood pressure, BMI, or BMI adjusted for usual systolic blood pressure. Findings: 500 810 participants were recruited. After exclusion of those with chronic disease or incomplete data, 414 746 participants aged 35–69 years (mean 46 [SD 9]; 45% women remained. At recruitment, mean systolic blood pressure was 127 mm Hg (SD 15, and mean BMI was 23·2 kg/m2 (SD 3·8. Correlations of resurvey and baseline measurements were 0·50 for systolic blood pressure and 0·88 for BMI. Low BMI was strongly associated with poverty, tobacco, and alcohol. Of the 29 519 deaths at ages 35–69 years, the cause was vascular for 14 935 deaths (12 504 cardiac, 1881

  15. Abdominal aortic calcification quantified by the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    . Three hundred and eight healthy women aged 48 to 76 years, were followed for 8.3 ± 0.3 years. AAC was quantified using lumbar radiographs. Baseline data included age, weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, and glucose levels. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test for relationships....... At baseline and across all patients, MACD correlated with blood glucose (r2 = 0.1, Pcorrelations between baseline biological parameters and the follow-up calcification assessment...... index was not correlated with blood parameters. Patterns of calcification identified by the MACD, but not the AC24 index, appear to contain useful biological information perhaps explaining part of the improved identification of risk of cardiovascular death of the MACD index. Correlations of MACD...

  16. Blood pressure-independent effect of candesartan on cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Bokuda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kanako Bokuda1, Atsuhiro Ichihara1,2, Mariyo Sakoda1, Asako Mito1, Kenichiro Kinouchi1, Hiroshi Itoh11Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Anti-Aging Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are known to reduce the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of an ARB candesartan on subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in comparison with calcium channel blockers (CCBs alone in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 53 consecutive hypertensive patients with MetS were randomly assigned to the candesartan group, in which candesartan was added on, or the CCBs group, in which CCBs were added on. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before and after the 12-month treatment period. The primary measure of efficacy was the %change in CAVI. When treated with candesartan, but not CCBs, CAVI significantly decreased from 8.7 to 7.7 by 11%. Blood pressure (BP significantly decreased with both treatments, but the differences between groups were not significant. The changes in other parameters remained unchanged in both the groups. Analysis of covariance found that both the BP reduction and the therapy difference contributed to the decrease in CAVI, but the BP reduction was not involved in the decrease in CAVI caused by the difference in the therapy. Candesartan may be a better antihypertensive drug than CCBs to that subclinical atherosclerosis of patients with MetS.Keywords: albuminuria, ambulatory blood pressure, calcium channel blockers, carotid ­intima-media thickness

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and circulating microRNAs in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Wander, Pandora L; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Qiu, Chunfang; Holzman, Claudia; Williams, Michelle A

    Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obese status has been associated with a number of pregnancy complications and adverse offspring outcomes. Mechanisms for observed associations, however, are largely unknown. We investigated associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index with early-mid pregnancy epigenetic biomarkers, circulating microRNAs. Peripheral blood was collected from participants (16-27 weeks gestation) of two multi-racial pregnancy cohorts, the Omega Study and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study. Plasma miRNA expression was characterised using epigenome-wide (319 miRNAs) profiling among 20 pregnant women in each cohort. Cohort-specific linear regression models that included the predictor (pre-pregnancy body mass index), the outcome (microRNA expression), and adjustment factors (maternal age, gestational age at blood collection, and race) were fit. Expression of 27 miRNAs was positively associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index in both cohorts (p-values pregnancy body mass index is associated with circulating miRNAs in early-mid pregnancy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The impact of a low glycemic index (GI) breakfast and snack on daily blood glucose profiles and food intake in young Chinese adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Teh, Ai-Ling; Henry, C Jeya K

    2015-09-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) foods have been suggested to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and reduce food intake. However, the majority of studies have been conducted on Caucasian populations with limited data on Asians. The objective of this study was to investigate how the provision of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack affected daily blood glucose profiles and food intake. In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 11 healthy Chinese male adults (body mass index 22.4 ± 1.3 kg m -2 ) attended two sessions where they consumed either a high or low GI breakfast and afternoon snack, and a standardized buffet lunch. Daily changes in glycemic response (GR) were measured using the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) iPro™2 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (IAUC). Glycemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and energy intake (kcal) was measured quantitatively at the buffet lunch. Compared to the high GI intervention, the low GI intervention significantly reduced the GR following breakfast ( p  = 0.02), lunch ( p  = 0.02) and dinner ( p  = 0.05). The low GI treatment showed a reduction in daily AUC ( p  = 0.03). There was a significant reduction in IAUC after a low GI breakfast compared to the high GI breakfast ( p  = 0.03). The low GI breakfast resulted in a significantly lower food intake at lunch and a resulting decreased energy intake of 285 kcal ( p  = 0.02). The MAGE was significantly lower during the entire low GI treatment ( p  = 0.03). Consumption of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack was capable of attenuating 24-h blood glucose profiles, minimize glycemic excursions and reduce food intake in healthy Asian males. This simple dietary intervention may be an acceptable approach in improving overall glycemia and energy balance in Asians. NCT02340507.

  19. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: differences between measured and calculated mean arterial pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.D.; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP)

  20. Diagnostic value of the APRI index for liver fibrosis in a Chinese patients population with chronic hepatitis C acquired from blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Chengduo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various newly developed non-invasive fibrotic predictive models based on measurements of common biochemical indices in a group of ethnic Chinese patients with long-standing chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection acquired by transfusion. MethodsBetween July 2010 and June 2011, 120 of the monitored residents of Dingxi District of Gansu Province who had acquired hepatitis C infection via the regional practice of untested whole blood or plasma transfusion during the years of 1992-1995 were recruited for the current study. Each participant underwent liver biopsy for histological evaluation of liver fibrosis (S1-S4 progressive stages, from mild fibrosis to early cirrhosis. Each participant also provided serum samples for biochemical measurement of fibrotic indicators, including hyaluronic acid (HA, type Ⅲ procollagen protein (PCⅢ, laminin (LN, and type IV collagen (CⅣ. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, platelet count (PLT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, prothrombin time (PT, and international normalized ratio (INR were measured to calculate the various non-invasive fibrotic predictive models: AST-to-PLT ratio index (APRI, the Sheth index (AST/ALT, the FibroQ index (10×[(age×AST×PT INR/(ALT×PLT], and the FIB-4 index ([age×AST/(PLT×ALT1/2]. Using the pathologic results as the reference standards, the diagnostic efficacies of these four non-invasive fibrotic predictive models were evaluated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Accuracies of the four were compared by constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and analyzing their sensitivities, specificities and area under the curves (AUCs. ResultsThe APRI, FibroQ and FIB-4 indexes, and the levels of PCⅢ, CⅣ, and HA increased in conjunction with progressive stages of liver fibrosis. However, only the APRI showed significant correlation to liver fibrosis stage (r=0.446, P<0.001. The APRI index also had

  1. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprowicz, M; Kim, D J; Haubrich, C; Czosnyka, Z; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M; Schmidt, E

    2010-01-01

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland–Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (R Spearman = 0.92, p < 0.001; bias = −0.04; lower and upper limits of agreement: −0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity

  2. ATLS Hypovolemic Shock Classification by Prediction of Blood Loss in Rats Using Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Choi, Joon Yul; Park, Jee Soo; Kim, Deok Won

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, our input data set consisted of 78 rats, the blood loss in percent as a dependent variable, and 11 independent variables (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, respiration rate, temperature, perfusion index, lactate concentration, shock index, and new index (lactate concentration/perfusion)). The machine learning methods for multicategory classification were applied to a rat model in acute hemorrhage to predict the four Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) hypovolemic shock classes for triage in our previous study. However, multicategory classification is much more difficult and complicated than binary classification. We introduce a simple approach for classifying ATLS hypovolaemic shock class by predicting blood loss in percent using support vector regression and multivariate linear regression (MLR). We also compared the performance of the classification models using absolute and relative vital signs. The accuracies of support vector regression and MLR models with relative values by predicting blood loss in percent were 88.5% and 84.6%, respectively. These were better than the best accuracy of 80.8% of the direct multicategory classification using the support vector machine one-versus-one model in our previous study for the same validation data set. Moreover, the simple MLR models with both absolute and relative values could provide possibility of the future clinical decision support system for ATLS classification. The perfusion index and new index were more appropriate with relative changes than absolute values.

  3. Interaction between body mass index and serum uric acid in relation to blood pressure in community-dwelling Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Senzaki, Kensuke; Kumagi, Teru

    2018-01-01

    Few data is available on the association between body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid (SUA) levels and blood pressure (BP) categories in the disease continuum, when efforts for its prevention may be applicable. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association between BMI, SUA and BP in a community-dwelling sample of Japanese men. Individuals not on antihypertensive and uric acid lowering medications, and aged 50 to 90 years [817men aged 66 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation) years] were recruited for the survey during a community based annual medical check-up. The main outcome was the presence of prehypertension [systolic BP (SBP) 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) 80-89 mmHg] and hypertension [SBP ≥ 140 and /or DBP ≥ 90]. In participants with a BMI of dwelling men.

  4. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  5. Influences of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability might not be limited only nocturnally in middle-aged hypertensive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Suofeiya; Zhang, Delian; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Li, Nanfang

    2018-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the potential association between sleep measures and blood pressure variability. Ninety-three middle-aged hypertensive males, who underwent polysomnography and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, were enrolled. Blood pressure variability was assessed by blood pressure standard deviation. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index ≥ 15) was diagnosed in 52 (55.91%) patients. Mean body mass index and age were 27.77 ± 3.11 kg/m 2 and 44.05 ± 8.07 years, respectively. Hypertensive males with obstructive sleep apnea showed significantly higher 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability, compared to those without obstructive sleep apnea. While total cohort was further divided into two groups using the median of oxygen desaturation index, another indicator for severity of OSA, significant differences were also observed in 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability between two groups with higher and lower oxygen desaturation index. While subjects were also divided into two groups via the mean of sleep stage 1, hypertensive males with sleep stage 1 ≥ 8.1% showed significantly higher diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability than those with sleep stage 1 blood pressure variability; oxygen desaturation index of 3% with 24-h diastolic, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure; and sleep stage 1 was with 24-h and with diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability in all study subjects. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability may not be limited nocturnally.

  6. Dietary modification, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk in medical students of a government medical college of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Hussain, M.F.A.; Siddiqui, S.E.; Muhammad, R.; Aziz, S.; Qamar, S.; Saleem, M.A.; Waki, N.; Faruqi, H.; Zia, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of major risk factors including dietary modification, Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP) and physical activity in medical students of government teaching hospitals of Karachi. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on students of Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan through a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Non-probability purposive sampling was used. Smoking, hypertension, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), overweight and low physical activity levels are risk factors the presence of which can lead to development of CVD. Prevalence of these risk factors was determined by asking appropriate questions and through measurement of BMI and blood pressure for overweight and hypertension respectively. Awareness of risk factors was determined through knowledge of the effect of various food substances on development of CVD and of adoption of dietary changes keeping in mind the risk of developing CVD. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 medical students were included in the study of which 57 (43.2%) and 75 (56.8%) were male and female respectively with mean age of 20.85 +- 1.21 years. About 15.9% of students had elevated blood pressure i.e. > 140/90 mmHg. Twenty eight percent of the total students were found to be underweight and 17.4% were overweight, 5% had some history of CVD, 56.8% had family history of CVD, 9.4% were smokers and 29.5% had high physical activity level. About 87.1% had modified their diet for preventing CVD. Most of the students had adequate knowledge about the cardiovascular risk factors Conclusion: Majority of students were not overweight. A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; family history and elevated blood pressure was present. Awareness in terms of knowledge was satisfactory but implementation in terms of diet modification and adequate physical activity was lacking. (author)

  7. Air bubbles and hemolysis of blood samples during transport by pneumatic tube systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Garrett R; Bruns, David E

    2017-10-01

    Transport of blood samples through pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) generates air bubbles in transported blood samples and, with increasing duration of transport, the appearance of hemolysis. We investigated the role of air-bubble formation in PTS-induced hemolysis. Air was introduced into blood samples for 0, 1, 3 or 5min to form air bubbles. Hemolysis in the blood was assessed by (H)-index, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and potassium in plasma. In an effort to prevent PTS-induced hemolysis, blood sample tubes were completely filled, to prevent air bubble formation, and compared with partially filled samples after PTS transport. We also compared hemolysis in anticoagulated vs clotted blood subjected to PTS transport. As with transport through PTSs, the duration of air bubble formation in blood by a gentle stream of air predicted the extent of hemolysis as measured by H-index (pair space in a blood sample prevented bubble formation and fully protected the blood from PTS-induced hemolysis (ptransport and was partially protected from hemolysis vs anticoagulated blood as indicated by lower LD (ptransport. Prevention of air bubble formation in blood samples during PTS transport protects samples from hemolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Observation of the pulse oximeter trace to estimate systolic blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The estimation of systolic blood pressure by disappearance and reappearance of the pulse oximeter trace during cuff inflation and deflation was compared with non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement, across the range of body mass index (BMI), during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section.

  9. [Hemolysis Performance Analysis of the Centrifugal Maglev Blood Pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Yuan; Dong, Baichuan; Zhou, Liang

    2016-05-01

    In order to analyze and study the hemolysis performance of the centrifugal maglev blood pump, which was designed by ourselves, this paper built the mathematical model and computational fluid dynamics analyzed it using Fluent. Then we set up the in vitro hemolysis experiment platform, in case of the design condition, the content of free hemoglobin and hematocrit in plasma were measured in a certain time interval, and calculated the normalized index of hemolysis of the blood pump. The numerical simulation results show the internal static pressure distribution is smooth inside the pump, the wal shear stress inside the pump is less than 150 Pa. Therefore, the red blood cel damage and exposure time is independent. The normalized index of hemolysis is (0.002 9±0.000 7) mg/L, which is in accordance with human physiological requirement.

  10. Predictive value of body mass index to metabolic syndrome risk factors in Syrian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Bakir, Mohamad Adel

    2017-06-25

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic health problem in both developing and developed countries. There is much evidence that obesity among adolescents contributed significantly to the development of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease in adulthood. Very limited information exists on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity determined by body mass index and the major metabolic risk factors among Syrian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 2064 apparently healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18 to 19 years from Damascus city, in Syria, was performed. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the national criteria for each determined metabolic risk factor. Individuals with a body mass index 25 to 29.9 were classified as overweight, whereas individuals with a body mass index ≥30 were classified as obese. A receiver operating characteristics curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the body mass index for defining overweight and obesity, and to indicate the performance of body mass index as a predictor of risk factors. The obtained data showed that blood pressure and the overall mean concentrations of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly higher in overweight and obese adolescent groups (p index and some metabolic risks, the data suggest the best body mass index cut-offs ranged between 23.25 and 24.35 kg/m 2 . A strong association between overweight and obesity as determined by body mass index and high concentrations of metabolic syndrome

  11. Predicting blood transfusion in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Crispin; Boddy, Alex P; Fukuta, Junaid; Groom, William D; Streets, Christopher G

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate predictors of allogenic blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing minimal invasive oesophagectomy at a tertiary high volume centre for oesophago-gastric surgery. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing minimal access oesophagectomy in our department between January 2010 and December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they required a blood transfusion at any time during their index admission. Factors that have been shown to influence perioperative blood transfusion requirements in major surgery were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of patient and perioperative characteristics on transfusion requirements during the index admission. A total of 80 patients underwent minimal access oesophagectomy, of which 61 patients had a laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy and 19 patients had a minimal invasive oesophagectomy. Perioperative blood transfusion was required in 28 patients at any time during hospital admission. On binary logistic regression analysis, a lower preoperative haemoglobin concentration (p blood transfusion requirements. It has been reported that requirement for blood transfusion can affect long-term outcomes in oesophageal cancer resection. Two factors which could be addressed preoperatively; haemoglobin concentration and type of oesophageal resection, may be valuable in predicting blood transfusions in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Our analysis revealed that preoperative haemoglobin concentration, occurrence of significant complications and type of minimal access oesophagectomy predicted blood transfusion requirements in the patient population examined. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is it possible to predict the presence of colorectal cancer in a blood test?: a probabilistic approach method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Navarro-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of the state of immunosurveillance (the ability of the organism to prevent the development of neoplasias in the blood has prognostic implications of interest in colorectal cancer. We evaluated and quantified a possible predictive character of the disease in a blood test using a mathematical interaction index of several blood parameters. The predictive capacity of the index to detect colorectal cancer was also assessed. Methods: We performed a retrospective case-control study of a comparative analysis of the distribution of blood parameters in 266 patients with colorectal cancer and 266 healthy patients during the period from 2009 to 2013. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed between patients with colorectal cancer and the control group in terms of platelet counts, fibrinogen, total leukocytes, neutrophils, systemic immunovigilance indexes (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio, hemoglobin, hematocrit and eosinophil levels. These differences allowed the design of a blood analytical profile that calculates the risk of colorectal cancer. This risk profile can be quantified via a mathematical formula with a probabilistic capacity to identify patients with the highest risk of the presence of colorectal cancer (area under the ROC curve = 0.85. Conclusions: We showed that a colorectal cancer predictive character exists in blood which can be quantified by an interaction index of several blood parameters. The design and development of interaction indexes of blood parameters constitutes an interesting research line for the development and improvement of programs for the screening of colorectal cancer.

  13. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  14. Relationship of Waist-Hip Ratio and Body Mass Index to Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between two anthropometric measurements for obesity – body mass index (BMI) and ... the physiological and metabolic functions of the body, ..... Norfolk cohort of the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study. ... Annals of Epidemiology 3, pp.35-.

  15. Role of oxidative stress and intracellular calcium in nickel carbonate hydroxide-induced sister-chromatid exchange, and alterations in replication index and mitotic index in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Human peripheral lymphocytes from whole blood cultures were exposed to either soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-60 {mu}M), or of nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (0-120 {mu}M), or of nickel oxide (NiO) (0-120 {mu}M), or nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}) (0-120 {mu}M) for a short duration of 2 h. The treatments occurred 46 h after the beginning of the cultures. The cultures were harvested after a total incubation of 72 h, and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), replication index (RI), and mitotic index (MI) were measured for each nickel compound. The soluble form of NiCH at 30 {mu}M but those of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} and NiO at 120 {mu}M produced significant increase in the SCE per cell compared to the control value, whereas NiSO{sub 4} failed to produce any such significant increase. Except NiSO{sub 4}, the soluble forms of NiCH, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, and NiO produced significant cell-cycle delay (as measured by the inhibition of RI) as well as significant inhibition of the MI at respective similar concentrations as mentioned above. Pretreatment of human blood lymphocytes with catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or superoxide dismutase (superoxide anion scavenger), or dimethylthiourea (hydroxyl radical scavenger), or deferoxamine (iron chelator), or N-acetylcysteine (general antioxidant) inhibited NiCH-induced SCE, and changes in RI and MI. This suggests the participation of oxidative stress involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the superoxide anion radical, the hydroxyl radical, and iron in the NiCH-induced genotoxic responses. Cotreatment of NiCH with either verapamil (inhibitor of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) movement through plasma membranes), or dantrolene (inhibitor of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum), or BAPTA (Ca{sup 2+} chelator) also inhibited the NiCH-induced responses. These results suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is also implicated in the genotoxicity of NiCH. Overall these data indicate that various types

  16. [Ultrasonographic study of blood flow in the renal arteries of patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, E S; Dombrovskiĭ, V I; Nelasov, N Iu

    2012-01-01

    Vascular duplex ultrasound duplex with simultaneous ECG registration was made to estimate the quantitative and time parameters of blood flow in the renal arteries with grade 1-2 arterial hypertension. There were increases in vascular resistance indices and acceleration phase index and a reduction in systolic phase index. There were correlations of the time parameters of blood flow in the renal arteries with age and lipidogram values.

  17. Extent of, and variables associated with, blood pressure variability among older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Arianna; Ravera, Agnese; Agosta, Luca; Sappa, Matteo; Falcone, Yolanda; Fonte, Gianfranco; Isaia, Gianluca; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo; Bo, Mario

    2018-02-23

    Blood pressure variability (BPV) may have prognostic implications for cardiovascular risk and cognitive decline; however, BPV has yet to be studied in old and very old people. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent of BPV and to identify variables associated with BPV among older subjects. A retrospective study of patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was carried out. Three different BPV indexes were calculated for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP): standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and average real variability (ARV). Demographic variables and use of antihypertensive medications were considered. The study included 738 patients. Mean age was 74.8 ± 6.8 years. Mean SBP and DBP SD were 20.5 ± 4.4 and 14.6 ± 3.4 mmHg. Mean SBP and DBP CV were 16 ± 3 and 20 ± 5%. Mean SBP and DBP ARV were 15.7 ± 3.9 and 11.8 ± 3.6 mmHg. At multivariate analysis older age, female sex and uncontrolled mean blood pressure were associated with both systolic and diastolic BPV indexes. The use of calcium channel blockers and alpha-adrenergic antagonists was associated with lower systolic and diastolic BPV indexes, respectively. Among elderly subjects undergoing 24-h ABPM, we observed remarkably high indexes of BPV, which were associated with older age, female sex, and uncontrolled blood pressure values.

  18. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wurm

    Full Text Available Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three "core" components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians.In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI, the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI, as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8% participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis.Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21-4.06 for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58-13.59 for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25-62.24 for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96-136.74 for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components. The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92 explained more HBI_sum variance than the three "core" components (adj.R2 = 0.85 of burnout combined. Cronbach's alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three "core" components.This study demonstrates the

  19. Blood lipid levels in a rural male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S

    2001-06-01

    Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.

  20. Association between anthropometry and high blood pressure in a representative sample of preschoolers in madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Redondo, Juliana; Fuster, Valentín; Peñalvo, José L

    2015-06-01

    Program SI! is a multi-level, school-based intervention for the promotion of cardiovascular health from early childhood. The aim of this paper is to characterize the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure in the preschoolers enrolled in the study, and to compare various criteria for classifying obesity. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 24 state schools in Madrid (Spain). Weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2011 children (1009 boys and 1002 girls) aged 3 to 5 years (3.7 [0.9]). Body mass index and blood pressure were classified by corresponding task force criteria. Obesity was studied by 6 different criteria. Associations of body mass index, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference on blood pressure were examined, and the risk of high blood pressure in relation to tertiles of body mass index was calculated. The prevalence of obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force varied from 2% at age 3 to 8% at age 5, and the overall prevalence of high blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile) was 20%. Sex- and age-specific criteria for obesity showed better agreement with the reference than a single generalized cutoff. The risk of high blood pressure was higher for the highest tertile of body mass index distribution. The highest prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure was found among older children. The classification of obesity in children was more accurate using sex- and age-specific cutoffs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio cut-offs as predictors of high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Febriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with increased risk for high blood pressure (BP. Although a routine BP measurement is indicated for all children visiting pediatric practice, recognition of children particularly at risk may save times. The aim of this study was to assess the cut-off point for body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR to predict high BP in adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 928 children aged 11 to 16 years in Yogyakarta. BP were measured using standard technique described by The Fourth Report on The Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. BMI was adjusted for age and sex using the WHO 2007 growth reference. WHtR was ratio of waist circumference related to height in centimeters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best cut-offs. Results: The best cut-off point for BMI-for-age Z-score (BMIZ to predict high BP was 0.51 with sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 76% (95% CI = 67-78 for systolic BP and sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 72% (95% CI = 68-76 for diastolic BP. The best cut-off point for WHtR was 0.45, with sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 67-78 and specificity of 74% (95% CI = 71-79 for systolic BP and sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 72-80 and specificity of 70% (95% CI = 61-75 for diastolic BP.Conclusion: BMIZ of 0.51 and WHtR of 0.45 are the best cut-off point to predict high BP in adolescents.

  2. Blood flow dynamic improvement with aneurysm repair detected by a patient-specific model of multiple aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughimoto, Koichi; Takahara, Yoshiharu; Mogi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Ken'ichi; Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao

    2014-05-01

    Aortic aneurysms may cause the turbulence of blood flow and result in the energy loss of the blood flow, while grafting of the dilated aorta may ameliorate these hemodynamic disturbances, contributing to the alleviation of the energy efficiency of blood flow delivery. However, evaluating of the energy efficiency of blood flow in an aortic aneurysm has been technically difficult to estimate and not comprehensively understood yet. We devised a multiscale computational biomechanical model, introducing novel flow indices, to investigate a single male patient with multiple aortic aneurysms. Preoperative levels of wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were elevated but declined after staged grafting procedures: OSI decreased from 0.280 to 0.257 (first operation) and 0.221 (second operation). Graftings may strategically counter the loss of efficient blood delivery to improve hemodynamics of the aorta. The energy efficiency of blood flow also improved postoperatively. Novel indices of pulsatile pressure index (PPI) and pulsatile energy loss index (PELI) were evaluated to characterize and quantify energy loss of pulsatile blood flow. Mean PPI decreased from 0.445 to 0.423 (first operation) and 0.359 (second operation), respectively; while the preoperative PELI of 0.986 dropped to 0.820 and 0.831. Graftings contributed not only to ameliorate wall shear stress or oscillatory shear index but also to improve efficient blood flow. This patient-specific modeling will help in analyzing the mechanism of aortic aneurysm formation and may play an important role in quantifying the energy efficiency or loss in blood delivery.

  3. Determination of uteroplacental blood flow by a radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosati, P.; Exacuostos, C.; Bellati, U.; Maini, C.L.; Bonetti, M.G.; Galli, G.

    1987-01-01

    The placental blood flow was determined using a non-invasive radioisotopic approach, with the intravenous administration of 113m In (37 MBq). The method was employed in 20 normal pregnancies, in 24 patients with intrauterine growth retardation, in 8 patients with iso-Rh-incompatibility and in 9 patients with gestational diabetes. In the group with intrauterine growth retardation 2 pregnancies with extensive fetal malformations were included. In one case without evident histological placental alteration the index was 3.94 at 34 weeks of gestation and 5.62 at 36 weeks of gestation. In the second one with placental infarcts the index was 3.46 at 38 weeks of gestation. Normal pregnancies showed a flow index of 5.50 ± 1.57 units compared to the pathological pregnancies value of 2.74 ± 0.90 units. The method is very well suited to clinical evaluation of placental blood flow. (author)

  4. Selling blood and gametes during tough economic times: insights from Google search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jonathan A; Ngo, Tin C; Rothman, Cappy; Breyer, Benjamin N; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2015-10-01

    To use Google Insights search volume and publicly available economic indicators to test the hypothesis that sperm, egg, and blood donations increase during economic downturns and to demonstrate the feasibility of using Google search volume data to predict national trends in actual sperm, egg, and blood donations rates. Cross-correlation statistical analysis comparing Google search data for terms relating to blood, egg, and sperm donations with various economic indicators including the S&P 500 closing values, gross domestic product (GDP), the U.S. Index of Leading Indicators (U.S. Leading Index), gross savings rate, mortgage interest rates, unemployment rate, and consumer price index (CPI) from 2004-2011. A secondary analysis determined the Pearson correlation coefficient between Google search data with actual sperm, egg, and blood donation volume in the U.S. as measured by California Cryobank, the National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System, and the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey, respectively. Significance of cross-correlation and Pearson correlation analysis as indicated by p value. There were several highly significant cross-correlation relationships between search volume and various economic indicators. Correlation between Google search volume for the term 'sperm donation,' 'egg donation,' and 'blood donation' with actual number of sperm, egg and blood donations in the United States demonstrated Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.2 (p > 0.10), -0.1 (p > 0.10), and 0.07 (p > 0.10), respectively. Temporal analysis showed an improved correlation coefficient of 0.9 (p Google search volume. Google search volume data for search terms relating to sperm, egg, and blood donation increase during economic downturns. This finding suggests gamete and bodily fluid donations are influenced by market forces like other commodities. Google search may be useful for predicting blood donation trends but is more limited in predicting actual

  5. Relationship Between Glycated Haemoglobin and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure, Height, Weight were all measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). Glycated haemoglobin was estimated using the ion exchange chromatography method. Result: A total of 100 healthy subjects, 50 males and 50 females, ages ranging ...

  6. Omega-3 Index of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2015-11-01

    Cardioprotective properties have been associated with two fatty acids-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The Omega-3 Index indicates the percentage of EPA+DHA in red blood cell fatty acids. Omega-3 Index levels of the Canadian population have not been directly measured. Data for respondents aged 20 to 79 from cycle 3 (2012/2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey were used to calculate means and the prevalence of Omega-3 Index coronary heart disease (CHD) risk cut-offs-high (4% or less), moderate (more than 4% to less than 8%), and low (8% or more)-by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, including fish consumption and use of omega-3 supplements. Associations between the Omega-3 Index and CHD-related factors including biomarkers, risk factors, and previous CHD events, were examined in multivariate regression models. The mean Omega-3 Index level of Canadians aged 20 to 79 was 4.5%. Levels were higher for women, older adults, Asians and other non-white Canadians, omega-3 supplement users, and fish consumers; levels were lower for smokers and people who were obese. Fewer than 3% of adults had levels associated with low CHD risk; 43% had levels associated with high risk. No CHD-related factor was associated with the Omega-3 Index when control variables were taken into account. Omega-3 Index levels among Canadian adults were strongly related to age, race, supplement use, fish consumption, smoking status and obesity. Fewer than 3% of adults had Omega-3 Index levels associated with low risk for CHD.

