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Sample records for blood glucose concentrations

  1. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    discussions which allowed to receive direct feedback from the point of view of different disciplines. This book is based on the contributions of that workshop and is intended to convey an overview of the different aspects involved in the prediction. The individual chapters are based on the presentations given...... EEG signals to predict upcoming hypoglycemic situations in real-time by employing artificial neural networks. The results of a 30-day long clinical study with the implanted device and the developed algorithm are presented. The chapter “Meta-Learning Based Blood Glucose Predictor for Diabetic...... on the net effect of meals on the blood glucose concentration. By assuming that all major unexplained glycemic excursions can be vi Preface attributed to oral glucose ingestion, a meal vector is estimated which significantly improves the mathematical model. Results are shown on three patients during...

  2. Blood glucose concentration in pediatric outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonviboon, W; Kijmahatrakul, W

    1996-04-01

    Blood glucose concentration was measured in 84 pediatric patients who were scheduled for outpatient surgery at Chulalongkorn Hospital. They were allocated into 3 groups according to their ages, group 1:less than 1 year of age, group 2:1 to 5 years of age and group 3:over 5 years. The fasting times were approximately 8-12 hours. All patients received standard general anesthesia under mask. No glucose solution was given during operation. Preoperative mean blood glucose were 91.09 +/- 17.34, 89.55 +/- 18.69 and 82.14 +/- 16.14 mg/dl in group 1, 2 and 3 while the postoperative mean glucose values were 129.07 +/- 37.90, 115.62 +/- 29.63 and 111.53 +/- 23.07 mg/dl respectively. The difference between pre- and post-operative values were statistically significant difference (P postoperative glucose values may be due to stress response from surgery and anesthesia. We would suggest that the parents give the fluid to their children according to our instructions in order to prevent dehydration and hypoglycemia especially in small infants.

  3. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  4. Mibefradil reduces blood glucose concentration in db/db mice

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    Yujie Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Numerous recent studies suggest that abnormal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i is a common defect in diabetic animal models and patients. Abnormal calcium handling is an important mechanism in the defective pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. T-type Ca2+ channel antagonists lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the effect of the Ca2+ channel antagonist mibefradil on blood glucose in male db/db mice and phenotypically normal heterozygous mice by intraperitoneal injection. RESULTS: Mibefradil (15 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d. caused a profound reduction of fasting blood glucose from 430.92±20.46 mg/dl to 285.20±5.74 mg/dl in three days. The hypoglycemic effect of mibefradil was reproduced by NNC 55-0396, a compound structurally similar to mibefradil but more selective for T-type Ca2+ channels, but not by the specific L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Mibefradil did not show such hypoglycemic effects in heterozygous animals. In addition, triglycerides, basal insulin and food intake were significantly decreased by mibefradil treatment in the db/db mice but not in the controls. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining showed a significantly increased expression of T-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 in liver and brain tissues from db/db mice compared to those from heterozygous animals. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggest that T-type Ca2+ channels are potential therapeutic targets for antidiabetic drugs.

  5. Prediction methods for blood glucose concentration design, use and evaluation

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    Jørgensen, John; Renard, Eric; Re, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This book tackles the problem of overshoot and undershoot in blood glucose levels caused by delay in the effects of carbohydrate consumption and insulin administration. The ideas presented here will be very important in maintaining the welfare of insulin-dependent diabetics and avoiding the damaging effects of unpredicted swings in blood glucose – accurate prediction enables the implementation of counter-measures. The glucose prediction algorithms described are also a key and critical ingredient of automated insulin delivery systems, the so-called “artificial pancreas”. The authors address the topic of blood-glucose prediction from medical, scientific and technological points of view. Simulation studies are utilized for complementary analysis but the primary focus of this book is on real applications, using clinical data from diabetic subjects. The text details the current state of the art by surveying prediction algorithms, and then moves beyond it with the most recent advances in data-based modeling o...

  6. Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenliang Chen(陈文亮); Rong Liu(刘蓉); Houxin Cui(崔厚欣); Kexin Xu(徐可欣); Lina Lü(吕丽娜)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed,and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/1, respectively.

  7. Classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Li, Gang; Yan, Wen-Juan; Lin, Ling

    2014-11-01

    Developing noninvasive blood glucose monitoring method is an to immense need to alleviate the pain and suffering of diabetics associated with the frequent pricking of skin for taking blood sample. A hybrid algorithm for multivariate calibration is proposed to improve the prediction performance of classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy noninvasively. The algorithm is based on wavelet prism modified uninformative variable elimination approach (WP-mUVE) combined with least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), named as WP-mUVE-LSSVM. The method is successfully applied to diabetic classification experiment (in vivo) and blood glucose concentration measurement experiment (in vivo) respectively. Human tongue is selected as the measuring site in this study. To evaluate effectiveness of pretreatment method and quality of calibration models, several usually used pretreatment methods and kernel functions of LSSVM are introduced comparing with our method. Higher quality data is obtained by our pretreatment method owing to the elimination of varying background and noise of spectra data simultaneously. Better prediction accuracy and adaptability are obtained by LSSVM model with radial basis kernel function. The results indicate that WP-mUVE-LSSVM holds promise for the classification of diabetes and measurement of blood glucose concentration noninvasively based on human tongue using NIR spectroscopy.

  8. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    : Diabetes confers about a two-fold excess risk for a wide range of vascular diseases, independently from other conventional risk factors. In people without diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration is modestly and non-linearly associated with risk of vascular disease. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation......, UK Medical Research Council, and Pfizer....

  9. Blood concentrations of lactate, glucose and corticosterone in dispersing hatchling sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. Pereira

    2012-11-01

    Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L, glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim.

  10. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when ...

  11. Blood Glucose Levels

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    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  12. Determination of Blood Glucose Concentration by Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajravelu Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early and non-invasive determination of blood glucose level is of great importance. We aimed to present a new technique to accurately infer the blood glucose concentration in peripheral blood flow using non-invasive optical monitoring system.Methods: The data for the research were obtained from 900 individuals. Of them, 750 people had diabetes mellitus (DM. The system was designed using a helium neon laser source of 632.8 nm wavelength with 5mW power, photo detectors and digital storage oscilloscope. The laser beam was directed through a single optical fiber to the index finger and the scattered beams were collected by the photo detectors placed circumferentially to the transmitting fiber. The received signals were filtered using band pass filter and finally sent to a digital storage oscilloscope. These signals were then decomposed into approximation and detail coefficients using modified Haar Wavelet Transform. Back propagation neural and radial basis functions were employed for the prediction of blood glucose concentration.Results: The data of 450 patients were randomly used for training, 225 for testing and the rest for validation. The data showed that outputs from radial basis function were nearer to the clinical value. Significant variations could be seen from signals obtained from patients with DM and those without DM.Conclusion: The proposed non-invasive optical glucose monitoring system is able to predict the glucose concentration by proving that there is a definite variation in hematological distribution between patients with DM and those without DM.

  13. Determination of time delay between blood and interstitial adipose tissue glucose concentration change by microdialysis in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, KJC; Schoonen, AJM

    2001-01-01

    For the development and use of subcutaneous glucose sensors it is important to know the time lag between changes in blood glucose and subcutaneous interstitial glucose concentration. To determine the time lag we inserted a microdialysis probe into the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy

  14. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  15. Low Red Blood Cell Vitamin C Concentrations Induce Red Blood Cell Fragility: A Link to Diabetes Via Glucose, Glucose Transporters, and Dehydroascorbic Acid

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    Hongbin Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin. These aberrancies reversed with ascorbate repletion in vivo. Under physiologic conditions, only ascorbate's oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid (DHA, a substrate for facilitated glucose transporters, was transported into mouse and human RBCs, with immediate intracellular reduction to ascorbate. In vitro, glucose inhibited entry of physiologic concentrations of dehydroascorbic acid into mouse and human RBCs. In vivo, plasma glucose concentrations in normal and diabetic mice and humans were inversely related to respective RBC ascorbate concentrations, as was osmotic fragility. Human RBC β-spectrin declined as diabetes worsened. Taken together, hyperglycemia in diabetes produced lower RBC ascorbate with increased RBC rigidity, a candidate to drive microvascular angiopathy. Because glucose transporter expression, DHA transport, and its inhibition by glucose differed for mouse versus human RBCs, human experimentation is indicated.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  17. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

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    Konstantinos T Tsaousis

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study confirms that dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels are prevalent among the rural populations of Greece and therefore informative campaigns and structured screening programs are required to promote preventive health care.

  18. Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y. T.; Kuang, Y. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Gu, P. C.; Wei, H. J.; Chen, K.

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to noninvasively monitor the blood glucose concentration (BGC) in healthy subjects with good accuracy and acceptable specificity. Based on this, the paper further considered the possibility of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients. The OCT signal slope (OCTSS) changed with variation of BGC. The correlation coefficient R between BGC and OCTSS in diabetic patients was 0.91; while the correlation coefficient R in healthy volunteers was 0.78. Thus, a better linear dependence of OCTSS on BGC in diabetic patients was presented in the experiment. The results showed that the capability and accuracy of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC of diabetic patients, and the noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients may be better than the monitoring in the healthy subjects.

  19. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentrations by pet owners: a new tool in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Martina; Wess, Gerhard; Reusch, Claudia E

    2002-01-01

    Recently a new method for capillary blood sampling from the ears of dogs and cats was described, which allows the measurement of glucose concentration by means of portable glucose meters. The authors of this report evaluated the suitability of this method for use by pet owners and the potential technical problems. The owners of seven healthy dogs and seven healthy cats were asked to perform two glucose curves (measuring blood glucose concentration every 2 hours for a total of 12 hours). All dog owners and three cat owners were able to perform a reliable blood glucose curve. The most frequently encountered problems were inadequate formation of a blood drop due to excessive digital pressure on the pinna, repeatedly depressing the plunger of the lancet device instead of allowing the negative pressure to slowly build up, and failure to fill the test strip up to the mark. The authors conclude that these steps of the procedure need to be stressed during technique demonstration and that home monitoring of blood glucose concentrations may serve as a new tool in the management of diabetic dogs and cats.

  20. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein and the mesen......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...... and the mesenteric artery and a flow probe around the portal vein to allow assessment of nutrient absorption using Fick's principle. In Exp. 1, six sows (mean LW = 202 ± 28 kg) were fed three diets containing 517, 216 or 225 g/kg DM of starch, respectively. In Exp. 2, six female pigs (mean LW = 59 ± 2 kg) were fed...... three different diets with similar contents of starch (470-506 g/kg DM). The diets in both studies differed regarding amount and solubility of fibre. Blood samples were collected repeatedly 0-10 h after morning feeding. Glucose was measured in whole blood using a glucometer (Accu-Chek®) and in plasma...

  1. Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations in a Mediterranean Rural Population of Andros Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaousis, Konstantinos T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study conducted as part of a screening program for the promotion of community health in the primary care setting of Ormos Korthi in Andros, Greece. The objective of this study was to identify the levels of glucose and total cholesterol in individuals without major cardiovascular problems in order to identify cases of undetected dyslipidemia and high blood glucose levels, in a rural population located in the southern part of Andros Island, Greece. Methods: In total, 242 in...

  2. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p < 0.001). The concentration of fasting blood glucose slightly increased with body weight in males (r = 0.152, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in females, the body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p < 0.001). Additionally, 17 tree shrews with Lee index [body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, 6 of 992 tree shrews (three males and three females, 2-4 years old) displayed impaired plasma triglycerides, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein and oral glucose tolerance test, suggestive of the early symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study provides the first clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS.

  3. Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young healthy male subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wezendonk, B.; Srikumar, T.S.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the intake of 15 g nondigestible oligosaccharides per day on various parameters of large-bowel function, as well as on blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in man. Design: Latin square, randomized, double-blind, diet-controlled. Setting: Metabolic resea

  4. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  5. GUAR GUM EFFECTS ON BLOOD SERUM LIPIDS AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS OF WISTAR DIABETIC RATS1

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    Andrea DARIO FRIAS

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture on diabetic rats were studied concerning food intake, body weight gain, blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The effect of gum on indexes of protein absorption and utilization was also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w guar gum were fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all animals, guar gum diet significantly decreased (p Os efeitos da goma guar derivada do endosperma de Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% fibra solúvel, 7,6% fibra insolúvel, 2,16% proteína bruta, 0,78% lipídios totais, 0,54% cinza e 9,55% umidade foram estudados em relação à ingestão de alimento, ganho de peso corporal, concentrações séricas de colesterol, triacilgliceróis, glicose, HDL e LDL-colesterol. O efeito da goma sobre índices de absorção e utilização de proteína também foi investigado. Dietas contendo 0%, 10% e 20% de goma guar foram utilizadas na alimentação de ratos diabéticos por 28 dias. Apesar do diabetes ter elevado os lipídios sangüíneos em todos animais, as dietas com goma guar decresceram significantemente (p <0,05 as concentrações séricas de colesterol e triacilgliceróis. Além disso, foi encontrado um aumento no nível de HDL-colesterol, com uma elevação substancial na relação de HDL/LDL colesterol. O resultado mais significativo deste ensaio, foi a drástica redução da glicose sangüínea nos ratos diabéticos tratados com dietas contendo goma guar. A goma promoveu uma melhora geral nas condições dos animais diabéticos, no ganho de peso corporal e nos índices de absorção e utilização protéica. Os resultados desta pesquisa sugerem que a goma guar, em concentrações igual ou superiores a 10%, podem ser

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  10. Glucose concentration and blood acid-basis status in high-yielding dairy cows during heat stress

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    Vujanac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effect of heat stress on glucose and pH values in blood of high-yielding dairy cows in the early stage of lactation, as well as to determine whether the changes in these parameters are interdependent under such conditions. An experiment was performed on high-yielding dairy cows during the summer and the spring periods. Forty cows were selected, twenty each for the two periods under investigation. In the course of the experiment, the temperature humidity index (THI was determined for the entire period of investigations, and then also the average daily THI, nightmorning THI (average value of hourly THI measured from 22h on the previous day until 10h of the current day, as well as the day-night THI (average value of hourly THI measured during the period from 10h to 22h of the current day. The pH and glucose concentration were determined in blood samples taken in the morning and afternoon of days 30, 60, and 90 of lactation during the spring and summer periods of the investigations. Based on the results for the THI, it was established that the animals were not exposed to the effect of extreme heat stress during the spring period of investigations, while they were periodically exposed to moderate but also extreme heat stress during the summer, in particular in the afternoon hours. It can be concluded from the results obtained for the blood pH that the cows were in respiratory alkalosis during the summer in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30, in the afternoon hours of days 60 and 90 of lactation, as well as in the afternoon on day 90 of lactation during the spring period of investigations. During the summer period, there were no statistically significant differences between the pH value determined in the morning and afternoon hours on day 30 of lactation, while the pH value was significantly higher in the afternoon hours than in the morning hours on days 60 and 90 of lactation. There were no

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer.

  13. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    OpenAIRE

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor...

  14. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Jurysta

    2009-01-01

    saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  15. Glycated haemoglobin may in future be reported as estimated mean blood glucose concentration--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Nerup, J.; Nathan, D.M.;

    2009-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) is widely used to determine levels of chronic glycaemia, to judge the adequacy of diabetes treatment and to adjust therapy. HbA 1c results are expressed as the percentage of HbA that is glycated. Day-to-day management is guided by self-monitoring of capillary glucose...

  16. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally;

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances....

  17. 肝龙胶囊对小鼠血糖浓度的影响%Effect of Ganlong Capsule on Blood Glucose Concentration of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂罗兰; 单华; 史彩艳; 李敬美; 彭芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究肝龙胶囊对正常小鼠血糖及肾上腺素致高血糖模型小鼠的血糖浓度的影响。方法:采用葡萄糖氧化酶法测定正常小鼠的血糖浓度及肾上腺素诱导小鼠高血糖不同处理后的血糖浓度变化。结果:肝龙胶囊对正常小鼠血糖浓度无影响,而对肾上腺素高血糖模型小鼠有显著的降糖作用(P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论:肝龙胶囊能降低肾上腺素性高血糖小鼠的血糖浓度,对正常小鼠血糖浓度无影响。%Objective: To investigate the effect of Ganlong capsule on blood glucose concentration on normal mice and adrenaline induced hyperglycemic mice. Methods:We observed the changes of blood glucose concentration on model mice by the glucose oxidase method. Results: Ganlong capsule has no effect on the blood glucose concentration on normal mice, but obvious hypoglycemic effect on adrenaline induced hyperglycemia model mice (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: Ganlong capsule could decrease the blood glucose concentration in adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic mice, but has no effect on the normal mice blood glucose concentration.

  18. Comparison of a human portable glucometer and an automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Larrat, Sylvain; Brown, Dorothy C

    2014-09-01

    This study compared blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucometer and a validated laboratory analyzer in venous blood samples of 20 pet ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Correlation and agreement were evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot method and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Blood glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer and the glucometer ranged from 1.9 to 8.6 mmol/L and from 0.9 to 9.2 mmol/L, respectively. The glucometer had a poor agreement and correlation with the laboratory analyzer (bias, -0.13 mmol/L; level of agreement, -2.0 to 3.6 mmol/L, concordance correlation coefficient 0.665). The relative sensitivity and specificity of the portable blood glucometer for detection of hypoglycemia were 100% (95% CI: 66% to 100%) and 50% (95% CI: 20% to 80%), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 67% (95% CI: 39% to 87%) and 100% (95% CI: 46% to 100%), respectively. Based on these results, clinicians are advised to be cautious when considering the results from this handheld glucometer in pet ferrets, and blood glucose concentrations should be determined with a laboratory analyzer validated for this species.

  19. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease : a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarwar, N.; Gao, P.; Seshasai, S. R. Kondapally; Gobin, R.; Kaptoge, S.; Di Angelantonio, E.; Ingelsson, E.; Lawlor, D. A.; Selvin, E.; Stampfer, M.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; Lewington, S.; Pennells, L.; Thompson, A.; Sattar, N.; White, I. R.; Ray, K. K.; Danesh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. Methods We undertook a meta-analysis o

  20. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood...... glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding...... with and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. RESULTS: The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were...

  1. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  2. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation...... of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...... to the risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Grant Money is Divided Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: ... they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs ...

  5. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  6. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene eDiepenbroek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of one hour. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.

  7. 全自动生化仪与快速血糖仪测定血糖浓度的比较%Comparison between automatic biochemical analyzer and rapid blood sugar meter for determining glucose blood concen-tration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴高; 成平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度与快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度的相关性及差异。方法采集该院200名住院患者的血液标本,同一患者同时采集静脉促凝血清标本与静脉抗凝全血标本,采用全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度,同时采用快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,比较2组血糖浓度测定结果。结果191名患者的静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显大于其静脉抗凝全血标本血糖浓度,差异范围在0.50~1.50 mmol/L ,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论全自动生化仪测定静脉促凝血清标本血糖浓度明显高于快速血糖仪测定静脉抗凝全血标本的血糖浓度。%Objective To investigate the correlation and difference between the automatic biochemical analyzer for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant serum specimens and the fast blood glucose meter for determining the blood glucose concentration in the venous coagulant whole blood specimens .Methods The blood specimens of 200 inpatients in the Geleshan Branch Hospital were collected ,venous coagulant serum specimens and the venous coagulant whole blood specimens in the same patient were simultaneously collected .The automatic bi‐ochemical analyzer was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens ,and at the same time the rapid blood glucose meter was adopted to detect the blood glucose concentration of venous coagu‐lant whole blood specimens .The blood glucose detection results were compared between the two detection methods . Results In 191 patients ,the blood glucose concentration of venous coagulant serum specimens was significantly grea‐ter than that of the venous coagulant whole blood specimens ,the difference range was 0 .50 -1 .50 mmol/L ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05

  8. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the putative associations of plasma copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin and a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, with obesity-related health problems, such as hyperlipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, high blood pressure and an android fat...... blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin......, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men....

  9. Direct measurements of blood glucose concentration in the presence of saccharide interferences using slope and bias orthogonal signal correction and Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookasis, David; Workman, Jerome J

    2011-02-01

    Saccharide interferences such as Dextran, Galactose, etc. have a great potential to interfere with near infrared (NIR) glucose analysis since they have a similar spectroscopic fingerprint and are present physiologically at large relative concentrations. These can lead to grossly inappropriate interpretation of patient glucose levels and resultant treatment in critical care and hospital settings. This study describes a methodology to reduce this effect on glucose analysis using an NIR Fourier transform spectroscopy method combined with a multivariate calibration technique (PLS) using preprocessing by orthogonal signal correction (OSC). A mathematical approach based on the use of a single calibration based bias and slope correction was applied in addition to a standard OSC was investigated. This approach is combined with a factorial interferent calibration design to accommodate for interference effects. We named this approach as a slope and bias OSC (sbOSC). sbOSC differs from OSC in the way it handles the prediction. In sbOSC, statistics on slope and bias obtained from a set of calibration samples are then used as a validation parameter in the prediction set. Healthy human volunteer blood with different glucose (80 to 200 mg/dL) and hematocrit (24 to 48 vol.%) levels containing high expected levels of inteferents have been measured with a transmittance near-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operates in the broadband spectral range of 1.25-2.5 μm (4000-8000 cm(-1)). The effect of six interferents compounds used in intensive care and operating rooms, namely Dextran, Fructose, Galactose, Maltose, Mannitol, and Xylose, were tested on blood glucose. A maximum interference effect (MIE) parameter was used to rank the significance for the individual interferent type on measurement error relative to the total NIR whole blood glucose measurement error. For comparison, a YSI (Yellow Springs Instrument) laboratory reference glucose analyzer and NIR data were collected at

  10. Oral Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose concentrations and promotes cardiac function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-02-01

    Impaired regulation of blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and the associated elevation of blood glucose levels are known to increase the risk of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). In the present study, a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32, was evaluated for its potential to reduce blood glucose levels and to provide protection against DC risks in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rats. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-induced DM rats when treated with L. reuteri GMN-32 decreased from 4480 to 3620 mg/l (with 10⁷ colony-forming units (cfu)/d) and 3040 mg/l (with 10⁹ cfu/d). Probiotic treatment also reduced the changes in the heart caused by the effects of DM. Furthermore, the Fas/Fas-associated protein with death domain pathway-induced caspase 8-mediated apoptosis that was observed in the cardiomyocytes of the STZ-induced DM rats was also found to be controlled in the probiotic-treated rats. The results highlight that L. reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose levels, inhibits caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and promotes cardiac function in DM rats as observed from their ejection fraction and fractional shortening values. In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats.

  11. In vivo blood glucose quantification using Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Shao

    Full Text Available We here propose a novel Raman spectroscopy method that permits the noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration. To reduce the effects of the strong background signals produced by surrounding tissue and to obtain the fingerprint Raman lines formed by blood analytes, a laser was focused on the blood in vessels in the skin. The Raman spectra were collected transcutaneously. Characteristic peaks of glucose (1125 cm(-1 and hemoglobin (1549 cm(-1 were observed. Hemoglobin concentration served as an internal standard, and the ratio of the peaks that appeared at 1125 cm(-1 and 1549 cm(-1 peaks was used to calculate the concentration of blood glucose. We studied three mouse subjects whose blood glucose levels became elevated over a period of 2 hours using a glucose test assay. During the test, 25 Raman spectra were collected transcutaneously and glucose reference values were provided by a blood glucose meter. Results clearly showed the relationship between Raman intensity and concentration. The release curves were approximately linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. This noninvasive methodology may be useful for the study of blood glucose in vivo.

  12. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  13. Support vector machines as multivariate calibration model for prediction of blood glucose concentration using a new non-invasive optical method named Pulse Glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Makoto; Nogawa, Masamichi; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Shinobu; Rolfe, Peter; Tamura, Toshiyo; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A novel optical non-invasive in vivo blood glucose concentration (BGL) measurement technique, named "Pulse Glucometry", was combined with a kernel method; support vector machines. The total transmitted radiation intensity (I lambda) and the cardiac-related pulsatile changes superimposed on I lambda in human adult fingertips were measured over the wavelength range from 900 to 1700 nm using a very fast spectrophotometer, obtaining a differential optical density (delta OD lambda) related to the blood component in the finger tissues. Subsequently, a calibration model using paired data of a family of delta OD lambda s and the corresponding known BGLs was constructed with support vector machines regression instead of using calibration by a conventional partial least squares regression (PLS). Our results show that the calibration model based on the support vector machines can provide a good regression for the 183 paired data, in which the BGLs ranged from 89.0-219 mg/dl (4.94-12.2 mmol/l). The resultant regression was evaluated by the Clarke error grid analysis and all data points fell within the clinically acceptable regions (region A: 93%, region B: 7%).

  14. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2016-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.

  15. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Only...... addition of PF (15 g pure fiber) reduced the area under the incremental blood glucose curve significantly (by 65%, p less than 0.05). None of the fibers affected the area under the insulin-response curve significantly although it was reduced by all fibers. Mouth-to-cecum transit time, assessed...

  16. [Glucose homeostasis in children. I. Regulation of blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto Buczkowska, E; Szirer, G; Jarosz-Chobot, P

    2001-01-01

    The amount of glucose in the circulation depends on its absorption from the intestine, uptake by and release from the liver and uptake by peripheral tissues. Insulin and glucagon together control the metabolities required by peripheral tissues and both are involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Insulin is considered to be an anabolic hormone in that it promotes the synthesis of protein, lipid and glycogen. The key target tissues for insulin are liver, muscles and adipose tissue. Glucagon acts largely to increase catabolic processes. Between meals or during fast, the most tightly regulated process is the release of glucose from the liver. During fasting glucose is produced from glycogen and is formed by enzymes on the gluconeogenic pathway. Fetal metabolism is directed to ensure anabolism with formation of glycogen, fat and protein. Glucogen is stored in the liver and serves as the immediate source of new glucose during first few hours after birth. Glucose is the most important substrate for brain metabolism. Due to the large size of neonatal brain in relation to body weight cerebral glucose consumption is particularly high. Postnatal hormonal changes have a central role in regulating glucose mobilization through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The initial glucagon surge is the key adaptive change which triggers the switch to glucose production. The control of insulin and glucagon secretion is of fundamental importance during first hours after birth. Children have a decreased tolerance to starvation when compared with adults, they are more prone to develop hypoglycaemia after short fasting. The faster rate in the fall of blood glucose and gluconeogenic substrates and rapid rate of ketogenesis are characteristic features of fasting adaptation in children.

  17. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  18. Characterization of Physiological Glucose Concentration Using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quazi Delwar Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive glucose monitoring is crucial for effective diabetes mellitus treatment while a sound correlation of a non-invasive parameter to glucose level variation is quite challenging. This paper presents characterization of glucose concentrations using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS in three different solutions: 1 0.9% NaCl, 2 Saline (NaCl 1.3gm, KCl 0.75gm, Na3C6H5O7 1.45gm, D-glucose 6.75gm in 500mL and 3 Human Blood for every 25mg/dl change of glucose in total 150ml solution. A rectangular current pulse of 1.5s duration with 1mA peak is applied to the solutions and corresponding voltage is acquired across the solutions with Agilent InfiniiVision 7000B Series oscilloscope and Matlab R2011a Instrument Control Toolbox. The circuit proposed for current injection and voltage acquisition requires only two electrodes would reduce electrode polarization and skin irritation greatly which is a major concern in many previous works use generally four electrodes. Experimental results show sound correlation between EIS and blood glucose concentration. It is clearly found from the EIS that the DC impedance of solutions increases linearly with the increment in glucose concentrations.

  19. A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles.

  20. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  1. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  2. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05. Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  3. Reusable glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chih Hsu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Ju-Yi Lee; Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum. High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry. The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14mg/dL and 1.3 s, respectively. The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation. Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.%We demonstrate a glucose fiber sensor for measuring glucose concentration in serum.High resolution and rapid measurement are achieved through the integration of highly selective enzymes and heterodyne interferometry.The best resolution and response time obtained are 0.14 mg/dL and 1.3 s,respectively.The stability of the sensor is also verified by investigating the initial phase variation.Experimental results show that the fiber sensor can be reused more than 10 times.Fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention over the past two decades.Various kinds of fiber sensors have been proposed for measnring specific chemical concentrations[1-8].Most previously reported methods[1-5] involved measuring the variations in fluorescence intensity[2-4] or transmitted light[3,4].Hence,avoiding the inflnence of snrrounding light and the use of expensive photon detection equipment are important requirements.Furthermore,procedures for manufacturing optical biosensors are complicated[3] and qualitv is difficult to control[4]..

  4. Glycated hemoglobin in camel: Minimal correlation with blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi Mohammad D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb in the blood of camel (Camelus dromedarius and cow (Bos taurus were analyzed and compared with human values. Camel displayed high blood glucose concentration (9.7±2.8 mM but a low level of glycated-Hb (3.4± 0.23%.Cow blood samples did not show sufficient variations in glucose concentrations (5.7±0.73 mM or glycated Hb levels (3.2± 0.11% compared to human values. The low glycation of camel Hb at higher glucose concentrations suggest that certain factors protect the Hb from glycation at high glucose concentrations. Camel Hb also exhibited a higher electrophoretic mobility than normal hemoglobin of human or cow. Camel Hb migrated at a rate corresponding to that of human Hb-C. Bioinformatics tools were used to explore the biochemical basis for the difference in camel Hb migratory position and its apparent resistance to glycation.

  5. Influence of cholesterol on non-invasive blood glucose sensing studied with NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zhang, Lingling; Gong, Qiliang; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of studies suggesting that NIR spectroscopy is feasible to be used to non-invasive blood glucose sensing. However, previous results reported that blood components are very complicated and in which glucose concentration is relatively low. This feature limited the practical application of NIR spectroscopy to in vivo blood glucose detection. This talk aims to elucidate how the cholesterol influences blood glucose sensing. Spectroscopic measurements show that cholesterol appears the similar absorbance peaks to those of glucose within NIR range. Furthermore, PLS modelling results demonstrate that the measurement concentrations of glucose are on the high side while containing cholesterol. For example, when the cholesterol concentration is 200mg/dl, the measurement result of glucose with near-infrared spectroscopy will increase 7.961882mg/dl comparing to cholesterol-free glucose solution. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to reduce cholesterol's effects.

  6. Glucose predictability, blood capillary permeability, and glucose utilization rate in subcutaneous, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2013-11-01

    This study suggests an approach for the comparison and evaluation of particular compartments with modest experimental setup costs. A glucose level prediction model was used to evaluate the compartment's glucose transport rate across the blood capillary membrane and the glucose utilization rate by the cells. The glucose levels of the blood, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were obtained in experiments conducted on hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. After the blood glucose level had undergone a rapid change, the experimenter attempted to reach a steady blood glucose level by manually correcting the glucose infusion rate and maintaining a constant insulin infusion rate. The interstitial fluid glucose levels of subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were evaluated to determine the reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level, the interstitial fluid glucose level predictability, the blood capillary permeability, the effect of the concentration gradient, and the glucose utilization rate. Based on these data, the glucose transport rate across the capillary membrane and the utilization rate in a particular tissue were determined. The rates obtained were successfully verified against positron emission tomography experiments. The subcutaneous tissue exhibits the lowest and the most predictable glucose utilization rate, whereas the skeletal muscle tissue has the greatest glucose utilization rate. In contrast, the visceral fat is the least predictable and has the shortest reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level. The reaction delays obtained for the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle tissue were found to be approximately equal using a metric based on the time required to reach half of the increase in the interstitial fluid glucose level.

  7. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  8. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  9. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner ...

  10. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...

  11. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kamat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner AD5933. AD5933 is then interfaced with microcontroller LPC1768 using I2C bus for displaying reading on LCD. Results can also be stored in database using UART interface of LPC1768.

  12. Measurement of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid by surface plasmon resonance with D-galactose/D-glucose binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. C.; Zhang, J. X.; Wu, P.; Huang, F. X.; Song, B.; Xu, K. X.

    2009-08-01

    A novel minimally invasive way to measure blood glucose concentration is proposed by combining interstitial fluid transdermal extraction and surface plasma resonance (SPR) detecting. 55K Hz low-frequency ultrasound pulse is applied for less than 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin by vacuum. The mathematical model to express the correlation between interstitial fluid glucose and blood glucose is also developed by considering the changes of the skin conductivity. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is determined using an optical SPR biological sensor that measures the refractive index. A protein-glucose binding technology using Dgalactose/ D-glucose Binding Protein for specific absorption of glucose is employed to increase SPR measurement precision. By immobilizing GGBP onto the surface of the SPR sensor, the experimental result indicates the detecting resolution of glucose rises to 1mg/L, the system succeeds in distinguishing glucose from other components in mixture. The feasibility of this method is validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring and a prototype microfluidic diabetes-monitoring device is under development.

  13. Cyclic Correlation of Diffuse Reflected Signal with Glucose Concentration and scatterer size

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Jitendra; Andrews, Joseph Thomas; Thareja, Kamal Kishore; 10.4236/jmp.2012.31009

    2012-01-01

    The utility of optical coherence tomography signal intensity for measurement of glucose concentration has been analysed in tissue phantom and blood samples from human subjects. The diffusion equation based calculations as well as in-vivo OCT signal measurements confirms the cyclic correlation of signal intensity with glucose concentration and scatterer size.