  7. Analysis of different anthropometric indicators in the detection of high blood pressure in school adolescents: a cross-sectional study with 8295 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego G D; Farah, Breno Q; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Delfino, Leandro D; Tebar, William R; Barros, Mauro Virgílio G de; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    High blood pressure is strongly associated with obesity in different populations. However, it is unclear whether different anthropometric indicators of obesity can satisfactorily predict high blood pressure in the school setting. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to height ratio in the detection of high blood pressure in adolescents. The sample consisted of 8295 adolescents aged 10-17 years. Weight was measured using a digital scale, height with a stadiometer, and waist circumference using a tape measure. Blood pressure was measured by an automatic blood pressure measuring device. ROC curves were used for the analysis of sensitivity and specificity of the three anthropometric indices in identifying high blood pressure. Binary Logistic Regression was used to assess the association of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to height ratio with high blood pressure. Low values of sensitivity were observed for body mass index (0.35), waist circumference (0.37), and waist to height ratio (0.31) and high values of specificity for body mass index (0.86), waist circumference (0.82), and waist to height ratio (0.83) in the detection of high blood pressure. An association was observed between adolescents classified with high body mass index (OR=3.57 [95% CI=3.10-4.10]), waist cirumference (OR=3.24 [95% CI=2.83-3.72]), and waist to height ratio (OR=2.94 [95% CI=2.54-3.40]) with high blood pressure. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to height ratio presented low sensitivity to identify adolescents with high blood pressure. However, adolescents classified with high body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to height ratio demonstrated a high association of presenting high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Using a novel "Integrated Biomarker Proteomic" index to assess the effects of freshwater pollutants in European eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Kathleen; Kestemont, Patrick; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2016-03-30

    Using proteomic data as biomarkers of environmental pollution has the potential to be of a great interest in ecological risk assessment as they constitute early warning indicators of ecologically relevant effects on biological systems. To develop such specific and sensitive biomarkers, the use of a set of proteins is required and the identification of protein expression signatures (PES) may reflect the exposure to specific classes of pollutants. Using 2D-DIGE (Differential in Gel Electrophoresis) methodology, this study aimed at identifying specific PES on European eel (Anguilla anguilla) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 48 h in vitro exposure to two sublethal concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (10 μg/L and 1mg/L) or cadmium (Cd) (1 μg/L and 100 μg/L). The present results have been supplemented with data of a first in vitro study on cells exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (10 μg/L and 1mg/L). A total of thirty-four protein spots, belonging to 18 different identified proteins found in all conditions, have been selected as possible biomarkers to develop a synthetic Integrated Biomarker Proteomic (IBP) index. IBP follows a dose-response relationship with higher values at the highest tested concentration for each pollutant (Cd: 9.96; DDT: 7.44; PFOS: 7.94) compared to the lowest tested concentration (Cd: 3.81; DDT: 2.91; PFOS: 2.06). In a second step, star plot graphs have been applied to proteomic data in order to allow visual integration of a set of early warning responses measured with protein biomarkers. Such star plots permit to discriminate the type of pollutant inducing a proteomic response. We conclude that using IBP is relevant in environmental risk assessment, giving to this index the potential to be applied as a global index of proteome alteration in endangered species such as the European eel. In this study, 34 protein spots have been selected as possible biomarkers to develop a synthetic Integrated

  9. Parental body mass index and blood pressure are associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in their adult offspring: a cross-sectional study in a resource-limited setting in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Sal Y Rosas, Víctor G; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María K; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime

    2018-05-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) are major contributors to the high burden of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Individual high-risk and population approaches for prevention require newer strategies to target these risk factors and focusing on the family to introduce prevention initiatives appears as a promising scenario. Characterisation of the relationship between BMI and BP among the adult members of a given family merits evaluation. We conducted a secondary analysis of an implementation study in Tumbes, Peru, benefiting from data derived from families with at least one adult offspring. The exposures of interest were the BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of the mother and father. The outcomes were the BMI, SBP and DBP of the offspring. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. The mean age of the offspring, mothers and fathers was 29 (SD: 9.5), 54 (SD: 11.8) and 59 (SD: 11.6) years, respectively. Father's BMI was associated with a quarter-point increase in offspring BMI, regardless of the sex of the offspring. Mother's BMI had a similar effect on the BMI of her sons, but had no significant effect on her daughters'. Mother's SBP was associated with almost one-tenth of mmHg increase in the SBP of the adult offspring. There was no evidence of an association for DBP. In families with adult members, the higher the parents' BMI and SBP, the higher their adult offspring's levels will be. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clinical usefulness of T1-201 myocardial scintigraphy and diastolic phase index by gated cardiac blood pool imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmine, Hiromi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hayashida, Kohhei; Uehara, Toshiisa; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1984-01-01

    Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and gated cardiac blood pool imaging with Tc-99m were performed at rest in 24 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 11 normal subjects. Based on visual analysis of Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphies, patients with HCM were subdivided into the following four groups; type I: non-obstructive, type II: obstructive, type III: asymmetric septal hypertrophy, type IV: apical hypertrophy. Characteristic myocardial hypertrophy of each group was also confirmed from the profile curves of circumferential analysis. First third filling fraction (1/3 FF) and mean first third filling rate (1/3 FRm) were obtained from gated cardiac blood pool imaging. As compaired with the normal subjects, 1/3 FF was not so sensitive for the detection of left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean+-S.D. of 1.3 FRm were 1.96+-0.56/sec (normal group), 1.30+-0.44/sec (typ e I), 1.18+-0.63/sec (type II), 1.17+-0.14/sec (type III), and 1.26+-0.03/sec (type IV). We considered that 1/3 FRm was a useful diastolic phase index in the diagnosis of HCM. (author)

  11. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complications associated with blood donations in a blood bank at an Indian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun

    2014-09-01

    Blood donation, though safe, has a few potentially avoidable complications associated with it. They are important reasons for the failure of the donors to return for repeat donations. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and identify the possible factors associated with increased risk of blood donation related complications so that they can be minimized. A prospective study was done over a period of four months in the blood bank of an Indian tertiary care hospital to record the donation related complications. Out of 7450 blood donations, total donation associated complications were 74, of which majority were vasovagal reactions (VVRs) (n=48), followed by venous hematomas (n=24) and arterial punctures (n=2). The incidence of VVRs was more, though not statistically significant, in females, replacement/repeat donors, donors between 21-30 y of age and who had a body-mass-index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9. VVRs were more common in April (p=0.002) and in those who donated 450ml of blood (pdonated 350ml of blood, statistically significant association was seen only in repeat donors (pdonation in our country has a complication rate of nearly 1%.

  13. ROLE OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH AND NUMERICAL RESOLUTION IN SIMULATIONS OF THE HEAT-FLUX-DRIVEN BUOYANCY INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avara, Mark J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The role played by magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is complex. The weakly collisional nature of the ICM leads to thermal conduction that is channeled along field lines. This anisotropic heat conduction profoundly changes the instabilities of the ICM atmosphere, with convective stabilities being driven by temperature gradients of either sign. Here, we employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the local non-linear behavior of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI) relevant in the cores of cooling-core clusters where the temperature increases with radius. We study a grid of two-dimensional simulations that span a large range of initial magnetic field strengths and numerical resolutions. For very weak initial fields, we recover the previously known result that the HBI wraps the field in the horizontal direction, thereby shutting off the heat flux. However, we find that simulations that begin with intermediate initial field strengths have a qualitatively different behavior, forming HBI-stable filaments that resist field-line wrapping and enable sustained vertical conductive heat flux at a level of 10%-25% of the Spitzer value. While astrophysical conclusions regarding the role of conduction in cooling cores require detailed global models, our local study proves that systems dominated by the HBI do not necessarily quench the conductive heat flux

  14. A pilot study of the relationship between Doppler-estimated carotid and brachial artery flow and cardiac index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, U; Glassford, N J; Eastwood, G M; Bellomo, R; Hilton, A K

    2015-10-01

    We measured carotid and brachial artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasound in 11 human volunteers, and related these to cardiac index and to each other. The median (IQR [range]) carotid arterial blood flow was 0.334 (0.223-0.381 [0.052-0.563]) l.min(-1) on the right and 0.315 (0.223-0.369 [0.061-0.690]) l.min(-1) on the left. The brachial arterial blood flow was 0.049 (0.033-0.062 [0.015-0.204]) l.min(-1) on the right and 0.039 (0.027-0.054 [0.011-0.116]) on the left. Cardiac index was 3.2 (2.8-3.5 [1.9-5.4]) l.min(-1) .m(-2) . There was a moderate to good correlation between right-and left-sided flows (brachial: ρ = 0.45; carotid: ρ = 0.567). Brachial and carotid flow had no or a negative correlation with cardiac index (right brachial: ρ = -0.145, left brachial: ρ = -0.349; right carotid: ρ = -0.376, left carotid: ρ = -0.285). In contrast to some previous studies, we found that Doppler-estimated peripheral arterial blood flows only show a weak correlation with cardiac index and cannot be used to provide non-invasive estimates of cardiac index in man. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. On the suitability of refractometry for the analysis of glucose in blood-derived fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirk, K; Poetzschke, H

    2004-07-01

    Refractometry is the determination of the optical refractive index of a substance or a mixture of substances. It is a very sensitive method for the detection and quantification of dissolved analytes, but it is incapable of distinguishing between different analytes. The aim of this investigation was to determine the principle suitability of refractometry for the quantification of glucose (blood sugar) in blood and various blood fluids which can readily be obtained for medical diagnosis, in particular blood plasma, blood serum, and their ultrafiltrates. After the oral intake of freshly dissolved alpha-glucose, the in vivo blood contents of the alpha and beta anomers of glucose were found to be in an at least approximate equilibrium at all times. This observation is a prerequisite for a refractometrical determination of glucose due to the fact that both molecule forms have different refractive index increments. An assessment of the glucose content in untreated blood fluids was not possible, since no suitable relationship to the refractive index was found, most probably due to the influence of the many other substances present in blood on this parameter. However, after removal of certain macromolecules by ultrafiltration, value pairs showed a high level of correlation, providing the nominal molecular weight limit (cut-off) of the ultrafilter used possessed a maximum of 300 kDa. Besides macromolecules, the osmolality of the fluids undergoing measurement also proved to be a considerable interfering factor, particularly when values were outside the normal physiological range between 285 and 293 mmol/L. If a clinical application of this method is to be contemplated it is imperative (1) that blood cells are separated and removed, (2) that macromolecules present in plasma or serum are removed, e.g. by ultrafiltration, and (3) that beyond the results presented the influence of all small molecules other than glucose on the overall refractive index be determined and included in

  16. Dynamic monitoring of blood-brain barrier integrity using water exchange index (WEI) during mannitol and CO2 challenges in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuning; Farrar, Christian T; Dai, Guangping; Kwon, Seon Joo; Bogdanov, Alexei A; Rosen, Bruce R; Kim, Young R

    2013-04-01

    The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to normal brain function. Traditional techniques for the assessment of BBB disruption rely heavily on the spatiotemporal analysis of extravasating contrast agents. However, such methods based on the leakage of relatively large molecules are not suitable for the detection of subtle BBB impairment or for the performance of repeated measurements in a short time frame. Quantification of the water exchange rate constant (WER) across the BBB using strictly intravascular contrast agents could provide a much more sensitive method for the quantification of the BBB integrity. To estimate WER, we have recently devised a powerful new method using a water exchange index (WEI) biomarker and demonstrated BBB disruption in an acute stroke model. Here, we confirm that WEI is sensitive to even very subtle changes in the integrity of the BBB caused by: (i) systemic hypercapnia and (ii) low doses of a hyperosmolar solution. In addition, we have examined the sensitivity and accuracy of WEI as a biomarker of WER using computer simulation. In particular, the dependence of the WEI-WER relation on changes in vascular blood volume, T1 relaxation of cellular magnetization and transcytolemmal water exchange was explored. Simulated WEI was found to vary linearly with WER for typically encountered exchange rate constants (1-4 Hz), regardless of the blood volume. However, for very high WER (>5 Hz), WEI became progressively more insensitive to increasing WER. The incorporation of transcytolemmal water exchange, using a three-compartment tissue model, helped to extend the linear WEI regime to slightly higher WER, but had no significant effect for most physiologically important WERs (WER < 4 Hz). Variation in cellular T1 had no effect on WEI. Using both theoretical and experimental approaches, our study validates the utility of the WEI biomarker for the monitoring of BBB integrity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Association between VDR gene polymorphisms and HOMA index for prediabetes in Ningxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sha; He, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Honexia; Liu, Xiuying; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Yuhong

    2016-03-01

    To explore the association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and HOMA index in prediabetes. On the basis of a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Ningxia during 2008-2012, 339 controls and 468 subjects with prediabetes were selected according to ADA diabetes diagnosis standards. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected in the field investigation. Blood biochemistry analyses and insulin determination were carried out in the laboratory. The whole blood DNA was extracted for genotyping. The BMI, WC, FPG and HOMA-IR of individuals with prediabetes were higher than those of the controls, while the HOMA-B and HOMA-S in cases were lower than those of the controls (P HOMA-B than bb carrier, and they showed significantly higher HOMA-S than bb carriers (P HOMA-B index was the risk factor of prediabetes in individuals who carried genotype BB/Bb for BsmI and genotype FF/Ff/ff for FokI (OR > 1 , P HOMA-S and HOM-IR were also the risk factors of prediabetes (OR > 1, P HOMA index in prediabetes. The BsmI polymorphism seemed to influence HOMA-B, while the FokI polymorphism influence HOMA-B and HOMA-IR at different levels.

  18. KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE AND KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE-MIDAZOLAM ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS)-COMPARISON OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND KIDNEY BLOOD FLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagegaard, Julia; Hørlyck, Arne; Hydeskov, Helle B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2017-06-01

    Six clinically healthy captive cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) were anesthetized twice using two different drug combinations to investigate if blood pressure and kidney blood flow are affected by medetomidine dosage. Protocol KM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine and 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine) was compared with protocol KMM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine, 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.1 mg/kg midazolam). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (ETCO 2 ), and anesthetic depth were monitored every 10 min. Noninvasive mean (MAP), systolic (SAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure were measured, and Duplex Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the kidneys. The mean arterial resistive index (RI) was determined and the pulse pressure index (PPI) was calculated, as indicators for kidney blood flow. There were no significant differences in induction and recovery times. MAP was significantly higher with KM than KMM at 35 min, and in both protocols decreased significantly after atipamezole administration. DAP was significantly higher at 25 and 35 min in animals anesthetized with KM; it also decreased significantly with both protocols after atipamezole administration. The PPI was significantly lower throughout the procedure with KM, and with both protocols increased significantly after atipamezole administration. Both the higher blood pressure and the reduced PPI with KM were likely a direct effect of the higher medetomidine dosage, and these findings indicate that lower medetomidine dosages might reduce hypertension and lead to a better PPI in cheetah immobilization.

  19. Acid-base balance and cardiac index in SO2-bronchitic, papaine-emphysematous and paraquat-fibrotic rats after isoproterenol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, K; Debreczeni, L A

    1990-01-01

    SO2-bronchitis, papaine-emphysema and paraquat fibrosis were induced in Wistar rats. Blood pressure, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, arterial blood gas values, parameters of acid-base balance were determined. Effects of 0.1 and 0.3 microgram.-1.min-1 isoproterenol iv. infusion were examined. Morphologic alterations of the lungs were verified by histopathological examinations. All the parameters investigated were found to be normal in the control rats. The treated groups differed from the normal ones: an increased blood pressure was observed in emphysema and fibrosis. A decreased cardiac index was characteristic of chronic bronchitis, high cardiac index of emphysema, high TPR of bronchitis and arterial hypoxaemy of fibrosis. The groups reacted differently to beta adrenergic stimulation: in bronchitic and fibrotic rats the cardiac index was augmented, whereas in emphysematous ones the increase proved to be smaller. The effects of isoproterenol infusion can be related to the altered beta-receptor function in the various experimental pulmonary diseases.

  20. Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure measurements in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2018-04-01

    Obesity in adults has been related to hypertension and abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure, which are associated with poor cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Here, we aimed to resolve the relationship between the degree of obesity, the severity of hypertension and dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children. A total 72 patients with primary obesity aged 7 to 18 years (mean: 13.48 ± 3.25) were selected. Patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMİ) Z-score. Diagnosis and staging of ambulatory hypertension based on 24-h blood pressure measurements, obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Based on our ambulatory blood pressure data, 35 patients (48.6%) had hypertension, 7 (20%) had ambulatory prehypertension, 21 (60%) had hypertension, and 7 patients (20%) had severe ambulatory hypertension. There was a significant relationship between severity of hypertension and the degree of obesity (p lood pressure results and loads were similar between groups. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels during the night, diastolic blood pressure loads, and heart rate during the day were significantly higher in Group 3 (p lood pressure at night, mean arterial pressure at night, diastolic blood pressure loads and heart rate at day. Increase in BMI Z-score does not a significant impact on daytime blood pressure and nocturnal dipping status.

  1. Effect of ovarian endometrioma on uterine and ovarian blood flow in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mazny A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Akmal El-Mazny, Ahmed Kamel, Wafaa Ramadan, Sherine Gad-Allah, Suzy Abdelaziz, Ahmed M Hussein Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background: Angiogenesis has been found to be among the most important factors in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The formation of new blood vessels is critical for the survival of newly implanted endometriotic foci. The use of 3-D power Doppler allows for the demonstration of the dynamic vascular changes that occur during the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on uterine and ovarian blood flow in infertile women. Materials and methods: In a case–control study at a university teaching hospital, 138 women with unilateral ovarian endometrioma scheduled for IVF were compared to 138 women with male-factor or unexplained infertility. In the mid-luteal (peri-implantation phase of the cycle, endometrial thickness, uterine and ovarian artery pulsatility index and resistance index, endometrial and ovarian volume, 3-D power Doppler vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI, and vascularization FI (VFI values were measured in both groups. Results: There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in endometrial thickness, uterine ovarian artery pulsatility index and resistance index, endometrial and ovarian volume, or VI, FI, and VFI between the two groups. Furthermore, the endometrial and ovarian Doppler indices were not influenced by endometrioma size. No significant differences were observed in the ovarian Doppler indices between endometrioma-containing ovaries and contralateral ovaries. Conclusion: Ovarian endometrioma is not associated with impaired endometrial and ovarian blood flows in infertile women scheduled for IVF, and it is not likely to affect endometrial receptivity or ovarian function through a vascular mechanism. Keywords: 3-D power Doppler, endometrioma, IVF, uterine and ovarian blood flow

  2. [A cohort study on the correlation between birth weight, simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qi; Tan, Jing; Liu, Zhao-hui; Liu, Rong-kun; Yang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    To determine the correlation between birth weight and simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence. A vertical sectional survey on 193 children aged 7 - 11 years was performed in 1996. A questionnaire consisting of items on environmental factors and lifestyle, physical examination and biochemical assessment was conducted at baseline and the 9th year of follow-up. The incidence of obesity and over-weight in childhood in high (6.1%) and low birth-weight group (5.6%) was higher than that in normal birth-weight group (2.8%), but did not reach statistic significance; The levels of body mass index in adolescence in high and low birth-weight group were significantly higher than that in normal birth-weight group (P = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively), and the incidence of obesity and over-weight in adolescence was significantly higher in high (33.3%) and low birth-weight group (38.9%) than that in normal birth-weight group (16.2%, P = 0.025 and 0.020, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure between different birth weight groups (all, P > 0.05). Intrauterine growth is linked to physical growth during childhood and adolescence. Nutritional guidance in pregnant phase may help to control the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescent.

  3. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  4. Clinical experience with infliximab therapy in 100 patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, R J; Shah, S A; Lodhavia, P J; Alsahli, M; Falchuk, K R; Michetti, P; Peppercorn, M A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess our clinical experience with infliximab, a monoclonal antitumor necrosis factor antibody, following its approval for treatment of refractory Crohn's disease (CD). We followed 100 consecutive patients with CD (53 women and 47 men; mean age, 41 yr) who received a total of 233 infliximab (5 mg/kg) infusions. Adverse events were noted and clinical response assessed every 2 wk for 6 months after each infusion using the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) for active disease, the Perianal Disease Activity Index (PDAI) for fistulous disease, and steroid withdrawal rates for steroid-sparing efficacy. Indications for therapy were active disease (n = 57), perianal fistulous disease (n = 33), and steroid dependency (n = 10). Significant infusion reactions occurred in 16 patients (6.9% of infusions) including anaphylactic shock in one patient. Fourteen patients experienced infectious adverse events, 13 of whom were on concurrent steroids. Sixty percent of patients with active disease experienced > or = 50% HBI reduction at 2 wk; mean duration of response, 8.2 wk. Three of 26 first-time nonresponders with active disease (12%) responded to a second infusion. Sixty-nine percent of patients with fistulous disease experienced >50% reduction in their PDAI at 2 wk; mean duration of response, 10.9 wk. Four of 10 steroid-dependent patients (40%) discontinued steroid therapy, one of whom recommenced steroid therapy at 24 wk. Our clinical response rates mirror the efficacy reported in the controlled trials for active and fistulous disease. Steroid-sparing efficacy was seen in 40% of steroid-dependent patients. Concurrent steroids did not reduce the risk of significant infusion reactions (6.9%), but did increase the risk of infections.

  5. Association of Body Mass Index with DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Blood Cells and Relations to Cardiometabolic Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Mendelson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases in the general population remains uncertain.We conducted an association study of body mass index (BMI and differential methylation for over 400,000 CpGs assayed by microarray in whole-blood-derived DNA from 3,743 participants in the Framingham Heart Study and the Lothian Birth Cohorts, with independent replication in three external cohorts of 4,055 participants. We examined variations in whole blood gene expression and conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the functional and clinical relevance of the findings. We identified novel and previously reported BMI-related differential methylation at 83 CpGs that replicated across cohorts; BMI-related differential methylation was associated with concurrent changes in the expression of genes in lipid metabolism pathways. Genetic instrumental variable analysis of alterations in methylation at one of the 83 replicated CpGs, cg11024682 (intronic to sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 [SREBF1], demonstrated links to BMI, adiposity-related traits, and coronary artery disease. Independent genetic instruments for expression of SREBF1 supported the findings linking methylation to adiposity and cardiometabolic disease. Methylation at a substantial proportion (16 of 83 of the identified loci was found to be secondary to differences in BMI. However, the cross-sectional nature of the data limits definitive causal determination.We present robust associations of BMI with differential DNA methylation at numerous loci in blood cells. BMI-related DNA methylation and gene expression provide mechanistic insights into the relationship between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases.

  6. Association of Body Mass Index with DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in Blood Cells and Relations to Cardiometabolic Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehanes, Roby; Liu, Chunyu; Aslibekyan, Stella; Demerath, Ellen W.; Guan, Weihua; Zhi, Degui; Willinger, Christine; Courchesne, Paul; Multhaup, Michael; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Schadt, Eric E.; Bressler, Jan; North, Kari; Sundström, Johan; Gustafsson, Stefan; Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Gibson, Jude; Redmond, Paul; Corley, Janie; Starr, John M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Wray, Naomi R.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Feinberg, Andrew; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S.; Lind, Lars; Fox, Caroline; Ingelsson, Erik; Arnett, Donna K.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Liang, Liming; Levy, Daniel; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The link between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases in the general population remains uncertain. Methods and Findings We conducted an association study of body mass index (BMI) and differential methylation for over 400,000 CpGs assayed by microarray in whole-blood-derived DNA from 3,743 participants in the Framingham Heart Study and the Lothian Birth Cohorts, with independent replication in three external cohorts of 4,055 participants. We examined variations in whole blood gene expression and conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the functional and clinical relevance of the findings. We identified novel and previously reported BMI-related differential methylation at 83 CpGs that replicated across cohorts; BMI-related differential methylation was associated with concurrent changes in the expression of genes in lipid metabolism pathways. Genetic instrumental variable analysis of alterations in methylation at one of the 83 replicated CpGs, cg11024682 (intronic to sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 [SREBF1]), demonstrated links to BMI, adiposity-related traits, and coronary artery disease. Independent genetic instruments for expression of SREBF1 supported the findings linking methylation to adiposity and cardiometabolic disease. Methylation at a substantial proportion (16 of 83) of the identified loci was found to be secondary to differences in BMI. However, the cross-sectional nature of the data limits definitive causal determination. Conclusions We present robust associations of BMI with differential DNA methylation at numerous loci in blood cells. BMI-related DNA methylation and gene expression provide mechanistic insights into the relationship between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases. PMID:28095459

  7. A new prognostic index - leucocyte infiltration - in human cerebral infarcts by 99Tcm-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, P.Y.; Wang, Y.L.; Chang, L.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with acute cerebral infarction were imaged by 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cell brain (Tc-WBC) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The regions of interest were equally placed in the whole hemispheres of both sides with summation of all transaxial slices in the Tc-WBC SPECT. The asymmetric indices (AI) were calculated as 200 [|(right -left)|/(right + left)]. Grouping of patients with cerebral infarction was based on activities of daily living (ADL) at outcome. The results showed that the poor outcome patient group had a higher AI of Tc-WBC than that of the other patients (13.0 ± 3.0 S.E.M. versus 5.4 ± 1.0 S.E.M., and P < 0.05 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). In conclusion, the Tc-WBC SPECT may be considered as a new prognostic index to predict patient outcome in human cerebral ischaemic infarctions consistent with newly established ischaemic injury theories. (author)

  8. Fingerprints as an Alternative Method to Determine ABO and Rh Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sonam; Deuja, Sajana; Alam, Munna; Karmacharya, Poonam; Mondal, Monami

    2017-01-01

    Blood grouping is conventionally done with invasive method by taking blood samples. The objective of this study is to determine blood group with uninvasive procedure by taking fingerprints of the participants and know the associations between their fingerprints and blood groups. Seven hundred participants of both genders with no any age limitation from Manipal Teaching Hospital and Manipal College of Medical Sciences were randomly selected. The blood grouping was done by cross reacting blood sample with the antibodies. The fingerprints were taken with the help of stamp pad imprinting the finger ridges over A4 size white papers. The loop, whorl and arch patterns were studied. O+ve blood group 224 (32%) was most prevalent among 700 participants. The loop pattern was highly distributed 3708 (53%) in all blood groups except in A-ve blood group with highest distribution of whorl 20 (40%). The mean comparisons of specific fingerprint in total and also in individual fingers with different ABO and ABO-Rh blood groups showed no any statistical association with P>0.05. However, the loop distribution in individual finger was highest in right middle finger (M) of B-ve blood group 5 (10%). The whorl distribution in individual finger was highest in right index (I), left thumb (T) and left ring (R) fingers of AB+ve blood group 20 (5.5% each). Similarly, the arch distribution was highest in right index fingers of A-ve blood group 3 (6%). The mean comparison of different fingerprints with ABO and Rh blood groups showed no significant statistical association concluding fingerprints cannot be used for blood grouping.

  9. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  10. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-01-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as ≥ 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was ≤ 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of ≥ 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions

  11. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  12. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting....... Strategies to reduce accrual of excess adiposity during early life may reduce mid-childhood blood pressure, which may also impact adult blood pressure and cardiovascular health....

  13. Hemolysis is associated with low reticulocyte production index and predicts blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Fendel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA, a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU (interquartile range (IR: 2.2-9.6 vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3-3.9, p<0.01. Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1, CD55 (decay acceleration factor and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, alpha-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin, which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI: 8.9-427. Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  14. Straight versus tortuous retinal arteries in relation to blood pressure and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, N C B B; Munch, I C; Sander, B

    2008-01-01

    dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs, aged 20 to 46 years, who were characterised by determination of retinal vessel diameters, arterial blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index, smoking habits and retinal arterial tortuosity, using a three-level grading scale (straight, wavy, tortuous). Heritability......BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on retinal arterial tortuosity and the association between tortuosity and various health indices in healthy young to middle-aged persons. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 57 monozygotic and 52...... accounting for the remaining 18% (CI(95 )8, 36%). Increasing values of mean arterial blood pressure and body mass index were both associated with decreasing levels of retinal arterial tortuosity. CONCLUSION: There was a large variation in tortuosity of retinal arteries in these healthy subjects...

  15. Depression-Burnout Overlap in Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Walter; Vogel, Katrin; Holl, Anna; Ebner, Christoph; Bayer, Dietmar; Mörkl, Sabrina; Szilagyi, Istvan-Szilard; Hotter, Erich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three “core” components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. Methods In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI), as well as demographic and job-related parameters. Of the 40093 physicians who received an invitation, a total of 6351 (15.8%) participated. The data of 5897 participants were suitable for analysis. Results Of the participants, 10.3% were affected by major depression. Our study results suggest that potentially 50.7% of the participants were affected by symptoms of burnout. Compared to physicians unaffected by burnout, the odds ratio of suffering from major depression was 2.99 (95% CI 2.21–4.06) for physicians with mild, 10.14 (95% CI 7.58–13.59) for physicians with moderate, 46.84 (95% CI 35.25–62.24) for physicians with severe burnout and 92.78 (95% CI 62.96–136.74) for the 3% of participants with the highest HBI_sum (sum score of all ten HBI components). The HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Detachment (representing depersonalization) tend to correlate more highly with the main symptoms of major depression (sadness, lack of interest and lack of energy) than with each other. A combination of the HBI components Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium (adj.R2 = 0.92) explained more HBI_sum variance than the three “core” components (adj.R2 = 0.85) of burnout combined. Cronbach’s alpha for Emotional Exhaustion, Helplessness, Inner Void and Tedium combined was 0.90 compared to α = 0.54 for the combination of the three

  16. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  17. Blood pressure and serum creatinine in obese female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrin, M; Nessa, A; Hasan, M I; Das, R K

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in developed as well as in developing countries. This analytical cross sectional study was carried out to document the relation between blood pressure, serum creatinine and body mass index in female and to assess potential health differences among obese female and normal weight female. This study was done in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013. Seventy female persons volunteered as subjects. Among them 35 were within normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m²) and 35 were obese (BMI≥30kg/m²). Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used to select the subjects. Measurement of body mass index and blood pressure were done as per procedure. Serum creatinine level was estimated by enzymatic colorimetric method. The results were calculated and analyzed by using SPSS (statistical package for social science, version 17.0), scientific electronic calculator and simultaneously with a computer assisted program like Microsoft excel. Unpaired 't' test was applied to find the significance of difference regarding serum creatinine and blood pressure levels in obese female. The value of p was 1% to indicate highly significant and 5% to indicate simply significant or statistically significant. The mean±SE of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were 135.71±1.58mmHg, 88.74±0.95mmHg and 1.03±0.01mg/dl respectively; significant at 1% level for obese group of BMI (phigh BMI is significantly related to increased levels of serum creatinine & blood pressure in obese female which indicate the obese subjects are prone to cardiovascular & metabolic risk.