  14. GLUCOSE-CONCENTRATION IN SUBCUTANEOUS EXTRACELLULAR-SPACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHMIDT, FJ; SLUITER, WJ; SCHOONEN, AJM

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE- To compare the subcutaneous glucose sensor measurements with two reference methods. Previous studies provide conflicting findings about the real glucose concentrations in subcutaneous tissue. Some suggest substantially lower concentration, whereas others measure proportionally higher gluc

  15. Postprandial blood glucose level in maintenance hemodialysis patients predicts post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Friedl, A; Batrice, A; Auinger, M; Wolzt, M; Hörl, W H

    2010-03-01

    Post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation. One-hundred-and-seven patients with kidney transplantation were screened for the occurrence of PTDM. Of these, full data sets from 49 subjects were available with documented glucose concentrations during maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and regular clinical follow-up of 7-34 months. For assessment of glucose metabolism the response to a standard meal during MHD was used in normoglycemic patients based on fasting blood glucose. Abnormal postprandial blood glucose concentration was defined as >140 mg/dl 2 h after food intake.Twelve end stage renal disease patients had abnormal postprandial blood glucose on MHD. All 12 subjects but also four MHD patients with normal postprandial and fasting blood glucose values developed PTDM. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that abnormal postprandial blood glucose is a strong predictor for PTDM (Hazard ratio: 42.3 (IQR: 7.9-227.2); p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose (94 vs. 100 mg/dl) was not different between MHD patients who did (n=16) or did not (n=33) develop PTDM.This study suggests that measurement of postprandial blood glucose during MHD identifies patients who develop PTDM after kidney transplantation. It should be used for screening of patients at risk.

  16. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  17. In vivo noninvasive measurement of preprandial and postprandial blood glucose using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xiyang; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Blood glucose concentration measurement is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. However, conventional glucose measurement methods are invasive and not suitable for real-time monitoring. This study demonstrated a noninvasive blood glucose measurement method using optical coherence tomography to image human lip in vivo. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive and depth-resolved technique capable of acquiring tissue structure images in real time. Human lip has very thin skin and is full of blood vessels, which is appropriate for noninvasive glucose measurement. To verify the feasibility of OCT for glucose concentration monitoring, two groups of OCT imaging data were obtained from human lips of normal people. In one group, OCT images of lip were acquired from people on an empty stomach. In the other group, the same sites of lip were observed by OCT 2 hours after breakfast. Evident differences were found from two groups of OCT images that correspond to preprandial glucose and 2- hour postprandial glucose, respectively. The relationship between OCT image and blood glucose concentration was investigated. The result indicates that OCT possesses considerable prospects in terms of noninvasive blood glucose measurement.

  18. Metabolic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose: A rare complication of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Ullah; Noman Khan; Hassan Zeb; Hassan Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Ketoacidosis is a significant and often a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus seen mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as occasionally in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL. Normal blood glucose in such patients results in significant delay in diagnosis and management of diabeti...

  19. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GLUCOMETER AND LABORATORY GLUCOSE OXIDASE METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Hypoglycemia is one of the most common metabolic problems encountered in neonates. Hypoglycemia in neonates can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Hypoglycemia is known to be associated with brain dysfunction and neuromotor developmental retardation. The gl ucose oxidase method used in the laboratory for determining the blood glucose concentration is precise and specific for glucose. As it is usually performed in the main laboratory, the results are not available quickly enough for timely appropriate manageme nt. The glucometers are often used for blood glucose estimation in NICU. Many studies have shown that their results co - relate well with the laboratory measured glucose levels in the normoglycemic and hyperglycemic range but are not satisfactory in the lowe r range. OBJECTIVES: This is a prospective study done to determine the efficacy of glucometer in estimation of blood glucose levels in neonates in comparison with the laboratory values. METHOD S : 250 neonates admitted in NICU, KIMS hospital, Bangalore with varied symptomatology were enrolled in this study. Blood glucose estimation was done by glucometer and laboratory method using the same venous sample at the time of admission. For the last 50 cases glucometer estimation of capillary blood was also done. St atistical analysis was done by using Pearson correlation. Hypoglycemia was defined as blood glucose level 45mg%[0.756] and when the value is <45mg%, there is just a moderate correlation[0.417] . Though the pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by venous blood glucometer [28%] was slightly better compared to the capillary blood glucometer value [22%] , the overa ll pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by glucometer is very low compared to the laboratory method [56%]. CONCLUSION : The glucometer as a sole measuring device to screen neonatal hypoglycemia is not satisfactory and confirmation with the laboratory measurements o f plasma glucose is still of up most importance.

  1. Impact of SDG on blood glucose and blood lipid concentrates of middle and old aged female patients%亚麻木脂素对中老年妇女血糖和血脂浓度影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艺; 胡晓军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨膳食亚麻木脂素(SDG)对中老年妇女血糖和血脂浓度的影响.方法 采用随机数字表法将24例高血糖患者分为4组各6例,食用从亚麻籽提取的木脂素(SDG),低剂量组200 mgSDG/d、中剂量组400 mg SDG/d、高剂量组600 mg SDG/d、对照组服用安慰剂,观察SDG对血糖和血脂的影响.结果 与对照组比较,中剂量组服用8周或高剂量组服用SDG4周,血清葡萄糖(GLU)浓度显著降低(t值分别为5.7021、6.9241,P均<0.05).结论 服用400 mg/d的SDG 8周或600 mg/d的SDG4周,可降低血清葡萄糖GLU浓度.%Objective To investigate the influence of SDG on blood glucose and blood lipid concentrates of middle and old aged patients. Methods The impacts of SDG on blood glucose and blood lipid concentrates in body of patients with hyperglycemia were conducted through an 8-week random and double-blind experiments with controlled group only given placebo. The influence degree of SDG on blood glucose and blood lipid concentrates of the selected patients was analyzed. Results The results showed that serum glucose of the groups received 400mg/d of dietary SDG for 8 weeks or 600 mg/d for 4 weeks decreased significantly compared with the controlled group (P<0.05). Conclusion Giving either 400 mg/d of dietary SDG for 8 weeks or 600 mg/d for 4 weeks to patients could significantly decrease the serum glucose concentrates of them.

  2. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  3. Training to estimate blood glucose and to form associations with initial hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Riccardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The will to eat is a decision associated with conditioned responses and with unconditioned body sensations that reflect changes in metabolic biomarkers. Here, we investigate whether this decision can be delayed until blood glucose is allowed to fall to low levels, when presumably feeding behavior is mostly unconditioned. Following such an eating pattern might avoid some of the metabolic risk factors that are associated with high glycemia. Results In this 7-week study, patients were trained to estimate their blood glucose at meal times by associating feelings of hunger with glycemic levels determined by standard blood glucose monitors and to eat only when glycemia was Conclusion Subjects could be trained to accurately estimate their blood glucose and to recognize their sensations of initial hunger at low glucose concentrations. These results suggest that it is possible to make a behavioral distinction between unconditioned and conditioned hunger, and to achieve a cognitive will to eat by training.

  4. Intraoperative blood glucose levels in neurosurgical patients : an evaluation of two fluid regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence that hyperglycaemia aggravates ischaemic cerebral injury, it has been suggested that blood glucose levels be kept within 200 mg/dL during intracranial neurosurgery. Hypoglycaemia, however, can be a serious problem if glucose-containing solutions are avoided during the first four hours, as suggested in some studies. In order to explore the possibility of administering glucose in moderation so that the blood glucose levels are within acceptable limits, but at the same time the risk of hyoglycaemia is eliminated, we compared two intraoperative fluid regimens. Of the 52 neurosurgical patients studied, 32 patients received alternately 500 ml of 5% dextrose in normal saline and Ringer′s lactate (DNS/RL Group and 18 patients received alternately 500 ml of Ringer′s lactate and normal saline (RL/NS Group. Blood glucose concentrations were determined at the end of each unit of fluid, until the patient received 4 units of fluid. In the DNS/RL group, blood glucose values peaked with the administration of each unit of DNS and tended to return towards the baseline with the subsequent RL, but remained higher than the previous control value. In the RL/NS group, there was a progressive increase in blood glucose values throughout the study period, but the increase was not statistically significant. The blood glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups after each unit of fluid except at the end of the fourth unit. Two patients in the RL/NS group had hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the DNS/RL regimen maintains blood glucose levels within acceptable limits while avoiding the risk of hyperglycaemia. Withholding glucose completely, lowers blood glucose levels, but carries a risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients.

  5. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  6. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  7. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  8. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  9. Myo-inositol, glucose and zinc concentrations determined in the preconceptional period, during and after pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.M.; Roes, E.M.; Peer, P.G.M.; Merkus, H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood concentrations of myo-inositol, glucose and zinc before, during and after normal pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Preconceptionally, at 6, 10, 20, 30 and 37 weeks amenorrhea, and 6 weeks after delivery, blood samples of 18 nulliparae and 19 multiparae were obtained and conc

  10. Metabolic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose: A rare complication of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saad; Khan, Noman; Zeb, Hassan; Tahir, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ketoacidosis is a significant and often a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus seen mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as occasionally in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL. Normal blood glucose in such patients results in significant delay in diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis, thus increasing mortality and morbidity. We present a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to canagliflozin in a type 2 diabetic patient. PMID:27928503

  11. Metabolic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose: A rare complication of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ketoacidosis is a significant and often a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus seen mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as occasionally in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL. Normal blood glucose in such patients results in significant delay in diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis, thus increasing mortality and morbidity. We present a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to canagliflozin in a type 2 diabetic patient.

  12. Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto A.

    2002-07-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose determination has been investigated by more than 100 research groups in the world during the past fifteen years. The commonly optical methods are based on the capacity of near-IR light to penetrate a few hundreds micrometers or a few millimeters into human tissue where it interacts with glucose. A change of glucose concentration may modify the optical parameters in tissue, with the result that its glucose concentration can be extracted by analyzing the received optical signals. This paper demonstrates that glucose affects on the scattering coefficient of human blood, by applying the streak camera and pulsed photoacoustic techniques; and drinking water seems also affecting on PA signal from skin surface.

  13. 睑板腺功能障碍与血糖浓度及脂质代谢水平相关性研究%Clinical research of relationship between meibomian gland dysfunction and blood glucose concentration and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 乔丽萍; 王春娥; 王素莉; 沈继春; 赵季红; 陈慧鑫

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between meibomian gland dysfunction and concentration of blood glucose and lipid metabolism.Methods A randomized and double-mask trial was conducted for 4 months duration.Eighty-four cases of diabetic patients (group A) and 35 controls without diabetic and with history of cardiovascular disease (group B),accrued from October 2014 to January 2015 were included.Group A was divided into group A1 and A2 according to whether with cardiovascular diseases,group A1 for diabetes with no cardiovascular disease; group A2 for diabetic combined cardiovascular disease.The relationship between meibomian gland dysfunction and concentration of blood glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed.Results Meibomian gland dysfunction prevalence was 75% in diabetes patients.There were statistically significant difference between the groups A1 and group B,group A2 and group B,while no significant difference between the group A1 and group A2 on analysis of meibomian gland obstruction score.There were statistically significant between the group A2 and group B on analysis of quality of expressed meibum score,no significant difference among the other groups.In correlation analysis,the meibomian gland obstruction score was positively correlated with fasting glucose (P =0.006,rs =0.252),and the rest had no correlation.Conclusions The prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction is up to 75% in diabetes patients,the concentration of fasting plasma glucose is a risk factor in diabetic patients with meibomian gland dysfunction development and adjustment of the concentration of fasting plasma glucose can help improvement of therapeutic effect in diabetic patients with meibomian gland dysfunction.%目的 探讨睑板腺功能障碍与血糖浓度及脂质代谢水平之间的相关性.方法 临床病例对照研究.收集2014年10月至2015年1月在辽宁医学院武警后勤学院附属医院的84例糖尿病患者为病例组(A组)(根据是

  14. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma

  15. Photonic crystal based biosensor for the detection of glucose concentration in urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Savarimuthu; Dhanlaksmi, Nagaraj

    2016-10-01

    Photonic sensing technology is a new and accurate measurement technology for bio-sensing applications. In this paper, a two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonator based sensor is proposed and designed to detect the glucose concentration in urine over the range of 0 gm/dl-15 gm/dl. The proposed sensor is consisted of two inverted "L" waveguides and a ring resonator. If the glucose concentration in urine is varied, the refractive index of the urine is varied, which in turn the output response of sensor will be varied. By having the aforementioned principle, the glucose concentration in urine, glucose concentration in blood, albumin, urea, and bilirubin concentration in urine are predicted. The size of the proposed sensor is about 11.4 µm×11.4 µm, and the sensor can predict the result very accurately without any delay, hence, this attempt could be implemented for medical applications.

  16. Photonic crystal based biosensor for the detection of glucose concentration in urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Savarimuthu; Dhanlaksmi, Nagaraj

    2017-03-01

    Photonic sensing technology is a new and accurate measurement technology for bio-sensing applications. In this paper, a two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonator based sensor is proposed and designed to detect the glucose concentration in urine over the range of 0 gm/dl-15 gm/dl. The proposed sensor is consisted of two inverted "L" waveguides and a ring resonator. If the glucose concentration in urine is varied, the refractive index of the urine is varied, which in turn the output response of sensor will be varied. By having the aforementioned principle, the glucose concentration in urine, glucose concentration in blood, albumin, urea, and bilirubin concentration in urine are predicted. The size of the proposed sensor is about 11.4 µm×11.4 µm, and the sensor can predict the result very accurately without any delay, hence, this attempt could be implemented for medical applications.

  17. Blood glucose rise following prenatal vitamins in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S P; Jovanovic-Peterson, L; Peterson, C M

    1993-10-01

    Optimal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is directly related to glucose control of the mother. If prenatal vitamins cause a large glycemic excursion, then the best prenatal vitamin would be one that produces the lowest blood glucose. Nine GDM women participated in two, 8-day test periods. Each subject ingested one of six prenatal vitamin-mineral preparations, a placebo, or a sucrose capsule, in random order. Blood glucose was determined by the One Touch System at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. The sucrose capsule contained 1 g sucrose (equivalent to highest glucose/carbohydrate content of any prenatal vitamin). The placebo contained 1 g table salt in the same color capsule. Relative glycemic index (RGI, defined as the area under glucose curve for the test substance divided by the area under glucose curve for 1 g sucrose) and maximum rise of blood glucose above time 0 were calculated for each preparation. RGI was significantly elevated for all vitamins: TRN 3.86, Natalins Rx 3.00, Filibon Forte 2.16, Prenatal Formula 2.10, Materna 1.66, Placebo 1.33, Stuartnatal 1 + 1 1.16. Two thousand mg vitamin C (n = 4) resulted in an RGI of 1.37. In conclusion, ingestion of prenatal vitamins produces a rise in blood glucose greater than that seen following ingestion of sucrose equal to the carbohydrate content of prenatal vitamins. The cause of the blood glucose rise is not known, but it would appear prudent to prescribe a prenatal vitamin with a low RGI.

  18. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  19. Effect of Concentrated Pomegranate Juice Consumption on Glucose and Lipid Profile Concentrations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Rashidi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important metabolic disorders worldwide. As regards the anti-diabetic effects in different parts of pomegranate fruit, this study was performed to determine the effects of concentrated pomegranate juice (CPJ consumption on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental study was performed on 55 diabetic patients, among patients referred to the Kashan Diabetes Center. Patients were divided into two groups: CPJ consumption and control. An anthropometric, medical and 24-hour food recall questioner was completed. Fasting blood sample before and after study was collected to measure glucose, HbA1c, TG, Chol, LDL and HDL. The patients consumed 45 g/day CPJ for 3 month. Control group did not received experiment. variables were measured at the end of the study again. Both groups received the same diet and physical activity advice during the study. Results: Cholesterol and LDL - cholesterol concentrations decreased in CPJ than control group but not significant (p>0.05. The mean glucose concentrations showed no significant change between CPJ group and control (p>0.05.Conclusion: concentrated pomegranate juice (CPJ consumption there are no effective on blood glucose and lipid profiles concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients.

  20. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  1. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  2. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  3. Proportional Insulin Infusion in Closed-Loop Control of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasman, Johan

    2017-01-01

    A differential equation model is formulated that describes the dynamics of glucose concentration in blood circulation. The model accounts for the intake of food, expenditure of calories and the control of glucose levels by insulin and glucagon. These and other hormones affect the blood glucose level in various ways. In this study only main effects are taken into consideration. Moreover, by making a quasi-steady state approximation the model is reduced to a single nonlinear differential equation of which parameters are fit to data from healthy subjects. Feedback provided by insulin plays a key role in the control of the blood glucose level. Reduced β-cell function and insulin resistance may hamper this process. With the present model it is shown how by closed-loop control these defects, in an organic way, can be compensated with continuous infusion of exogenous insulin. PMID:28060898

  4. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P <0.05 on blood glucose, the production ofpropionic acid in the 3rd hour, but the VFA production at hour 0, hour 6, as well as methane productionshowed no significant effect (P> 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  5. Ekstrak Air Tapak Dara Menurunkan Kadar Gula dan Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Beta Pankreas Kelinci Hiperglikemia (THE WATER EXTRACT OF TAPAK DARA DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASES INSULIN PRODUCTION BY PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS ON HYPERGLYCEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikayati Widyastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of tapak dara (Catharanthus roseus onblood glucose level and insulin profile in hyperglicemic rabbits. Fifeteen local male rabbits were used forthis study. The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1 (K-, a control negative group;group 2 (K+, a control positive hipergliccemia; group 3 (KT1 and group 4 (KT2, were groups hiperglicemiaand treated with water extract of tapak dara doses 1 and 2 g/kg bw, respectively; and group 5 (KO, a grouphiperglicemia that treated with glibenclamide 2 mg/kg bw. The result showed water extract of tapak daradose 1 g/kgbw could not decrease the blood glucose level in hyperglycemic rabbits, while dose 2 g/kg bwcould decline blood glucose level in rabbits. This decline had no significantly difference compared withglibenclamide treatment (P> 0.05. Immunohistchemistry result indicated that water extract of tapakdara could stimulate beta cells pancreas to produce insulin.

  6. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...

  7. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  8. Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V; Motamedi, Massoud; Ashitkov, Taras V; Esenaliev, Rinat O

    2003-05-21

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients would significantly reduce complications and mortality associated with this disease. In this paper, we experimentally and theoretically studied specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. OCT images and signals were obtained from skin of Yucatan micropigs and New Zealand rabbits. Obtained results demonstrate that: (1) several body osmolytes may change the refractive index mismatch between the interstitial fluid (ISF) and scattering centres in tissue, however the effect of the glucose is approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher; (2) an increase of the ISF glucose concentration in the physiological range (3-30 mM) may decrease the scattering coefficient by 0.22% mM(-1) due to cell volume change; (3) stability of the OCT signal slope is dependent on tissue heterogeneity and motion artefacts; and (4) moderate skin temperature fluctuations (+/- 1 degree C) do not decrease accuracy and specificity of the OCT-based glucose sensor, however substantial skin heating or cooling (several degrees C) significantly change the OCT signal slope. These results suggest that the OCT technique may provide blood glucose concentration monitoring with sufficient specificity under normal physiological conditions.

  9. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L Silverman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bernard L Silverman1, Christopher J Barnes2, Barbara N Campaigne3, Douglas B Muchmore31Alkermes, Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2i3 Statprobe, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, inhaled insulin, cardiovascular disease, blood glucose

  10. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L;

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin-converti......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin...

  11. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  12. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  13. Serum glucose concentration and lipid profile in racing horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate serum glucose concentration and lipid profile in racing horses in Iraq. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 92 clinically healthy racing horses (males and females, Arabian and Cross bred, 2-8 years old at Equestrian Club, Baghdad. Investigations included serum measurements of glucose (sg and lipid profile parameters; total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C and the atherogenic ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C, in order to register the normal ranges and mean values of these measured parameters in Iraqi healthy racing horses. Results showed that the range and mean values ± standard error of sg were: 33.3 – 6.71 mmol/l and 5.17±0.07 mmol/l, respectively, whereas the TC was 2.07 – 4.22 mmol/l and 3.01±0.05 mmol/l, TG 0.6 – 1.47 mmol/l and 1.06±0.02 mmol/l, HDL-C 0.93 – 2.25 mmol/l and 1.50±0.03 mmol/l, LDL-C 0.10 – 2.12 mmol/l and 0.91±0.04 mmol/l, VLDL-C 0.31 -0.67 mmol/l and 0.55±0.02 mmol/l, respectively and the atherogenic ratio 0.66±0.03. The data present reference values and mean ± SE for sg and lipid profile parameters in healthy racing horses in Baghdad.

  14. Blood Glucose Prediction Algorithms for Hypoglycemic and/or Hyperglycemic Alerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gireesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM sensors able to monitor blood glucose concentration continuously (i.e. with a reading every 1-5 min for several days (up to 7 consecutive days, entered clinical research. The availability of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM sensors allows development of new strategies for the treatment of diabetes. CGM sensors are of two types, noninvasive (NI-CGM or minimally-invasive (MI-CGM. Irrespective of the type, CGM sensors can become smart by providing them with algorithms able to generate alerts, say, 20-30 min ahead of time, when glucose concentration is predicted to exceed the normal range thresholds (70-180 mg/dL. Such alerts would allow diabetes patients to take precautionary measures to prevent hypo/hyperglycemia. In this paper we review blood glucose prediction algorithms such as first-order autoregressive( AR(1 , Kalman Filtering and Feed Forward Neural Network. All these algorithms have demonstrated that blood glucose can be predicted ahead in time.

  15. Acute effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose metabolism and interleukin-6 concentration in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, M; Krüsmann, P J; Mersa, L; Eder, E M; Gatterer, H; Melmer, A; Ebenbichler, C; Burtscher, M

    2016-06-01

    Acute muscle-damaging eccentric exercise (EE) negatively affects glucose metabolism. On the other hand, long-term eccentric endurance exercise seems to result in equal or superior positive effects on glucose metabolism compared to concentric endurance exercise. However, it is not known if acute non-muscle-damaging EE will have the same positive effects on glucose metabolism as acute concentric exercise (CE). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) released from the exercising muscles may be involved in the acute adaptations of glucose metabolism after CE and non-muscle-damaging EE. The aim of this study was to assess acute effects of uphill walking (CE) and non-muscle-damaging downhill walking (EE) on glucose metabolism and IL-6 secretion. Seven sedentary non-smoking, healthy males participated in a crossover trial consisting of a 1 h uphill (CE) and a 1 h downhill (EE) walking block on a treadmill. Venous blood samples were drawn before (pre), directly after (acute) and 24 h after (post) exercise. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and 24 h after exercise. Glucose tolerance after 1 and 2 hours significantly improved 24 hours after CE (-10.12±3.22%: P=0.039; -13.40±8.24%: P=0.028). After EE only the 1-hour value was improved (-5.03±5.48%: P=0.043). Acute IL-6 concentration rose significantly after CE but not after EE. We conclude that both a single bout of CE and a single bout of non-muscle-damaging EE elicit positive changes in glucose tolerance even in young, healthy subjects. Our experiment indicates that the overall metabolic cost is a major trigger for acute adaptations of glucose tolerance after exercise, but only the IL-6 production during EE was closely related to changes in glycaemic control.

  16. Lanthanides' enhancing absorption of insulin and reduction of blood glucose of rat by pulmonary administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To explore the possibility of lanthanides as the enhancer of insulin absorption, the promoting effects of lanthanide ions on the absorption of intrapulmonary delivered insulin and reduction of blood glucose were investigated by means of two approaches, preadministration and coadministration of lanthanide ions with insulin. The results indicate that, compared with the results of those given insulin only, lanthanide ions can effectively enhance the level of insulin and the reduction of glucose level in blood. These effects are dependent on lanthanide species and their concentrations. The mechanism was discussed.

  17. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  18. Impact of diet composition on blood glucose regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, W.R.; Baka, A.; Bjorck, I.; Delzenne, N.; Gao, D.; Griffiths, H.R.; Hadjilucas, E.; Juvonen, K.; Lahtinen, S.; Lansink, M.; van Loon, L.; Mykkanen, H.; Ostman, E.; Riccardi, G.; Vinoy, S.; Weickert, M.O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycaemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This

  19. [Achievement of the noninvasive measurement for human blood glucose with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Ding, Dong; Song, Li-qiang; Gu, Lin-na; Yang, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo

    2005-06-01

    The noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose was achieved with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method. The thumb fingertip NIR diffusion reflectance spectra of six different age healthy volunteers were collected using Nexus-870 and its NIR fiber port smart accessory. The test was implemented with changing the blood glucose concentration for the limosis and satiation of every volunteer. The calibration model was set up using PLS method with the smoothing, baseline correction and first derivatives pretreatment spectrum in the 7500-8500 cm(-1) region for single volunteer, the same age combination and that of different age. When the spectrum was obtained, the actual blood glucose value of every spectrun sample was demarcated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The correlation between the calibration value and true value for single volunteer is better than that for the combination of volunteers, the correlative coefficients are all over 0.90471, RMSECs are all less than 0.171.

  20. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  1. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    the patients. Most biomolecules have characteristic signature frequencies in the terahertz (THz) range, which can reveal their presence and determine the concentration. Therefore, this paper is intended to study the blood optical properties in the THz frequency range in order to determine THz radiation effect on blood. The main aim of this investigation is to determine the effect of blood glucose concentration on the blood optical properties. In the case if blood optical properties vary at different glucose concentrations having a proportional relationship between them, these results will confirm the possibility of development of non-invasive procedures for blood glucose level diagnostics.

  2. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J;

    2006-01-01

    and slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...

  3. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan.

  4. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A

    1978-02-01

    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  5. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  6. Microbiosensors for determination of glucose in the blood sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鹏; 谭久彬; 孙凯

    2002-01-01

    Describes the general design of Microbiosensors for determination of glucose in blood sample for medical purpose as an important branch of medical analysis instrument discusses the fabrication of microbiosensors. By the technology of microfabrication, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and enzyme immobilization, stresses their properties, such as improvement in system efficiency, shorter analysis time reduction of reagent waste and reduction of device sizes, which makes them suitable for bed-side monitor of emergency patients.

  7. Impairment of brain endothelial glucose transporter by methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrin L Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH, an addictive psycho-stimulant drug with euphoric effect is known to cause neurotoxicity due to oxidative stress, dopamine accumulation and glial cell activation. Here we hypothesized that METH-induced interference of glucose uptake and transport at the endothelium can disrupt the energy requirement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB function and integrity. We undertake this study because there is no report of METH effects on glucose uptake and transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB to date. Results In this study, we demonstrate that METH-induced disruption of glucose uptake by endothelium lead to BBB dysfunction. Our data indicate that a low concentration of METH (20 μM increased the expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 in primary human brain endothelial cell (hBEC, main component of BBB without affecting the glucose uptake. A high concentration of 200 μM of METH decreased both the glucose uptake and GLUT1 protein levels in hBEC culture. Transcription process appeared to regulate the changes in METH-induced GLUT1 expression. METH-induced decrease in GLUT1 protein level was associated with reduction in BBB tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens-1. Functional assessment of the trans-endothelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers and permeability of dye tracers in animal model validated the pharmacokinetics and molecular findings that inhibition of glucose uptake by GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB aggravated the METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Application of acetyl-L-carnitine suppressed the effects of METH on glucose uptake and BBB function. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impairment of GLUT1 at the brain endothelium by METH may contribute to energy-associated disruption of tight junction assembly and loss of BBB integrity.

  8. Effect of training on the performance of blood glucose monitoring using a reagent strip (Glucoprofil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Starostina, E G; Antsiferov, M B

    1990-11-01

    A relatively simple, new test-strip for blood-glucose monitoring, the Glucoprofil strip with a reaction-zone of film-foil, was evaluated by testing 100 different blood glucose concentrations between 2.1 and 29.7 mmol/l. The results were obtained visually before and after training to read the color changes of the strip according to the scale on the strip-container. Plasma glucose measurements with the Beckman Glucose-Analyzer were used for reference. The results show that the Glucoprofil-strip readings correlated well with the reference method (r = 0.97), thorough training provided. The mean deviation of the strip results was less than 1 mmol/l. Similar results were obtained using another blood glucose strip, the Haemoglukotest 20-800 R. Our study indicates that the performance of the Glucoprofil strip is satisfactory, and hence the strip may be useful for clinical purposes. Consistent with previous reports we could demonstrate that training improved the reading results of the Glucoprofil strip.

  9. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of boronate derivatives to determine glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, J H

    2000-06-01

    A novel investigation into the fluorescence lifetimes of molecules, both established and newly designed, was performed. These molecules are the basis of a continuous, minimally invasive, glucose sensor based on fluorescence lifetime measurements. This sensor, if coupled with an automated insulin delivery device, would effectively create an artificial pancreas allowing for the constant monitoring and control of glucose levels in a person with diabetes. The proposed sensor includes a fluorescent molecule that changes its' fluorescence properties upon binding selectively and reversibly to glucose. One possible sensor molecule is N-methyl-N-(9-methylene anthryl)-2-methylenephenylboronic acid (AB). The fluorescence intensity of AB was shown to change in response to changing glucose concentrations. (James, 1994) James proposed that when glucose binds to AB the fluorescence intensity increases due to an enhancement of the N{yields}B dative bond which prevents photoinduced electron transfer (PET). PET from the amine (N) to the fluorophore (anthracene) quenches the fluorescence. The dative bond between the boron and the amine can prevent PET by involving the lone pair of electrons on the amine in interactions with the boron rather than allowing them to be transferred to the fluorophore. Results of this research show the average fluorescence lifetime of AB also changes with glucose concentration. It is proposed that fluorescence is due to two components: (1) AB with an enhanced N{yields}B interaction, and no PET, and (2) AB with a weak N{yields}B interaction, resulting in fluorescence quenching by PET. Lifetime measurements of AB as a function of both the pH of the solvent and glucose concentration in the solution were made to characterize this two component system and investigate the nature of the N{yields}B bond. Measurements of molecules similar to AB were also performed in order to isolate behavior of specific AB constituents. These molecules are 9

  10. Postmortem Femoral Blood Concentrations of Risperidone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2014-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drug risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by an achiral LC-MS/MS method in 38 cases. The cause of death was classified as unrelated to risperidone in 30 cases, in which the sum of the concentration ...

  11. Alternate Immersion in an External Glucose Solution Differentially Affects Blood Sugar Values in Older Versus Younger Zebrafish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Victoria P; Baker, Cassandra; Fonde, Lauren; Gerardi, Emily; Slack, Carly

    2016-04-01

    Recently, zebrafish have been used to examine hyperglycemia-induced complications (retinopathy and neuropathy), as would occur in individuals with diabetes. Current models to induce hyperglycemia in zebrafish include glucose immersion and streptozotocin injections. Both are effective, although neither is reported to elevate blood sugar values for more than 1 month. In this article, we report differences in hyperglycemia induction and maintenance in young (4-11 months) versus old (1-3 years) zebrafish adults. In particular, older fish immersed in an alternating constant external glucose solution (2%) for 2 months displayed elevated blood glucose levels for the entire experimental duration. In contrast, younger adults displayed only transient hyperglycemia, suggesting the fish were acclimating to the glucose exposure protocol. However, modifying the immersion protocol to include a stepwise increasing glucose concentration (from 1% → 2%→3%) resulted in maintained hyperglycemia in younger zebrafish adults for up to 2 months. Glucose-exposed younger fish collected after 8 weeks of exposure also displayed a significant decrease in wet weight. Taken together, these data suggest different susceptibilities to hyperglycemia in older and younger fish and that stepwise increasing glucose concentrations of 1% are required for maintenance of hyperglycemia in younger adults, with higher concentrations of glucose resulting in greater increases in blood sugar values.

  12. In vivo measurements of brain glucose transport using the reversible Michaelis-Menten model and simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow changes during hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I Y; Lee, S P; Kim, S G; Gruetter, R

    2001-06-01

    Glucose is the major substrate that sustains normal brain function. When the brain glucose concentration approaches zero, glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier becomes rate limiting for metabolism during, for example, increased metabolic activity and hypoglycemia. Steady-state brain glucose concentrations in alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured noninvasively as a function of plasma glucose. The relation between brain and plasma glucose was linear at 4.5 to 30 mmol/L plasma glucose, which is consistent with the reversible Michaelis-Menten model. When the model was fitted to the brain glucose measurements, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Kt, was 3.3 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, and the ratio of the maximal transport rate relative to CMRglc, Tmax/CMRglc, was 2.7 +/- 0.1. This Kt is comparable to the authors' previous human data, suggesting that glucose transport kinetics in humans and rats are similar. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was simultaneously assessed and constant above 2 mmol/L plasma glucose at 73 +/- 6 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1). Extrapolation of the reversible Michaelis-Menten model to hypoglycemia correctly predicted the plasma glucose concentration (2.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) at which brain glucose concentrations approached zero. At this point, CBF increased sharply by 57% +/- 22%, suggesting that brain glucose concentration is the signal that triggers defense mechanisms aimed at improving glucose delivery to the brain during hypoglycemia.

  13. Analysis of algorithms for intensive care unit blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2007-11-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) blood glucose control algorithms were reviewed and analyzed in the context of linear systems theory and classical feedback control algorithms. Closed-loop performance was illustrated by applying the algorithms in simulation studies using an in silico model of an ICU patient. Steady-state and dynamic input-output analysis was used to provide insight about controller design and potential closed-loop performance. The proportional-integral-derivative, columnar insulin dosing (CID, Glucommander-like), and glucose regulation for intensive care patients (GRIP) algorithms were shown to have similar features and performance. The CID strategy is a time-varying proportional-only controller (no integral action), whereas the GRIP algorithm is a nonlinear controller with integral action. A minor modification to the GRIP algorithm was suggested to improve the closed-loop performance. Recommendations were made to guide control theorists on important ICU control topics worthy of further study.