  18. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  19. Perceived spatial stigma, body mass index and blood pressure: a global positioning system study among low-income housing residents in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has highlighted the salience of spatial stigma on the lives of low-income residents, but has been theoretical in nature and/or has predominantly utilised qualitative methods with limited generalisability and ability to draw associations between spatial stigma and measured cardiovascular health outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between perceived spatial stigma, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure among a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City (NYC. Data come from the community-based NYC Low-income Housing, Neighborhoods and Health Study. We completed a crosssectional analysis with survey data, which included the four items on spatial stigma, as well objectively measured BMI and blood pressure data (analytic n=116; 96.7% of the total sample. Global positioning systems (GPS tracking of the sample was conducted for a week. In multivariable models (controlling for individual-level age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, total household income, neighborhood percent non-Hispanic Black and neighborhood median household income we found that participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had higher BMI (B=4.2, 95%CI: -0.01, 8.3, P=0.051, as well as higher systolic blood pressure (B=13.2, 95%CI: 3.2, 23.1, P=0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (B=8.5, 95%CI: 2.8, 14.3, P=0.004. In addition, participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had increased risk of obesity/overweight [relative risk (RR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.4, P=0.02 and hypertension/pre-hypertension (RR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.2, 2.4, P=0.007. However, we found no differences in spatial mobility (based GPS data among participants who reported living in neighborhoods with and without spatial stigma (P>0.05. Further research is needed to investigate how placebased stigma may be associated with impaired cardiovascular health among individuals

  20. Relationship of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index in overweight women who performed hydraulic resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chang Ho; Swearingin, Brenda; Jeon, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and HOMA β-cell index in hydraulic resistance exercise. Furthermore, it investigated the relationship between visfatin level and other variables affected by exercise in overweight women. [Subjects and Methods] The exercise group trained for 12 weeks, 70 minutes/day, 5 days/week. Visfatin level, pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were measured before and after the intervention. Based on the blood insulin and glucose concentrations, HOMA-IR index, the indicator of insulin resistance, and HOMA β-cell index, the indicator of insulin secretion level, were assessed. [Results] Interaction effects on visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were observed. Interaction effects on glucagon and glucose levels were not observed between the intervention groups. The correlations of visfatin level to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes were not significant for any of the subjects. [Conclusion] Therefore, the 12-week resistance exercise affected body composition, visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index. Finally, visfatin was not related to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes.

  1. Iron deficiency in blood donors

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    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.

  2. The Summary Index of Malaria Surveillance (SIMS: a stable index of malaria within India

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    Sharma Vinod P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in India has been difficult to measure. Mortality and morbidity are not comprehensively reported, impeding efforts to track changes in disease burden. However, a set of blood measures has been collected regularly by the National Malaria Control Program in most districts since 1958. Methods Here, we use principal components analysis to combine these measures into a single index, the Summary Index of Malaria Surveillance (SIMS, and then test its temporal and geographic stability using subsets of the data. Results The SIMS correlates positively with all its individual components and with external measures of mortality and morbidity. It is highly consistent and stable over time (1995-2005 and regions of India. It includes measures of both vivax and falciparum malaria, with vivax dominant at lower transmission levels and falciparum dominant at higher transmission levels, perhaps due to ecological specialization of the species. Conclusions This measure should provide a useful tool for researchers looking to summarize geographic or temporal trends in malaria in India, and can be readily applied by administrators with no mathematical or scientific background. We include a spreadsheet that allows simple calculation of the index for researchers and local administrators. Similar principles are likely applicable worldwide, though further validation is needed before using the SIMS outside India.

  3. Dietary hyperglycemia, glycemic index and age-related metabolic retinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glycemic index (GI) indicates how fast blood glucose is raised after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food. Human metabolic studies indicate that GI is related to patho-physiological responses after meals. Compared with a low-GI meal, a high-GI meal is characterized with hyperglycemia during ...

  4. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, LH; De Vries, APJ; Van Son, WJ; Van Der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Gansevoort, RT; De Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; Bakker, SJL

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin

  5. Recruitable collateral blood flow index predicts coronary instent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Collateral flow may influence long-term results after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of haemodynamic forces compete with the antegrade flow through the dilated lesion. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of recruitable collateral blood flow on restenosis...... in patients undergoing PCI with bare metal stents and using optimal antithrombotic treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 95 patients, 95 de novo lesions were treated with PCI and a bare metal stent. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) at maximum hyperaemia induced by intravenous adenosine was determined. The pressure.......02-1.12, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Recruitable collateral blood flow measured during balloon inflation predicts angiographic instent restenosis in PCI patients treated with bare metal stents. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  6. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  7. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  8. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  9. Association of adiposity measures with blood lipids and blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno, Vicente Martínez; Aguilar, Fernando Salcedo; Martínez, Montserrat Solera; López, Mairena Sánchez; Gutiérrez, Ricardo Franquelo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2007-09-01

    To examine the association of body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST) and percentage body fat (%BF) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with blood lipids, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 1280 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the Cuenca province (Spain). Data collection was conducted under standardized conditions, taking several measurements of each variable to enhance accuracy. Analyses were performed using age-adjusted correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression adjusted for age, BMI, TST and %BF. Correlations between %BF and apolipoprotein (apo) B, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and DBP were higher than those for BMI and TST. In contrast, the correlations between BMI, and apo A-I and SBP were higher than those for %BF and TST. The results were similar across the sexes. The correlations between each of the three measures of body fatness, and blood lipids and blood pressure were highest in children with greatest BMI and %BF. When analyses were adjusted for the three body fatness measures, %BF showed stronger associations than did BMI or TST with blood lipids and blood pressure, with the exception of apo A-I and SBP, which were more closely associated with BMI. %BF from BIA is more strongly associated than either BMI or TST with most of the blood lipid fractions in schoolchildren aged 8-11 years.

  10. Frequencies of micronuclei in lymphocytes and complete blood picture of radiation worker at Al-Twuathia Site Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amel, J.M.; Abdulsahib, K. A.; Abdullah, A.G.; Haider, Y.L.; Ali, H.F.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to use the frequency of micronuclei in lymphocyte and complete blood picture as a bio markers for detection of the effects of the low radiation doses in to decommissioning to radioactive contamination (Lama and Geo- Pilot) as a result of work, during January 2009 to November 2011 present study including collected 113 blood samples, including (103 male and female) aged (25 - 65) year for the exam of compete blood picture analysis, included 69 blood samples as first time before work in Al-Twuathia site, 22 blood samples as a second and third exam. While the cytogenetic analysis including 78 male blood samples aged (35 - 63) year, included 30 blood samples as first time be for work in Al-Twuathia site, 30 blood samples as a second exam and 18 blood samples as third exam, as well as 50 blood samples which are not smokers and alcohol as control group which including (40 male and 10 female) aged (30 - 55 year). Three cytogenetic parameter were employed such as frequency of micronuclei, mitotic index an nuclear and nuclear division index, which used for detection of biological effects of ionizing radiation. Also the current study included the detection of the effect of radiation in complete blood picture analysis of workers at Al-Tuwaitha site, which included (Hb, PCV, WBC count, differential count of WBCs, platelets count of WBCs, platelets count and ESR). From the study no significant differences in the rate of micronuclei and division index of workers in the first and second examination compared with the group of workers in the third exam, while observed a significant increase slightly at level (P <0.05) in these rates compared with the control group, as well as were recorded no significant differences in the rate of mitotic index for workers compared with the control group. Also, found no significant difference in complete blood picture analysis for workers compared with the control group. In conclusion, the significant slightly increase at the

  11. [The association between early blood glucose fluctuation and prognosis in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Gu, Qin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between early blood glucose level fluctuation and prognosis of critically ill patients. A retrospective study involving 95 critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) was conducted. According to the 28-day outcome after admission to ICU, the patients were divided into nonsurvivors (43 cases) and survivors (52 cases), and the blood glucose level in them was monitored in the first 72 hours. Blood glucose concentration at admission (BGadm), mean blood glucose level (MBG), hyperglycemia index (HGI), glycemic lability index (GLI), incidence of hypoglycemia and total dosage of intravenous insulin for each patient were compared. The index as an independent risk factor of mortality was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis and the predictor value by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve, AUC) of each index. The BGadm (mmol/L), MBG (mmol/L), HGI and the incidence of hypoglycemia showed no significant differences between nonsurvivors and survivors [BGadm: 9.87 ± 4.48 vs. 9.26 ± 3.07, MBG: 8.59 ± 1.23 vs. 8.47 ± 1.01, HGI(6.0): 2.45 ± 0.94 vs. 1.68 ± 1.05, HGI(8.3): 0.84 ± 0.70 vs. 0.68 ± 0.51, the incidence of hypoglycemia: 9.30% vs. 5.77%, all P > 0.05], but acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II ) score, GLI and the total dosage of intravenous insulin (U) were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors [APACHE II score: 23 ± 6 vs. 19 ± 6, GLI: 56.96 (65.43) vs. 23.87 (41.62), the total dosage of intravenous insulin: 65.5 (130.5) vs. 12.5 (90.0), all P curve was plotted, the AUC of APACHE II score and GLI was respectively 0.69 and 0.71, and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Early fluctuation of blood glucose is a significant independent risk factor of mortality in critically ill patients. Control the early fluctuation of blood glucose concentration might improve the patients' outcome.

  12. Validation and simplification of Fournier's gangrene severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Yen; Ou, Chien-Hui; Tzai, Tzong-Shin; Tong, Yat-Ching; Chang, Chien-Chen; Cheng, Hong-Lin; Yang, Wen-Horng; Lin, Yung-Ming

    2014-07-01

    To validate the predictive value of Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index in patients with Fournier gangrene and to facilitate patient mortality risk-stratification by simplifying the Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index. From January 1989 to December 2011, 85 male patients with clinically-documented Fournier's gangrene undergoing intensive treatment and with complete medical records were recruited. The demographic information and nine parameters of Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The parameters that showed a significant difference between the two groups were selected to generate a simplified scoring index. Of the 85 patients recruited, 16 patients died of the disease with mortality rate of 18.8%. The Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index score at initial diagnosis was significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Of the nine parameters of Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index, the scores of serum creatinine level, hematocrit level and serum potassium level were significantly different between the two groups. However, the mean body temperatures, heart rate, respiration rate, white blood cell count, serum sodium and bicarbonate levels were non-significantly different. Of the 12 patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease, 10 died of severe sepsis. A simplified scoring index including parameters of creatinine, hematocrit and potassium was generated, which provided sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 77% in predicting patient mortality, respectively. The predictive values of this simplified Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index were shown to be non-inferior to Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index in our patients. The simplified Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index is easy to use at initial diagnosis, and offers a way to compare outcomes in different clinical populations. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Relationship between insulin resistance and tissue blood flow in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anim-Nyame, Nick; Gamble, John; Sooranna, Suren R; Johnson, Mark R; Steer, Philip J

    2015-05-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by generalized endothelial dysfunction and impaired maternal tissue perfusion, and insulin resistance is a prominent feature of this disease. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that insulin resistance in preeclampsia is related to the reduced resting tissue blood flow. We used venous occlusion plethysmography to compare the resting calf muscle blood flow (measured as QaU) in 20 nulliparous women with preeclampsia and 20 normal pregnant controls matched for maternal age, gestational age, parity and BMI during the third trimester. Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure the plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, and to calculate the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), a measure of insulin resistance in both groups of women. Calf blood flow was significantly reduced in the preeclampsia group (1.93 ± 0.86 QaU), compared with normal pregnant controls (3.94 ± 1.1 QaU, P insulin concentrations and Insulin Resistance Index were significantly higher in preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy (P insulin concentrations (r = -0.57, P = 0.008) and FIRI (r = -0.59, P = 0.006) in preeclampsia, but not in normal pregnancy. These findings support our hypothesis and raise the possibility that reduced tissue blood flow may a play a role in the increased insulin resistance seen in preeclampsia.

  14. Predictive utility of blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index for metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Jimmy

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine and compare the predictive utility of blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), and to determine optimal cut-off values in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. About 100 patients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited. BMI and BP were measured and laboratory tests to evaluate patients' high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were performed. Presence of MetS was examined according to AHA/NHLBI guidelines. Predictive utility of BP, WC and BMI was examined using receiver operating curve and discriminant indices were determined accordingly. Forty-six (46%) patients were identified to have MetS. BMI of ≥23 kg m(-2) was most accurate (AUC = 0.83, P < 0.001), with sensitivity of 93.5%, specificity of 48.1%, positive predictive value of 60.6% and negative predictive value of 92.9% in identifying MetS. This finding has immediate and significant clinical implications in the local population with schizophrenia. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Ankle-brachial index and inter-artery blood pressure differences as predictors of cognitive function in overweight and obese older adults with diabetes: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes movement and memory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A; Beavers, Kristen M; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Johnson, Karen C; Hughes, Timothy M; Baker, Laura D; Jakicic, John; Korytkowski, Mary; Miller, Marsha; Bray, George A

    2015-10-01

    Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and interartery systolic blood pressure differences, as markers of vascular disease, are plausible risk factors for deficits in cognitive function among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. The ABI and maximum interartery differences (MIAD) in systolic blood pressures were assessed annually for five years among 479 participants assigned to the control condition in a randomized clinical trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention. A battery of standardized cognitive function tests was administered 4 to 5 years later. Analyses of covariance were used to assess relationships that ABI, MIAD, and progression of ABI and MIAD had with cognitive function. There was a curvilinear relationship between ABI and a composite index of cognitive function (p = 0.03), with lower ABI being associated with poorer function. In graded fashions, both greater MIAD and increases in MIAD over time also had modest relationships with poorer verbal memory (both p ≤ 0.05), processing speed (both p ≤ 0.05), and composite cognitive function (both p cognitive function 4-5 years later. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  17. EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES CONDITION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD COAGULABILITY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in children with blood pathology (100%. Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is the risk of bleeding during both home oral hygiene and professional hygiene. Exogenous prevention (fluoride-containing gels, varnishes, solutions, sealants also has its own peculiarities in these children. On the other hand, the impossibility of preventive measures implementation is the significant factor in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and subsequently periodontitis in children with disorders of blood coagulability. Aim. To examine the status of oral hygiene in children with blood coagulability disorders. To examine the severity of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To investigate timing and frequency of oral hygiene implementation in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To reveal the interrelations between the intensity, prevalence of periodontal tissues disorders in children with blood coagulability pathology and the periods of tooth development, taking into account the influence of risk factors and frequency of oral hygiene. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood coagulability disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into following age groups: I – 2-5 years old (40 children, II – 6-10 years old (40 children, III – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Hygiene index value was determined according to

  18. Evaluation of periodontal tissues condition in children with blood coagulability pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in children with blood pathology (100%. Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is the risk of bleeding during both home oral hygiene and professional hygiene. Exogenous prevention (fluoride-containing gels, varnishes, solutions, sealants also has its own peculiarities in these children. On the other hand, the impossibility of preventive measures implementation is the significant factor in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and subsequently periodontitis in children with disorders of blood coagulability. Aim.To examine the status of oral hygiene in children with blood coagulability disorders.To examine the severity of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To investigate timing and frequency of oral hygiene implementation in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To reveal the interrelations between the intensity, prevalence of periodontal tissues disorders in children with blood coagulability pathology and the periods of tooth development, taking into account the influence of risk factors and frequency of oral hygiene. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood coagulability disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into following age groups: I – 2-5 years old (40 children, II – 6-10 years old (40 children, III – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Hygiene index value was determined according to Fedorov

  19. Dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Xuan Dai; Yuan-Ting Zhang; Jing Liu; Xiao-Rong Ding; Ni Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and ambulatory measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for efficient diagnosis, management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, traditional cuff-based BP measurement methods provide only intermittent BP readings and can cause discomfort with the occlusive cuff. Although pulse transit time (PTT) method is promising for cuffless and continuous BP measurement, its pervasive use is restricted by its limited accuracy and requirement of placing sensors on multiple body sites. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement, which simultaneously records the pressure and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals of radial artery. The obtained signals can be used to generate a pressure-volume curve, from which the elasticity index (EI) and viscosity index (VI) can be extracted. Experiments were carried out among 7 healthy subjects with their PPG, ECG, arterial pressure wave and reference BP collected to examine the effectiveness of the proposed indexes. The results of this study demonstrate that a linear regression model combining EI and VI has significantly higher BP tracking correlation coefficient as compared to the PTT method. This suggests that the proposed system and method can potentially be used for convenient and continuous blood pressure estimation with higher accuracy.

  20. Assessment of effects of a Cordia salicifolia extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the morphology of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara; Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Rocha, Gabrielle Souza; Pereira, Márcia Oliveira; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Effects of a Cordia salicifolia (porangaba) extract on the labeling of blood cells (BCs) with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and on the morphology of red BCs were evaluated. Labeling of cellular and molecular structures with (99m)Tc depends on a reducing agent. Some physical characteristics, as visible absorbance spectrum, electric conductivity, and refractive index of this porangaba extract, were also determined. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with porangaba extract or with 0.9% NaCl (control). Labeling of blood constituents with (99m)Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and BCs, both soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions, were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted, and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, and stained, and the morphology of the red BCs was evaluated. Data showed an absorbance peak at 480 nm and electric conductibility and refractive index concentration-dependent. Porangaba extract decreased significantly (P < .05) the BC, IF-P, and IF-BC %ATI, and no modifications were verified on the shape of red BCs. Analysis of the results reveals that some physical parameters could be useful to aid in characterizing the extract studied. Moreover, it is possible that chemical compounds of this extract could have chelating/redox actions or be capable of binding to plasma and/or cellular proteins.

  1. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05 respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  2. Blood transfusion safety; current status and challenges in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Aneke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject. The World Health Organization has been in the forefront of efforts to establish safe, available, and affordable blood transfusion services in most parts of Africa through encouraging adequate blood donor recruitment, donor blood testing, and collection as well developing strategies for the rational use of blood. Even though modest improvement has been recorded, particularly with regards to donor blood screening for common TTIs, considerable efforts are needed in the form of robust public enlightenment campaigns (on blood donation and continuous system improvement to drive the current transfusion practices in the country toward safety and self-sustenance.

  3. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  4. Hyperemic stenosis resistance index for evaluation of functional coronary lesion severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, Martijn; Siebes, Maria; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Koch, Karel T.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Piek, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Background-Both coronary blood flow velocity reserve (CFVR) and myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) are used to evaluate the hemodynamic severity of coronary lesions. However, discordant results between CFVR and FFR have been observed in 25%, to 30% of intermediate coronary lesions. An index of

  5. Low-Coherence Reflectometry for Refractive Index Measurements of Cells in Micro-Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpignano, Francesca; Rigamonti, Giulia; Mazzini, Giuliano; Merlo, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The refractive index of cells provides insights into their composition, organization and function. Moreover, a good knowledge of the cell refractive index would allow an improvement of optical cytometric and diagnostic systems. Although interferometric techniques undoubtedly represent a good solution for quantifying optical path variation, obtaining the refractive index of a population of cells non-invasively remains challenging because of the variability in the geometrical thickness of the sample. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of infrared low-coherence reflectometry for non-invasively quantifying the average refractive index of cell populations gently confined in rectangular glass micro-capillaries. A suspension of human red blood cells in plasma is tested as a reference. As a use example, we apply this technique to estimate the average refractive index of cell populations belonging to epithelial and hematological families. PMID:27727172

  6. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2009-01-01

    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  7. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and intraoperative blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haelst, Ingrid M M; van Klei, Wilton A; Doodeman, Hieronymus J; Kalkman, Cor J; Egberts, Toine C G

    2012-02-01

    The influence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on blood pressure is poorly understood. We hypothesized that if SSRIs have an influence on blood pressure, this might become manifest in changes in intraoperative blood pressure. We aimed to study the association between perioperative use of SSRIs and changes in intraoperative blood pressure by measuring the occurrence of intraoperative hyper- and hypotension. We conducted a retrospective observational follow-up study among patients who underwent elective primary total hip arthroplasty. The index group included users of SSRIs. The reference group included a random sample (ratio 1:3) of nonusers of an antidepressant agent. The outcome was the occurrence of intraoperative hypo- and hypertensive episodes (number, mean and total duration, and area under the curve (AUC)). The outcome was adjusted for confounding factors using regression techniques. The index group included 20 users of an SSRI. The reference group included 60 nonusers. Users of SSRIs showed fewer intraoperative hypotensive episodes, a shorter mean and total duration, and a smaller AUC when compared to the reference group. After adjustment for confounders, SSRI use was associated with a significantly shorter total duration of hypotension: mean difference of -29.4 min (95% confidence interval (CI) -50.4 to -8.3). Two users of an SSRI and two patients in the reference group had a hypertensive episode. Continuation of treatment with SSRIs before surgery was associated with a briefer duration of intraoperative hypotension.

  8. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Daniel I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Johnson, Toby; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Luan, Jian'an; Donnelly, Lousie A.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pihur, Vasyl; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Shungin, Dmitry; Hughes, Maria F.; Meirelles, Osorio; Kaakinen, Marika; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Kristiansson, Kati; Shah, Sonia; Kleber, Marcus E.; Guo, Xiuqing; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Fava, Cristiano; Eriksson, Niclas; Nolte, Ilja M.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Salfati, Elias L.; Rallidis, Loukianos S.; Theusch, Elizabeth; Smith, Andrew J.P.; Folkersen, Lasse; Witkowska, Kate; Pers, Tune H.; Joehanes, Roby; Kim, Stuart K.; Lataniotis, Lazaros; Jansen, Rick; Johnson, Andrew D.; Warren, Helen; Kim, Young Jin; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Ying; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Bochud, Murielle; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S.; Amin, Najaf; Arking, Dan E.; Axelsson, Tomas; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barnes, Michael R.; Barroso, Inês; Bevan, Stephen; Bis, Joshua C.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Chambers, John C.; Chang, I-Shou; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chines, Peter S.; Chung, Ren-Hua; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Döring, Angela; Dallongeville, Jean; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; Delgado, Graciela; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Doney, Alex S.F.; Drenos, Fotios; Edkins, Sarah; Eicher, John D.; Elosua, Roberto; Enroth, Stefan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Per; Esko, Tonu; Evangelou, Evangelos; Evans, Alun; Fall, Tove; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Janine F.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Forrester, Terrence; Franceschini, Nora; Duran, Oscar H. Franco; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Fraser, Ross M.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Gao, He; Gertow, Karl; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gigante, Bruna; Giulianini, Franco; Goel, Anuj; Goodall, Alison H.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gorski, Mathias; Gräßler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassinen, Maija; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Oddgeir Lingaas; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Howard, Phil; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hunt, Steven C.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jensen, Richard A.; Kähönen, Mika; Kang, Hyun; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keating, Brendan J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Kim, Eric; Kivimaki, Mika; Klopp, Norman; Kolovou, Genovefa; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kosova, Gulum; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Lakka, Timo A; Lee, Nanette R.; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Levy, Daniel; Li, Xiaohui; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Li; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Männistö, Satu; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mach, François; Markus, Hugh S.; Marouli, Eirini; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Mijatovic, Vladan; Moilanen, Leena; Montasser, May E.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Mulas, Antonella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nikus, Kjell; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Ong, Ken K.; Paccaud, Fred; Palmer, Cameron D.; Parsa, Afshin; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Poulter, Neil; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Rasheed, Asif; Rayner, N William N.W.R.; Renström, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Rice, Kenneth M.; Roberts, Robert; Rose, Lynda M.; Rossouw, Jacques; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schunkert, Heribert; Sebert, Sylvain; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Shin, Young-Ah; Sim, Xueling; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Albert V.; Sosa, Maria X.; Spector, Tim D.; Stančáková, Alena; Stanton, Alice; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Teumer, Alexander; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tobin, Martin D.; Tremoli, Elena; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Vaez, Ahmad; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Aline; Wain, Louise V.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weder, Alan B.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wilks, Rainford; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Tien Y.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Bovet, Pascal; Cooper, Richard S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Saleheen, Danish; Lee, Jong-Young; Elliott, Paul; Gierman, Hinco J.; Willer, Cristen J.; Franke, Lude; Hovingh, G Kees; Taylor, Kent D.; Dedoussis, George; Sever, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Njølstad, Inger; Schwarz, Peter EH.; Langenberg, Claudia; Snieder, Harold; Caulfield, Mark J.; Melander, Olle; Laakso, Markku; Saltevo, Juha; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hveem, Kristian; Palmas, Walter; März, Winfried; Kumari, Meena; Salomaa, Veikko; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Froguel, Philippe; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lakatta, Edward G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Franks, Paul W.; Hamsten, Anders; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Stefansson, Kari; Ridker, Paul M; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Deloukas, Panos; Morris, Andrew P.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2016-01-01

    To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target-organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure loci, of which 17 were novel and 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target-organ damage in multiple tissues, with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classic renal system in blood pressure regulation. PMID:27618452

  9. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Chasman, Daniel I; Jackson, Anne U; Schmidt, Ellen M; Johnson, Toby; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Luan, Jian'an; Donnelly, Lousie A; Kanoni, Stavroula; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pihur, Vasyl; Strawbridge, Rona J; Shungin, Dmitry; Hughes, Maria F; Meirelles, Osorio; Kaakinen, Marika; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Kristiansson, Kati; Shah, Sonia; Kleber, Marcus E; Guo, Xiuqing; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Fava, Cristiano; Eriksson, Niclas; Nolte, Ilja M; Magnusson, Patrik K; Salfati, Elias L; Rallidis, Loukianos S; Theusch, Elizabeth; Smith, Andrew J P; Folkersen, Lasse; Witkowska, Kate; Pers, Tune H; Joehanes, Roby; Kim, Stuart K; Lataniotis, Lazaros; Jansen, Rick; Johnson, Andrew D; Warren, Helen; Kim, Young Jin; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Ying; Tayo, Bamidele O; Bochud, Murielle; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S; Amin, Najaf; Arking, Dan E; Axelsson, Tomas; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barnes, Michael R; Barroso, Inês; Bevan, Stephen; Bis, Joshua C; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Cabrera, Claudia P; Chambers, John C; Chang, I-Shou; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chines, Peter S; Chung, Ren-Hua; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Döring, Angela; Dallongeville, Jean; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; Delgado, Graciela; Dominiczak, Anna F; Doney, Alex S F; Drenos, Fotios; Edkins, Sarah; Eicher, John D; Elosua, Roberto; Enroth, Stefan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Per; Esko, Tonu; Evangelou, Evangelos; Evans, Alun; Fall, Tove; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Janine F; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Forrester, Terrence; Franceschini, Nora; Duran, Oscar H Franco; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Fraser, Ross M; Ganesh, Santhi K; Gao, He; Gertow, Karl; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gigante, Bruna; Giulianini, Franco; Goel, Anuj; Goodall, Alison H; Goodarzi, Mark O; Gorski, Mathias; Gräßler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassinen, Maija; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Oddgeir Lingaas; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Howard, Phil; Hsiung, Chao A; Hunt, Steven C; Ikram, M Arfan; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jensen, Richard A; Kähönen, Mika; Kang, Hyun; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keating, Brendan J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Kim, Eric; Kivimaki, Mika; Klopp, Norman; Kolovou, Genovefa; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kosova, Gulum; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Lakka, Timo A; Lee, Nanette R; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Levy, Daniel; Li, Xiaohui; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Li; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Männistö, Satu; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mach, François; Markus, Hugh S; Marouli, Eirini; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Mijatovic, Vladan; Moilanen, Leena; Montasser, May E; Morris, Andrew D; Morrison, Alanna C; Mulas, Antonella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nikus, Kjell; O'Donnell, Christopher J; O'Reilly, Paul F; Ong, Ken K; Paccaud, Fred; Palmer, Cameron D; Parsa, Afshin; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Poulter, Neil; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rao, Dabeeru C; Rasheed, Asif; Rayner, N William N W R; Renström, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Rice, Kenneth M; Roberts, Robert; Rose, Lynda M; Rossouw, Jacques; Samani, Nilesh J; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schunkert, Heribert; Sebert, Sylvain; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shin, Young-Ah; Sim, Xueling; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert V; Sosa, Maria X; Spector, Tim D; Stančáková, Alena; Stanton, Alice; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Stringham, Heather M; Sundstrom, Johan; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tarasov, Kirill V; Teumer, Alexander; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tobin, Martin D; Tremoli, Elena; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Uusitupa, Matti; Vaez, Ahmad; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Iperen, Erik P A; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Verwoert, Germaine C; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Voight, Benjamin F; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Aline; Wain, Louise V; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weder, Alan B; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wilks, Rainford; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Wong, Tien Y; Yang, Tsun-Po; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Bovet, Pascal; Cooper, Richard S; Mohlke, Karen L; Saleheen, Danish; Lee, Jong-Young; Elliott, Paul; Gierman, Hinco J; Willer, Cristen J; Franke, Lude; Hovingh, G Kees; Taylor, Kent D; Dedoussis, George; Sever, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Assimes, Themistocles L; Njølstad, Inger; Schwarz, Peter Eh; Langenberg, Claudia; Snieder, Harold; Caulfield, Mark J; Melander, Olle; Laakso, Markku; Saltevo, Juha; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hveem, Kristian; Palmas, Walter; März, Winfried; Kumari, Meena; Salomaa, Veikko; Chen, Yii-Der I; Rotter, Jerome I; Froguel, Philippe; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lakatta, Edward G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Franks, Paul W; Hamsten, Anders; Wichmann, H-Erich; Palmer, Colin N A; Stefansson, Kari; Ridker, Paul M; Loos, Ruth J F; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Deloukas, Panos; Morris, Andrew P; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Munroe, Patricia B

    2016-10-01

    To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure-associated loci, of which 17 were new; 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target organ damage in multiple tissues but with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure-related pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classical renal system in blood pressure regulation.