  14. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggett, Emily; Magdesian, K Gary; Maas, John; Puschner, Birgit; Higgins, Jamie; Fiack, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Exercise causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, which can result in oxidant/antioxidant disequilibrium. Deficiency of antioxidants can further alter this balance in favor of pro-oxidation. Selenium (Se) is one of many antioxidant catalysts, as a component of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Soils and forages vary widely in Se concentration and a deficient diet can lead to sub-clinical or clinical deficiency in horses. Endurance horses are prone to oxidative stress during long periods of aerobic exercise and their performance could be affected by Se status. This study investigated the blood Se concentration in a group of endurance horses (n=56) residing and competing in California, a state containing several regions that tend to produce Se-deficient forages. The rate of Se deficiency in this group of horses was low, with only one horse being slightly below the reference range. Higher blood Se concentrations were not associated with improved performance in terms of ride time. There was no significant difference in Se concentration between horses that completed the ride and those that were disqualified, although blood Se concentrations were significantly higher in horses that received oral Se supplementation. An increase in blood Se concentration was observed following exercise and this warrants further study.

  15. Effects of breakfast with different calorigenic amounts on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Su-xia(黄素霞); FU Yun-xing(傅运兴); WANG Hui-ming(王慧铭); GIANG Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between breakfast and serum glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations in order to establish a model breakfast appropriate for Chinese. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to four study groups: high carbohydrate breakfast, high fat and protein breakfast, the typical breakfast and fasting. Each subject had serum and urine samples collected while fasting and at 1,2 and 3.5 hours following the meal. The concentration of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon was measured. The levels of serum glucose in group A,B and C differed significantly at 1 and 2 hour after meal compared to those at fasting (P<0.05). The serum glucose in group A increased insignificantly after meal. The serum insulin levels were in group A,B and C significant different compared with control group(P<0.05).Those peaked at 1 hour after meal ,with group C rising the furthest. Compared with the fasting group, the serum glucagons rose and maintained the increase after breakfast in group A,B and C (P<0.05).The data suggested that various diets with different calorigenic amounts increased hormone concentration to various extents. We found that a breakfast rich in carbohydrates could maintain proper blood glucose level.

  16. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  17. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio® by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio® system). Results were compared to a validated routine method......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  18. In vitro determination of glucose concentration based on photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    Noninvasive blood glucose level (BGL) monitoring has recently become a research hotspot in the world. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a well-established, hybrid and promising noninvasive technique, which has already drawn many researchers' attentions in recent years due to the advantage of overcoming the scattering light interference. As the preliminary exploration of photoacoustic BGL monitoring, a photoacoustic BGL monitoring set-up based on nanosecond pulsed laser with repetition rate of 20Hz and ultrasound transducer with central frequency of 9.55MHz was established in this paper. To explore the mechanism of the time resolved BGL photoacoustic signal, a series of in vitro experiments of glucose aqueous solutions were tested, the time resolved photoacoustic signals for different concentrations of glucose solutions under different output wavelengths were captured with the data average of 512 times. The peak-to-peak values of each solution were gotten at the wavelength interval of 10nm. Difference with the peak-to-peak value of pure water via subtractive spectroscopy, the characteristic wavelengths of glucose were gotten, and the optimum characteristic wavelengths were determined via data pre-processing and principle component analysis(PCA) algorithm, the calibration equation between concentration and the peak-to-peak value was gotten via multiple linear regression(MLR), and the calibration root mean square error(CRMSE) and the prediction root mean square error(PRMSE) of glucose level is all less than 10mg/dl under the correction equation.

  19. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment.

  20. Capillary bedside blood glucose measurement in neonates: missing a diagnosis of galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Öcal, Murat; Tanrıverdi, Sibel; Baysal, Birsen; Deniz, Ahmet; Öncel, Kahraman; Demirbilek, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    A number of factors may lead to inaccuracy in measurement of capillary blood glucose with a glucometer. Measurement of other carbohydrate molecules such as galactose and fructose along with glucose can potentially be a cause of error. We report a newborn patient who was referred to our hospital with conjugated bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and high capillary blood glucose levels measured with a glucometer. Simultaneous biochemical measurements revealed normal blood glucose levels. Further investigation led to a diagnosis of classical galactosemia. Capillary blood glucose level measured with glucometer also dropped to normal values following cessation of breastfeeding and initiation of feeding with a lactose-free formula.

  1. Blood glucose regulation during fasting in rats under food restriction since birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Vitoriano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of severe food restriction since birth on regulation of fasting glycemia in male Wistar rats was investigated. The control group (CG had free supply of chow, while the restriction group (RG received 50% of the amount ingested by the CG. The experiments were done in adult (60 days overnight fasted rats in which glycemia, liver free glucose levels and hepatic glycogen concentration were measured. In part of the experiments in situ liver perfusion was done. The results showed that livers from the RG had higher glycogenolysis rates but lower gluconeogenesis rates from L-alanine (10 mM. Since RG showed maintained glycemia during fasting, it could be concluded that livers from RG produced glucose preferentially from glycogenolysis in detriment of gluconeogenesis. These findings demonstrated that in spite of severe caloric restriction, the metabolic adaptations of the liver did exist to assure the maintenance of blood glucose for brain supply during fasting.

  2. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  3. Comparisons of home blood glucose testing and glycated protein measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P D; Sherman, L D; O'Day, M R; Rognerud, C L; Ou, C N

    1992-04-01

    We examined the relationships between 4 glycated protein assays and home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) in 26 children with poorly-controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during a period of improved management. At 2 week intervals for 6 visits (12 weeks in total), HBGM records were collected and a blood sample was obtained for measurement of glycated proteins and glucose. Assays included glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and glycated serum proteins (GP) by boronate affinity chromatography, hemoglobin A1C by PolyCAT A high performance liquid chromatography (HAC) and fructosamine (FA). All 4 glycated protein levels declined significantly over the 12 week period. Significant correlations between the glycated proteins and HBGM were observed over 2 week intervals. None of the 4 assays were affected by the glucose level in the sample. Changes in mean HBGM readings over 2 week intervals were correlated with both FA and GP with wide prediction intervals. Over cumulative 2 week intervals, which may more accurately reflect longitudinal trends, all 4 glycated proteins were correlated with mean HBGM readings. At each cumulative interval, GHb and GP showed the largest variation with MBG, while FA showed the least variation with MBG. Our data indicate that of the 4 assays tested, FA has limited clinical values as compared to other glycated protein assays, whereas assays based on boronate affinity chromatography (GHb and GP) provide the most useful clinical indicators of short-term changes in glycemic control. The clinical utility of a new HPLC method for determination of glycated hemoglobins is also demonstrated.

  4. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Olav Skrøvseth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians.

  5. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J

    2006-01-01

    of the factors determining the metabolic quality of different types of carbohydrates. We analyzed the correlation between the rate of intestinal absorption of (starch-derived) glucose and plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP after ingestion of glucose and starchy foods with a different content of rapidly......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one...... infusion, the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaEx) was estimated, reflecting the rate of intestinal glucose absorption. GLP-1 concentrations increased significantly from 180 to 300 min after ingestion of UCCS, the starch product with a high content of slowly available glucose. A high GIP response...

  6. A Simple Laboratory Experiment to Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    2008-01-01

    A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter, if this is available This experiment is proposed for use by students in a general chemistry, biology, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry…

  7. Effects of telephone follow-up after discharging on the self-management behavior and the blood concentration of glucose in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus%出院电话随访对老年糖尿病患者自我管理行为及血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉娟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨出院电话随访对糖尿病患者自我管理行为及血糖的影响.方法 将100例患者随机分为观察组和对照组各50例,两组患者出院时均给予常规的出院指导,观察组在此基础上给予饮食知识、用药指导、运动指导、并发症预防等个性化护理干预并电话随访6个月.比较两组患者出院后6个月自我管理行为及血糖情况.结果 观察组患者出院后6个月自我管理行为能力评分明显高于对照组(P<0.05);干预后血糖及糖化血红蛋白较干预前有所下降,观察组比对照组改善显著(P<0.05).结论 出院后定期电话随访,并给予个体化健康教育,有利于提高患者自我管理能力,有效维持血糖在较理想的范围.%Objective To explore the effects of telephone follow-up after discharging on the self-management behavior and the blood concentration of glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.Methods100 patients were randomly allocated into an observation group and a control group,with 50 patients in each.All of the patients were given the conventional discharge guidance when they discharged from hospital,on the basis of that,the patients in observation group would receive the additional individualized nursing intervention,such as diet knowledge,medication guidance,exercise guidance,prevention of complications and so on.However,all of the patients were followed up on telephone for 6 months.Self-management behavior and blood glucose in 6 months after discharging were compared between the two groups.Results Self - management behavior score of patients in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the patients in the control group (P<0.05)in the 6 months after discharging; After the intervention the concentration of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly decreased than before,the concentration of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin of patients in the observation group decreased more than that of the

  8. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when....... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio(®). Method. The OneTouch Verio(®) was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes...

  9. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  10. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  11. Gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and triglyceride concentration in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, has been shown to exert a variety of effects, including anti-oxidative, anti- carcinogenic, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we attempted to determine whether gallic acid affects metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes. Diet-induced obesity mice were treated intraperitoneally once per day with gallic acid (10 mg/kg/day). After 2 weeks of treatment, the mice were sacrificed to collect the blood for metabolic parameter assessments, and the adipose tissues and liver to weigh and analyze. The triglyceride concentrations were significantly improved in the gallic acid group relative to those measured in the control group. And most importantly, the blood glucose concentrations in the gallic acid group were significantly improved. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of the gallic acid group, adipocyte size was reduced, PPARγ expression was induced, and the Akt signaling pathway was activated. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in the obesity mice, thereby showing evidence of anti-hyperglycemic activity. The findings of an upregulation of PPARγ expression and Akt activation also contribute to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of gallic acid on glucose metabolism.

  12. Capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for blood plasma separation and on-chip glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Rakesh, P E; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2016-09-01

    We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma. The modified wetting property of the walls and hence the device performance could be retained for a few weeks by covering the channels with deionised water. The effects of the channel cross-section, exposure time, waiting time, and location and length of the hydrophobic region on the volume of the collected plasma are studied. Using a channel cross-section of 1000 × 400 μm, an exposure time of 2 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a hydrophobic region of width 1.0 cm located at 10 mm from the device inlet, 450 nl of plasma was obtained within 15 min. The performance of the device was found to be unaffected (provides 450 nl of plasma in 15 min) even after 15 days. The purification efficiency and plasma recovery of the device were measured and found to be comparable with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation process. Detection of glucose at different concentrations in whole blood of normal and diabetic patients was performed (using 5 μl of sample blood within 15 min) to demonstrate the compatibility of the device with integrated detection modules.

  13. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W.; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products.

  15. Study of Correlation Between Glucose Concentration and Reduced Scattering Coefficients in Turbid media using Optical Coherence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Poddar, R; Sen, P; Andrews, J T

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive, non-contact and \\textit{in vivo} monitoring of blood glucose is a long needed pathology tool for saving patients from recurring pain and hassle that can accompany conventional blood glucose testing methods. Optical coherence tomography known for its high axial resolution imaging modality is adopted in this article for monitoring glucose levels in tissue like media non-invasively. Making use of changes in reduced scattering coefficient due to the refractive-index mismatch between the extracellular fluid and the cellular membranes and armed with a theoretical model, we establish a correlation between the glucose concentration and reduced scattering coefficient. The scattering coefficients are extracted from the deconvoluted interference signal by using Monte-Carlo simulation with valid approximations. A program code using NI LabVIEW(^{TM}) is developed for automation of the experiment, data acquisition and analysis.

  16. Blood Glucose Variability and Outcomes in Critically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranje, Kirti Mahadeorao; Poddar, Banani; Bhriguvanshi, Arpita; Lal, Richa; Azim, Afzal; Singh, Ratender K.; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To find the incidence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose [BG] ≥150 mg/dl), hypoglycemia (BG ≤60 mg/dl), and variability (presence of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia) in critically ill children in the 1st week of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and their association with mortality, length of ICU stay, and organ dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The design was a retrospective observational cohort study. Consecutive children ≤18 years of age admitted from March 2003 to April 2012 in a combined adult and pediatric closed ICU. Relevant data were collected from chart review and hospital database. Results: Out of 258 patients included, isolated hyperglycemia was seen in 139 (53.9%) and was unrelated to mortality and morbidity. Isolated variability in BG was noted in 76 (29.5%) patients and hypoglycemia was seen in 9 (3.5%) patients. BG variability was independently associated with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome on multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6–31.1). Those with BG variability had longer ICU stay (11 days vs. 4 days, on log-rank test, P = 0.001). Insulin use was associated with the occurrence of variability (adjusted OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8–7.0). Conclusion: Glucose disorders were frequently observed in critically ill children. BG variability was associated with multiorgan dysfunction and increased ICU stay.

  17. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  18. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Lanzola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators.

  19. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for portable blood glucose meter (glucometer) use in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Karen L; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2016-03-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGM, glucometers) are a convenient, cost effective, and quick means to assess patient blood glucose concentration. The number of commercially available PBGM is constantly increasing, making it challenging to determine whether certain glucometers may have benefits over others for veterinary testing. The challenge in selection of an appropriate glucometer from a quality perspective is compounded by the variety of analytic methods used to quantify glucose concentrations and disparate statistical analysis in many published studies. These guidelines were developed as part of the ASVCP QALS committee response to establish recommendations to improve the quality of testing using point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld and benchtop devices in veterinary medicine. They are intended for clinical pathologists and laboratory professionals to provide them with background knowledge and specific recommendations for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), and to serve as a resource to assist the provision of advice to veterinarians and technicians to improve the quality of results obtained when using PBGM. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather they provide a minimum standard for management of PBGM in the veterinary setting.

  20. Non-contact optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using a magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; García, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we aim to experimentally verify a speckle based technique for non-contact measurement of glucose concentration in blood stream while the vision for the final device aims to contain a single wristwatch-style device containing an AC (alternating) electro-magnet generated by a solenoid, a laser and a camera. The experiments presented in work are performed in-vitro in order to verify the effects that are responsible for the operation principle. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an alternating magnetic field it exhibits Faraday rotation which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle patterns distribution. The temporal frequency resulting from the AC magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  1. Blood glucose control using an artificial pancreas reduces the workload of ICU nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibu, Kiyo; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2012-03-01

    Blood glucose management is one of the important therapies in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, blood glucose management using the sliding-scale method increases the workload of ICU nurses. An artificial pancreas, STG-22, has been developed to continuously monitor blood glucose levels and to maintain them at appropriate levels. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that compared to conventional methods, blood glucose management using the STG-22 reduces the workload of ICU nurses and has a positive impact on awareness regarding the management of blood glucose. This study included 45 patients who underwent elective surgery and were treated at the ICU postoperatively. The patients were separated into the following two groups: (1) blood glucose was maintained using the STG-22 (AP group) and (2) blood glucose was maintained using the sliding-scale method (SS group). In addition, a questionnaire was developed for an awareness survey of ICU nurses (N = 20). The frequency of blood sampling and number of double checks were significantly lower in the AP group (1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 8.9 ± 8.1 times/admission, P blood glucose.

  2. A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clovis S; Anzinger, Joshua J; Butterfield, Tiffany R; McCune, Joseph M; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-08-12

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. Activation of monocytes induces effector functions and a concomitant shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism that is accompanied by increased glucose transporter expression. This increased glycolytic metabolism is also observed for trained immunity of monocytes, a form of innate immunological memory. Although in vitro protocols examining glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake by monocytes have been described, none have been examined by multi-parametric flow cytometry in whole blood. We describe a multi-parametric flow cytometric protocol for the measurement of fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG uptake in whole blood by total monocytes and the classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocyte subpopulations. This method can be used to examine glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake for total monocytes and monocyte subpopulations during homeostasis and inflammatory disease, and can be easily modified to examine glucose uptake for other leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations within blood.

  3. A study on detection of glucose concentration using changes in color coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Oh, Han-Byeol; Kim, A-Hee; Kim, Jun-Sik; Lee, Eun-Suk; Baek, Jin-Young; Lee, Ki Sung; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Jun, Jae-Hoon

    2017-01-02

    Glucose concentration is closely related to the metabolic activity of cells and it is the most important substance as the energy source of a living body which plays an important role in the human body. This paper proposes an optical method that can measure the concentration of glucose. The change in glucose concentration was observed by using CIE diagram, and wavelength and purity values were detected. Also, even small changes in glucose concentration can be evaluated through mathematical modeling. This system is simple, economical, and capable of quantifying optical signals with numerical values for glucose sensing. This method can be applicable to the clinical field that examines diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome.