  10. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  11. Material & equipment, procurement & maintenance: Impact on blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Blood Transfusion Safety is dependent on effectively organised and managed blood services, which have adequate financial resources, skilled manpower, appropriate infrastructure and quality management systems in place. 80% of the world's population has access to 20% of the supply blood products, of which little is consistently safe. HIV highlighted the importance of blood safety. The lack of effective blood services in low human development index (LHDI), developing countries, has lead to international funding and capacity building for more than three decades. The initial strategies focused on providing HIV testing reagents to prevention transmission, however this only addresses one part of blood safety. Blood safety is not only dependent on preventing HIV transmission. In many populations there are other infectious agents, which have a higher prevalence. Ensuring the correct blood is provided to the patient depends on: well managed services with effective leadership and adequate budgets; capacity building and retention of skilled experienced staff; availability of laboratory equipment, correctly maintained; blood cold chain systems; procedures for tendering, purchasing and ensuring an unbroken supply of reagents and consumables; and quality management systems. Barriers for simplified effective tendering, procurement and contracting require urgent attention and coordination of all funding organisations to ensure an unbroken supply of reagents. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Valery V

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to review recent results on the optical clearing of the naturally turbid biological tissues and blood using the optical immersion technique, which is well known in physical science and is applied for the reduction of light scattering and undesirable reflections in the optical system. Basic principles of the technique, its advantages, limitations and future are discussed. The refractive index matching concept for enhancement of in-depth light penetration into tissues and blood is presented on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies using optical spectroscopy, polarization and coherence-domain techniques. The index matching of scatterers and ground matter by means of administration of clearing agents is under discussion. The optical properties of tissues with basic multiple scattering, which are transformed to a low scattering mode, are analysed. It is shown that light reflection, transmission, scattering and polarization can be effectively controlled. The possibilities of using the optical immersion method for diagnostic purposes based on contrasting of abnormalities, on in-depth profiling of tissue and blood and on monitoring of endogenous and exogenous matter diffusion within tissue are demonstrated

  13. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.

  14. A new sensor for stress measurement based on blood flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, I.; Kaminsky, A. V.; Shenkman, L.

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that effective stress management could have a dramatic impact on health care and preventive medicine. In order to meet this need, efficient and seamless sensing and analytic tools for the non-invasive stress monitoring during daily life are required. The existing sensors still do not meet the needs in terms of specificity and robustness. We utilized a miniaturized dynamic light scattering sensor (mDLS) which is specially adjusted to measure skin blood flow fluctuations and provides multi- parametric capabilities. Based on the measured dynamic light scattering signal from the red blood cells flowing in skin, a new concept of hemodynamic indexes (HI) and oscillatory hemodynamic indexes (OHI) have been developed. This approach was utilized for stress level assessment for a few usecase scenario. The new stress index was generated through the HI and OHI parameters. In order to validate this new non-invasive stress index, a group of 19 healthy volunteers was studied by measuring the mDLS sensor located on the wrist. Mental stress was induced by using the cognitive dissonance test of Stroop. We found that OHIs indexes have high sensitivity to the mental stress response for most of the tested subjects. In addition, we examined the capability of using this new stress index for the individual monitoring of the diurnal stress level. We found that the new stress index exhibits similar trends as reported for to the well-known diurnal behavior of cortisol levels. Finally, we demonstrated that this new marker provides good sensitivity and specificity to the stress response to sound and musical emotional arousal.

  15. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  16. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625

  17. Validation of Automated Prediction of Blood Product Needs Algorithm Processing Continuous Non Invasive Vital Signs Streams (ONPOINT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-25

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Maryland, Baltimore 22 S. Greene St. R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, T5R46 Baltimore, MD 21201 8...the revised trauma score, shock index (= heart rate/systolic blood pressure), and assessment of blood consumption, our M2 (bleeding risk index...11 4.2 Transfusion Prediction Model Evaluation in Special Subsets (Model Stress Test) ....... 15 4.3 Feature Sets and Model Stability

  18. Longitudinal relationship of parental hypertension with body mass index, blood pressure, and cardiovascular reactivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongling; Alpert, Bruce S; Walker, Sammie S; Somes, Grant W

    2007-05-01

    To investigate whether parental hypertension (HTN) affects children's body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) over time. A longitudinal study of 315 students (black: 23 females, 19 males; white: 142 females, 131 males) was conducted in the public schools of Obion County, Tennessee, between 1987 and 1992. BMI and BMI z scores were calculated. The CVR task was a series of video games (taking approximately 10 minutes to play) given to the same students in their third-, fourth-, fifth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade years. CVR was defined as the change in blood pressure (delta_BP) or heart rate (delta_HR) between before playing and while playing the video game. Positive parental history of HTN (27.6%) was defined as at least 1 parent with HTN. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to estimate the effects of parental HTN on children's BMI and CVR over time. Children with parental HTN had significant higher BMI, BMI z score, and R_BP than did children without parental HTN (BMI: 21.6 vs 19.9, P = .001; BMI z score: 1.6 vs 1.1, P = .003; R_SBP: 112.6 vs 110.4 mm Hg, P = .01; R_DBP 62.7 vs 60.6 mm Hg, P = .003) after adjustment for covariates. Increased CVR was observed in children with parental HTN compared with children without parental HTN but was statistically significant only for SBP (delta_SBP: 17.2 vs 14.9 mm Hg; P = .01) after adjustment for covariates. Parental HTN independently predicted children's BMI, BMI z score, resting BP, and BP reactivity.

  19. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  20. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  1. Anthropometric indicators of obesity such as predictors of high blood pressure in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila de Oliveira Diniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p31   High blood pressure is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and a risk factor for several diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of anthropometric indicators of obesity and establish their cutoff points as discriminators of hypertension and identify the anthropometric indicator of obesity that best discriminates high blood pressure in the elderly. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 300 older adults, 167 (56.5% women. The following anthropometric indicators of obesity were measured: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist / height ratio (WHtR and conicity index. Moreover, systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were collected. To identify hypertension predictors, the analysis of receiver operating curves (ROC with 95% confidence interval was adopted. Subsequently, cutoff points with their respective sensitivities and specificities were identified. Analyses were carried out considering 5% significance level. It was observed that some anthropometric indicators of obesity showed area under the curve (AUC significant with BMI = 0.60 (0.50 to 0.70; WHtR = 0.61 (0.51 to 0.71; conicity index = 0.58 (0.58 to 0.68 in men. The different cutoff points of anthropometric indicators with better predictive power and their respective sensitivities and specificities were identified. The best areas under the ROC curve were for BMI, WHtR and conicity index for men; however, such measures were not satisfactory to predict high blood pressure in women.

  2. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  3. Oxygen consumption and blood flow coupling in human motor cortex during intense finger tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi Vafaee, Manouchehr; Vang, Kim; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Rates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMR(glc)) rise in cerebral cortex during continuous stimulation, while the oxygen-glucose index (OGI) declines as an index of mismatched coupling of oxygen consumption (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen-CMRO(2)) to CBF and CMR(glc). To t...

  4. The association of birth order with later body mass index and blood pressure: a comparison between prospective cohort studies from the United Kingdom and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L D; Hallal, P C; Matijasevich, A; Wells, J C; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Lawlor, D A; Victora, C G; Smith, G D

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found greater adiposity and cardiovascular risk in first born children. The causality of this association is not clear. Examining the association in diverse populations may lead to improved insight. We examine the association between birth order and body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the 2004 Pelotas cohort from southern Brazil and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) from Bristol, south-west England, restricting analysis to families with two children in order to remove confounding by family size. No consistent differences in BMI, SBP or DBP were observed comparing first and second born children. Within the Pelotas 2004 cohort, first born females were thinner, with lower SBP and DBP; for example, mean difference in SBP comparing first with second born was -0.979 (95% confidence interval -2.901 to 0.943). In ALSPAC, first born females had higher BMI, SBP and DBP. In both cohorts, associations tended to be in the opposite direction in males, although no statistical evidence for gender interactions was found. The findings do not support an association between birth order and BMI or blood pressure. Differences to previous studies may be explained by differences in populations and/or confounding by family size in previous studies.

  5. Effects of the ankle-brachial blood pressure index and skin perfusion pressure on mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yumi; Otsubo, Shigeru; Kimata, Naoki; Takano, Mari; Abe, Takayuki; Okajima, Tomoki; Miwa, Naoko; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Clinically, the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) and skin perfusion pressure (SPP) are used to screen for subclinical peripheral artery disease. However, the association between the SPP and mortality in hemodialysis patients has not been previously reported. We investigated these factors and compared the ABI and SPP in patients receiving hemodialysis. A total of 102 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. The ABI was determined using an ABI-form (Colin, Japan). The SPP was measured using a SensiLase(TM) PAD3000 (Kaneka, Osaka, Japan). The mean follow-up period was 3.2 ± 1.4 years. A multivariate Cox analysis identified a low ABI (p=0.019) and a low SPP (p=0.047) as being independent predictors of mortality. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the ABI revealed a cutoff point of 1.1 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79, with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 62%. A ROC analysis of the SPP revealed a cutoff point of 54.0 mmHg and an AUC of 0.71, with a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 84%. Both low ABI and SPP values were found to be independent risk factors for mortality among hemodialysis patients. The cutoff point for ABI as a predictor of mortality was 1.1, while that for SPP was 54.0 mmHg.

  6. INKRIMINASI VEKTOR MALARIA DAN IDENTIFIKASI PAKAN DARAH PADA NYAMUK AnopHELEs SPP DI KECAMATAN BOROBUDUR, KABUPATEN MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Widyastuti

    2013-12-01

    were done by Elisa technique. A study was  conducted  from  Januari  to  May  2001  in  two  HCI  villages  i.e:  Giripurno  and  Giritengah,  Borobudur Subdistrict. The Anopheline mosquitoes were collected using the resting mosquito collection technique both indoors and outdoors, at night (18.00-24.00 as well as in the morning (06.00-08.00 according to the WHO guideline. The density of Anophelenes (4 species was calculated and its parity were determined by microscopic ovary dissection. The result showed that An. aconitus in Giripurno was susceptible to P. falciparum with a sporozoite rate of 0.07 %. However, CSP antigen of P. falciparum was not detected in the head-thorax of mosquitoes from Giritengah. An. balabacensis in Giritengah was susceptible to P. falciparum with a sporozoite rate of 4.17 %. However, CSP antigen of P. falciparum was not detected in the head-thorax of mosquitoes from Giripurno. CSP antigen of P. vivax was also negative in the head-thorax of mosquitoes both from Giripurno and Giritengah villages. The proportion of An. aconitus fed on human (Human Blood Index / HBI was 10.34 % in Giripurno and 5.97 % in Giritengah. HBI of An. balabacensis and An. barbirostris were 37.50 % and 5.88 % respectively in Giritengah. The parity rate of An. aconitus and its density was found higher in Giripurno than in Giritengah. In contrast, the parity rate and density of An. balabacensis was found higher in Giritengah than in Giripurno.Keywords: malaria, sporozoite Elisa, blood meals identification

  7. Positive association between blood Omega-3 index and cognition in healthy Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data

  8. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacke, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data

  9. Low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diets for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Diana; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-21

    The aim of diabetes management is to normalise blood glucose levels, since improved blood glucose control is associated with reduction in development, and progression, of complications. Nutritional factors affect blood glucose levels, however there is currently no universal approach to the optimal dietary treatment for diabetes. There is controversy about how useful the glycaemic index (GI) is in diabetic meal planning. Improved glycaemic control through diet could minimise medications, lessen risk of diabetic complications, improve quality of life and increase life expectancy. To assess the effects of low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diets on glycaemic control in people with diabetes. We performed electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL with no language restriction. We assessed randomised controlled trials of four weeks or longer that compared a low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diet with a higher glycaemic index, or load, or other diet for people with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, whose diabetes was not already optimally controlled. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study population, intervention and outcomes for each included study, using standardised data extraction forms. Eleven relevant randomised controlled trials involving 402 participants were identified. There was a significant decrease in the glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) parallel group of trials, the weighted mean difference (WMD) was -0.5% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of - 0.9 to -0.1, P = 0.02; and in the cross-over group of trials the WMD was -0.5% with a 95% CI of -1.0 to -0.1, P = 0.03. Episodes of hypoglycaemia were significantly fewer with low compared to high GI diet in one trial (difference of -0.8 episodes per patient per month, P low-GI diet compared to measured carbohydrate exchange diet in another study (35% versus 66%, P = 0.006). No study reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. A low-GI diet can improve

  10. Pattern of Blood Pressure in Adolescents | Mijinyawa | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis identified body mass index, height and socioeconomic status as independent predictors of rise in SBP. These variables, as well as age similarly predicted rise in diastolic blood pressure. Going by the definition of hypertension of equal greater than the 95th percentile for the individual's sex ...

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddoza Doza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  14. Waist-to-Height Ratio as an Indicator of High Blood Pressure in Urban Indian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P E; Shastri, L; Thomas, T; Duggan, C; Bosch, R; McDonald, C M; Kurpad, A V; Kuriyan, R

    2015-09-01

    To examine the utility of waist-to-height ratio to identify risk of high blood pressure when compared to body mass index and waist circumference in South Indian urban school children. Secondary data analysis from a cross-sectional study. Urban schools around Bangalore, India. 1913 children (58.1% males) aged 6-16 years with no prior history of chronic illness (PEACH study). Height, weight, waist circumference and of blood pressure were measured. Children with blood pressure ?90th percentile of age-, sex-, and height-adjusted standards were labelled as having high blood pressure. 13.9% had a high waist-to-height ratio, 15.1% were overweight /obese and 21.7% had high waist circumference. High obesity indicators were associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure. The adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) of high systolic blood pressure with waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference were 2.48 (1.76, 3.47), 2.59 (1.66, 4.04) and 2.38 (1.74, 3.26), respectively. Similar results were seen with high diastolic blood pressure. Obesity indicators, especially waist-to-height ratio due to its ease of measurement, can be useful initial screening tools for risk of high blood pressure in urban Indian school children.

  15. Development of a Novel Quality Improvement Indicator Based on the Hemolysis Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Han Sung; Park, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Kyung; Kang, Hee Jung

    2016-11-01

    Hemolysis frequently causes preanalytical errors in laboratory measurements. We aimed to develop a quality improvement indicator for evaluating the extent of inappropriate procedures causing hemolysis in clinical samples collected in medical care units. We defined the threshold value of the hemolysis index (H index) causing significant interference with analyte measurement and analyzed the H index values of clinical samples in relation to the threshold. The H index threshold value causing a 10% bias in the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase was found to be 25. The monthly mean H index and monthly frequency of samples with an H index >25 were significantly different among the types of ward (P=0.001, respectively), and significantly decreased after replacement of a laboratory centrifuge lacking temperature control (20.6±0.58 vs 23.30±1.08, P=0.01; 23.4±1.69% vs 32.6±1.78%, P=0.01). The monthly mean H index and the monthly frequency of samples with an H index above a threshold value may be useful quality improvement indicators for detection of inappropriate procedures in the acquisition and handling of blood samples in medical care units.

  16. Glucagon-like peptide-2 increases mesenteric blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Lasse; Hornum, Mads; Henriksen, Birthe Merete

    2008-01-01

    a significant association between IV and SC administration of synthetic GLP-2 and changes in mesenteric blood flow. An exponential dose-response relationship was observed after IV infusion. The meal-induced changes in mesenteric blood flow over time were similar to those obtained by SC GLP-2. Thus, our results......OBJECTIVE: Mesenteric blood flow is believed to be influenced by digestion and absorption of ingested macronutrients. We hypothesized that the intestinotrophic hormone, GLP-2 (glucagons-like peptide 2), may be involved in the regulation of mesenteric blood flow. Changes in mesenteric blood flow...... were measured by Doppler ultrasound scanning of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The aim of the study was to demonstrate the influence of GLP-2 on this flow, expressed as changes in resistance index (RI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A homogeneous group of 10 fasting healthy volunteers completed a 2-day...

  17. Clinical experience with adalimumab in a multicenter Swiss cohort of patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichita, Cristina; Stelle, Marc; Vavricka, Stephan; El-Wafa Ali, Abdou; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; de Saussure, Philippe; Straumann, Alex; Rogler, Gerhard; Michetti, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease (CD), but there is, however, only limited long-term experience with adalimumab in daily practice. To assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of adalimumab in a multicenter cohort of practice-based patients with moderate-to-severe CD. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of CD patients who received adalimumab over a 3-year period. Disease severity was scored using the Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI). Remission was defined as an HBI of 3 points at evaluation compared to the baseline. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictive variables associated with response. The charts of 55 patients were reviewed; remission and response rates observed at weeks 4-6 were 52.7 and 83.6%, respectively. Remission was maintained at weeks 12, 24 and 52 in 89.6, 72.4 and 44.7% of patients, respectively. Remission and response rates were not influenced by smoking status, disease location or duration, the first month total dose, or previous infliximab therapy. The remission rate at weeks 4-6 was significantly higher in patients intolerant of infliximab as compared to those who lost response to this drug. Adalimumab was well tolerated overall. Adalimumab can be considered a suitable option in patients with moderate-to-severe CD, demonstrating sustained long-term effectiveness. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Neutrophils stimulation index in people under consumption of broiler chickens meat at pre-slaughter stress correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grabovskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data about changes in neutrophils stimulation index in men blood after consumption of broiler chicken meat with the natural origin immunomodulators, introduced in feed before slaughter, is presented in this paper. Spleen extract biologically active substances were used as immunomodulators and anti-stressors during pre-slaughter period. Biologically active substances influence on putrescin, spermine and spermidine content in broiler chicken blood before slaughter and on some non-specific resistance indices in people was determined after consumption of broiler chicken meat. Two groups of broiler chickens at one month age were formed for the study. The spleen extract obtained with ultrasound application (I research group served as biologically active substances was added to the feed of broiler chickens in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. Blood polyamines such as putrescin, spermine and spermidine were determined by the method of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on the liquid chromatograph Agilent 1200 (USA. The second experiment was conducted on 10 people. We recruited 10 healthy male medical students (20 years old, on average after the National Medical license examination. Spleen extract polyamines as immunomodulators and anti-stressors have the most effective influence on total quantity of polyamines in broiler chicken blood. As a result of research, it is found that aerosol introduction of spleen extract into broiler chicken feed reliably increases total quantity of polyamines by 39% and, in particular, spermidine concentration by 34%, and spermine by 40% compared with broiler chickens of the control group. Some non-specific body resistance indices in men blood upon consumption of broiler chicken meat varied within the physiological norm. The neutrophils stimulation index increased in men blood (+0,82 after consumption of meat of broiler chickens to which spleen extract as immunomodulator and anti-stressor was

  19. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and age-related brain atrophy: a quantitative study with computed tomography and the xenon-133 inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatazawa, J.; Kubota, K.; Abe, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and two subjects (40 men and 62 women) neither having a history of neurologic deficits nor showing organic lesions on computed tomographic examination of the brain were studied. Ages of the subjects ranged from 26 to 81 years. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method, and the volume percentage of brain with respect to the cranial cavity (craniocerebral index) was calculated by means of computer programs. Regional cerebral blood flow was computed as the fast component of two-compartmental analysis and as the initial slope index value. The percentage of each subject's craniocerebral index in relation to the standard for subjects with non-atrophied brains (brain volume index) was calculated as the indicator of brain atrophy. Both the mean brain fast component values and the mean brain initial slope index values correlated closely with the brain volume index in the elderly. Low cerebral blood flow values coincided with loss of brain substance in the final stage of age-related brain atrophy, but not in the intermediate stage

  20. Contributions of social context to blood pressure: findings from a multilevel analysis of social capital and systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ito, Katsuhisa; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, few studies have quantified the effect of residential context on blood pressure. Although these studies have emphasized the importance of socioeconomic influences such as education or poverty levels, the association between the features of social structure such as social capital and blood pressure remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether social capital was associated with systolic blood pressure after controlling for individual potential confounders. We analyzed data from the Shimane Study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in rural mountainous regions of Japan. After excluding the missing data and data of participants taking hypertension medication, we conducted a multilevel analysis of the data for 335 individuals nested within 30 postcode sectors. Systolic blood pressure increased with increasing age and body mass index. We also found that a higher systolic blood pressure was observed among smokers and those taking medication for diabetes. Regarding the contextual effects of social capital, systolic blood pressure increased with an increasing proportion of lack of fairness, after adjustment for individual confounders. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the association between social capital and systolic blood pressure by using a multilevel methodological framework. Surprisingly, we found that lack of fairness had a strong effect on systolic blood pressure. However, we could not find any significant associations between other items of social capital and systolic blood pressure. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which lack of fairness may have an effect on systolic blood pressure.

  1. Is there any influence of breastfeeding on the cerebral blood flow? A review of 256 healthy newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Vieira Monteiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether breastfeeding influence the cerebral blood-flow velocity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included 256 healthy term neonates, all of them with appropriate weight for gestational age, 50.8% being female. Pulsatility index, resistance index and mean velocity were measured during breastfeeding or resting in the anterior cerebral artery, in the left middle cerebral artery, and in the right middle cerebral artery of the neonates between their first 10 and 48 hours of life. The data were analyzed by means of a paired t-test, Brieger's f-test for analysis of variance and linear regression, with p < 0.01 being accepted as statistically significant. RESULTS: Mean resistance index decreased as the mean velocity increased significantly during breastfeeding. Pulsatility index values decreased as much as the resistance index, but in the right middle cerebral artery it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding influences the cerebral blood flow velocities.

  2. Accuracy of Blood Pressure-to-Height Ratio to Define Elevated Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Bahreynian, Maryam; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmail; Djalalinia, Shirin; Naji, Fatemeh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a simple practical diagnostic criterion for pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) and hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric age group. This study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years. HTN and pre-HTN were defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 95 and 90-95th percentile for age, gender, and height, respectively. By using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic curves, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of two indexes of SBP-to-height ratio (SBPHR) and DBP-to-height (DBPHR) to define pre-HTN and HTN. Overall, SBPHR performed relatively well in classifying subjects to HTN (AUC 0.80-0.85) and pre-HTN (AUC 0.84-0.90). Likewise, DBPHR performed relatively well in classifying subjects to HTN (AUC 0.90-0.97) and pre-HTN (AUC 0.70-0.83). Two indexes of SBPHR and DBPHR are considered as valid, simple, inexpensive, and accurate tools to diagnose pre-HTN and HTN in pediatric age group.

  3. [Clinical signification of a modified dilution method (MDM) for blood loss assessment in the cases of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogiev, G; Shishenkov, M; Ninov, B; Dosheva, I

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the modified dilution method (MDM) for in vivo bloodless assessment with the accepted in the clinical practice methods. We measured 148 blood samples from 134 patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) and 21 blood samples from healthy persons as a negative control. In the randomized group of 53 patients with NUGB we compared accuracy of the blood loss determination by means of erythrocyte mass loss (estimated with MDM), Allgower-Burri index and American College of Surgeon Index (ACSI). The obtained results give us a reason to recommend a combination between American College of Surgeon classification for blood loss in patients with NUGB and a parallel measurement of the MDM values.

  4. A Novel Index Using Soluble CD36 Is Associated with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Comparison Study with Triglyceride-Glucose Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jin; Moon, Jun Sung; Park, Il Rae; Kim, Joong Hee; Yoon, Ji Sung; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyoung Woo

    2017-09-01

    Plasma soluble cluster determinant 36 (sCD36) level is closely related with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, but little is known whether it could be a surrogate for estimating risk of developing diabetes or not. To address this, we evaluated association between sCD36 index, the product of sCD36 and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and then compared with triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index which has been suggested simple index for insulin resistance. This was cross-sectional study, and participants were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM according to glucose tolerance. The formula of TyG index was 'ln [FPG (mg/dL)×triglyceride (mg/dL)/2],' and the sCD36 index was 'ln [sCD36 (pg/mL)×FPG (mg/dL)/2].' One hundred and fifty-five subjects (mean age, 55.2 years) were enrolled, and patients with T2DM were 75. Both indexes were significantly increased in prediabetes and T2DM rather than NGT, and sCD36 index was positively correlated with both glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=0.767 and r=0.453, respectively; Pindex for T2DM was 4.39 (95% confidential interval, 1.51 to 12.77) after adjusting age, gender, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, OR of TyG index did not remained significance after adjustment. sCD36 index has an independent association with the risk of T2DM, and showed better correlation than TyG index. These results suggest sCD36 index might be useful surrogate marker for the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  5. Relationship between blood uric and acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhanxia; Zhao Danyang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood uric acid and acute cerebral infarction. Methods: The level of blood uric acid and prevalence of hyperuricemia (HUA) were compared in 360 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 300 patients without it. According to the level of blood uric acid, 360 acute cerebral infarction patients were divided into HUA and normouricemia (NUA) groups. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and total cholesterol were compared between the HUA and NUA group. The degree of neurological functional defection was compared between the two groups when patients were attacked by acute cerebral infarction. After a recovery treatment, the neurological functional defection of the two groups was compared a second time. Results: (1)The average blood uric acid level and prevalence of HUA were higher in patients with acute cerebral infarction. (2) The BMI, blood glucose and total cholesterol were higher in HUA group than in NUA group. (3) The neurological functional defection was more serious in HUA group when patients were attacked by acute cerebral infarction and after a recovery treatment. Conclusion: Hyperuricemia is related to acute cerebral infarction. (authors)

  6. Overweight and obesity among low-income Muslim Uyghur women in far western China: correlations of body mass index with blood lipids and implications in preventive public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li; Wang, Ying Hong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for obesity and then to screen persons with obesity for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels - a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP, PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Methods Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2, participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p Conclusion Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. Clinical Trial registration NCT00935350.

  8. The effect of high energy electron irradiation on blood-brain barrier permeability to haloperidol and stobadin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T; Kallay, Z [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Volenec, K [Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta; Bezek, S; Durisova, M; Scasnar, V; Kubu, M [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Farmakologie; Svoboda, V [Medical Academy J.E. Purkyne, Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia)

    1991-10-01

    The heads of rats were irradiated by 4 MeV electrons in doses 90, 180, and 360 Gy. The observed times of deaths ranged 120-600, 60-420, and 150-370 min after 90, 180, and 360 Gy, respectively. A dose dependent decrease of the brain uptake index of haloperidol was observed 1 and 3 h post radiation. On the other hand an increased brain uptake index was found for stobadin after head irradiation with doses of 180 and 360 Gy. Regional cerebral blood flow, blood pressure, and heart rate were not significantly altered in the period following irradiation with 180 Gy. The observed changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability seem to be the result of the damaged function of morphological structures forming the BBB rather than altered regional blood flow. (orig.).

  9. Simple method for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Testudinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Silva, M I A; Venancio, L P R; Zago, C E S; Moscheta, V A G; Lima, A V B; Vizotto, L D; Santos, J R; Bonini-Domingos, C R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2011-12-06

    We developed and optimized a simple, efficient and inexpensive method for in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Brazilian tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria (Testudinidae), testing various parameters, including culture medium, mitogen concentration, mitotic index, culture volume, incubation time, and mitotic arrest. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the costal vein of four couples. The conditions that gave a good mitotic index were lymphocytes cultured at 37°C in minimum essential medium (7.5 mL), with phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen (0.375 mL), plus streptomycin/penicillin (0.1 mL), and an incubation period of 72 h. Mitotic arrest was induced by 2-h exposure to colchicine (0.1 mL), 70 h after establishing the culture. After mitotic arrest, the cells were hypotonized with 0.075 M KCl for 2 h and fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3:1). The non-banded mitotic chromosomes were visualized by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number of C. carbonaria was found to be 52 in females and males, and sex chromosomes were not observed. We were able to culture peripheral blood lymphocytes of a Brazilian tortoise in vitro, for the preparation of mitotic chromosomes.

  10. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  11. Changes in blood pressure, bmi and ecg patterns in women using low-dose contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Rahim, M.; Javed, M.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the cardiovascular risk factors in users of second generation contraceptives by recording changes in body mass index, blood pressure and electrocardiogram. Sixty four women volunteered for this study (age range 20-35 years), belonging to low-income group with similar socio-cultural background. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by measuring height and weight of the subjects, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and ECG recording by standard method. The group means, standard deviations and coefficient correlation for interrelationship among variables in respective groups of subjects were calculated using relevant statistical method and software program. There was no significant difference between BMI of two types of contraceptive users as compared to non users, but BMI was significantly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in injectable users as compared to controls. ECG alterations frequently observed in contraceptive users (40%) as compared to controls were normal findings. It was observed that women aged < 30 years and using contraceptives for more than three years had a tendency to gain weight and developed a mild increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (author)

  12. The relationship between basal blood pressure and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In contrast to the situation in developed countries, very few studies have been done on blood pressure (BP) determinants among Nigerian adolescents. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between basal BP and body mass index (BMI) in a group of healthy Nigerian secondary school students. Methods: This was ...

  13. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertension in Adolescents in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the blood pressure profile, prevalence of hypertension in apparently healthy secondary school children in Port Harcourt and the relationship between body mass index and hypertension. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study of 1,056 adolescents, aged 10-18 years, selected ...

  14. Systemic radiotherapy: current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatyreva, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    Evolution of methods for whole-body irradiation and the range of its application is described. Data on clinical efficiency and endurance of main types of systemic radiotherapy are generalized. It is shown that systemic irradiation as successive half-body irradiation (HBI) is the effective method for palliative care of patients with cancer in advanced forms. Early radiation complications are studied and tolerance doses of single irradiation of critical organs are established. Combinaton of systemic irradiation with chemotherapy is perspective. It is shown the the main tendency is trausition of total irradiation and single successive HBI to fractionated irradiation, when the effect on tumor is strengthened to increase a integral dose

  15. Influence of cerebrovascular resistance on the dynamic relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirl, J D; Tzeng, Y C; Monteleone, B J; Ainslie, P N

    2014-06-15

    We examined the hypothesis that changes in the cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi), independent of blood pressure (BP), will influence the dynamic relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow in humans. We altered CVRi with (via controlled hyperventilation) and without [via indomethacin (INDO, 1.2 mg/kg)] changes in PaCO2. Sixteen subjects (12 men, 27 ± 7 yr) were tested on two occasions (INDO and hypocapnia) separated by >48 h. Each test incorporated seated rest (5 min), followed by squat-stand maneuvers to increase BP variability and improve assessment of the pressure-flow dynamics using linear transfer function analysis (TFA). Beat-to-beat BP, middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), posterior cerebral artery velocity (PCAv), and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Dynamic pressure-flow relations were quantified using TFA between BP and MCAv/PCAv in the very low and low frequencies through the driven squat-stand maneuvers at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. MCAv and PCAv reductions by INDO and hypocapnia were well matched, and CVRi was comparably elevated (P flow dynamics. These findings are consistent with the concept of CVRi being a key factor that should be considered in the correct interpretation of cerebral pressure-flow dynamics as indexed using TFA metrics. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, Roger S.; Smith, Sarah L.; White, Craig R.; Henderson, Donald M.; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of f...

  17. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  18. Prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure among bankers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among bankers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured in 260 professional bankers from 56 bank branches in Lagos. Results: The mean age of the respondents was ...

  19. Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable epidemiologic evidence links consuming lower glycemic index (GI) diets with good health, particularly upon aging. The GI is a kinetic parameter that reflects the ability of carbohydrate (CHO) contained in consumed foods to raise blood glucose in vivo. Newer nutritional, clinical, and ex...

  20. Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Heinrich, M; Mielenz, N; Reese, S; Steiner, A; Starke, A

    2017-06-06

    Local circulatory disturbances have been implicated in the development of foot disorders in cattle. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate quantitative arterial blood flow variables at that site in dairy cows. An Esaote MyLabOne ultrasound machine with a 10-MHz linear transducer was used to assess blood flow in the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs of 22 healthy German Holstein cows. The cows originated from three commercial farms and were restrained in a standing hoof trimming chute without sedation. A PW Doppler signal suitable for analysis was obtained in 17 of 22 cows. The blood flow profiles were categorised into four curve types, and the following quantitative variables were measured in three uniform cardiac cycles: vessel diameter, pulse rate, maximum systolic velocity, maximum diastolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, reverse velocity, maximum time-averaged mean velocity, blood flow rate, resistance index and persistence index. The measurements did not differ among cows from the three farms. Maximum systolic velocity, vessel diameter and pulse rate did not differ but other variables differed significantly among blood flow profiles. Differences in weight-bearing are thought to be responsible for the normal variability of blood flow profiles in healthy cows. The scanning technique used in this report for evaluation of blood flow in the interdigital artery appears suitable for further investigations in healthy and in lame cows.

  1. Donor body mass index is an important factor that affects peripheral blood progenitor cell yield in healthy donors after mobilization with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Burns, Kevin M; Babic, Aleksandar; Carrum, George; Kennedy, Martha; Segura, Francisco J; Garcia, Salvador; Potts, Sandra; Leveque, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The use of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation has rapidly expanded in recent years. Currently, several sources of HPCs are available for transplantation including peripheral blood HPCs (PBPCs), cord blood cells, and marrow cells. Of these, PBPC collection has become the major source of HPCs. An important variable in PBPC collection is the response to PBPC mobilization, which varies significantly and sometime causes mobilization failure. A retrospective study of 69 healthy donors who underwent PBPC donation by leukapheresis was performed. All of these donors received 10 μg/kg/day or more granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 5 days before PBPC harvest. Donor factors were evaluated and correlated with mobilization responses, as indicated by the precollection CD34 count (pre-CD34). Donors with a pre-CD34 of more than 100 × 10(6) /L had higher body mass index (BMI) compared with donors whose pre-CD34 was 38 × 10(6) to 99 × 10(6) /L or less than 38 × 10(6) /L (32.0 ± 1.04 kg/m(2) vs. 28.7 ± 0.93 kg/m(2) vs. 25.9 ± 1.27 kg/m(2) , respectively; p donors with high BMIs had higher pre-CD34 on a per-kilogram-of-body-weight basis compared with donors with low BMIs. BMI is an important factor that affects donor's response to mobilization and consequently the HPC yield. This effect may be due to a relatively high dose of G-CSF administered to donors with higher BMI or due to the presence of unknown intrinsic factors affecting mobilization that correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in each donor. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Predicting mortality among older adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia: an enhanced confusion, urea, respiratory rate and blood pressure score compared with pneumonia severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisheganaden, John; Ding, Yew Yoong; Chong, Wai-Fung; Heng, Bee-Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang

    2012-08-01

    Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) predicts mortality better than Confusion, Urea >7 mmol/L, Respiratory rate >30/min, low Blood pressure: diastolic blood pressure blood pressure 65 years (CURB-65) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) but is more cumbersome. The objective was to determine whether CURB enhanced with a small number of additional variables can predict mortality with at least the same accuracy as PSI. Retrospective review of medical records and administrative data of adults aged 55 years or older hospitalized for CAP over 1 year from three hospitals. For 1052 hospital admissions of unique patients, 30-day mortality was 17.2%. PSI class and CURB-65 predicted 30-day mortality with area under curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.80) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.74) respectively. When age and three co-morbid conditions (metastatic cancer, solid tumours without metastases and stroke) were added to CURB, the AUC improved to 0.80 (95% CI: 0.77-0.83). Bootstrap validation obtained an AUC estimate of 0.78, indicating negligible overfitting of the model. Based on this model, a clinical score (enhanced CURB score) was developed that had possible values from 5 to 25. Its AUC was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83) and remained similar to that of PSI class. An enhanced CURB score predicted 30-day mortality with at least the same accuracy as PSI class did among older adults hospitalized for CAP. External validation of this score in other populations is the next step to determine whether it can be used more widely. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Effects of iodinated contrast media on common carotid and brachial artery blood flow and wall shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irace, C.; Tamburini, S.; Bertucci, B.; Franceschi, M.S. de; Gnasso, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intravenous contrast media iomeprol on wall shear stress, blood flow and vascular parameters in the common carotid and brachial artery. Thirty outpatients undergoing thoracic or abdominal spiral CT scans were studied. The internal diameter and flow velocity of the common carotid and brachial artery were evaluated by ultrasound, and blood viscosity was measured before and after low osmolality iomeprol (Iomeron 350) injection. The wall shear stress, blood flow and pulsatility index were calculated. To test the differences between groups, the Wilcoxon rank test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. Blood viscosity decreased slightly, but significantly after contrast media (4.6±0.7 vs. 4.5±0.7 mPa.s, P=0.02). Contrarily, blood flow and wall shear stress did not change in the common carotid artery, but significantly decreased in the brachial artery (0.9±0.4 vs. 0.6±0.3 ml/s, P<0.0001, and 41.5±13.9 vs. 35.3±11.0 dynes/cm2, P<0.002, respectively), whereas the pulsatility index significantly increased in the brachial artery (5.0±3.3 vs. 7.5±5.3, P<0.001). Iomeprol injection causes blood flow and wall shear stress reduction of the brachial artery; the rise in the pulsatility index suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these modifications can be clinically relevant. (orig.)

  4. The features of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus depending on endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Pertseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Arterial hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM plays a main role in the earlier formation of diabetic kidney disease (DKD. Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be a process based on the development of diabetic complications. It is important to study the markers, which gives the opportunity to identify DKD in early stage. Objective: to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure data in patients with DM and its correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate and endothelial dysfunction. Materials and methods. The endothelial function was determined by the levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-b1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1. There were 124 patients with DM (66 with type 1 and 58 with type 2 under observation. Results. Levels of endothelial function (TGF-b1 and VCAM-1 indexes in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM depended on glomerular filtration rate. Between the indexes of endothelial function (TGF-b1, VCAM-1 and the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, there is strong and average correlation, therefore, parameters of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and presence of endothelial dysfunction can be considered as early signs of DKD progression in patients with DM. Conclusions. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in patients with DM on the early stages of diabetic nephropathy is characterized by significant circadian rhythm disorders. The insufficient night decline of blood pressure in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM characterizes the presence of diabetic nephropathy progression according to the indexes of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure.

  5. A blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry with silicone vascular models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y.; Holdsworth, David W.; Poepping, Tamie L.

    2011-03-01

    For accurate particle image velocimetry measurements in hemodynamics studies, it is important to use a fluid with a refractive index ( n) matching that of the vascular models (phantoms) and ideally a dynamic viscosity matching human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) composed of water, glycerol, and sodium iodide was formulated for a range of refractive indices to match most common silicone elastomers ( n = 1.40-1.43) and with corresponding dynamic viscosity within the average cited range of healthy human blood (4.4 ± 0.5 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at room temperature (22.2 ± 0.2°C), which eliminates the need for a temperature-control system. An optimally matched BMF, suitable for use in a vascular phantom ( n = 1.4140 ± 0.0008, Sylgard 184), was demonstrated with composition (by weight) of 47.38% water, 36.94% glycerol (44:56 glycerol-water ratio), and 15.68% sodium iodide salt, resulting in a dynamic viscosity of 4 .31 ± 0 .03 cP.

  6. Child Abuse, Resting Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly E; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown whether childhood trauma predicts elevated blood pressure earlier in development. We investigated whether the trauma of child abuse was associated with blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 145 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 40% with exposure to child abuse. The mean age of participants was 14.93 years (SD = 1.33); 58% were female. The majority self-identified as non-Hispanic White (43%), with the remainder identifying as non-Hispanic Black (17%), Hispanic (17%), or other/mixed race (23%). We used established age/sex/height-specific cutoffs to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the sample. We used two-sample t tests to examine associations of abuse with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood pressure reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test and a frustration task. We used linear regression to adjust for potential confounders including sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, and psychopathology. Mean resting SBP and DBP were 114.07 mmHg and 61.35 mmHg in those with a history of abuse and 111.39 mmHg and 56.89 mmHg in those without a history of abuse. This difference was significant for DBP only. Twelve percent of participants met criteria for prehypertension or hypertension based on resting blood pressure values; this did not differ between those with and without an abuse history. Child abuse was associated with lower DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress tasks and reduced DBP reactivity to frustration. These associations were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. Child abuse is associated with higher resting DBP and blunted DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress in adolescence. These findings suggest a potential pathway by which child abuse leads to hypertension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All

  7. NEW METABOLIC INDEX USE POTENTIALITIES IN EVALUATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Roytberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnostics of insulin resistance (IR is one of the methods of primary prevention of cardio-vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The HOMA-IR index and ratio of plasma triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are the most frequently used indices in clinical and epidemiological scientific research. Prognostic value and efficacy of these tests as a screening method are not high. What method of IR detection should be used in clinical practice and how to interpret received values of the indices is still a matter of dispute.Aim. To evaluate informative value, sensitivity and specificity of a new metabolic index (MI for IR estimation in comparison with the calculated HOMA-IR index.Material and methods. A total of 845 patients (298 men, 547 women were enrolled into the further study after an outpatient regular medical check-up of 2,615 persons. Mean age of the patients was 45.77±12.18 years, body mass index – 28.95±1.44 kg/m2. To evaluate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism blood chemistry parameters were assessed. IR was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR and an oblique calculated index based on lipid metabolism parameters. In accordance with the developed screening method of IR detection (invention patent № 2493566 MI considering carbohydrate and lipid changes was proposed.Results. Calculation of MI and its threshold level was performed by analysis of a characteristic curve. Graphical dependence between sensitivity and specificity of the proposed index was demonstrated: sensitivity of the test was 75.7%, specificity – 89.1%. Probability of IR at MI value >7.0 was 63.5% (positive predictive value, probability of IR absence at the index value ≤7.0 was 93.6% (negative predictive value. The general accuracy of the test, which is characterized by the area under the characteristic curve, was 0.881 with 95%-confidence interval within 0.854-0.905.Conclusion. The importance of negative

  8. NEW METABOLIC INDEX USE POTENTIALITIES IN EVALUATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Roytberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnostics of insulin resistance (IR is one of the methods of primary prevention of cardio-vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The HOMA-IR index and ratio of plasma triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are the most frequently used indices in clinical and epidemiological scientific research. Prognostic value and efficacy of these tests as a screening method are not high. What method of IR detection should be used in clinical practice and how to interpret received values of the indices is still a matter of dispute.Aim. To evaluate informative value, sensitivity and specificity of a new metabolic index (MI for IR estimation in comparison with the calculated HOMA-IR index.Material and methods. A total of 845 patients (298 men, 547 women were enrolled into the further study after an outpatient regular medical check-up of 2,615 persons. Mean age of the patients was 45.77±12.18 years, body mass index – 28.95±1.44 kg/m2. To evaluate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism blood chemistry parameters were assessed. IR was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR and an oblique calculated index based on lipid metabolism parameters. In accordance with the developed screening method of IR detection (invention patent № 2493566 MI considering carbohydrate and lipid changes was proposed.Results. Calculation of MI and its threshold level was performed by analysis of a characteristic curve. Graphical dependence between sensitivity and specificity of the proposed index was demonstrated: sensitivity of the test was 75.7%, specificity – 89.1%. Probability of IR at MI value >7.0 was 63.5% (positive predictive value, probability of IR absence at the index value ≤7.0 was 93.6% (negative predictive value. The general accuracy of the test, which is characterized by the area under the characteristic curve, was 0.881 with 95%-confidence interval within 0.854-0.905.Conclusion. The importance of negative

  9. Determination of blood volume by pulse CO-oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalande, S; Kelsey, J W; Joyner, M J; Johnson, B D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) saturation following carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing can be accurately detected by pulse CO-oximetry in order to determine blood volume. Noninvasive measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpCO) were continuously monitored by pulse CO-oximetry before, during and following 2 min of CO rebreathing. Reproducibility and accuracy of noninvasive blood volume measurements were determined in 16 healthy non-smoking individuals (15 males, age: 28 ± 2 years, body mass index: 25.4 ± 0.6 kg m −2 ) through comparison with blood volume measurements calculated from invasive measurements of COHb saturation. The coefficient of variation for noninvasive blood volume measurements performed on separate days was 15.1% which decreases to 9.1% when measurements were performed on the same day. Changes in COHb saturation and SpCO following CO rebreathing were strongly correlated (r = 0.90, p < 0.01), resulting in a significant correlation between invasive and noninvasive blood volume measurements (r = 0.83, p = 0.02). Changes in SpCO following CO rebreathing can be accurately detected by pulse CO-oximetry, which could potentially provide a simplified, convenient and reproducible method to rapidly determine blood volume in healthy individuals

  10. Effect of Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem on endothelial function, blood viscosity and lipid metabolism in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem on endothelial function, blood viscosity and lipid metabolism in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Methods: A total of 150 patients with unstable angina pectoris who were treated in the hospital between February 2014 and February 2017 were divided into the control group (n=75 and the research group (n=75 according to the random number table method. Control group received clinical conventional therapy, research group received Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem therapy on the basis of conventional therapy, and both groups received 3 months of treatment. Differences in endothelial function, blood viscosity and lipid metabolism were compared between the two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in serum levels of endothelial function indexes, blood viscosity indexes and lipid metabolism indexes were not statistically significant between the two groups. After 3 months of treatment, serum NO level of research group was higher than that of control group while ET-1 level was lower than that of control group; serum blood viscosity index TXB2 content of research group was lower than that of control group while PGI2 content was higher than that of control group; serum lipid metabolism indexes TG, TC and LDL-C contents of research group were lower than those of control group while HDL-C content was higher than that of control group. Conclusion: Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem therapy can effectively optimize the endothelial function, reduce the blood viscosity and balance the lipid metabolism in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

  11. Resistive index(RI) of the intratesticular artery in orchitis: comparison with normal testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Young Seok; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Lee, Jong Bouk; Yun, Jung Chul

    1994-01-01

    Color doppler ultrasound is ideally suited for diagnosing acute scrotal disease as it provides simultaneous display of tissue morphology and blood flow. This study was performed in order to evaluate the utility of resistive index(RI) of intratesticular arteries in orchitis. We retrospectively analyzed 18 testes of 15 patients confirmed by means of appropriate response to antibiotic treatment and 20 testes of 10 asymptomatic volunteers.The resistive indexes ranged from 0.25 to 0.60 (mean, 0.48) in orchitis, and from 0.50 to 0.71 (mean, 0.62) in volunteers. Thus, the resistive index in orchitis is significantly lower than that of the volunteers (p<0.05).With a cut-off point of resistive index at 0.6, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 94%, 90%, 89%, 95% and 92%m respectively. We conclude that decreased resistive index is a helpful finding in the diagnosis of orchitis, and we suggest the resistive index of 0.6 as a cut-off point

  12. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    ) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48......), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some...

  13. Lack of requirement for blind subcultures of BACTEC blood culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.C.; Evers, J.L.; Officer, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the need for blind subculturing of BACTEC (Johnston Laboratories, Cockeysville, Md.) blood culture media, we compared results of radiometric readings, visual inspection, and blind subculturing for nearly 7,500 blood specimens. Visual inspection and radiometric testing were performed on day 1 through 7, and blind subcultures were made on day 3. In the first phase of the study, 402 of 3,896 aerobic bottles were positive by radiometric testing (growth index, greater than 25), visual inspection, or subculturing. Only six bottles were radiometrically negative but subculture positive on day 3. The second phase of the study was designed to determine if aerobic bottles eventually became radiometrically positive in those cases in which they were radiometrically negative but subculture positive on day 3. Two bottles were subculture positive but never gave a growth index of greater than or equal to 25 by day 7. One yielded Staphylococcus epidermidis, and one yielded viridans, Streptococcus sp. A total of 35 anaerobic organisms were isolated from 3,896 blood specimens. All of these anaerobes were detected by both radiometric testing and subculturing. We examined a total of 14,972 blood culture bottles. Twenty-nine bottles considered negative by visual inspection or radiometric readings were found to be positive by subculturing. Fifteen of these were shown, by chart review, to contain contaminants. Organisms in the other negative bottles would not have gone undetected because companion bottles from the same patients were radiometrically or visually positive. We concluded that it is necessary to perform blind subcultures of BACTEC 7B and 8B blood culture bottles

  14. Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanida Tangkawsakul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 108 cells/ml. The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing.

  15. Independent association of resting energy expenditure with blood pressure: confirmation in populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creber, Chloe; Cooper, Richard S; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Lambert, Estelle V; Forrester, Terrence E; Schoeller, Dale; Riesen, Walter; Korte, Wolfgang; Cao, Guichan; Luke, Amy; Dugas, Lara R

    2018-01-10

    Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, however, the physiologic mechanisms linking increased adiposity to elevations in blood pressure are not well described. An increase in resting energy expenditure (REE) is an obligatory consequence of obesity. Previous survey research has demonstrated that REE is an independent predictor of blood pressure, and eliminates the co-linear association of body mass index. This observation has received little attention and there have been no attempts to provide a causal explanation. At baseline in an international comparative study on obesity, 289 participants aged 25-44 were recruited from communities in the US, the Seychelles, Ghana and South Africa and had REE measured with indirect calorimetry. All participants were thought to be free of major illness. In multivariate regression models, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with REE (p < 0.01), while body mass index and fat mass were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01, and p < 0.05 respectively), but not diastolic blood pressure. These data confirm previous reports and suggest that a common physiologic abnormality links REE and blood pressure. Elevated catecholamines, a putative metabolic characteristic of obesity, is a possible candidate to explain this association. The direct role of excess adipose tissue is open to question.

  16. Prognostic role of ABO blood type in patients with extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type: a triple-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Jun; Yi, Ping-Yong; Li, Ji-Wei; Liu, Xian-Ling; Tang, Tian; Zhang, Pei-Ying; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2017-07-31

    The prognostic significance of ABO blood type for lymphoma is largely unknown. We evaluated the prognostic role of ABO blood type in patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 697 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL from three cancer centers. The prognostic value of ABO blood type was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models. The prognostic values of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) were also evaluated. Compared with patients with blood type O, those with blood type non-O tended to display elevated baseline serum C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.038), lower rate of complete remission (P = 0.005), shorter progression-free survival (PFS, P 60 years (P KPI in distinguishing between the intermediate-to-low- and high-to-intermediate-risk groups. ABO blood type was an independent predictor of clinical outcome for patients with ENKTL.

  17. Quantitative assessment of hepatic and splenic blood flow detected by Tc-99m-Sn colloid liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Nishiyama, Shoji; Sugimura, Kazuro

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of hepatic and splenic blood flow detected by injecting Tc-99m-Sn colloid as a bolus was performed on 75 patients who were suspected of having liver disease. Using a computer, the hepatic and splenic time-activity curves were analyzed. Hepatic index was calculated as the ratio of arterial to portal blood flow. The peak time of the right kidney was corresponded to the junction of the arterial and portal phases of the hepatic curve. Splenic index was calculated as the ratio of splenic arterial to liver arterial blood flow. Hepatic and splenic indices had elevated in cases of liver cirrhosis and hepatoma than those of normal controls. There was no significant difference in the hepatic and splenic indices among chronic hepatitis, liver metastasis and normal subject. These noninvasive tests for the hepatic and splenic blood flow may be useful in writing a report of liver scintigram because of the added information of the liver. (author)

  18. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  19. Changes in ovarian reserve and ovarian blood flow in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome following laparoscopic ovarian drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Nasser; Sanad, Zakaria; Elkelani, Osama; Rezk, Mohamed; Shawky, Mohamed; Sharaf, Abd-Elbar

    2018-04-10

    This prospective cohort study was conducted on 80 patients with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD). Pre- and post-LOD ovarian reserve parameters (anti-Mullerian hormone: AMH, ovarian volume: OV, and antral follicle count: AFC) and ovarian stromal blood flow indices (Vascularization index: VI, flow index: FI, and vascularization flow index: VFI) were measured to explore the effect of LOD and to find out the correlation between serum AMH and different clinical, hormonal, and ultrasonic variables. There was a highly significant reduction of the serum AMH (p ovarian reserve parameters (AMH, OV and AFC) and ovarian stromal blood flow indices (VI, FI and VFI) with no observed correlation between AMH levels and Doppler indices.

  20. Whole-blood viscosity and the insulin-resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høieggen, A; Fossum, E; Moan, A; Enger, E; Kjeldsen, S E

    1998-02-01

    In a previous study we found that elevated blood viscosity was linked to the insulin resistance syndrome, and we proposed that high blood viscosity may increase insulin resistance. That study was based on calculated viscosity. To determine whether directly measured whole-blood viscosity was related to the insulin-resistance syndrome in the same way as calculated viscosity had been found to be. Healthy young men were examined with the hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic glucose clamp technique, and we related insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate) to other metabolic parameters and to blood viscosity. We established a technique for direct measurement of whole-blood viscosity. There were statistically significant negative correlations between glucose disposal rate and whole-blood viscosity at low and high shear rates (r = -0.41, P = 0.007 for both, n = 42). Whole-blood viscosity was correlated positively (n = 15) to serum triglyceride (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and total cholesterol (r = 0.52, P = 0.05), and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.53, P = 0.04) concentrations. Insulin sensitivity index was correlated positively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and negatively to serum triglyceride (r = -0.69, P = 0.005) and to total cholesterol (r = -0.81, P = 0.0003) concentrations. The present results demonstrate for the first time that there is a negative relationship between directly measured whole-blood viscosity and insulin sensitivity as a part of the insulin-resistance syndrome. Whole-blood viscosity contributes to the total peripheral resistance, and these results support the hypothesis that insulin resistance has a hemodynamic basis.

  1. Effects of tiotropium bromide combined with montelukast on blood rheology, pulmonary function and serum cytokine levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hua Meng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of tiotropium bromide combined with montelukast on COPD patients’ blood rheology, pulmonary function and serum cytokine levels. Methods: A total of 82 COPD patients who were treated in our hospital from June 2015 to January 2016 were divided into control group and observation group randomly by half. All patients were given symptomatic and conventional treatment according to the specific circumstances, patients in the control group were treated with 10 mg montelukast with orally once per night on the basis of conventional treatment, and observation group patients was given 18 μg tiotropium bromide inhalation once per night on the basis of control group. All the patients were treated for 4 weeks, the blood rheology indexes, pulmonary function indexes and serum cytokines were measured and compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there was no significant difference in blood rheology index of whole blood viscosity (high shear viscosity, shear viscosity, low shear viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit and fibrinogen (P>0.05; After treatment, the blood rheology indexes of the two groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the same group before treatment (P0.05. After treatment, the indexes of pulmonary function in the two groups were significantly higher than that in the same group before treatment (P0.05; After treatment, the two groups’ serum IL-10, APN levels were significantly increased, IL-18 levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05. Meanwhile, serum IL-10, APN levels in Observation group were significantly increased, IL-18 levels were significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: The comibinition of tiotropium bromide with montelukas not only can improve the indexes of blood rheology in patients with COPD, and can significantly control the level of serum cytokines and control symptoms, improve lung function, so it is worth

  2. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. AIM: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL\\/kg\\/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. RESULTS: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29\\/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57-1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs\\/kg\\/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CONCLUSION: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life.

  3. Association of waist circumference, body mass index and conicity index with cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Alborzi, Fatemeh; Salehi, Maryam; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-09-01

    In menopause, changes in body fat distribution lead to increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association of adiposity using the conicity index (CI), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia). The sample of this cross-sectional study was collected from June to October 2010 and 165 consecutive menopausal women who had attended the Health and Treatment Centre and Endocrine Research Centre of Firoozgar Hospital in Tehran, Iran were assessed. Age, weight, height, WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR), CI and fat mass were measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), fasting blood glucose, insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were also determined. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Results showed that BMI was positively and significantly associated with SBP (r = 0.21; p = 0.009). WC was positively and significantly correlated with SBP (r = 0.26; p = 0.02) and DBP (r = 0.16; p = 0.05). WHR was also significantly and positively associated with SBP (r = 0.29; p = 0.001). Age and WC were associated with CI quartiles at the 0.05 significance level. The correlation of CI quartiles with SBP and weight were at the 0.01 significance level. We showed a significant association of WC with SBP and DBP, and that BMI could be an important determining factor of SBP. For assessing the association between CI and cardiovascular risk factors, future studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.

  4. Understanding the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarim, Fernanda Lorenzi; Stancanelli, Mirtes; Brenzikofer, Rene; de Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced the study of synthesis pathways using two experiments: 1--the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of some foods and the effects of fiber and fat on the GI; 2--the determination of blood glucose levels after the ingestion of meals with high and low glycemic loads (GL). After a practice assembly, when the foods and meals that…

  5. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and metabolic profile in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, F; Pellegrini, N; Salvatici, E; Rovelli, V; Banderali, G; Radaelli, G; Scazzina, F; Giovannini, M; Verduci, E

    2017-02-01

    No data exist in the current literature on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet of phenylketonuric (PKU) children. The aims of this study were to examine the dietary GI and GL in PKU children on a low-phenylalanine (Phe)-diet and to evaluate whether an association may exist between the carbohydrate quality and the metabolic profile. Twenty-one PKU children (age 5-11 years) and 21 healthy children, gender and age matched, were enrolled. Dietary (including GI and GL) and blood biochemical assessments were performed. No difference was observed for daily energy intake between PKU and healthy children. Compared to healthy controls, PKU children consumed less protein (p = 0.001) and fat (p = 0.028), and more carbohydrate (% of total energy, p = 0.004) and fiber (p = 0.009). PKU children had higher daily GI than healthy children (mean difference (95% confidence interval), 13.7 (9.3-18.3)) and higher GL (31.7 (10.1-53.2)). PKU children exhibited lower blood total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels (p triglyceride level (p = 0.014) than healthy children, while glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ. In PKU children the dietary GL was associated with triglyceride glucose index (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.515, p = 0.034). In PKU children a relationship of the dietary treatment with GI and GL, blood triglycerides and triglyceride glucose index may exist. Improvement towards an optimal diet for PKU children could include additional attention to the management of dietary carbohydrate quality. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Response surface modeling of remifentanil-propofol interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijs, Diederik J F; Olofsen, Erik; Romberg, Raymonda R; Sarton, Elise; Ward, Denham; Engbers, Frank; Vuyk, Jaap; Mooren, Rene; Teppema, Luc J; Dahan, Albert

    2003-02-01

    Since propofol and remifentanil are frequently combined for monitored anesthesia care, we examined the influence of the separate and combined administration of these agents on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index in humans. The effect of steady-state concentrations of remifentanil and propofol was assessed in 22 healthy male volunteer subjects. For each subject, measurements were obtained from experiments using remifentanil alone, propofol alone, and remifentanil plus propofol (measured arterial blood concentration range: propofol studies, 0-2.6 microg/ml; remifentanil studies, 0-2.0 ng/ml). Respiratory experiments consisted of ventilatory responses to three to eight increases in end-tidal Pco2 (Petco2). Invasive blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index were monitored concurrently. The nature of interaction was assessed by response surface modeling using a population approach with NONMEM. Values are population estimate plus or minus standard error. A total of 94 responses were obtained at various drug combinations. When given separately, remifentanil and propofol depressed cardiorespiratory variables in a dose-dependent fashion (resting V(i) : 12.6 +/- 3.3% and 27.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; V(i) at fixed Petco of 55 mmHg: 44.3 +/- 3.9% and 57.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; blood pressure: 9.9 +/- 1.8% and 3.7 +/- 1.1% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively). When given in combination, their effect on respiration was synergistic (greatest synergy observed for resting V(i)). The effects of both drugs on heart rate and blood pressure were modest, with additive interactions when combined. Over the dose range studied, remifentanil had no effect on bispectral index even when combined with propofol (inert interaction). These data show dose-dependent effects on respiration at relatively low concentrations of

  7. The effect of whole-blood donor adverse events on blood donor return rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bruce H; Newman, Daniel T; Ahmad, Raffat; Roth, Arthur J

    2006-08-01

    Some blood donation-related adverse events (AEs) can negatively impact the blood donor return rate (BDRR) and decrease donor retention. One-thousand randomly selected whole-blood donors were interviewed 3 weeks after a 525-mL index whole-blood donation for seven AEs. The number of return visits and duration of follow-up were recorded for each of the 1000 donors. A negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of the four most common AEs to the BDRR, and interactions between these AEs were also evaluated. The four most common AEs were bruise alone (15.1%), sore arm "alone" (7.0%), fatigue "alone" (5.1%), and donor reaction "alone" (4.2%), where "alone" is defined to also include donors who had a bruise but no other AE. The estimated BDRR for donations without AEs was 1.32 visits per year. The estimated BDRRs for the four most common AEs were: bruise alone, 1.32 visits per year; sore arm alone, 1.30 visits per year (2% reduction in BDRR); fatigue alone, 1.06 visits per year (20% reduction in BDRR); and donor reaction alone, 0.87 visits per year (34% reduction in BDRR). The BDRR for donor reaction, fatigue, and sore arm together was 0.20 visits per year (85% reduction in BDRR). Donor reaction had the most negative impact on the BDRR. There appears to be a synergistic effect between donor reaction, fatigue, and sore arm. Theoretically, amelioration of some AEs has the potential to improve BDRRs.