  4. Are Tubes Containing Sodium Fluoride Still Needed for the Measurement of Blood Glucose in Hospital Laboratory Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Al-Kharusi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare glucose values obtained using sodium flouride (NaF tubes and serum separation tubes (SST in a tertiary care hospital laboratory setting.  Methods: This study was conducted at the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman. During the study period (1 September–30 November 2013, 50 pairs (one NaF tube and one SST of patient’s blood specimens were randomly collected. Following separation of plasma (NaF tubes and serum (SST, glucose concentrations were measured by hexokinase assay using the Architect c8000. Fifteen pairs of these tubes were kept in the refrigerator at 4°C and plasma/serum glucose concentrations were measured daily up to seven days after collection.  Results: Comparing plasma (NaF and serum (SST results of glucose values (n=50 showed an average difference of 0.00mmol/L (range -0.60 to +0.60mmol/L. Bland Altman analysis gave a non-significant constant bias of 0.10 ±0.195mmol/L (bias ±SD. Pearson correlation between plasma (NaF and serum (SST glucose concentrations revealed a significant correlation approaching unity with r2= 0.9991. No significant differences in glucose values were noted for both plasma and serum in 15 pairs of NaF and SST tubes when analyzed seven days following refrigeration. Hemolysis was observed in five (10% NaF tubes compared with two (4% SST.  Conclusion: There is no difference in glucose values collected from plasma NaF tubes or serum SST, and so SST can be used in hospital laboratory settings as there are practical advantages, including cost-effectiveness and reduction in blood volume drawn when utilizing these tubes for glucose and other tests from a single blood collection tube.

  5. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  6. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard;

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent o...

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. ...

  8. Fasting blood glucose--a missing variable for GFR-estimation in type 1 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Bjornstad

    Full Text Available Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR is one of the current clinical methods for identifying risk for diabetic nephropathy in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Hyperglycemia is known to influence GFR in T1D and variability in blood glucose at the time of eGFR measurement could introduce bias in eGFR. We hypothesized that simultaneously measured blood glucose would influence eGFR in adults with T1D.Longitudinal multivariable mixed-models were employed to investigate the relationships between blood glucose and eGFR by CKD-EPI eGFRCYSTATIN C over 6-years in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 diabetes (CACTI study. All subjects with T1D and complete data including blood glucose and cystatin C for at least one of the three visits (n = 616, 554, and 521, respectively were included in the longitudinal analyses.In mixed-models adjusting for sex, HbA1c, ACEi/ARB, protein and sodium intake positive associations were observed between simultaneous blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C (β±SE:0.14±0.04 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p<0.0001, and hyperfiltration as a dichotomous outcome (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07 per 10 mg/dL of blood glucose, p = 0.02.In our longitudinal data in subjects with T1D, simultaneous blood glucose has an independent positive effect on eGFRCYSTATIN C. The associations between blood glucose and eGFRCYSTATIN C may bias the accurate detection of early diabetic nephropathy, especially in people with longitudinal variability in blood glucose.

  9. Accuracy of point-of-care blood glucose measurements in critically ill patients in shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garingarao, Carlo Jan Pati-An; Buenaluz-Sedurante, Myrna; Jimeno, Cecilia Alegado

    2014-09-01

    A widely used method in monitoring glycemic status of ICU patients is point-of-care (POC) monitoring devices. A possible limitation to this method is altered peripheral blood flow in patients in shock, which may result in over/underestimations of their true glycemic status. This study aims to determine the accuracy of blood glucose measurements with a POC meter compared to laboratory methods in critically ill patients in shock. POC blood glucose was measured with a glucose-1-dehydrogenase-based reflectometric meter. The reference method was venous plasma glucose measured by a clinical chemistry analyzer (glucose oxidase-based). Outcomes assessed were concordance to ISO 15197:2003 minimum accuracy criteria for glucose meters, bias in glucose measurements obtained by the 2 methods using Bland-Altman analysis, and clinical accuracy through modified error grid analysis. A total of 186 paired glucose measurements were obtained. ISO 2003 accuracy criteria were met in 95.7% and 79.8% of POC glucose values in the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. Mean bias for the normotensive group was -12.4 mg/dL, while mean bias in the hypotensive group was -34.9 mg/dL. POC glucose measurements within the target zone for clinical accuracy were 90.2% and 79.8% for the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. POC blood glucose measurements were significantly less accurate in the hypotensive subgroup of ICU patients compared to the normotensive group. We recommend a lower threshold in confirming POC blood glucose with a central laboratory method if clinically incompatible. In light of recently updated accuracy standards, we also recommend alternative methods of glucose monitoring for the ICU population as a whole regardless of blood pressure status.

  10. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  11. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  12. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Mariana Cristina; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city. METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288) of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics. RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively. CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved. PMID:25493676

  13. 不同浓度罗哌卡因分娩镇痛对产妇血糖及β-内啡肽的影响%The influence of Ropivacaine in various concentration on the blood glucose and β-endorphin of pregnancy women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃先; 任利容; 范静

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of Ropivacaine in various concentration on the blood glucose and β - eudorphin of pregnancy women.Methods: 150 healthy primiparae with analgnesia delivery were chosen randomly and were divided into 3 groups, and another 50 healthy primiparae without analgesia were taken as control group.The primiparae with analgesia delivery accepted 0.1% or 0.15% or O.2% Ropivacains plus fentanyl 1 ug/ml during the stage of dilatation of cervix in 3 ~5 cm in epidural pathway.Firstly 8ml was used as unloaded dose with continuously transfusion in 5 ml/h in PCEA electron.Blood glucose and β - endorphin in peripheral venous blood were tested respectively in each group on the every timepoint of ante partum, dilatation of cervix with 3 cm, 10 cm, and 24 hours postpartum.Results: The levels of blood glucose and β - endorphin increased at the stage of postpartum and predelivery, and these hormone levels decreased after analgesia with epidural pathway.There was no significant difference in the decreased amplitude among the different groups.Conclusion: Epidural analgesia with O.1% ropivacaine can reduce the releasing of β -endorphin which can maintain the level of blood glucose.%目的:探讨不同浓度罗哌卡因分娩镇痛对产妇血糖及β-内啡肽的影响.方法:随机选择150例罗哌卡因分娩镇痛的健康初产妇并分为3组,每组50例;选择50例未行分娩镇痛的健康初产妇为对照组.不同浓度罗哌卡因分娩镇痛产妇于宫口开大3~5 cm时分别接受0.1%、0.15%、0.2%罗比卡因加芬太尼1μg/ml行L2-L3硬膜外穿刺置管,首次8 ml负荷量,并采用PCEA电子泵以5 ml/h的速度持续输注.各组分别于临产前、宫口开大3 cm、宫口开大10 cm及分娩后24 h抽外周静脉血查血糖及β-内啡肽水平.结果:产妇临产后、镇痛前血糖及β-内啡肽水平较临产前增高(P<0.05);在实施硬膜外镇痛后,血糖及β-内啡肽水平下降到临产前状态,与

  14. Development of a high-sensitivity and portable cell using Helmholtz resonance for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, K; Okada, K; Kobayashi, R; Ishihara, Y

    2016-08-01

    We describe the possibility of high-sensitivity noninvasive blood glucose measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The demand for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement has increased due to the explosive increase in diabetic patients. We have developed a noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on PAS. The conventional method uses a straight-type resonant cell. However, the cell volume is large, which results in a low detection sensitivity and difficult portability. In this paper, a small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell is proposed to improve detection sensitivity and portability by reducing the cell dead volume. First, the acoustic property of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was evaluated by performing an experiment using a silicone rubber. As a result, the detection sensitivity of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was approximately two times larger than that of the conventional straight-type resonant cell. In addition, the inside volume was approximately 30 times smaller. Second, the detection limits of glucose concentration were estimated by performing an experiment using glucose solutions. The experimental results showed that a glucose concentration of approximately 1% was detected by the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell. Although these results on the sensitivity of blood glucose-level measurement are currently insufficient, they suggest that miniaturization of a resonance cell is effective in the application of noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement.

  15. Effects of changes in glucose concentration on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Kamal, A.; Spoelstra, K.; Biessels, G.J.; Urban, I.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a low or high concentration of glucose in the perfusion medium on synaptic activity and plasticity were studied in hippocampal slices from rats. Low-glucose medium depressed the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) significantly, whereas high-glucose medium had little eff

  16. Effect of curcumin supplementation on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose homeostasis related enzyme activities in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kwon-Il; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Yeo, Jiyoung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice and their age-matched lean non-diabetic db/+ mice. Both db/+ and db/db mice were fed with or without curcumin (0.02%, wt/wt) for 6 wks. Curcumin significantly lowered blood glucose and HbA 1c levels, and it suppressed body weight loss in db/db mice. Curcumin improved homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and elevated the plasma insulin level in db/db mice. Hepatic glucokinase activity was significantly higher in the curcumin-supplemented db/db group than in the db/db group, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities were significantly lower. In db/db mice, curcumin significantly lowered the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase, beta-oxidation, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase, and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase. Curcumin significantly lowered plasma free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations and increased the hepatic glycogen and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase in db/db mice. Curcumin normalized erythrocyte and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthathione peroxidase) in db/db mice that resulted in a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. However, curcumin showed no effect on the blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucose regulating enzyme activities in db/+ mice. These results suggest that curcumin seemed to be a potential glucose-lowering agent and antioxidant in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, but had no affect in non-diabetic db/+ mice.

  17. Newly diagnosed glucose intolerance and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction: comparison of post-challenge versus fasting glucose concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minako; Takagi, Tsutomu; Yamamuro, Atsushi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that newly diagnosed glucose intolerance is common among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term clinical cardiovascular outcomes in participants with AMI with abnormal fasting glucose compared with normal fasting glucose and an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared with a normal OGTT. Methods A prospective study was performed in 275 consecutive patients with AMI, 85 of whom had pre-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM). Those without DM were divided into two groups based on the 75 g OGTT at the time of discharge. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) was defined as 2 h glucose ≥140 mg/dl; 78 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 112 had AGT. The same patients were also reclassified into the normal fasting glucose group (NFG; n=168) or the impaired fasting glucose group (IFG; n=22). The association between the glucometabolic status and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event rates was evaluated. Results Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the AGT group had a worse prognosis than the NGT group and an equivalent prognosis to the DM group (p<0.0005). Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that the HR of AGT to NGT for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 2.65 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.15, p=0.004) while the HR of DM to NGT was 3.27 (1.68 to 6.38, p=0.0005). However, Cox HR of IFG to NFG for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 1.83 (0.86 to 3.87), which was not significant. Conclusion In patients with AMI, an abnormal OGTT is a better risk factor for future adverse cardiovascular events than impaired fasting blood glucose. PMID:22581733

  18. Temperature insensitive prediction of glucose concentration in turbid medium using multivariable calibration based on external parameter orthogonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tongshuai; Zhang, Ziyang; Sun, Cuiying; Guo, Chao; Sun, Di; Liu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The measurement accuracy of non-invasive blood glucose concentration (BGC) sensing with near-infrared spectroscopy is easily affected by the temperature variation in tissue because it would induce an unacceptable spectrum variation and the consequent prediction deviation. We use a multivariable correction method based on external parameter orthogonalization (EPO) to calibrate the spectral data recorded at different temperature values to reduce the spectral variation. The tested medium is a kind of tissue phantom, the Intralipid aqueous solution. The calibration uses a projection matrix to get the orthogonal spectral space to the variable of external parameter, i.e. temperature, and then the useful spectral information relative to glucose concentration has been reserved. Even more, training the projection matrix can be separated to building the calibration matrix for the prediction of glucose concentration as it only uses the representative samples' data with temperature variation. The method presents a lower complexity than modeling a robust prediction matrix, which can be built from comprehensive spectral data involved the all variables both of BGC and temperature. In our test, the calibrated spectra with the same glucose concentration but different temperature values show a significantly improved repeatability. And then the glucose concentration prediction results show a lower root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) than that using the robust calibration model, which has considered the two variables. We also discuss the rationality of the representative samples chosen by EPO. This research may be referenced to the temperature calibration for in vivo BGC sensing.

  19. Fetal glucose uptake and utilization as functions of maternal glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, W W; Sparks, J W; Wilkening, R B; Battaglia, F C; Meschia, G

    1984-03-01

    Seventeen studies were performed in 12 pregnant sheep to examine the relationship among simultaneously measured glucose uptake via the umbilical circulation, fetal glucose utilization (mg X min-1 X kg-1), and maternal arterial glucose (Gm, mg/dl). Fetal glucose utilization was measured by means of tracer glucose infused into the fetus or both mother and fetus. By fasting the ewe, Gm was varied in the 62-22 range. A decrease in Gm was accompanied by a significant (P less than 0.001) decrease in umbilical uptake (uptake = 0.09 Gm - 0.96, r = 0.82) and in fetal utilization, measured either by [U-14C]glucose (utilization = 0.062 Gm + 0.91, r = 0.90) or [6-3H]glucose (utilization = 0.065 Gm + 0.51, r = 0.91). At uptake greater than 3 mg X min-1 X kg-1, utilization and uptake were not significantly different. At lower uptakes, utilization did not decline as much as uptake. The results demonstrate that maternal fasting decreases both the umbilical uptake and the fetal utilization of glucose and suggest that fetal glucogenesis increases when the availability of exogenous glucose is markedly reduced.

  20. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation...

  1. The Diabetes Assistant: A Smartphone-Based System for Real-Time Control of Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Keith-Hynes; Benton Mize; Antoine Robert; Jérôme Place

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insulin must be injected daily to enable the body to metabolize glucose. Standard therapy for T1DM involves self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) several times daily with a blood glucose meter and injecting insulin via a syringe, pen or insulin pump. An “Artificial Pancreas” (AP) is a closed-loop control system that uses a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), a...

  2. Control of Blood Glucose for People with Type 1 Diabetes: an in Vivo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    variations of patient's physiology and lack of accuracy of glucose sensors. In this paper we design and discuss an algorithm for overnight closed-loop control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). We use an oset-free autoregressive model......Since continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology and insulin pumps have improved recent years, a strong interest in a closed-loop articial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes has arisen. Presently, a fully automated controller of blood glucose must face many challenges, such as daily...

  3. A meta-analysis of blood glucose effects on human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money. Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food. We conclude that blood glucose has domain-specific effects, influencing decision making differently depending on the relevance of the situation to acquiring food. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  5. [The net analyte preprocessing combined with radial basis partial least squares regression applied in noninvasive measurement of blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Bo; Huang, Zheng-Wei

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of quantitative analysis model in the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, this paper, by combining net analyte preprocessing (NAP) algorithm and radial basis functions partial least squares (RBFPLS) regression, builds a nonlinear model building method which is suitable for glucose measurement of human, named as NAP-RBFPLS. First, NAP is used to pre-process the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, in order to effectively extract the information which only relates to glucose signal from the original near-infrared spectra, so that it could effectively weaken the occasional correlation problems of the glucose changes and the interference factors which are caused by the absorption of water, albumin, hemoglobin, fat and other components of the blood in human body, the change of temperature of human body, the drift of measuring instruments, the changes of measuring environment, and the changes of measuring conditions; and then a nonlinear quantitative analysis model is built with the near-infrared spectroscopy data after NAP, in order to solve the nonlinear relationship between glucose concentrations and near-infrared spectroscopy which is caused by body strong scattering. In this paper, the new method is compared with other three quantitative analysis models building on partial least squares (PLS), net analyte preprocessing partial least squares (NAP-PLS) and RBFPLS respectively. At last, the experimental results show that the nonlinear calibration model, developed by combining NAP algorithm and RBFPLS regression, which was put forward in this paper, greatly improves the prediction accuracy of prediction sets, and what has been proved in this paper is that the nonlinear model building method will produce practical applications for the research of non-invasive detection techniques on human glucose concentrations.

  6. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.

  7. Effect of local corticosteroid injection of the hand and wrist on blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z; Barron, O Alton; Harrison, Richard; Marshall, Astrid; Purcelli-Lafer, Marissa

    2012-12-01

    Locally administered corticosteroids are a common therapy in many hand and wrist disorders. Corticosteroids pose a theoretical risk to patients with diabetes mellitus by potentially raising blood glucose to hyperglycemic levels. Although oral corticosteroids are known to have an effect on blood glucose control, limited data exist on extra-articular administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the systemic impact of extra-articularly administered corticosteroids in the hand and wrist on serum glucose concentration in patients with diabetes mellitus.Twenty-three patients with diabetes mellitus received a 1-mL triamcinolone acetonide injection for de Quervain's tenosynovitis, trigger finger, flexor carpi ulnaris tendonitis, or carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients recorded their daily morning blood glucose levels for 1 week before injection and for 4 weeks after injection. Average blood glucose levels increased slightly from baseline after injection, reaching statistical significance 1, 5, and 6 days after injection, but were not clinically significant (average increase, 14.2, 9.7, and 32.7 mg/dL, respectively). Isolated increases more than 2 times the standard deviation of preinjection values occurred at least once in the majority of patients. The frequency of hyperglycemic episodes increased after injection, but the proportions of patients with at least 1 hyperglycemic episode before and after injection were not significantly different.These results suggest that local corticosteroid injections are a clinically safe treatment option for inflammatory processes of the hand and wrist in patients with diabetes mellitus. On average, patients experienced slight increases in blood glucose after receiving an injection. Most experienced isolated increases substantially beyond baseline and isolated hyperglycemic effects, but these did not pose an apparent clinical risk.

  8. Detection Limit of Glucose Concentration with Near-Infrared Absorption and Scattering Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yun-Han; HUANG Fu-Rong; LI Shi-Ping; CHEN Zhe

    2008-01-01

    @@ Theoretical analyses and Monte Carlo simulation are performed to investigate the detection limit of glucose concentration with near-infrared spectroscopy.The relation between detection limitation of glucose concentration and source-detector separation is derived.Monte Carlo simulation performed with a skin-layered model shows that the ratio of effective photons from the target layer could excess 50% by selecting proper source-detector separation,and that the detection limit of glucose concentration approaches to 0.28mM,which satisfies the requirement of food and drug administration for noninvasive glucose sensing.

  9. Polymer Optical Fiber Compound Parabolic Concentrator fiber tip based glucose sensor: In-Vitro Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Janting, Jakob; Aasmul, Soren;

    2016-01-01

    We present in-vitro sensing of glucose using a newly developed efficient optical fiber glucose sensor based on a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) tipped polymer optical fiber (POF). A batch of 9 CPC tipped POF sensors with a 35 mm fiber length is shown to have an enhanced fluorescence pickup...... efficiency with an average increment factor of 1.7 as compared to standard POF sensors with a plane cut fiber tip. Invitro measurements for two glucose concentrations (40 and 400 mg/dL) confirm that the CPC tipped sensors efficiently can detect both glucose concentrations. it sets the footnote at the bottom...

  10. 肺癌患者体重、血糖浓度和病灶大小对18F-FDG PET/CT病灶SUV的影响%The effect of lung cancer patients' weight, blood glucose concentration and lesion size of lung cancer on 18F-FDG PET/CT lesions SUV results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小丰; 居热提·阿扎提; 曹务成; 柴黎明; 辛军; 李宏利; 赵周社

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lung cancer patients' weight,blood glucose concentration and lesion size of lung cancer on 18F-FDG PET/CT lesions SUV results.Methods Fifty cases of lung cancer patients without a history of diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study.Among them,21 patients with mediastinal metastases were detected.According to clinical routine 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning,automatic extraction of lung cancer SUV,weight and size correction SUV were obtained using the GE Advantage Workstation image processing workstation.Liver reference background SUV was obtained using semiautomatic extraction method of extraction.Lung cancer primary tumors and metastatic lesions diagnosis reference standards were accordant with the liver reference background SUV or SUV shape correction×1.5+2×standard deviation.Results Fifty cases of lung cancer in patients with blood sugar concentration and liver reference background SUV had positive correlation with lung cancer,SUV of primary lung cancer was negatively correlated with blood sugar,but it showed a positive correlation between blood sugar and lung metastases.According to the reference criteria for the diagnosis of 50 primary lung cancer cases and 21 metastatic lung cancer cases before and after the clinical diagnosis,the glucose concentration,lesion size correction accuracies were 90.00%,71.43% and 100%,95.24% respectively.Conclusions Patients' body weight,blood glucose concentration and lesion size significantly affect the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of lung cancer.After correction accuracy,it remarkably improved the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer.The results suggest that when using 18F-FDG PET/CT for lung cancer diagnosis,the effects of body weight,blood glucose concentration and lesion size should be concerned.%目的 研究肺癌患者体重、血糖浓度和病灶大小对18F-FDG PET/CT病灶SUV的影响.方法 50例无糖尿病病史的肺癌患者中,21例有纵隔转

  11. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  12. Evaluation of artificial pancreas technology for continuous blood glucose monitoring in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Nozawa, Satoshi; Azakami, Daigo; Momota, Yutaka; Makino, Yuki; Matsubara, Takako; Osaka, Motohisa; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2011-06-01

    Artificial pancreas technology, involving "closed-loop" controls with real-time blood glucose monitoring, has been increasing in reliability as its potential for clinical use and application grows. One such device, based on this technology, is the STG-22 (Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) artificial pancreas apparatus. In order to assess the reliability and accuracy of the device for measuring blood glucose, it is important to compare its readings to those obtained using a 'gold standard' method, such as the hexokinase method. Therefore, in the present study, canine blood [glucose] measurements using the STG-22 were compared to those obtained using a previously established commercial reagent, Quickauto-Neo GLU-HK. Furthermore, two different sample types (whole blood versus plasma constituent) were compared to determine which sample type results in more accurate and optimal readings with the STG-22. Given that the STG-22 was not primarily designed for canine blood samples, results for canine blood samples were not accurate. Measurements performed by the STG-22 with whole blood were significantly lower than reference [glucose] counterparts. Alternatively, an opposite trend was observed with plasma measurements that were significantly higher. A conversion format using the following formula, Hexokinase [glucose] = STG-22 [glucose] × 1.407 + 1.532, was observed with canine samples in our study.

  13. Influence of blood glucose on the expression of glucose transporter proteins 1 and 3 in the brain of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; FU Chun-li; ZHANG Wen-wen; CHEN Li; XIAN Yu-xin; ZHANG Li; LAI Hong; HOU Xin-guo; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; XU Fu-yu; SONG Jun

    2007-01-01

    Background The delivery of glucose from the blood to the brain involves its passage across the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), and then across the neural cell membranes, which is mediated by GLUT3. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic influence of hyperglycemia on the expression of these GLUTs by measuring their expression in the brain at different blood glucose levels in a rat model of diabetes. This might help to determine the proper blood glucose threshold level in the treatment of diabetic apoplexy.Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in 30 rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic group without blood glucose control (group DM1), diabetic rats treated with low dose insulin (group DM2),and diabetic rats treated with high dose insulin (group DM3). The mRNA and protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively.Results Compared with normal control rats, the GLUT1 mRNA was reduced by 46.08%, 29.80%, 19.22% (P<0.01) in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively; and the GLUT3 mRNA was reduced by 75.00%, 46.75%, and 17.89% (P<0.01)in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively. The abundance of GLUT1 and GLUT3 proteins had negative correlation with the blood glucose level (P<0.01). The density of microvessels in the brain of diabetic rats did not change significantly compared with normal rats.Conclusions Chronic hyperglycemia downregulates GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the rat brain, which is not due to the decrease of the density of microvessels. The downregulation of GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression might be the adaptive reaction of the body to prevent excessive glucose entering the cell that may lead to cell damage.

  14. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia.

  15. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  16. Analysis article on the performance analysis of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnica, Bogdan

    2009-09-01

    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Chang and colleagues present the analytical performance evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose meter. This device is an advanced construction with a color display, used-strip ejector, no-button interface, and short assay time. Accuracy studies were performed using a YSI 2300 analyzer, considered the reference. Altogether, 349 pairs of results covering a wide range of blood glucose concentrations were analyzed. Patients with diabetes performed a significant part of the tests. Obtained results indicate good accuracy of OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system, satisfying the International Organization for Standardization recommendations and thereby locating >95% of tests within zone A of the error grid. Results of the precision studies indicate good reproducibility of measurements. In conclusion, the evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue meter revealed good analytical performance together with convenient handling useful for self-monitoring of blood glucose performed by elderly diabetes patients.

  17. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

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    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/kg BW 30 minutes later. Blood glucose levels were assessed using glucometer kit, from zero to 3 hours, at ½ hourly interval. These results analysed by one way ANOVA showed there were significant difference (p<0.05 between Ethanol extract of avocado leaves treated with mice (0.490, 0.980 g/kg BW and control groups. Furthermore, when Tukey’s test was performed, avocado treated mice (1.960g/kg BW reduce glucose level to 64.27%. The effectiveness of this treatment was not significantly different to those treated with glipizide (68.50%.

  18. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  19. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  20. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  1. High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or fatigue Blurred vision More frequent infections Slow healing cuts and sores Unexplained weight loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin ...

  2. Relationship between glucose oxidation and FFA concentration in septic cancer-bearing patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwein, H.P.; Pesola, G.R.; Groeger, J.S.; Jeevanandam, M.; Brennan, M.F.

    1988-11-01

    Glucose oxidation is inhibited in severely ill patients. The present investigation was designed to study the relationship between glucose tissue uptake, glucose oxidation, and FFA concentration in septic cancer-bearing patients. The influence of glucose infusion alone (3.9 mg x kg-1 x min-1), followed by a euglycemic clamp with the same glucose load, on oxidation of glucose, plasma FFA concentration, and lipid oxidation were measured in eight septic cancer-bearing patients. During infusion of 3.9 mg glucose x kg-1 x min-1 glucose tissue uptake was 4.6 +/- 0.3 mg x kg-1 x min-1, glucose oxidation 0.5 +/- 0.2 mg x kg-1 x min-1, FFA concentration 377 +/- 52 mumol x L-1, and lipid oxidation 2.0 +/- 0.2 mumol x kg-1 x min-1. During the euglycemic clamp glucose tissue uptake was 4.4 +/- 0.3 mg x kg-1 x min-1, glucose oxidation rose to 1.8 mg x kg-1 x min-1 (.001 less than P less than .01), FFA concentration dropped to 202 +/- 23 mumol x L-1 (P less than .001), and lipid oxidation to 1.2 +/- 0.2 mumol x kg-1 x min-1 (.001 less than P less than .01). Nonprotein respiratory quotient rose from 0.73 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.02 (.001 less than P less than .01); 11% +/- 5% of the total amount of glucose taken up by the tissues was oxidized during infusion of glucose alone and increased to 42% +/- 6% during the euglycemic glucose clamp. It is concluded that in septic cancer-bearing patients glucose oxidation is inhibited during infusion of 3.9 mg glucose x kg-1 x min-1, even when expressed as percentage of glucose tissue uptake. With insulin, glucose tissue uptake was not influenced, but glucose oxidation expressed as percentage of glucose tissue uptake was normalized.

  3. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  4. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  5. Predictors of incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Kirsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Baller, Birgit;

    2008-01-01

    endogenous factors are associated with the concentrations of GLP-1? In particular, do elevated fasting glucose or glucagon levels diminish GLP-1 responses? RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with mild type 2 diabetes, 17 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 matched control subjects...... three groups in both experiments. GIP responses were 186 +/- 17% higher after mixed meal ingestion than after the oral glucose load (P fasting glucagon and integrated FFA levels...... and subsequent GLP-1 concentrations. In contrast, fasting FFA and integrated glucagon levels after glucose or meal ingestion and female sex were positively related to GLP-1 concentrations. Incretin levels were unrelated to measures of glucose control or insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Deteriorations in glucose...

  6. VIRTUAL DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE OBTAINED FROM FED RATS AND FROM 24-HOUR FASTED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Treis Trindade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The normal blood glucose in rats is 100 mg glucose / 100 ml of blood plasma. After a 24hhour fast, a decrease around 30% of this value occurs. This reduction can reach 45% in a prolonged fast. Several processes controlled by neurohormonal mechanisms prevent a more pronounced decrease in blood glucose of animals subjected to fast. These processes are hepatic glycogenolysis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, decrease of glucose utilization and increase of fatty acids use by muscle tissue, and ketone bodies utilization by the central nervous system. OBJECTIVES: This study presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which simulates the determination of blood glucose (glycemia obtained from fed rats and from 24-hour fasted rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first, cartoons were planned in order to show the biochemical and methodology fundamentals. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: The animated simulation of a standard glucose curve, followed by virtual evaluation of glucose in blood plasma samples were developed, associated with some questions. This object has been used by students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS since second semester of 2009. The navigation features, design and interactivity have been evaluated as excellent by about 80% of them. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this learning object can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/dosagemglicemia/

  7. Effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumi; Ogata, Hitomi; Omi, Naomi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Hibi, Masanobu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an association between breakfast skipping and body weight gain, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Time when meal is consumed affects postprandial increase in energy expenditure and blood glucose, and breakfast skipping may reduce 24 h energy expenditure and elevate blood glucose level. The present study evaluated the effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose. The skipped breakfast was compensated by following big meals at lunch and supper. In a randomized repeated-measure design with or without breakfast, eight males stayed twice in a room-size respiratory chamber. Blood glucose was recorded with a continuous glucose monitoring system. Breakfast skipping did not affect 24 h energy expenditure, fat oxidation and thermic effect of food, but increased overall 24 h average of blood glucose (83 ± 3 vs 89 ± 2 mg/dl, P breakfast skipping. These observations suggest that changes in glucose homeostasis precede that of energy balance, in the potential sequence caused by breakfast skipping, if this dietary habit has any effect on energy balance.:

  8. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  9. Glucometer as a chairside device to assess blood glucose in periodontal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Bala Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common finding in the medical history of patients receiving treatment for periodontal disease. The incidence of diabetes is on the rise worldwide. Virtually, every dentist and especially the periodontist are likely to encounter an increasing number of undiagnosed diabetic patients. The conventional laboratory methods employed to detect blood glucose are time consuming and require elaborative equipment. The advent of blood glucose monitors allows the clinician to assess blood glucose at the chair side. Materials and Methods: The use of gingival capillary blood as a marker for blood glucose estimation using glucometer against the conventional laboratory method has been assessed in 60 diabetics and 70 controls. Results: The correlation between gingival and finger-stick blood was r = 0.996, P<0.001 in diabetics and controls. Correlation between gingival and laboratory method was r = 0.994, P<0.001 in cases and controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that capillary blood from the outer surface of gingiva provide an acceptable source for measuring blood glucose.

  10. Determination of the reference position in the near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2016-10-01

    Position-based reference measurement method is taken as one of the most promising method in non-invasive measurement of blood glucose based on spectroscopic methodology. Selecting an appropriate source-detector separation as the reference position is important for deducting the influence of background change and reducing the loss of useful signals. Our group proposed a special source-detector separation named floating-reference position where the signal contains only background change, that is to say, the signal at this source-detector separation is uncorrelated with glucose concentration. The existence of floating-reference position has been verified in a three layer skin by Monte Carlo simulation and in the in vitro experiment. But it is difficult to verify the existence of floating-reference position on the human body because the interference is more complex during in vivo experiment. Aiming at this situation, this paper studies the determination of the best reference position on human body by collecting signals at several source-detector separations on the palm and measuring the true blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) experiments of 3 volunteers. Partial least square (PLS) calibration model is established between the signals at every source-detector separation and its corresponding blood glucose levels. The results shows that the correlation coefficient (R) between 1.32 mm to 1.88 mm is lowest and they can be used as reference for background correction. The signal of this special position is important for improving the accuracy of near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  11. Blood glucose regulation mechanism in depressive disorder animal model during hyperglycemic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Min; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-06-01

    Depression is more common among diabetes people than in the general population. In the present study, blood glucose change in depression animal model was characterized by various types of hyperglycemia models such as d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and drug-induced hyperglycemia models. First, the ICR mice were enforced into chronic restraint stress for 2h daily for 2 weeks to produce depression animal model. The animals were fed with d-glucose (2g/kg), forced into restraint stress for 30min, or administered with clonidine (5μg/5μl) supraspinally or spinally to produce hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level in depression group was down-regulated compared to that observed in the normal group in d-glucose-fed-, restraint stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia models. The up-regulated corticosterone level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group while the up-regulation of plasma corticosterone level is further elevated after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration in the depression group. The up-regulated insulin level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group. On the other hand, blood corticosterone level in depression group was up-regulated compared to the normal group after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration. Whereas the insulin level in depression group was not altered when mice were administered clonidine i.t. or i.c.v. Our results suggest that the blood glucose level in depression group is down-regulated compared to the normal group during d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia in mice. The down-regulation of the blood glucose level might be one of the important pathophysiologic changes in depression.

  12. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  13. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak HA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Altug Cakmak,1 Burcu Dincgez Cakmak,2 Ayse Ender Yumru,3 Serkan Aslan,4 Asim Enhos,1 Ali Kemal Kalkan,4 Ebru Inci Coskun,5 Abdullah Serdar Acikgoz,6 Suat Karatas3 1Department of Cardiology, Mustafakemalpasa Government Hospital, Bursa, 2Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Rize Kackar Government Hospital, Rize, 3Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Inonu University, Malatya, 6Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups.Results: Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003, and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001 were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001, and

  14. Alterations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin, nuclear binding of tri-iodothyronine and thyroid hormone-stimulated cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in which serum T3 was significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed (0.62 +/- 0.12 (S.D.) nmol/l) compared...... micrograms DNA). Unstimulated glucose uptake was increased in cells from patients with NTI (2.03 +/- 0.49 mmol/l per mg DNA per h, P less than 0.01) compared with controls (1.13 +/- 0.20 mmol/l per mg DNA per h). Thyroxine-stimulated glucose uptake (stimulated glucose uptake--unstimulated glucose uptake......) was increased in cells from patients with NTI (2.06 +/- 1.67 mmol/l per mg DNA per h, P less than 0.01) compared with controls (0.26 +/- 0.12 mmol/l per mg DNA per h), and T3-stimulated glucose uptake was also increased in cells from patients with NTI (1.34 +/- 0.81 mmol/l per mg DNA per h, P less than 0...