  8. Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yan, Jianye; Li, Shunxiang; Wang, Wei; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Dan; Gong, Limin; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP. The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome. Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α -pinene (3.07%), β -pinene (2.0%), β -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), γ -terpinen (9.53%), α -terpinolene (1.80%), α -terpineol (2.02%), β -bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test. The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities. Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α -pinene (3.07%), β -pinene (2.0%), β -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%),

  9. Mean Platelet Volume, Red Cell Distribution Width to Platelet Count Ratio, Globulin Platelet Index, and 16 Other Indirect Noninvasive Fibrosis Scores: How Much Do Routine Blood Tests Tell About Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandassery, Ragesh B; Al Kaabi, Saad; Soofi, Madiha E; Mohiuddin, Syed A; John, Anil K; Al Mohannadi, Muneera; Al Ejji, Khalid; Yakoob, Rafie; Derbala, Moutaz F; Wani, Hamidullah; Sharma, Manik; Al Dweik, Nazeeh; Butt, Mohammed T; Kamel, Yasser M; Sultan, Khaleel; Pasic, Fuad; Singh, Rajvir

    2016-07-01

    Many indirect noninvasive scores to predict liver fibrosis are calculated from routine blood investigations. Only limited studies have compared their efficacy head to head. We aimed to compare these scores with liver biopsy fibrosis stages in patients with chronic hepatitis C. From blood investigations of 1602 patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent a liver biopsy before initiation of antiviral treatment, 19 simple noninvasive scores were calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and diagnostic accuracy of each of these scores were calculated (with reference to the Scheuer staging) and compared. The mean age of the patients was 41.8±9.6 years (1365 men). The most common genotype was genotype 4 (65.6%). Significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis were seen in 65.1%, 25.6, and 6.6% of patients, respectively. All the scores except the aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase ratio, Pohl score, mean platelet volume, fibro-alpha, and red cell distribution width to platelet count ratio index showed high predictive accuracy for the stages of fibrosis. King's score (cutoff, 17.5) showed the highest predictive accuracy for significant and advanced fibrosis. King's score, Göteborg university cirrhosis index, APRI (the AST/platelet count ratio index), and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) had the highest predictive accuracy for cirrhosis, with the APRI (cutoff, 2) and FIB-4 (cutoff, 3.25) showing the highest diagnostic accuracy.We derived the study score 8.5 - 0.2(albumin, g/dL) +0.01(AST, IU/L) -0.02(platelet count, 10/L), which at a cutoff of >4.7 had a predictive accuracy of 0.868 (95% confidence interval, 0.833-0.904) for cirrhosis. King's score for significant and advanced fibrosis and the APRI or FIB-4 score for cirrhosis could be the best simple indirect noninvasive scores.

  10. Risk factors for obesity and high blood pressure in Chinese American children: maternal acculturation and children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B; Lustig, Robert

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore risk factors associated with overweight and high blood pressure in Chinese American children. Students and their parents were recruited from Chinese language schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data were collected on 67 children and their mothers, and included children's weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, level of physical activity, dietary intake, usual food choice, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, and self-efficacy regarding diet and physical activity. Mothers completed questionnaires on demographic data and acculturation. About 46% of children had a body mass index exceeding the 85th percentile. Lower level of maternal acculturation is a risk factor for overweight and higher waist to hip ratio. Children's unhealthy food choices were predictive of high body mass index and high systolic blood pressure, whereas older age and less physical activity in children were predictors of high diastolic blood pressure. Developing culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate interventions to reduce overweight and high blood pressure is critical to reduce health disparities among minority children.

  11. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (ppills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. SALMON SOFT ROE DNA ON BLOOD CELLS SECRETION OF CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Fedjanina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Salmon soft roe DNA influence on healthy donors blood cells secretion of early hemopoietic factors (IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα as well as biologically active substance influence on cytokine balance of Тh1 and Тh2 responses (IFNγ, IL-10 in vitro was studied. It is established, that DNA has modulatory effect on secretion of all investigated cytokines - IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα, INFγ and IL-10 by blood cells of healthy donors, increases their initially low concentration, reduces initially high and does not have essential influence at an average level of their secretion. Under action of DNA IFNγ level (stimulation index=3,3 increases more significantly than IL-10 level (stimulation index =1,9. Thus, salmon soft roe DNA possesses immunomodulatory properties.

  13. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Evans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Points SummaryWe report how blood pressure, cardiac output and vascular resistance are related to height, weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in healthy young adults at supine rest and standing.Much inter-subject variability in young adult's blood pressure, currently attributed to health status, may actually result from inter-individual body size differences.Each cardiovascular variable is linearly related to height, weight and/or BSA (more than to BMI.When supine, cardiac output is positively related, while vascular resistance is negatively related, to body size. Upon standing, the change in vascular resistance is positively related to size.The height/weight relationships of cardiac output and vascular resistance to body size are responsible for blood pressure relationships to body size.These basic components of blood pressure could help distinguish normal from abnormal blood pressures in young adults by providing a more effective scaling mechanism.Introduction: Effects of body size on inter-subject blood pressure (BP variability are not well established in adults. We hypothesized that relationships linking stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and total peripheral resistance (TPR with body size would account for a significant fraction of inter-subject BP variability.Methods: Thirty-four young, healthy adults (19 men, 15 women participated in 38 stand tests during which brachial artery BP, heart rate, SV, CO, TPR, and indexes of body size were measured/calculated.Results: Steady state diastolic arterial BP was not significantly correlated with any index of body size when subjects were supine. However, upon standing, the more the subject weighed, or the taller s/he was, the greater the increase in diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure strongly correlated with body weight and height both supine and standing. Diastolic and systolic BP were more strongly related to height, weight and body surface area than to body mass

  14. Correlation of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance with NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengjun; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a form of clinical syndrome characterized by the fatty degeneration in liver histology and should be further investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment thereof. In total, 300 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated and admitted into the Endocrinology Department of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled and divided into the simple type 2 diabetes mellitus (group A) and concurrent NAFLD (group B) groups. The sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were compared between the two groups. The patients in group B were further divided into the mild fatty liver (group B1), moderate fatty liver (group B2) and severe fatty liver (group B3) groups. The sex, age, BMI blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were also compared among the three groups. Finally, the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD were analyzed via logistic regression. The BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-prandial plasma glucose (2hPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes and serum chemerin level in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (Pdiabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD is closely associated with severe glucose-lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance, and BMI, FPG, TC, LDL-c, FINS, HOMA-IR and chemerin constitute risk factors of concurrent NAFLD.

  15. Is the area under blood pressure curve the best parameter to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion, Décio

    2005-10-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides relevant data about blood pressure over a 24-h period. The analysis of parameters to determine the blood pressure profile from these data is of great importance. To calculate areas under systolic and diastolic blood pressure curves (SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC) and compare with systolic and diastolic blood pressure load (SBPL/DBPL) and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure (24-h SBP/24-h DBP) in order to determine which provides the best correlation with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). ABPM measurements (1143 individuals) were analyzed to obtain 24-h SBP/24-h DBP, SBPL/DBPL, and SBP-AUC/ DBP-AUC, using Spacelabs (90207) and CardioSistemas devices. Left ventricular mass was determined using an echocardiograph HP Sonos 5500 and LVMI was calculated. The correlations between all possible pairs within the group 24-h SBP/SBPL/SBP-AUC and 24-h DBP/DBPL/DBP-AUC were high and statistically significant. The correlations between 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC with SBPL/DBPL close to 100%, were lower than those mentioned above. The correlations of the parameters obtained by ABPM with LVMI were also high and statistically significant, except for blood pressure load between 90 and 100%, and for 24-h SBP of 135 mmHg or less and SBPL higher than 50%. SBPL/DBPL and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC can be used for the evaluation of ABPM data owing to the strong correlation with 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and with LVMI, except when SBPL is close to 100% or 24-h SBP is below 135 mmHg but SBPL is above 50%. SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC, however, are a better alternative because they do not have the limitations of blood pressure load or even of 24-h blood pressure present.

  16. Efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol induction therapy in an unselected Crohn's disease population: results of the FACTS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Vavricka, Stephan R; Binek, Janek; Felley, Christian; Geyer, Martin; Manz, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; de Saussure, Philippe; Sauter, Bernhard; Seibold, Frank; Straumann, Alex; Michetti, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Switzerland was the first country to approve certolizumab pegol (Cimzia, CZP) for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) in September 2007. This phase IV study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CZP in a Swiss multicenter cohort of practice-based patients. Baseline and Week 6 evaluation questionnaires were sent to all Swiss gastroenterologists in hospitals and private practices. Disease activity was assessed with the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) and adverse events were evaluated according to WHO guidelines. Fifty patients (31 women, 19 men) were included; 56% had complicated disease (stricture or fistula) and 52% had undergone prior CD-related surgery. All patients had prior exposure to systemic steroids, 96% to immunomodulators, 78% to infliximab, and 50% to adalimumab. A significant decrease in HBI was observed at Week 6 (versus Week 0) following induction therapy with CZP 400 mg subcutaneously at Weeks 0, 2, and 4 (12.6 +/- 4.7 Week 0 versus 6.2 +/- 4.4 Week 6, P < 0.001). Response and remission rates at Week 6 were 54% and 40%, respectively. We identified 8/11 CD patients undergoing a 50% fistula response (P = 0.021). The frequency of adverse drug reactions attributed to CZP was 6%. CZP was continued in 80% of patients beyond Week 6. In a population of CD patients with complicated disease behavior, CZP induced a response and remission in 54% and 40% of patients, respectively. This series provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of CZP in perianal fistulizing CD.

  17. The Association of Vitamin D Status with Disease Activity in a Cohort of Crohn’s Disease Patients in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Alrefai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We determined the association between vitamin D status as 25hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and disease activity in a cohort of 201 Crohn’s Disease (CD patients in Saskatoon, Canada over three years. The association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and 25(OHD and several disease predictors were evaluated by the generalized estimating equation (GEE over three time-point measurements. A GEE binary logistic regression test was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI. The deficient vitamin D group (≤29 nmol/L had significantly higher mean hs-CRP levels compared with the three other categories of vitamin D status (p < 0.05. CRP was significantly lower in all of the other groups compared with the vitamin D-deficient group, which had Coef. = 12.8 units lower (95% CI −19.8, −5.8, Coef. 7.85 units (95% CI −14.9, −0.7, Coef. 9.87 units (95% CI −17.6, −2.0 for the vitamin D insufficient, adequate, and optimal groups, respectively. The vitamin D status was associated with the HBI active disease category. However, the difference in the odds ratio compared with the reference category of deficient vitamin D category was only significant in the insufficient category (odds ratio = 3.45, p = 0.03, 95% CI 1.0, 10.8. Vitamin D status was inversely associated with indicators of disease activity in Crohn’s disease, particularly with the objective measures of inflammation.

  18. What Physical Fitness Component Is Most Closely Associated With Adolescents' Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Alves, Carlos A S; Gonçalves, Eliane C A; Silva, Diego A S

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to determine which of four selected physical fitness variables, would be most associated with blood pressure changes (systolic and diastolic) in a large sample of adolescents. This was a descriptive and cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1,117 adolescents aged 14-19 years from southern Brazil. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by a digital pressure device, and the selected physical fitness variables were body composition (body mass index), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), muscle strength/resistance (manual dynamometer), and aerobic fitness (Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test). Simple and multiple linear regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness and muscle strength/resistance best explained variations in systolic blood pressure for boys (17.3% and 7.4% of variance) and girls (7.4% of variance). Aerobic fitness, body composition, and muscle strength/resistance are all important indicators of blood pressure control, but aerobic fitness was a stronger predictor of systolic blood pressure in boys and of diastolic blood pressure in both sexes.

  19. Does greater adiposity increase blood pressure and hypertension risk?: Mendelian randomization using the FTO/MC4R genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timpson, Nicholas J; Harbord, Roger; Davey Smith, George

    2009-01-01

    of the causal association between body mass index and blood pressure. This was performed using both rs9939609 (FTO) and rs17782313 (MC4R) genotypes as instruments for body mass index. Avoiding the epidemiological problems of confounding, bias, and reverse causation, we confirmed observational associations...

  20. Prevalence of high blood pressure subtypes and its associations with BMI in Chinese children: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yide; Dong, Bin; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yanhui; Zou, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianguo; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-26

    Data on prevalence and characteristics of different high blood pressure subtypes are lacking among Chinese children. Regarding the mechanistic differences between isolated systolic high blood pressure and isolated diastolic high blood pressure and their different impact on end organ diseases, it is necessary to examine the prevalence of different high blood pressure subtypes in Chinese children and explore their associations with adiposity. Data were derived from the baseline data of a multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving participants from China. High blood pressure was defined according to age-, gender- and height-specific 95th percentile developed by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. Body mass index was used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of HBP was 10.2% and 8.9% for boys and girls, respectively. Isolated systolic high blood pressure is the dominant high blood pressure subtype among Chinese boys aged 6-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years, while isolated diastolic high blood pressure was the most common high blood pressure subtype in girls aged 6-11 years. In boys, the status of overweight doubled the risk of isolated systolic high blood pressure (95% CI, 1.73, 2.31; P high blood pressure and adiposity. The distribution of high blood pressure subtypes in boys differed from those in girls, and boys with adiposity showed a higher risk of high blood pressure than their female counterpart. Difference in strength of association between isolated diastolic high blood pressure and isolated systolic high blood pressure with body mass index was also found. These results may aid current strategies for preventing and controlling pediatric hypertension.

  1. [Clinical utility of home blood pressure monitoring in patients under treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauk, L; Costa, H A; Caligiuri, S I

    2015-01-01

    A low number of patients who are treated with antihypertensive drugs achieve therapeutic goals. Home blood pressure monitoring is an excellent tool for studying this population. To determine the prevalence of patients with controlled and uncontrolled hypertension, as well as white-coat-effect and masked hypertension, and to evaluate the relationship with target organ damage in different groups. Blood pressure readings were performed simultaneously in the clinic and in the home using the same validated oscillometric equipment on 83 hypertensive patients on treatment with 2 or more antihypertensive drugs. They were then classified into 4 groups according to the cut-off values of the clinic and home blood pressure measurements. Left ventricular mass index, carotid intima media thickness, and microalbuminuria as markers of target organ damage, were also evaluated. Controlled blood pressure was present in 32.5%, 30.2% had sustained hypertension. The white coat effect was seen in 26.5%, while 10.8% were masked uncontrolled hypertension. Left ventricular mass index was higher in patients with no ambulatory control compared to controlled patients, and carotid IMT was also higher too in uncontrolled and white coat effect groups than controlled patients. More than one third of our patients who were treated with 2 or more drugs were not properly controlled, and they had significantly greater target organ damage than controlled patients. Copyright © 2014 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG index; (2) obesity status (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and cutoff value of TyG index; (3) obesity status and metabolic health, defined as having fewer than two of the five components of high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The development of diabetes was assessed annually using self-questionnaire, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. We compared the risk of incident diabetes using multivariate Cox analysis. During 11623 person-years there were 101 case of incident diabetes. Subjects with high TyG index had a high risk of diabetes. For TyG index quartiles, hazard ratios (HRs) of quartiles 3 and 4 were 4.06 (p = 0.033) and 5.65 (p = 0.006) respectively. When the subjects were divided by obesity status and cutoff value of TyG index of 8.8, the subgroups with TyG index ≥ 8.8 regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HR 2.40 [p = 0.024] and 2.25 [p = 0.048]). For obesity status and metabolic health, the two metabolically unhealthy subgroups regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HRs 2.54 [p = 0.024] and 2.73 [p = 0.021]). In conclusion, the TyG index measured at a single time point may be an indicator of the risk for incident diabetes. The predictive value of the TyG index was comparable to that of metabolic health.

  3. Comparison in anesthetic effects of propofol among patients with different ABO blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiri; Shi, Haixia; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-05-01

    Our study was aimed to investigate anesthetic effects of propofol in patients with different blood groups.A total of 72 participants were enrolled from patients arranged for surgeries of cholecystectomy, tonsillectomy, and spinal operation. Each blood group (A, B, AB, and O) contained 18 participants. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) were assayed with Philips monitor. These indexes were observed before propofol anesthesia (T0), and then were recorded when concentration of propofol was 1 μg/mL (T1), 2 μg/mL (T2), 3 μg/mL (T3), and 4 μg/mL (T4). The differences in MAP, HR, and BIS at T0 among groups were compared with the χ test. Multiple comparisons were adopted to calculate the differences in MAP, HR, and BIS between groups at T1, T2, T3, and T4.No significant differences in age, sex, and weight of all groups were found (P > .05). Before propofol anesthesia (T0), all the participants exhibited no differences in MAP, HR, and BIS (P > .05). Subsequently, we found obvious differences in ΔMAP, ΔHR, and ΔBIS between groups. The patients in the B blood group showed highest ΔMAP and ΔHR at each time point (P blood group exhibited highest value at T3 and T4 (P blood group remarkably affects the anesthetic effects of propofol.

  4. Association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima-media thickness and cardiac dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; Goda, Mohammad; Galal, Islam; Ghareb, Mohamed S

    2018-05-23

    Background & hypothesis: We hypothesized that exaggerated morning blood pressure surge, may contribute in cardiac dysfunction and arterial stiffness in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Thus we investigated the impact of morning blood pressure surge on cardiac function and carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with cardiac syndrome X. We studied patients with cardiac syndrome X using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and investigated the association of morning blood pressure surge with carotid intima thickness, left atrial volume index and left ventricular filling (E/e'). Seventy patients with cardiac syndrome X were enrolled for the study and compared with 70 age and sex matched controls. Patients with cardiac syndrome X were stratified based on the systolic morning blood pressure surge value of control subjects to patients with exaggerated blood pressure surge (n = 42) and those with normal morning blood pressure surge (n = 28). Basal heart rate (p blood pressure surge group than those with morning blood pressure surge group. Morning blood pressure surge was significantly correlated with carotid intima-media thickness, high sensitive C-reactive protein, left atrial volume index and E/e' ratio in patients with cardiac syndrome X. In multivariate analysis, exaggerated morning blood pressure surge was the only independent predictor of increased carotid intima-media thickness (OR = 2.379; p blood pressure surge is an independent predictor for arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in patients with cardiac syndrome X.

  5. Blood pressure among rural Montenegrin children in relation to poverty and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Milica; Belojevic, Goran; Evans, Gary W; Asanin, Bogdan; Lausevic, Dragan; Kovacevic, Natasa Duborija; Samardzic, Mira; Jaksic, Marina; Pantovic, Snezana

    2014-06-01

    Health inequalities may begin during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effect of poverty and its interactive effect with gender on children's blood pressure. The study was performed in two elementary schools from a rural region near Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro. A questionnaire including questions on family monthly income, children's physical activity and the consumption of junk food was self-administered by parents of 434 children (223 boys and 211 girls) aged 6-13 years. Children's poverty level was assessed using the recommendations from the National Study on Poverty in Montenegro. Children's body weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-gender-and-age percentile was calculated. An oscillometric monitor was used for measurement of children's resting blood pressure in school. A two-factorial analysis of variance with body mass index percentile, physical activity and junk food as covariates showed an interaction of gender and poverty on children's blood pressure, pointing to synergy between poverty and female gender, with statistical significance for raised diastolic pressure (F = 5.462; P = 0.021). Neither physical activity nor the consumption of junk food explained the interactive effect of poverty and gender on blood pressure. We show that poverty is linked to elevated blood pressure for girls but not boys, and this effect is statistically significant for diastolic pressure. The results are discussed in the light of gender differences in stress and coping that are endemic to poverty. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of blood pressure parameters for dry weight estimation in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantitaphong, Paweena; Laowaloet, Suthanit; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Chulakadabba, Adhisabandh; Katavetin, Pisut; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2013-02-01

    Chronic volume overload resulting from interdialytic weight gain and inadequate fluid removal plays a significant role in poorly controlled high blood pressure. Although bioimpedance has been introduced as an accurate method for assessing hydration status, the instrument is not available in general hemodialysis (HEMO) centers. This study was conducted to explore the correlation between hydration status measured by bioimpedance and blood pressure parameters in chronic HEMO patients. Multifrequency bioimpedance analysis was used to determine pre- and post-dialysis hydration status in 32 stable HEMO patients. Extracellular water/total body water (ECW/TBW) determined by sum of segments from bioimpedance analysis was used as an index of hydration status. The mean age was 57.9 ± 16.4 years. The mean dry weight and body mass index were 57.7 ± 14.5 kg and 22.3 ± 4.7 kg/m(2), respectively. Pre-dialysis ECW/TBW was significantly correlated with only pulse pressure (r = 0.5, P = 0.003) whereas post-dialysis ECW/TBW had significant correlations with pulse pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.6, P = 0.001, r = 0.4, P = 0.04, r = -0.4, and P = 0.02, respectively). After dialysis, the mean values of ECW/TBW, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure were significantly decreased. ECW/TBW was used to classify the patients into normohydration (≤ 0.4) and overhydration (>0.4) groups. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure significantly reduced after dialysis in the normohydration group but did not significantly change in the overhydration group. Pre-dialysis pulse pressure, post-dialysis pulse pressure, and post-dialysis systolic blood pressure in the overhydration group were significantly higher than normohydration group. Due to the simplicity and cost, blood pressure parameters, especially pulse pressure, might be a simple reference for clinicians to determine hydration status in HEMO

  7. Direct means of obtaining CAVI0-a corrected cardio-ankle vascular stiffness index (CAVI)-from conventional CAVI measurements or their underlying variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Mestanik, Michal; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Jurko, Alexander; Jurko, Tomas; Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark

    2017-09-21

    Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as measured using the VaSera device (CAVI VS , Fukuda Denshi), has been proposed as a stiffness index that does not depend on blood pressure. We have recently shown theoretically that CAVI VS still exhibits blood pressure dependence, and proposed the corrected index CAVI 0 . The present study aims to establish a method of calculating [Formula: see text] either (i) from VaSera-reported values of cardiac-brachial and brachial-ankle pulse transit times (tb and tba, respectively) and blood pressure, or (ii) directly from CAVI VS . To derive this method, the relationship among CAVI VS and its scale constants a and b, tb, tba, and blood pressure has to be established. From data of 497 subjects, eight candidate CAVI parameters were defined and calculated, containing all combinations of left or right tb/tba/blood pressure. Candidates were evaluated through correlation with measured left and right CAVI VS . Correlations were compared statistically. Once the correct candidates were determined, two constants (a and b) required for converting CAVI VS to CAVI 0 were estimated through linear regression. Left and right CAVI VS are calculated using left and right tba; however, both left and right CAVI VS are calculated using right brachial blood pressures and right tb. Constants a and b for conversion of CAVI VS to CAVI 0 were estimated to be 0.842 [0.836 0.848] and 0.753 [0.721 0.786] (mean [95%CI]), respectively. Equations to estimate CAVI 0 from CAVI VS , and to directly calculate CAVI 0 from the VaSera output are provided in this paper, as well as in a directly usable spreadsheet supplement. Our results permit straightforward calculation of [Formula: see text] during a study, as well as retrospective estimation of [Formula: see text] from CAVI VS in already published studies or where the original transit time values are not available, paving the way for thorough comparison of CAVI 0 to CAVI VS in clinical and research settings. Novelty and

  8. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  9. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  10. Light scattering by red blood cells in ektacytometry: Fraunhofer versus anomalous diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Hoekstra, A. G.; Nijhof, E. J.; Heethaar, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present literature on ektacytometry, small angle light scattering by ellipsoidal red blood cells is commonly approximated by Fraunhofer diffraction. Calculations on a sphere with the size and relative refractive index of a red cell, however, show that Fraunhofer diffraction deviates

  11. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The Use of the Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index in Patients Suspected of Secondary Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, J.R.; Adiyaman, A.; Kraayvanger, N.; Dechering, D.G.; Postma, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a marker of arterial stiffness and is derived from ambulatory 24-h blood pressure registration. We studied whether the AASI could be used as a predictive factor for the presence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) in patients with a suspicion of secondary

  13. Glycemic Index Biscuits Formulation of Pedada Flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) with Tubers Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyah; Susiloningsih, E. K. B.; Nilasari, K.

    2018-01-01

    The glycemic index of food is the level of food according to its effect on blood glucose levels. Foods with low glycemic index have been shown to improve glucose and fat levels in people with diabetes mellitus and improve insulin resistance. Pedada Fruits (Sonneratia caseolaris) is the one of mangrove fruits has a high fiber content, so it can be used as a raw material in biscuits production. The aim of this research to evaluate the glycemic index on the formula biscuit from the pedada flour and starch from white sweet potato, arrowroot, taro, potato and cassava mixed. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with one factor and five levels on formulation biscuit of pedada flour with tubers starch (20% : 80%). The biscuits product were measured of the proximate, crude fiber, glycemic index and glycemic load on wistar rats. The best treatment was 20% of pedada flour with 80% of taro starch which produced biscuit with 76.24% of yield, 2.58% of protein, 15.55% of fat, 2.72% of crude fiber, 48.83 of glycemic index and 7.39 of glycemic load.

  14. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam sadat Amirkalali sijavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims during which avoid from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse for about 13-17 hours. The aim of this study was surveying the effects of Islamic fasting in Ramadan on lipid profile and blood pressure.Materials and Methods: we designed this study in two phases, a week before and a week after Ramadan month. Eighty nine healthy subjects with 20-50 years old were participated in this study. Blood sampling for lipid profile measurement was done in the morning and blood pressure was measured in the afternoon with digital sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16.0 software.Results: In a week after Ramadan, body weight and body mass index (BMI decreased in both sexes, comparing with the week before Ramadan measurements (p

  15. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  17. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  18. Blood Fibrinolytic Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 in the blood serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in combination with hypothyroidism. We have observed 62 patients with type 2 DM, 32 of them had primary hypothyroidism. Control group consisted of 20 persons without carbohydrate metabolism disorders and thyroid pathology. In patients with type 2 DM, we have detected violations in the fibrinolytic system as an increase of PAI-1, whose level depends on the body mass index, waist circumference, level of glycated haemoglobin, indexes of insulin resistance, blood lipid spectrum, as well as on the presence of microalbuminuria. The presence of hypothyroidism has an additional negative impact on the parameters of carbohydrate, lipid metabolism and PAI-1 level in patients with type 2 DM.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Morfofunctional indices of peripheric blood for persons working within the strict radiation control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Yukhimuk, L.N.; Egorova, D.M.; Pogontseva, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The blood of 118 people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control has been investigated. Erythrocyte morphofunctional value has been estimated taking into consideration the erythrocyte morphological index as well as mechanical and osmotic resistivity of erythrocytes. For people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control intensity of signals of EPR for blood paramagnetic centres essentially changes. It proves profound changes in functioning of blood plasma antioxidant system for people working in the area of strict radiation control. For the people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control in peripheric blood growth of echynocytes and spherocytes as well as lowering of mechanical resistivity of erythrocytes is observed. 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  1. [Assessment of maternal cerebral blood flow in patients with preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Vesna; Miković, Zeljko; Dukić, Milan; Vasiljević, Mladenko; Filimonović, Dejan; Bogavac, Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Systemic vasoconstriction in preeclamptic patients increases vascular resistance, and is manifested by increased arterial blood flow velocity. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is a change of Doppler indices in maternal medial cerbral artery (MCA) in severe preeclampsia due to: 1) severity of clinical symptoms, 2) the begining of eclamptic attack and 3) the application of anticonvulsive therapy. A prospective clinical study included 92 pregnant women, gestational age 28-36 weeks. They were divided into three groups: normotensive (n=30), mild preeclampsia (n=33), and severe preeclampsia (n=29). We investigated maternal cerebral circulation by assessing the MCA. We registrated: pulsatility index (Pi), resistance index (Ri), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), and the maximum systolic, end diastolic and medium velocity. Patients with severe preeclampsia were divided into two subgroups. subgroup 1 included patients without symptoms of threatening eclampsia (n=18; 62.06%); while subgroup 2 included those with symptoms of preeclampsia (n=11; 37.94%). All patients with severe preeclampsia were treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and cerebral blood flow was measured before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was done by oneway ANOVA, Student t-test and t-paired sample test. The difference was considered to be significant if ppreclampsia we found increased velocity values, Pi and Ri, especially in patients with signs of threatened eclampsia, suggesting that blood vessels changes are most prominent in severe preeclampsia. Cerebral blood flow meassurements can be used as a clinical test for the prediction of eclampsia. Magnesium-sulfate (MgSO4) has a signifficant role in prophylaxis and treatment of eclampsia, and, therefore, positive influence on reduction of cerebral ishemic lesions can be expected. We can conclude that changes of the cerebral blood flow can be evaluated by evaluating blood flow velocities in the medial cerebral artery. Velocities tend

  2. Blood transport method for chromosome analysis of residents living near Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodzi, Mohd; Ihda, Shozo; Yokozeki, Masako; Takeichi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2009-12-01

    A study was conducted to compare the storage conditions and transportation period for blood samples collected from residents living in areas near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Experiments were performed to simulate storage and shipping environments. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood was stored in 15-ml tubes (condition A: current transport method) in the absence or in 50-ml flasks (condition B: previous transport method) in the presence of RPMI-1640 and 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Samples were kept refrigerated at 4 degrees C and cell viability was assessed after 3, 8, 12 and 14 days of storage. RPMI-1640, 20% FBS and further PHA were added to blood samples under condition A in 50-ml flasks for culture. Whole-blood samples under condition B were directly incubated without further sub-culturing process, neither media nor PHA were added, to adopt a similar protocol to that employed in the previous transport method. Samples in condition A and condition B were incubated for 48 hr at 37 degrees C and their mitotic index was determined. The results showed that viable lymphocytes were consistent in both storage conditions but the mitotic index was higher in condition A than in condition B. Although further confirmation studies have to be carried out, previous chromosomal studies and the present experiment have shown that PHA-stimulated blood could be stored without culture medium for up to 8 days under condition A. The present results will be useful for cytogenetic analysis of blood samples that have been transported long distances wherever a radiation accident has occurred.