  15. Distribution and concentration of cyclosporin in human blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, K.; Britton, K; Biggs, J.

    1984-01-01

    In patients receiving cyclosporin to minimise graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, whole blood cyclosporin concentration was roughly twice the serum concentration when blood was separated at 37 degrees C. In turn, blood separation at 37 degrees C resulted in a doubling of serum cyclosporin concentration compared with separation at room temperature. In vitro studies showed that the latter phenomenon was due to a temperature dependent partitioning of cyclospor...

  16. Aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum decreases levels of blood glucose in induced hyperglycemic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amilcar Arenal; Leonardo Martn; Nestor M Castillo; Dainier de la Torre; Ubaldo Torres; Reinaldo Gonzlez

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate, in hyperglycemic tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus)], the effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose levels.Methods:The hyperglycemia inO. niloticus was induced by adding glucose to fish pond water.An aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum) was prepared by boiling fresh leaves and the doses of0,40,80,200 and400 mg per liter of pond water were tested.Results:The blood sugar concentration for tilapia with hyperglycemic induced was an average of50% higher than the control group.The blood glucose levels in tilapia after the induction of hyperglycemia were higher than the control group for 90 min after the treatment.The treatment with the aqueous extract ofO. tenuiflorum dropped the serum glucose level of hyperglycemic tilapia until it was similar to that of the control group and was dose dependent.Conclusions:The results indicated that O. tenuiflorum was endowed with anti-hyperglycemic activity.To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of fish as a diabetes model to test natural extracts from plants.

  17. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... was positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and blood glucose and inversely with very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride. Association with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), diastolic and systolic blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index were inconsistent...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...

  18. Non-Invasive Detection of Blood Glucose Concentration Based on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Combined with Principle Component Regression Method%基于光声光谱联合主成分回归法的血糖浓度无损检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任重; 刘国栋; 黄振; 熊志华

    2016-01-01

    利用可调谐脉冲激光器激发联合聚焦超声探测器前向探测模式搭建了一套血糖光声无损检测实验装置。为了测试该装置的可靠性,实验中利用532 nm 泵浦 Nd ∶ YAG 调 Q 脉冲激光器激发不同浓度的葡萄糖水溶液产生实时光声信号;采用脉冲激光在近红外波段1300~2300 nm 内固定间隔波长10 nm 扫描方式激发不同浓度的葡萄糖水溶液,获取了不同波长下的葡萄糖光声峰峰值,利用差谱方法筛选出了多个葡萄糖的特性波长;然后采用主成分回归算法优选了三个特性波长,并建立了浓度梯度与对应三个优选波长光声峰峰值之间的数学校正模型。实验表明,葡萄糖水溶液的光声信号符合弱吸收介质的柱状光声源模型;利用建立的校正模型对校正集和预测集的葡萄糖浓度预测结果表明,葡萄糖浓度的校正和预测均方根误差均小于10 mg ・ dl -1,相似系数为0.9936。%This paper presents a photoacoustic noninvasive setup of detecting blood glucose based on the tunable pulsed laser cou ‐pled with the confocal ultrasonic transducer and the forward detection model .To validate the reliability of the setup ,in the ex‐periments ,the different concentrations of glucose aqueous solution are excitated by the Q ‐switched 532 nm pumped Nd ∶ YAG pulsed laser to generate the time‐resolved photoacoustic signals .And the glucose aqueous solutions are scanned by the tunable pulsed laser in the infrared waveband from 1 300 to 2 300 nm with the interval of 10nm and the photoacoustic peak‐to‐peak values are gotten .The difference spectral method is used to get the characteristic wavelengths of glucose ,and the principle component regression algorithm is used to determine three optimal wavelengths and establish the correction mathematical model between the photoacoustic peak‐to‐peak values and the concentrations .The experimental results demonstrate that

  19. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : Professional Advice and Daily Practice of Patients With Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; van der Bijl, Jaap J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the advice given by diabetes educators in Europe, and the daily practice of Dutch patients with diabetes regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood and other aspects concerning self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Method During a diabetes conference in

  20. Transcriptional analysis of adaptation to high glucose concentrations in Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; He, Ming-Xiong; Wu, Bo; Feng, Hong

    2015-02-01

    The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is usually tolerant to high concentrations of glucose. The addition of sorbitol decreases the lag phase and increases ethanol yield and productivity of the bacteria in high glucose concentrations. The molecular mechanisms of adaptation to high glucose concentrations and the effect of sorbitol are still unclear. In this study, microarray analysis was used to study the global transcriptional adaptation responses of Z. mobilis to high glucose concentrations. A total of 235 genes were differentially expressed when 220 g/L glucose was added with or without 10 mM sorbitol. These genes are involved in diverse aspects of cell metabolism and regulation, including membrane transporters, nitrogen metabolism, and plasmid-encoded genes. However, most differentially expressed genes were downregulated when sorbitol was added. Notably, the transcription of almost all genes involved in the Entner-Doudoroff and ethanol production pathways was not significantly affected. In addition, a prophage and a nitrogen-fixation cluster were significantly induced. These results revealed that Z. mobilis cells responded to high glucose concentrations by regulating the transcriptional levels of genes related to membrane channels and transporters, stress response mechanisms, and metabolic pathways. These data provide insight into the intracellular adaptation responses to high glucose concentrations and reveal strategies to engineer efficient ethanol fermentation in Z. mobilis.

  1. Glucose uptake and transport in contracting, perfused rat muscle with different pre-contraction glycogen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hespel, P; Richter, Erik

    1990-01-01

    1. Glucose uptake and transport, muscle glycogen, free glucose and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were studied in perfused resting and contracting rat skeletal muscle with different pre-contraction glycogen concentrations. Rats were pre-conditioned by a combination of swimming exercise and diet......, resulting in either low (glycogen-depleted rats), normal (control rats) or high (supercompensated rats) muscle glycogen concentrations at the time their hindlimbs were perfused. 2. Compared with control rats, pre-contraction muscle glycogen concentration was approximately 40% lower in glycogen-depleted rats......, whereas it was 40% higher in supercompensated rats. Muscle glycogen break-down correlated positively (r = 0.76; P less than 0.001) with pre-contraction muscle glycogen concentration. 3. Glucose uptake during contractions was approximately 50% higher in glycogen-depleted hindquarters than in control...

  2. RUMINAL FERMENTATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE AT LOW AND HIGH LEVEL INTAKE OF GROWING AND MATURE KACANG GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luthfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare ruminal Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA concentration andblood glucose in young and mature Kacang goats at different feeding levels. Eigth male young Kacanggoats weights at 12.75±2.68 kg (6-7 months and male mature goat weights at ± 17.34±3.32 kg (8-12months were used in this study. The pelleted complete feed was formulated to give 18,8% of CrudeProtein (CP and 78.82% of total digestible nutrients (TDN. The experiment design was nested designexperimental 2x2 with 4 replications. The main factors (based on nested were young and mature goatsand the second factor was low feeding (near maintenance level and high feeding (2X maintenance.Data measured were daily feed intake, feed digestibilities, ruminal VFA concentration and bloodglucose. The data obtained were analyzed by using analysis of variance. The results showed that drymatter intake (DMI, digestible carbohydrates, digestible crude fiber, and digestible organic matter wasaffected by age (P<0.05, as well as level of feeding (P<0.001, but age and feeding level has no effecton digestibility (P>0.05. Ruminal VFA and blood glucose concentrations were found similar (P>0.05 neither in young and mature goats. However, VFA and concentration on the 3 and 6 h on high feeding aswell as blood glucose on 3 h in high feeding were higher than those on low feeding.

  3. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  4. Effect of mitiglinide combined laser photocoagulation on blood glucose, blood lipid and vascular endothelial function in diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Yan Fan; Gui-Jun Luo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of mitiglinide combined laser photocoagulation on blood glucose, blood lipid and vascular endothelial function in diabetic retinopathy.Methods:A total of 106 patients with diabetic retinopathy treated in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were selected and assigned into the separate group and combined group. Fifty-three patients in the separate group only received oral mitiginide, while other 53 patients in the combined group received oral mitiglinide and laster photocoagulation surgery. Before and after treatment, the FBG, 2hPBG, HbA1c, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ET-1, VEGF, PEDF, ICAM-1, FMD of patients in the two groups were analyzed.Results: After treatment, the blood glucose and blood lipid indexes of patients in the two groups were improved significantly, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The ET-1, ICAM-1 and VEGF of patients in the two groups decreased, and the decrease of the combined group was more distinctly. The PEDF and FMD in the two groups all increased, and the combined group changed more obviously. The regression of the blood vessel and the recovery of visual acuity in the combined group were better than the separate group.Conclusions:Mitiglinide combined with laser photocoagulation can effectively improve the level of blood glucose and blood lipid, promote vascular endothelial function and inhibit the formation of retinal neovascularization so as to improve the visual acuity level.

  5. Comparison of Blood Glucose Values Using Two Glucose Meters and Standard Laboratory Method in Hospitalized Patients in a Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Aghakachoei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with a worldwide prevalence and its complications can be prevented with close monitoring of blood glucose. Quality of blood glucose monitoring utilizing glucometers in Iranian hospitalized patients has not been well published in the literature. We evaluated the accuracy and consistency of the results of two devices compared with the standard laboratory method used for measuring glucose levels in a teaching hospital.Methods: In this study 100 patients with the average age of 57.5 ±17.7 years were randomly selected from 19 wards and their blood glucose were simultaneously measured using Accu-Chek Active®(1 and Cleverchek®(2 (commonly used in the wards and the conventional laboratory method. Calibration was performed on both devices.Results: Absolute Mean Difference of the devices 1 and 2 from the laboratory values were 24.3±2.4,and 38.5±4.5, respectively (P: 0.003. Correlation coefficient of the obtained values by glucometers1 and 2 with lab, were 0.82 and 0.52, respectively. Calibration of the devices showed that device 1 was the most consistent device with the laboratory values, and Pearson correlation coefficient between the obtained values as a result of four reiterations for each sample in each device showed that the highest coefficient belonged to the device 1 and the least belonged to the device 2 used in the Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments.Conclusion: The device 2 used in different wards of the hospital must be calibrated periodically. Furthermore, the device 1 generated closest results to the ones obtained through the laboratory.

  6. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John;

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects.......Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  7. Effects of Different Blood Sampling Methods on Value of Blood Glucose Measured by Rapid Blood Glucose Meter%采血方法对快速血糖测定仪测量值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东荣

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同采血方法对快速血糖测定仪测量值的影响。方法通过对60例糖尿病患者采用3种不同的采血方法,即自然流出法、热水热敷按摩法和手指挤血法,进行末梢血糖浓度的快速测定,同时利用大型生化分析仪测定其静脉血血糖浓度。结果自然流出法测定血糖值和静脉血糖值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),热水热敷按摩和手指挤血法测定血糖值均显著低于静脉血糖值,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论临床上使用快速血糖仪检测血糖值时,为保证结果的准确性,宜采用自然流出法采取末梢血。%ObjectiveTo assess the inlfuence of different methods of blood sampling on the results tested by rapid blood glucose meter.Methods Blood glucose of 60 patients with diabetes were tested by rapid blood glucose meter through 3 different methods of blood sampling, and compared with the value of blood glucose measured by taking glucose oxidation enzyme from venous blood.Results There was no statistical signiifcance in value of blood glucose between natural effusion group and venous blood (P>0.05). The values of blood glucose in hot water massage group and finger squeezing group were remarkably lower than those in venous blood group (P<0.05).Conclusion The natural blood out flow of fingers is the better way when value of blood glucose measured by rapid blood glucose meter in clinic.

  8. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  9. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  10. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K;

    2010-01-01

    plasma concentrations of ghrelin were greatest prepartum and lowest at 4 d postpartum, giving a quadratic pattern of change over the transition period. Positive portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences were observed for glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide. A negative......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...... was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose...

  11. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Gejl; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. The effects cause that mimetics of GLP-1 serves as treatment of type 2 diabete...... and in vivo, as in pancreas. The apparent neuroprotective potential of GLP-1, indirectly acting through changes of cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism or brain glucose concentration, or all of these, is worthy of close attention....

  12. High blood ketone body concentration in type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogaro, A; Crepaldi, C; Miola, M; Maran, A; Pengo, V; Tiengo, A; Del Prato, S

    1996-02-01

    To assess the metabolic disturbances, and, in particular, the occurrence of high blood ketone body concentration in post-absorptive Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients as compared to a matched normal population, a study was carried out in a group of 78 Type 2 diabetic outpatients matched for age and sex and in 78 normal individuals. In all subjects we measured HbA1c, and fasting levels of glucose, FFA, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, alanine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, growth hormone, cortisol, glucagon, free insulin, and C-peptide. Multistix strips were used for urine ketone determination. As expected HbA1c, and plasma glucose were higher in Type 2 diabetics. This was associated with multiple metabolic disturbances as shown by higher circulating concentrations of FFA, glycerol and gluconeogenic precursors. Similarly, blood levels of ketones (351 +/- 29 vs 159 +/- 15 umol/l; P growth hormone. Plasma glucagon levels were higher in Type 2 diabetics. Blood ketone body levels were directly correlated with both plasma glucose and FFA concentrations. These observations clearly show that Type 2 diabetes is a pathologic condition characterised by multiple metabolic disturbances which are fully apparent in the basal state. Furthermore, we emphasise that Type 2 diabetic patients, though not insulin deficient, may present a significant increase in their fasting levels of ketone bodies.

  13. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  14. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author).

  15. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  16. Formoterol concentrations in blood and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Kasper; Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined urinary and serum concentrations of formoterol in asthmatic and healthy individuals after a single dose of 18 μg inhaled formoterol and after repeated inhaled doses in healthy individuals. Results were evaluated using the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) 2012 threshold for formoterol....

  17. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  18. Pinitol from soybeans reduces postprandial blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Jung-In; Yoon, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jae Cherl; Cha, In-June

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol (D-pinitol), purified from soybean, on the postprandial blood glucose response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was examined. Fifteen Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men, eight women; 60.3 +/- 3.1 years old) ingested cooked white rice containing 50 g of available carbohydrate with or without prior ingestion of soy pinitol. Pinitol was given either as a 1.2 g dose at 0, 60, 120, or 180 minutes prior to rice ingestion, or as a 0.6 g dose at 60 minutes prior to rice ingestion. Capillary blood glucose levels were monitored for 4 hours after rice consumption. The ingestion of 1.2 g of pinitol 60 minutes prior to rice consumption controlled postprandial capillary blood glucose most effectively, significantly diminishing the postprandial increase in plasma glucose levels measured at 90 and 120 minutes after rice consumption (P pinitol and rice was significantly lower than that for subjects who consumed only rice (P pinitol had no apparent effect on postprandial insulin levels. Therefore, soybean-derived pinitol may be useful in controlling postprandial increases in blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  20. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  1. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Acar,1 Hamit Ozcelik,1 Arif Alper Cevik,1 Engin Ozakin,1 Goknur Yorulmaz,2 Nur Kebapci,2 Ugur Bilge,3 Muzaffer Bilgin4 1Emergency Department, 2Endocrinology Department, 3Family Medicine Department, 4Biostatistics Department, Medical School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aim: In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over.Method: We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009.Results: The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients.Conclusion: In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in

  2. PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule for diabetic blood glucose management under nonmeal announcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy, S D; Quek, C; Lai, E M-K; Cinar, A

    2010-03-01

    Therapeutically, the closed-loop blood glucose-insulin regulation paradigm via a controllable insulin pump offers a potential solution to the management of diabetes. However, the development of such a closed-loop regulatory system to date has been hampered by two main issues: 1) the limited knowledge on the complex human physiological process of glucose-insulin metabolism that prevents a precise modeling of the biological blood glucose control loop; and 2) the vast metabolic biodiversity of the diabetic population due to varying exogneous and endogenous disturbances such as food intake, exercise, stress, and hormonal factors, etc. In addition, current attempts of closed-loop glucose regulatory techniques generally require some form of prior meal announcement and this constitutes a severe limitation to the applicability of such systems. In this paper, we present a novel intelligent insulin schedule based on the pseudo self-evolving cerebellar model articulation controller (PSECMAC) associative learning memory model that emulates the healthy human insulin response to food ingestion. The proposed PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule requires no prior meal announcement and delivers the necessary insulin dosage based only on the observed blood glucose fluctuations. Using a simulated healthy subject, the proposed PSECMAC insulin schedule is demonstrated to be able to accurately capture the complex human glucose-insulin dynamics and robustly addresses the intraperson metabolic variability. Subsequently, the PSECMAC intelligent insulin schedule