  3. Relationship between diurnal blood pressure and renal histopathological changes in white coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Erhan; Uslu, Adam; Tasli, Funda; Karatas, Murat

    2017-08-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated the macrovascular risks associated with white coat hypertension (WCH) or sustained hypertension (SH). In patients with WCH, there is no literature available on renal histopathological changes and that on blood pressure pattern and native kidney outcome is scant. We aimed to clarify the relationship between blood pressure variables and pathological features of kidney biopsies in living kidney donors with WCH. This cross-sectional study included living kidney donors with WCH (n = 10) and SH (n = 10), and 20 healthy kidney donors with similar demographic features (control group). Kidney allograft biopsy samples were obtained during transplantation and chronic glomerular, vascular and tubulointertitial changes were semiquantitatively scored according to the Banff classification. The mean age of the 20 hypertensive subjects (Group 1) and controls (Group 2) was 59.3 ± 8.5 versus 59.6 ± 7.6 years and almost half were female. There was no difference in renal function parameters between the groups; however, kidney histopathology in Group 1 was worse than Group 2 with a chronicity index of 2.80 ± 1.67 versus 1.75 ± 1.16 (p = 0.02). There was no difference between histopathological scores of patients with WCH or SH (chronicity index: 2.60 ± 1.43 vs. 2.70 ± 1.70, p = 0.88). Night-to-day mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratio was significantly associated with chronicity index in patients with WCH. Moreover, WCH patients with non-dipper hypertensive pattern had a worse chronicity index. Significant histopathological alterations in the kidney were observed in patients with WCH and SH, and were accentuated in WCH patients with non-dipper blood pressure pattern.

  4. Blood-informative transcripts define nine common axes of peripheral blood gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Preininger

    Full Text Available We describe a novel approach to capturing the covariance structure of peripheral blood gene expression that relies on the identification of highly conserved Axes of variation. Starting with a comparison of microarray transcriptome profiles for a new dataset of 189 healthy adult participants in the Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB cohort, with a previously published study of 208 adult Moroccans, we identify nine Axes each with between 99 and 1,028 strongly co-regulated transcripts in common. Each axis is enriched for gene ontology categories related to sub-classes of blood and immune function, including T-cell and B-cell physiology and innate, adaptive, and anti-viral responses. Conservation of the Axes is demonstrated in each of five additional population-based gene expression profiling studies, one of which is robustly associated with Body Mass Index in the CHDWB as well as Finnish and Australian cohorts. Furthermore, ten tightly co-regulated genes can be used to define each Axis as "Blood Informative Transcripts" (BITs, generating scores that define an individual with respect to the represented immune activity and blood physiology. We show that environmental factors, including lifestyle differences in Morocco and infection leading to active or latent tuberculosis, significantly impact specific axes, but that there is also significant heritability for the Axis scores. In the context of personalized medicine, reanalysis of the longitudinal profile of one individual during and after infection with two respiratory viruses demonstrates that specific axes also characterize clinical incidents. This mode of analysis suggests the view that, rather than unique subsets of genes marking each class of disease, differential expression reflects movement along the major normal Axes in response to environmental and genetic stimuli.

  5. Blood-informative transcripts define nine common axes of peripheral blood gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preininger, Marcela; Arafat, Dalia; Kim, Jinhee; Nath, Artika P; Idaghdour, Youssef; Brigham, Kenneth L; Gibson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to capturing the covariance structure of peripheral blood gene expression that relies on the identification of highly conserved Axes of variation. Starting with a comparison of microarray transcriptome profiles for a new dataset of 189 healthy adult participants in the Emory-Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well-Being (CHDWB) cohort, with a previously published study of 208 adult Moroccans, we identify nine Axes each with between 99 and 1,028 strongly co-regulated transcripts in common. Each axis is enriched for gene ontology categories related to sub-classes of blood and immune function, including T-cell and B-cell physiology and innate, adaptive, and anti-viral responses. Conservation of the Axes is demonstrated in each of five additional population-based gene expression profiling studies, one of which is robustly associated with Body Mass Index in the CHDWB as well as Finnish and Australian cohorts. Furthermore, ten tightly co-regulated genes can be used to define each Axis as "Blood Informative Transcripts" (BITs), generating scores that define an individual with respect to the represented immune activity and blood physiology. We show that environmental factors, including lifestyle differences in Morocco and infection leading to active or latent tuberculosis, significantly impact specific axes, but that there is also significant heritability for the Axis scores. In the context of personalized medicine, reanalysis of the longitudinal profile of one individual during and after infection with two respiratory viruses demonstrates that specific axes also characterize clinical incidents. This mode of analysis suggests the view that, rather than unique subsets of genes marking each class of disease, differential expression reflects movement along the major normal Axes in response to environmental and genetic stimuli.

  6. Alteration of pulmonary blood flow in tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Michihiko; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Arai, Tatsuta; Nakamura, Yuzuru.

    1992-01-01

    The pulmonary blood distribution was examined in 17 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) pre and postoperatively with macroaggregates of 99m TC-labeled human serum albumin. Most of the patients with TOF demonstrated an abnormal preoperative distribution pattern. The abnormalities included not only an unbalanced distribution between the right and left lungs but also a maldistribution of peripheral vessels in each lung. The right/left lung counts ratio and pulmonary peripheral index (calculated in order to express the severity of peripheral maldistribution) correlated neither to the diameter nor the cross-sectional area of either right or left pulmonary arteries which were measured angiographically. Postoperatively, the pulmonary blood was shunted toward the developed side of the lung which further contributed to maldistribution of blood flow and unbalanced pulmonary growth. Since the patients with an unbalanced pulmonary blood distribution demonstrated a higher right ventricular pressure one year after the operation, a palliative operation facilitating the growth of the underdeveloped side of the lung might be considered as an effective procedure to precede intracardiac repair. (author)

  7. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  8. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  9. Blood profiles for a wild population of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the southern Bahamas: size-specific and sex-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, A B; Bjorndal, K A

    1992-07-01

    Blood biochemical profiles and packed cell volumes were determined for 100 juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, from a wild population in the southern Bahamas. There was a significant correlation of body size to 13 of the 26 blood parameters measured. Only plasma uric acid and cholesterol were significantly different between male and female turtles. The relationship between total plasma proteins and plasma refractive index was significant. The equation for converting refractive index (Y) to total plasma proteins (X) is Y = 1.34 + 0.00217(X).

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow using 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Bae, Sang Kyun; Chung, June Key; Koh, Chang Soon; Roh, Jae Kyu; Myung, Ho Jin; Lee, Myung Hae

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow were measured in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 12 normal persons using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. Reconstructed images were interpreted qualitatively and were compared with those findings of CT. For the quantitative analysis, six pairs of region of interest matched with the perfusion territories of large cerebral arteries and cerebellar hemisphere were determined. From the count values, indices showing the degree of asymmetry between right and left cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere, cerebral asymmetry index (ASI) and percent index of cerebellar asymmetry (PIA), and an index showing change of each region, region to cerebellum ratio (RCR) were obtained. ASI of normal persons and patients were 0.082 ± 0.033 and 0.108 ± 0.062, respectively and PIA were -0.4 ± 0.7% and -0.7 ± 1.0%, respectively, which showed no statistically significant difference between normal persons and patients. Among 10 RCR's, those of both regions of basal ganglia and both regions of anterior cerebral artery were significantly reduced. We concluded that the most significant reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease was observed in the regions of basal ganglia and in the regions of anterior cerebral artery, and the degree of change in hemispheric blood flow was similar in both hemisphere.

  11. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of moderate-intensity physical effort on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander-Szymanowicz, P; Marchewka, A; Dabrowski, Z; Teleglow, A; Bac, A; Glodzik, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a six-week aerobic training on peripheral blood in adults with Down syndrome. Fifteen men with Down syndrome (average age 22.4 years ± 0.91) with moderate or severe intellectual disability took part in the study. Patients underwent a training program three times a week for six weeks. Venous blood samples of 10 ml were collected from every examined patient, 24 hours before and after the exercise. The blood samples were submitted to hematological examination (hematocrit, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) number, RBC indicators: mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)), reduced glutathione (GSH) level and number of macrocytes, polikilocytrometric examination of RBC and rheological blood examination (elongation index (EI), aggregation index (AI), syllectogram amplitude (AMP), aggregation half time (t1/2)) was made by LORCA. Amoderate six-week physical training performed on a cycloergometer resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the MCV value, hematocrit and plasma viscosity. The six-week cycloergometer training caused a statistically significant increase in the GSH level and erythrocyte pliability at a shear stress of 0.58 Pa.

  13. Blood cell mRNAs and microRNAs: optimized protocols for extraction and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikmans, Michael; Rekers, Niels V; Anholts, Jacqueline D H; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Claas, Frans H J

    2013-03-14

    Assessing messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA levels in peripheral blood cells may complement conventional parameters in clinical practice. Working with small, precious samples requires optimal RNA yields and minimal RNA degradation. Several procedures for RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis were compared for their efficiency. The effect on RNA quality of freeze-thawing peripheral blood cells and storage in preserving reagents was investigated. In terms of RNA yield and convenience, quality quantitative polymerase chain reaction signals per nanogram of total RNA and using NucleoSpin and mirVana columns is preferable. The SuperScript III protocol results in the highest cDNA yields. During conventional procedures of storing peripheral blood cells at -180°C and thawing them thereafter, RNA integrity is maintained. TRIzol preserves RNA in cells stored at -20°C. Detection of mRNA levels significantly decreases in degraded RNA samples, whereas microRNA molecules remain relatively stable. When standardized to reference targets, mRNA transcripts and microRNAs can be reliably quantified in moderately degraded (quality index 4-7) and severely degraded (quality index <4) RNA samples, respectively. We describe a strategy for obtaining high-quality and quantity RNA from fresh and stored cells from blood. The results serve as a guideline for sensitive mRNA and microRNA expression assessment in clinical material.

  14. Prevalence of inter-arm blood pressure difference among clinical out-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Balkishan; Ramawat, Pramila

    2016-04-01

    An increased inter-arm blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical finding, may use as an indicator of cardio vascular event and other sever diseases. Authors evaluated 477 patients to determine the prevalence and significance of inter-arm blood pressure difference. 477 routine outdoor patients selected to observe the inter-arm blood pressure difference. Age, height, weight, body mass index, history of disease and blood pressure recorded. The prevalence of ≥10 mmHg systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was 5.0% was more as compared to 3.8% had diastolic inter-arm blood pressure difference. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic inter-arm difference between 6 to 10 mmHg was 31.4% and 27.9% respectively. Mean systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was significantly higher among those patients had a multisystem disorder (10.57±0.98 mmHg) and followed by patients with cardiovascular disease (10.22±0.67 mmHg) as compared to healthy patients (2.71±0.96 mmHg). Various diseases highly influenced the increase in blood pressure irrespective of systolic or diastolic was confirmed strongly significant (pdifferent inter arm blood pressure difference levels. This study supports the view of inter-arm blood pressure difference as an alarming stage of increased disease risk that incorporated to investigate potential problems at an early diagnostic stage. A significant mean difference between left and right arm blood pressure recorded for many diseases.

  15. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Sobrino, Javier; Coca, Antonio; Riera, Antoni; Pujol, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a sample of Spanish nonagenarians. We also analyzed the misdiagnosis of hypertension and investigated blood pressure (BP) control in treated hypertensive nonagenarians. Twenty-four-hour ABPM was undertaken in a group of 42 nonagenarians. The 24-h mean, daytime BP, nighttime BP and heart rate (HR) were extracted from the ABPM. Sociodemographic data, the ability to perform basic daily activities, measured by the Barthel index (BI) or instrumental activities revealed by the Lawton and Brody index (LI), cognition, and comorbidity were evaluated. Thirty-one subjects were receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. Twenty-four hour, daytime and sleeping pressures averaged 130/65, 131/68 and 128/63mmHg, respectively. Seventeen (40.5%) of the 42 patients had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. In terms of the BP pattern, 8 (19%) subjects were dippers, 19 (45%) non-dippers, and 15 (36%) were risers. Five (45.46%) out of 11 patients with no evidence of hypertension (normotensive patients) had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. The mean daytime BP was 135/85 or higher in 12 (38.7%) out of 31 nonagenarians who had previously received therapy for hypertension. In, conclusion a high prevalence of hypertension, misdiagnosis and inadequate BP control was found in nonagenarians treated for hypertension.

  16. DETERMINANTS OF SUBOPTIMAL BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRES-SURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Moazenzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to define the determinants of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control among hypertensive patients under treatment and explore a predictive model for detecting the patients at risk for increased BP.    METHODS: We enrolled 97 patients (40 males, 57 females under treatment for hypertension between June 2006 and May 2007 in Shafa hospital, Kerman, Iran. BP was measured at clinic twice within 5-minute intervals. After setting up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BP was measured at 30-minute intervals during the day and 60-minute intervals during the night. The frequency of increased BP (more than 140/90 mmHg was included in a regression model as dependent variable and all the others such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI, drugs and baseline clinical measurements as the predictors.    RESULTS: Increased BP was detected in 44% (95% CI: 38.79%-49.65% of all measurements during 24-hour monitoring. The frequency of increased BP had a significant relationship with BMI (b=0.35, P=0.001. Clinic's pulse pressure was a significant predicting factor for BP increase (P=0.02.    CONCLUSION: BMI and pulse pressure are the best predictors for being hypertensive during lifetime. Ineffective treatment of hypertension is frequent among the hypertensive patients.      Keywords: Blood pressure control, Pulse pressure, Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BMI.

  17. Can flavonoid-rich chocolate modulate arterial elasticity and pathological uterine artery Doppler blood flow in pregnant women? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wowern, Emma; Olofsson, Per

    2018-09-01

    Dark chocolate has shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and might also modulate hypertensive complications in pregnancy and uteroplacental blood flow. Increased uteroplacental resistance is associated with systemic arterial stiffness. We aimed to investigate the short-term effect of flavonoid-rich chocolate on arterial stiffness and Doppler blood flow velocimetry indexes in pregnant women with compromised uteroplacental blood flow. Doppler blood flow velocimetry and digital pulse wave analysis (DPA) were performed in 25 women pregnant in the second and third trimesters with uterine artery (UtA) score (UAS) 3-4, before and after 3 days of ingestion of chocolate with high flavonoid and antioxidant contents. UtA pulsatility index (PI), UtA diastolic notching, UAS (semiquantitative measure of PI and notching combined), and umbilical artery PI were calculated, and DPA variables representing central and peripheral maternal arteries were recorded. Mean UtA PI (p = .049) and UAS (p = .025) significantly decreased after chocolate consumption. There were no significant changes in UtA diastolic notching or any DPA indexes of arterial stiffness/vascular tone. Chocolate may have beneficial effects on the uteroplacental circulation, but in this pilot study, we could not demonstrate effects on arterial vascular tone as assessed by DPA.

  18. Definition of ambulatory blood pressure targets for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in relation to clinic blood pressure: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Geoffrey A; Mihailidou, Anastasia S; Duggan, Karen A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Berry, Narelle; Brown, Mark A; Bune, Alex J; Cowley, Diane; Chalmers, John P; Howe, Peter R C; Hodgson, Jonathan; Ludbrook, John; Mangoni, Arduino A; McGrath, Barry P; Nelson, Mark R; Sharman, James E; Stowasser, Michael

    2010-04-14

    Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure thresholds have been defined for the diagnosis of mild hypertension but not for its treatment or for other blood pressure thresholds used in the diagnosis of moderate to severe hypertension. We aimed to derive age and sex related ambulatory blood pressure equivalents to clinic blood pressure thresholds for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. We collated 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure data, recorded with validated devices, from 11 centres across six Australian states (n=8575). We used least product regression to assess the relation between these measurements and clinic blood pressure measured by trained staff and in a smaller cohort by doctors (n=1693). Mean age of participants was 56 years (SD 15) with mean body mass index 28.9 (5.5) and mean clinic systolic/diastolic blood pressure 142/82 mm Hg (19/12); 4626 (54%) were women. Average clinic measurements by trained staff were 6/3 mm Hg higher than daytime ambulatory blood pressure and 10/5 mm Hg higher than 24 hour blood pressure, but 9/7 mm Hg lower than clinic values measured by doctors. Daytime ambulatory equivalents derived from trained staff clinic measurements were 4/3 mm Hg less than the 140/90 mm Hg clinic threshold (lower limit of grade 1 hypertension), 2/2 mm Hg less than the 130/80 mm Hg threshold (target upper limit for patients with associated conditions), and 1/1 mm Hg less than the 125/75 mm Hg threshold. Equivalents were 1/2 mm Hg lower for women and 3/1 mm Hg lower in older people compared with the combined group. Our study provides daytime ambulatory blood pressure thresholds that are slightly lower than equivalent clinic values. Clinic blood pressure measurements taken by doctors were considerably higher than those taken by trained staff and therefore gave inappropriate estimates of ambulatory thresholds. These results provide a framework for the diagnosis and management of hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure values.

  19. Shock index as a mortality predictor in patients with acute polytrauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Fernando Montoya; Jos Daniel Charry; Juan Sebastin Calle-Toro; Luis Ramiro Niez; Gustavo Poveda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the shock index (SI), given by the formula SI = heart rate /systolic blood pressure (HR / SBP), is useful for predicting mortality at 24 h in trauma patients admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital in Colombia. Methods: A database of trauma patients admitted between January 2013 and December 2013 was constructed; the result according to the shock index was determined, generating a dichotomous variable with two groups: Group A (SI 0.9). Univariate analysis was performed. Results: A total of 666 patients were analyzed, 83.3% (555) had SI 0.9. The mean age for Groups A and B was 32.4 and 35.4 respectively. The average injury severity score for both groups was 9.6 and 17.6 respectively. Mortality at 24 h after injury for both groups was 3.1% (P = 0.032) and 59.5% (P = 0.027) respectively. Conclusions: An initial shock index greater than 0.9 implies a worse prognosis 24 h after injury. The shock index predicts mortality in multiple trauma patients in the emergency department, and is also a quick and applicable in all hospital.

  20. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2  = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Interarm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference with Atherosclerosis and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    An interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of 10 mmHg or more have been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether an association exists between this difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 1120 patients were included in the study. The bilateral arm blood pressures were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The values of ABI and baPWV were also obtained from the same device. Clinical data, ABIdifference ≥10 mmHg were compared and analyzed. We performed two multivariate forward analyses for determining the factors associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg [model 1: significant variables in univariate analysis except left ventricular mass index (LVMI); model 2: significant variables in univariate analysis except ABIdifference ≥10 mmHg. Female, hypertension, and high body mass index were also associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg. Our study demonstrated that ABIdifference of 10 mmHg or more. Detection of an interarm SBP difference may provide a simple method of detecting patients at increased risk of atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:22927905

  2. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  3. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Subjects/Methods: Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m−2) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Results: Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h−1) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h−1; P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h−1; P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h−1) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18–32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). Conclusions: A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise. PMID:27376698

  4. Is hepatic steatosis associated with left ventricular mass index increase in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Katharina; Schmidt, Carsten O; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B; Völzke, Henry

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between hepatic steatosis and change in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over five years, and examine whether systolic and diastolic blood pressures are mediators of the association between hepatic steatosis and LVMI using a general population sample. METHODS We analyzed data from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The study population comprised 1298 individuals aged 45 to 81 years. Hepatic steatosis was defined as the presence of a hyperechogenic pattern of the liver together with elevated serum alanine transferase levels. Left ventricular mass was determined echocardiographically and indexed to height2.7. Path analyses were conducted to differentiate direct and indirect paths from hepatic steatosis to LVMI encompassing systolic and diastolic blood pressure as potential mediating variables. RESULTS Hepatic steatosis was a significant predictor for all measured echocardiographic characteristics at baseline. Path analyses revealed that the association of hepatic steatosis with LVMI change after five years was negligibly small (β = -0.12, s.e. = 0.21, P = 0.55). Systolic blood pressure at baseline was inversely associated with LVMI change (β = -0.09, s.e. = 0.03, P < 0.01), while no association between diastolic blood pressure at baseline and LVMI change was evident (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.05, P = 0.56). The effect of the indirect path from hepatic steatosis to LVMI via systolic baseline blood pressure was small (β = -0.20, s.e. = 0.10, P = 0.07). No indirect effect was observed for the path via diastolic baseline blood pressure (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.06, P = 0.60). Similar associations were observed in the subgroup of individuals not receiving beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system. CONCLUSION Baseline associations between hepatic steatosis and LVMI do not extend to associations with LVMI change after five years. More studies are needed to study the longitudinal effects of hepatic

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX AND NUM-BER OF INVOLVED CORONARIES IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE ANGINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vascular disease which can involve peripheral and/or cardiac vessels. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible link between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI and coronary vessel involvement in patients with stable angina.    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 on 120 individuals who were hospitalized in Chamran Heart Center and underwent coronary angiography. A questionnaire was completed to obtain demographic information, history of previous heart disease and smoking. Body height and weight, as blood pressure on hand and foot were measured. The patients underwent angiography and the extent of coronary involvement (> 75% was determined. After12-14-hour of fasting, blood sugar was obtained to measure total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABI was calculated as the ratio of the blood pressure in the ankles to the blood pressure in the arms. The data were analyzed by SPSS-15 using ANOVA, T-Student test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.    RESULTS: Samples were 46 women (38.33% and 74 men (61.67% with a mean age of 55.50 ± 10.49. Mean and SD of ABI in men and women was 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.80 ± 0.19 with no significant difference (p = 0.012. The correlation between ABI and extent of coronary involvement was 0.47 (p < 0.0001. The group with lower ABI had the highest levels of coronary involvement (triple vessel, p < 0.05.     CONCLUSION: ABI had a significant relationship with the degree of coronary involvement and a significant predictive value. Therefore ABI seems to be a reliable indicator of high coronary risk.      Keywords: Ankle to brachial index, Coronary involvement, Stable angina.  

  6. The relationship between training status, blood pressure and uric acid in adults and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapé, Atila Alexandre; Jacomini, André Mourão; Muniz, Jaqueline Jóice; Sertorio, Jonas Tadeu Cau; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2013-06-21

    Hypertension can be generated by a great number of mechanisms including elevated uric acid (UA) that contribute to the anion superoxide production. However, physical exercise is recommended to prevent and/or control high blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BP and UA and whether this relationship may be mediated by the functional fitness index. All participants (n = 123) performed the following tests: indirect maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), AAHPERD Functional Fitness Battery Test to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI) and blood sample collection to evaluate the total-cholesterol (CHOL), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), uric acid (UA), nitrite (NO2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS). After the physical, hemodynamic and metabolic evaluations, all participants were allocated into three groups according to their GFFI: G1 (regular), G2 (good) and G3 (very good). Baseline blood pressure was higher in G1 when compared to G3 (+12% and +11%, for SBP and DBP, respectively, p<0.05) and the subjects who had higher values of BP also presented higher values of UA. Although UA was not different among GFFI groups, it presented a significant correlation with GFFI and VO2max. Also, nitrite concentration was elevated in G3 compared to G1 (140±29 μM vs 111±29 μM, for G3 and G1, respectively, p<0.0001). As far as the lipid profile, participants in G3 presented better values of CHOL and TG when compared to those in G1. Taking together the findings that subjects with higher BP had elevated values of UA and lower values of nitrite, it can be suggested that the relationship between blood pressure and the oxidative stress produced by uric acid may be mediated by training status.

  7. Effects of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on aortic blood pressure and aortic augmentation index in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Treichler, David P; Casey, Darren P

    2016-09-30

    Aging is associated with elevated blood pressure (peripheral and aortic; BP) and aortic augmentation index (AIx) which may contribute to aortic BP. Although inorganic nitrate consumption reduces peripheral BP in both young and older adults, the effects of nitrate consumption on aortic BP and wave reflection in young and older adults is unknown. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of nitrate consumption on aortic BP and AIx in young and older adults. Noninvasive aortic pressure waveforms were synthesized from high-fidelity radial pressure waveforms via applanation tonometry before and following (60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min) consumption of a nitrate-rich beetroot juice in 26 healthy adults (young: 25 ± 4 years, n = 14; older: 64 ± 5 years, n = 12). Aortic BP and indices of aortic wave reflection (AIx and AIx normalized for heart rate; AIx@75bpm) were calculated from the generated aortic pressure waveform. Nitrate consumption increased plasma nitrite in both groups 60-180 min following beetroot consumption (P young and older adults (P age groups. Conversely, indices of aortic wave reflection were reduced only in young adults following nitrate consumption (range of change from baseline over time: AIx@75bpm, -4.3 to -8.8%, P adults. Taken together, our results suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces peripheral and aortic BP similarly in young and older adults despite differential effects on aortic AIx between age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo flow cytometry for blood cell analysis using differential epi-detection of forward scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Hari P.; Jung, Yookyung; Raphael, Anthony; Alt, Clemens; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith; Lin, Charles P.

    2018-02-01

    The present standard of blood cell analysis is an invasive procedure requiring the extraction of patient's blood, followed by ex-vivo analysis using a flow cytometer or a hemocytometer. We are developing a noninvasive optical technique that alleviates the need for blood extraction. For in-vivo blood analysis we need a high speed, high resolution and high contrast label-free imaging technique. In this proceeding report, we reported a label-free method based on differential epi-detection of forward scattered light, a method inspired by Jerome Mertz's oblique back-illumination microscopy (OBM) (Ford et al, Nat. Meth. 9(12) 2012). The differential epi-detection of forward light gives phase contrast image at diffraction-limited resolution. Unlike reflection confocal microscopy (RCM), which detects only sharp refractive index variation and suffers from speckle noise, this technique is suitable for detection of subtle variation of refractive index in biological tissue and it provides the shape and the size of cells. A custom built high speed electronic detection circuit board produces a real-time differential signal which yields image contrast based on phase gradient in the sample. We recorded blood flow in-vivo at 17.2k lines per second in line scan mode, or 30 frames per second (full frame), or 120 frame per second (quarter frame) in frame scan mode. The image contrast and speed of line scan data recording show the potential of the system for noninvasive blood cell analysis.

  9. The relationship of age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity ındex and diurnal variation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycı, Belma; Erten, Yunus Turgay; Akgün, Tunahan; Karabag, Turgut; Kokturk, Furuzan

    2018-03-05

    Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) is a scoring system to predict prognosis and mortality. It exhibits better utility when combined with age, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ACCI and diurnal variation of blood pressure parameters in hypertensive patients and normotensive patients. We enrolled 236 patients. All patients underwent a 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for evaluation of dipper or non-dipper pattern. We searched the correlation between ACCI and dipper or non-dipper pattern and other ABPM parameters. To further investigate the role of these parameters in predicting survival, a multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model was performed. 167 patients were in the hypertensive group (87 patients in non-dipper status) and 69 patients were in the normotensive group (41 patients in non-dipper status) of all study patients. We found a significant difference and negative correlation between AACI and 24-h diastolic blood pressure (DBP), awake DBP, awake mean blood pressure (MBP) and 24-h MBP and awake systolic blood pressure(SBP). Night decrease ratio of blood pressure had also a negative correlation with ACCI (p = 0.003, r = -0.233). However, we found a relationship with non-dipper pattern and ACCI in the hypertensive patients (p = 0.050). In multivariate Cox analysis sleep MBP was found related to mortality like ACCI (p = 0.023, HR = 1.086, %95 CI 1.012-1.165) Conclusion: ACCI was statistically significantly higher in non-dipper hypertensive patients than dipper hypertensive patients while ACCI had a negative correlation with blood pressure. Sleep MBP may predict mortality.

  10. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  11. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  12. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  13. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kirk, Martyn; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use). Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use), were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51), high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39), and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33), but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16). We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  14. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalin Rimpeekool

    Full Text Available Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers.A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use. Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake.Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use, were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51, high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39, and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33, but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16.We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  15. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound: Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Plavnik

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 ± 0.13 and 0.62 ± 0.16 vs 0.54 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001. In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39 in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40. In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37, while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10. There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC.

  16. Microfluidics for simultaneous quantification of platelet adhesion and blood viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Platelet functions, including adhesion, activation, and aggregation have an influence on thrombosis and the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a new microfluidic-based method is proposed to estimate platelet adhesion and blood viscosity simultaneously. Blood sample flows into an H-shaped microfluidic device with a peristaltic pump. Since platelet aggregation may be initiated by the compression of rotors inside the peristaltic pump, platelet aggregates may adhere to the H-shaped channel. Through correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) can be estimated without labeling platelets. The platelet function is estimated by determining the representative index IA·T based on APlatelet and contact time. Blood viscosity is measured by monitoring the flow conditions in the one side channel of the H-shaped device. Based on the relation between interfacial width (W) and pressure ratio of sample flows to the reference, blood sample viscosity (μ) can be estimated by measuring W. Biophysical parameters (IA·T, μ) are compared for normal and diabetic rats using an ex vivo extracorporeal model. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the platelet adhesion and blood viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under ex vivo conditions. PMID:27118101

  17. Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava; Selb, Juliette; Farzam, Parisa; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Carp, Stefan A

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow rely on the sensitivity of the temporal autocorrelation function of diffusively scattered light to red blood cell (RBC) mean square displacement (MSD). For RBCs flowing with convective velocity [Formula: see text], the autocorrelation is expected to decay exponentially with [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the delay time. RBCs also experience shear-induced diffusion with a diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] and an MSD of [Formula: see text]. Surprisingly, experimental data primarily reflect diffusive behavior. To provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of convective and diffusive movements, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering through tissue of varying vessel densities. We assumed laminar vessel flow profiles and accounted for shear-induced diffusion effects. In agreement with experimental data, we found that diffusive motion dominates the correlation decay for typical DCS measurement parameters. Furthermore, our model offers a quantitative relationship between the RBC diffusion coefficient and absolute tissue blood flow. We thus offer, for the first time, theoretical support for the empirically accepted ability of the DCS blood flow index ([Formula: see text]) to quantify tissue perfusion. We find [Formula: see text] to be linearly proportional to blood flow, but with a proportionality modulated by the hemoglobin concentration and the average blood vessel diameter.

  18. Measurement of renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging during septic acute kidney injury: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John R; Molan, Maurice P; Hornsey, Emma; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-06-01

    In septic patients, decreased renal perfusion is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. However, the accurate measurement of renal blood flow in such patients is problematic and invasive. We sought to overcome such obstacles by measuring renal blood flow in septic patients with acute kidney injury using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Pilot observational study. University-affiliated general adult intensive care unit. Ten adult patients with established septic acute kidney injury and 11 normal volunteers. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurement of renal blood flow and cardiac output. The median age of the study patients was 62.5 yrs and eight were male. At the time of magnetic resonance imaging, eight patients were mechanically ventilated, nine were on continuous hemofiltration, and five required vasopressors. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out without complication. Median renal blood flow was 482 mL/min (range 335-1137) in septic acute kidney injury and 1260 mL/min (range 791-1750) in healthy controls (p = .003). Renal blood flow indexed to body surface area was 244 mL/min/m2 (range 165-662) in septic acute kidney injury and 525 mL/min/m2 (range 438-869) in controls (p = .004). In patients with septic acute kidney injury, median cardiac index was 3.5 L/min/m2 (range 1.6-8.7), and median renal fraction of cardiac output was only 7.1% (range 4.4-10.8). There was no rank correlation between renal blood flow index and creatinine clearance in patients with septic acute kidney injury (r = .26, p = .45). Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to noninvasively and safely assess renal perfusion during critical illness in man. Near-simultaneous accurate measurement of cardiac output enables organ blood flow to be assessed in the context of the global circulation. Renal blood flow seems consistently reduced as a fraction of cardiac output in

  19. Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students.METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas.RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return.CONCLUSION: This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity.

  20. A Study on Anthropometric Measurements, Blood Pressure, Blood Sugar and Food Intakes Among Different Social Status and Ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Metabolic syndrome is a disorder that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate some risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and food intakes among people who lived in Ahvaz City, Iran. Methods It was a filed study that was conducted on 211 subjects who participated in health exhibition. Socioeconomic status and ethnicity were asked by a general questionnaire. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference (WC and WC to hip circumference ratio (WHR were obtained. Blood sugar was measured by a glucometer. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were obtained and dietary intakes were assessed by a brief instrument. Results There was a significant difference in weight, height, WC, WHR and systolic blood pressure among different jobs. Workers had more intakes of cake and sweets. Arab subjects had more intakes of bread and fishes and Persians more intakes of vegetables. Soda, chocolate and candy were more consumed by Kurd ethnicity. Conclusions Job may be accounted as an important effective socioeconomic factor related to metabolic syndrome risk factors; also different cultures due to different ethnicities may have an influence on lifestyle and dietary intakes.

  1. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

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    Sudikshya KC

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in Parkinson's Disease

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    Lee, Myung Chul; Bae, Sang Kyun; Chung, June Key; Koh, Chang Soon; Roh, Jae Kyu; Myung, Ho Jin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Hae [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Regional cerebral blood flow were measured in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 12 normal persons using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. Reconstructed images were interpreted qualitatively and were compared with those findings of CT. For the quantitative analysis, six pairs of region of interest matched with the perfusion territories of large cerebral arteries and cerebellar hemisphere were determined. From the count values, indices showing the degree of asymmetry between right and left cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere, cerebral asymmetry index (ASI) and percent index of cerebellar asymmetry (PIA), and an index showing change of each region, region to cerebellum ratio (RCR) were obtained. ASI of normal persons and patients were 0.082 +- 0.033 and 0.108 +- 0.062, respectively and PIA were -0.4 +- 0.7% and -0.7 +- 1.0%, respectively, which showed no statistically significant difference between normal persons and patients. Among 10 RCR's, those of both regions of basal ganglia and both regions of anterior cerebral artery were significantly reduced. We concluded that the most significant reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease was observed in the regions of basal ganglia and in the regions of anterior cerebral artery, and the degree of change in hemispheric blood flow was similar in both hemisphere.

  3. ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTION AND THE COOLING FLOW PROBLEM IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, Ian J.; Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot

    2009-01-01

    We examine the long-standing cooling flow problem in galaxy clusters with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of isolated clusters including radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The central regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) can have cooling timescales of ∼200 Myr or shorter-in order to prevent a cooling catastrophe the ICM must be heated by some mechanism such as active galactic nucleus feedback or thermal conduction from the thermal reservoir at large radii. The cores of galaxy clusters are linearly unstable to the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), which significantly changes the thermodynamics of the cluster core. The HBI is a convective, buoyancy-driven instability that rearranges the magnetic field to be preferentially perpendicular to the temperature gradient. For a wide range of parameters, our simulations demonstrate that in the presence of the HBI, the effective radial thermal conductivity is reduced to ∼<10% of the full Spitzer conductivity. With this suppression of conductive heating, the cooling catastrophe occurs on a timescale comparable to the central cooling time of the cluster. Thermal conduction alone is thus unlikely to stabilize clusters with low central entropies and short central cooling timescales. High central entropy clusters have sufficiently long cooling times that conduction can help stave off the cooling catastrophe for cosmologically interesting timescales.

  4. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairleitner, H; Steiner, H; Hasenoehrl, G; Staudach, A

    1999-08-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of

  5. Cross-sectional Study on Blood Pressure Control in the Department of Nephrology of the Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP

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    Freitas João Batista de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To assess hypertension control rates in a specialized university-affiliated medical department, the influence of sex, diabetes, and obesity on that control, and the strategies for the treatment of hypertension. METHODS - We carried out a cross-sectional study with 1,210 patients followed up for at least 6 months. Information was gathered from medical and nursing records and comprised the following data: sex, age, weight, height, abdominal and hip circumferences, blood pressure, and class and number of the antihypertensive drugs prescribed. To assess obesity, we used body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Blood pressure was considered under control when its levels were below 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS - The study consisted of 73% females and 27% males. Most females (31.7% were 50 to 59 years of age, and most males (28.3% were 60 to 69 years. The blood pressure control rate found was 20.9% for the 1,210 patients and 23.4% for the hypertensive diabetic patients (n=290. Despite the low control rates found, 70% of the patients used 1 or 2 antihypertensive medications. A high prevalence of obesity (38% was observed, and females had a greater abdominal obesity index than males did (90% vs 82%, p<0.05. Patients with a greater body mass index had less control of blood pressure. CONCLUSION - The percentage of hypertensive patients with controlled blood pressure levels was low and was associated with a high prevalence of obesity. These data indicate the need for reviewing the strategies of global treatment for hypertension.

  6. Cross-sectional study on blood pressure control in the department of nephrology of the Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, João Batista de; Tavares, Agostinho; Kohlmann, Osvaldo; Zanella, Maria Tereza; Ribeiro, Artur Beltrame

    2002-08-01

    To assess hypertension control rates in a specialized university-affiliated medical department, the influence of sex, diabetes, and obesity on that control, and the strategies for the treatment of hypertension. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 1,210 patients followed up for at least 6 months. Information was gathered from medical and nursing records and comprised the following data: sex, age, weight, height, abdominal and hip circumferences, blood pressure, and class and number of the antihypertensive drugs prescribed. To assess obesity, we used body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Blood pressure was considered under control when its levels were below 140/90 mmHg. The study consisted of 73% females and 27% males. Most females (31.7%) were 50 to 59 years of age, and most males (28.3%) were 60 to 69 years. The blood pressure control rate found was 20.9% for the 1,210 patients and 23.4% for the hypertensive diabetic patients (n=290). Despite the low control rates found, 70% of the patients used 1 or 2 antihypertensive medications. A high prevalence of obesity (38%) was observed, and females had a greater abdominal obesity index than males did (90% vs 82%, p<0.05). Patients with a greater body mass index had less control of blood pressure. The percentage of hypertensive patients with controlled blood pressure levels was low and was associated with a high prevalence of obesity. These data indicate the need for reviewing the strategies of global treatment for hypertension.

  7. Studies on so-called redistribution phenomenon of cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between so-called redistribution phenomenon and metabolism or viability of the brain tissue, a new quantitative triple-radionuclide autoradiography was developed, whereby making it possible to compare both late images and reditribution of IMP with cerebral metabolism in experimentally induced unilateral ischemic brain tissue of rats. Iodine-123 IMP and I-125 IMP were used as tracers for early and late imaging, and H-3 amino acid mixture or H-3 H-2 deoxyglucose as a tracer for protein synthesis or glucose metabolism imaging. There was no significant relationship between redistribution index and protein synthesis or glucose metabolism. Protein synthesis was remarkably decreased in the affected hemisphere regardless of redistribution index values. Although the redistribution indices showed a gentle peak at approximately 34 μ mol/100 g/ min of glucose metabolism, there was no obvious relationship between either late images or redistribution index images and glucose metabolism images. Redistribution indices showed a maximum value at approximately 40 to 50 ml/100 g/min of cerebral blood flow. Reverse redistribution was observed with 160 ml/100 g/min or more of flow. Thin layer chromatographic findings were similar in the affected and non-affected resions, suggesting redistribution of a lipophilic IMP metabolite of p-iodoamphetamine in the affected region. In vitro autoradiography revealed no significant reduction in binding ability of IMP to the affected ischemic cortex. In a computer simulation study for brain activity curve, brain activity at 150 min was found to be almost constant at more than 25 ml/100 g/min of flow. IMP redistribution was unlikely to reflect directly either brain metabolism or function, and both blood flow partition coefficient and blood flow values were independently responsible for cerebral kinetics of IMP. (N.K.)

  8. Transesophageal Doppler measurement of renal arterial blood flow velocities and indices in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Luis; Ullah, Sana; Pierce, Carol D'Ann; Gautam, Nischal K; Schmitz, Michael L; Sachdeva, Ritu; Craychee, Judith A; Harrison, Dale; Killebrew, Pamela; Bornemeier, Renee A; Prodhan, Parthak

    2012-06-01

    Doppler-derived renal blood flow indices have been used to assess renal pathologies. However, transesophageal ultrasonography (TEE) has not been previously used to assess these renal variables in pediatric patients. In this study, we (a) assessed whether TEE allows adequate visualization of the renal parenchyma and renal artery, and (b) evaluated the concordance of TEE Doppler-derived renal blood flow measurements/indices compared with a standard transabdominal renal ultrasound (TAU) in children. This prospective cohort study enrolled 28 healthy children between the ages of 1 and 17 years without known renal dysfunction who were undergoing atrial septal defect device closure in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. TEE was used to obtain Doppler renal artery blood velocities (peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean diastolic velocity, resistive index, and pulsatility index), and these values were compared with measurements obtained by TAU. Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was used to determine clinically significant agreement between the 2 methods. The Bland-Altman plots were used to determine whether these 2 methods agree sufficiently to be used interchangeably. Statistical significance was accepted at P ≤ 0.05. Obtaining 2-dimensional images of kidney parenchyma and Doppler-derived measurements using TEE in children is feasible. There was statistically significant agreement between the 2 methods for all measurements. The CCC between the 2 imaging techniques was 0.91 for the pulsatility index and 0.66 for the resistive index. These coefficients were sensitive to outliers. When the highest and lowest data points were removed from the analysis, the CCC between the 2 imaging techniques was 0.62 for the pulsatility index and 0.50 for the resistive index. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for pulsatility index was 0.35 to 0.98 and for resistive index was 0.21 to 0.89. The Bland-Altman plots indicate good agreement between the 2 methods; for the

  9. Immersion technique as a tool for in-depth OCT imaging through human blood and body's interior tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Tuchin, Valery V.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2001-05-01

    The concept of refractive index matching used for the enhancement of optical penetration depth of the whole blood is discussed on the basis of in vitro studies using optical coherence tomography technique. It was found that blood optical clearing is defined not only by refractive index matching effect, but also by changes of RBC size and their aggregation ability when chemicals are added. Chemical agents studied include glycerol, propylene glycol, trazograph, and dextrans. For the hyperosmotic agents, the application of 6.5% glycerol into twice diluted blood reduces the total attenuation coefficient from 4.2/mm to 2.0/mm, and correspondingly increases the optical penetration at 820 nm up to 117%. Similar effects of increase in transmittance and decrease in light scattering are also demonstrated by various molecular detrans with the light penetration enhancement within a range between 52.1% and 150.5%. We also demonstrate that the use of biocompatible agents could enhance in-depth imaging of the human esophagus and stomach tissues.

  10. New noninvasive index for evaluation of the vascular age of healthy and sick people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Ilya; Kuznik, Boris I.; Kaminsky, Alexander V.; Shenkman, Louis; Kustovsjya, Evgeniya M.; Maximova, Olga G.

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a study on 861 healthy and sick subjects and demonstrated that some calculated parameters based on measurement of the dynamic light scattering (DLS) signal from the finger correlate highly with chronological age ranging from 1.5 to 85 years old. Measurements of DLS signals were obtained during both occlusion and nonocclusion of blood flow in the finger. For the nonocclusion case we found that the low-frequency component of the DLS signal significantly correlates with the biological age while the high-frequency component of the DLS signal resembles the arterial pulse-wave and does correlate with age. However, the most prominent correlation between the DLS characteristics and age was noted with the stasis stage measurements. We propose that the observed age-related phenomena are caused by alterations in local blood viscosity and interactions of the endothelial cells with erythrocytes. Further, a new noninvasive index based on the age-related optical characteristics was introduced. This noninvasive index may be used as a research and diagnostic tool to examine the endothelial and thrombolytic properties of the vascular system.

  11. Effects of parental smoking on exercise systolic blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Claudia; Weisser, Burkhard

    2015-05-11

    In adults, exercise blood pressure seems to be more closely related to cardiovascular risk than resting blood pressure; however, few data are available on the effects of familial risk factors, including smoking habits, on exercise blood pressure in adolescents. Blood pressure at rest and during exercise, parental smoking, and other familial risk factors were investigated in 532 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (14.6±1.5 years) in the Kiel EX.PRESS. (EXercise PRESSure) Study. Exercise blood pressure was determined at 1.5 W/kg body weight using a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Mean resting blood pressure was 113.1±12.8/57.2±7.1 mm Hg, and exercise blood pressure was 149.9±19.8/54.2±8.6 mm Hg. Parental smoking increased exercise systolic blood pressure (+4.0 mm Hg, 3.1 to 4.9; P=0.03) but not resting blood pressure of the subjects (adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index percentile, fitness). Parental overweight and familial hypertension were related to both higher resting and exercise systolic blood pressure values, whereas associations with an inactive lifestyle and a low educational level of the parents were found only with adolescents' blood pressure during exercise. The cumulative effect of familial risk factors on exercise systolic blood pressure was more pronounced than on blood pressure at rest. Parental smoking might be a novel risk factor for higher blood pressure, especially during exercise. In addition, systolic blood pressure during a submaximal exercise test was more closely associated with familial risk factors than was resting blood pressure, even in adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. [Association of abo blood groups with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huidobro M, Andrea; Torres C, Demetrio; Paredes, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood systems are associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2). Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is a model to study DM. To study the association between GDM and ABO and Rhesus groups. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 1,078 women who gave birth to a singleton in Talca Regional Hospital, Chile, during 2008. We analyzed personal, obstetric, medical data and ABO and Rh blood groups. GDM was diagnosed in 6.6% of women. Age and body mass index were significantly associated with GDM. There were no differences in Rh blood groups (p = 0.604), while ABO groups were different between GDM and controls. B antigen was present in 3% of GDM women and in 10.8% of controls (p = 0.037), with an odds ratio of 0.25 after adjusting for other associated risk factors (p = 0.06). ABO group is suggested as a possible protector marker for GDM.

  13. Lean mass influences overnight changes in hydration, blood pressure and strength in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Melissa J; Schlairet, Maura C

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that greater lean mass promotes better overnight hydration, improved postural blood pressure and greater strength. Thirty women, aged 71 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SE), completed one measurement in a euhydrated state and another the following morning after an overnight fast. Measurements included hydration, lean mass, orthostatic blood pressure and strength. Participants were grouped by fat-free mass index (FFMI), with cut-points defined as low (blood pressure. On day 1, women with low FFMI experienced significant postural systolic blood pressure changes from sitting to standing (-11.3 ± 4.0 mmHg, p postural blood pressure and loss of strength that increases the risk for early morning falls.

  14. Assessment of pancreatic blood flow with positron emission tomography and oxygen-15 water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Soichi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Magata, Yasutaka; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Tamaki, Nagara; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed following an intravenous bolus injection of 15 O-water for the assessment of regional pancreatic blood flow in 4 normal volunteers and 11 patients with pancreatic cancer. The regional pancreatic blood flow index (PFI) was calculated by the autoradiographic method assuming the time-activity curves of the aorta as an input function. The mean PFI value was 0.514±0.098 in the normal pancreas but it was decrease in the pancreatic cancer (0.247±0.076) (p 15 O-water permits quantitative assessment of pancreatic blood flow which decreased in both pancreatic cancer and concomitant obstructive pancreatitis distal to the tumor. (author)

  15. Impact of Endogenous and Exogenous Interferences on Clinical Chemistry Parameters Measured on Blood Gas Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieme, Caleb V; Voss, Dena R; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) was determined for residual whole blood specimens analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on blood gas analyzers. The frequency and potential impact of exogenous interference from iodide, salicylate, and thiocyanate (metabolite of sodium nitroprusside) on analysis of whole blood chloride was also assessed. Over an approximately two month period at an academic medical center, indices for HIL were determined on Roche cobas c502 analyzers for 1,986 residual whole blood specimens that had been previously analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on Radiometer ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzers. To examine exogenous interferences, retrospective analysis was performed over multiple years to ascertain whether patient samples analyzed for whole blood chloride were potentially affected by interference from iodide, salicylate, or thiocyanate. Some degree of hemolysis (defined as hemolysis index of greater than 60) was present in 9.7% of the whole blood specimens. Increasing rates of hemolysis were associated with higher whole blood potassium concentrations. Nearly 60% of specimens with potassium concentrations between 6.0 and 6.9 mEq/L had hemolysis indices of 100 or greater, and 75% of specimens with a potassium concentration of 7.0 mEq/L or greater were severely hemolyzed (hemolysis index of 300 or greater). In contrast to the hemolysis results, icterus and lipemia were determined to have minimal impact on patient results. For the exogenous interferences, we did not identify any patient samples where elevated salicylate levels or pharmaceutical iodide administration overlapped with whole blood chloride analysis (out of 75,887 and 169,229 total chloride measurements, respectively). We did, however, find that for patients receiving nitroprusside therapy in the inpatient setting, whole blood chloride concentrations were significantly higher during nitroprusside therapy [106.7 +/- 6.2 mEq/L (mean, SD)] compared to before

  16. Effects of Artemisia dracunculus Aqueous Extract on Blood Sugar, Serum Insulin, Triglyceride and Liver Enzymes in Fructose Drinking Water Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Artemisia are various groups of plants which are used as an herbal medicine in all countries; the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia dracunculus (AD leaves aqueous extract on blood sugar, serum insulin, and triglyceride and liver enzymes in Fructose Drinking water (FDW male rats. Methods At the beginning of experiment, 48 Wistar-albino male rats, weighing 200 - 250g were divided into control (C and FDW groups (n = 24. FDW group received FDW (10%, w/v for a month but control group did not receive any agents during the trial period. A half of control and FDW groups received AD L aqueous extract daily during trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from cervical vessels. Serum insulin, Blood glucose, insulin resistance index, triglyceride and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-17 via one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results Our results showed that serum insulin, blood sugar, insulin resistance index, triglyceride, Aspartate amino transferase (AST and Alanine amino transferase (ALT values in FDW group significantly increased compared to C and C + E groups but these values in group FDW + E were significantly decreases compared to group FDW (P < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that AD L aqueous extract improves blood sugar, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and liver enzymes in rat model.

  17. Left Ventricular Geometry and Blood Pressure as Predictors of Adverse Progression of Fabry Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Johannes; Bijnens, Bart; Störk, Stefan; Ritter, Christian O; Liu, Dan; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In spite of several research studies help to describe the heart in Fabry disease (FD), the cardiomyopathy is not entirely understood. In addition, the impact of blood pressure and alterations in geometry have not been systematically evaluated. In 74 FD patients (mean age 36±12 years; 45 females) the extent of myocardial fibrosis and its progression were quantified using cardiac magnetic-resonance-imaging with late enhancement technique (LE). Results were compared to standard echocardiography complemented by 2D-speckle-tracking, 3D-sphericity-index (SI) and standardized blood pressure measurement. At baseline, no patient received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). After 51±24 months, a follow-up examination was performed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in patients with vs. without LE: 123±17 mmHg vs. 115±13 mmHg; P = 0.04. A positive correlation was found between SI and the amount of LE-positive myocardium (r = 0.51; PAUC = 0.785; P<0.05). LV geometry as assessed by the sphericity index is altered in relation to the stage of the Fabry cardiomyopathy. Although patients with FD are not hypertensive, the SBP has a clear impact on the progression of the cardiomyopathy.

  18. Blood pressure patterns and body mass index status in pregnancy: An assessment among women reporting for antenatal care at the Korle-Bu Teaching hospital, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Ogum-Alangea, Deda; Modey-Amoah, Emefa; Ntumy, Michael Yao; Adanu, Richard M; Oppong, Samuel A

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity in pregnancy has been linked with increased risk of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). In some tertiary referral hospitals in Ghana, PIH is the leading cause of institutional maternal mortality. To evaluate blood pressure changes during pregnancy amongst different body mass index (BMI) groups and how this relates to the risk of developing PIH. Women who had a dating ultrasound before 20 weeks gestation and registering for antenatal care at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, between February and December 2013 and met the inclusion criteria were recruited into a cohort study. BMI was assessed at baseline. Blood pressure measurements were taken at (±2) 24, 28 and 36 weeks. Primary outcome measure of interest during follow-up was a diagnosis of PIH at these points. BP changes during follow up at the three points were measured. Descriptive analysis of baseline factors was carried out and compared for the BMI groups. Relative risk (RR) of PIH was estimated at 95% confidence interval. Mean (SD) age for the 361 women was 30.9 (4.8) years. Incidence of PIH amongst the cohort was 10.5% (95% CI: 7.45% - 14.45%) and 40.4% and 33.0% of them were overweight and obese respectively at baseline. Pregnant women who were obese at baseline had a three-fold increased risk of PIH compared to those with normal BMI [RR = 3.01 (1.06-8.52), p = 0.04]. Obese women have a significantly increased risk of PIH. Women should be screened at booking for obesity status. Antenatal protocols should have interventions for prevention or early detection of obesity and management of obesity to improve outcomes.

  19. Comparison of the significance of the RENAL, PADUA, and C-index nephrometric scales for the prediction of the complexity of laparoscopic nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Alyaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the predictive value of RENAL, PADUA, C-index nephrometry score systems according to projection of complexity  of operative measure in terms of warm ischaemic time, extent of blood loss and rate of postoperative complications.Materials and methods. Information for the research was collected from 314 patients with localized kidney cancer, who had laparoscopic partial nephrectomy from January 2012 to May 2017. In 210 (66.8 % cases, in addition to the routine examinations, 3D modelling and operative measure planning were carried out. The average tumor volume of the patients was equal to 62.5 ± 33.5 mm3. All patients before  the operation were estimated the complexity of operative measure on the nephrometry score systems: PADUA, RENAL, C-index. The average sum of balls according to scale RENAL – 7.56 ± 1.12, on scale PADUA – 7.98 ± 1.55, on scale C-index – 2.76 ± 1.14. Then in retrospect by the method of logistic regression analysis was determined predictive value of RENAL, PADUA, C-index nephrometry score systems for prediction of warm ischaemic time, duration of operative measure, extent of intraoperative blood loss and possibility of rate of postoperative complications.Results. In 265 (84.4 cases transperitoneal approach was perfomed and in 49 (15.6 % cases it was retroperitoneal approach. The average time of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is 140.15 ± 55.8 min, the average time of ischaemic warm is 13.35 ± 7,65 min. The average extent of blood loss during the laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is 291.95 ± 196.5 ml. Intraoperative complications were found in 8 (2.54 % cases. Postoperative complications were estimated according to the Clavien–Dindo classification of surgical complications and were found in 31  (9.9 % cases, among them 12 (3.8 % patients had surgical complications. The index of the RENAL nephrometry scoring system had the highest predictive value in the multivariant analysis for warm ischaemic

  20. Do pelagic grazers benefit from sea ice? Insights from the Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice affects primary production in polar regions in multiple ways. It can dampen water column productivity by reducing light or nutrient supply, provide a habitat for ice algae and condition the marginal ice zone (MIZ for phytoplankton blooms on its seasonal retreat. The relative importance of three different carbon sources (sea ice derived, sea ice conditioned, non-sea-ice associated for the polar food web is not well understood, partly due to the lack of methods that enable their unambiguous distinction. Here we analysed two highly branched isoprenoid (HBI biomarkers to trace sea-ice-derived and sea-ice-conditioned carbon in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba and relate their concentrations to the grazers' body reserves, growth and recruitment. During our sampling in January–February 2003, the proxy for sea ice diatoms (a di-unsaturated HBI termed IPSO25, δ13C  =  −12.5 ± 3.3 ‰ occurred in open waters of the western Scotia Sea, where seasonal ice retreat was slow. In suspended matter from surface waters, IPSO25 was present at a few stations close to the ice edge, but in krill the marker was widespread. Even at stations that had been ice-free for several weeks, IPSO25 was found in krill stomachs, suggesting that they gathered the ice-derived algae from below the upper mixed layer. Peak abundances of the proxy for MIZ diatoms (a tri-unsaturated HBI termed HBI III, δ13C  =  −42.2 ± 2.4 ‰ occurred in regions of fast sea ice retreat and persistent salinity-driven stratification in the eastern Scotia Sea. Krill sampled in the area defined by the ice edge bloom likewise contained high amounts of HBI III. As indicators for the grazer's performance we used the mass–length ratio, size of digestive gland and growth rate for krill, and recruitment for the biomass-dominant calanoid copepods Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus. These indices consistently point to blooms in the MIZ as an important feeding

  1. Do pelagic grazers benefit from sea ice? Insights from the Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Brown, Thomas A.; Belt, Simon T.; Ireland, Louise C.; Taylor, Kyle W. R.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Ward, Peter; Atkinson, Angus

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice affects primary production in polar regions in multiple ways. It can dampen water column productivity by reducing light or nutrient supply, provide a habitat for ice algae and condition the marginal ice zone (MIZ) for phytoplankton blooms on its seasonal retreat. The relative importance of three different carbon sources (sea ice derived, sea ice conditioned, non-sea-ice associated) for the polar food web is not well understood, partly due to the lack of methods that enable their unambiguous distinction. Here we analysed two highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers to trace sea-ice-derived and sea-ice-conditioned carbon in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and relate their concentrations to the grazers' body reserves, growth and recruitment. During our sampling in January-February 2003, the proxy for sea ice diatoms (a di-unsaturated HBI termed IPSO25, δ13C = -12.5 ± 3.3 ‰) occurred in open waters of the western Scotia Sea, where seasonal ice retreat was slow. In suspended matter from surface waters, IPSO25 was present at a few stations close to the ice edge, but in krill the marker was widespread. Even at stations that had been ice-free for several weeks, IPSO25 was found in krill stomachs, suggesting that they gathered the ice-derived algae from below the upper mixed layer. Peak abundances of the proxy for MIZ diatoms (a tri-unsaturated HBI termed HBI III, δ13C = -42.2 ± 2.4 ‰) occurred in regions of fast sea ice retreat and persistent salinity-driven stratification in the eastern Scotia Sea. Krill sampled in the area defined by the ice edge bloom likewise contained high amounts of HBI III. As indicators for the grazer's performance we used the mass-length ratio, size of digestive gland and growth rate for krill, and recruitment for the biomass-dominant calanoid copepods Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus. These indices consistently point to blooms in the MIZ as an important feeding ground for pelagic grazers. Even though ice

  2. Traffic congestion and blood pressure elevation: A comparative cross-sectional study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Samra, Patrick; El Tomb, Paul; Hosni, Mohammad; Kassem, Ahmad; Rizk, Robin; Shayya, Sami; Assaad, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    This comparative cross-sectional study examines the association between traffic congestion and elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure levels among a convenience sample of 310 drivers. Data collection took place during a gas station pause at a fixed time of day. Higher average systolic (142 vs 123 mm Hg) and diastolic (87 vs 78 mm Hg) blood pressures were detected among drivers exposed to traffic congestion compared with those who were not exposed (P<.001), while controlling for body mass index, age, sex, pack-year smoking, driving hours per week, and occupational driving. Moreover, among persons exposed to traffic congestion, longer exposure time was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the significant association between elevated blood pressure and traffic congestion. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J-R; Lin, T-Y; Shieh, J-S; Chen, Y; Huang, N E; Wu, Z; Peng, C-K

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven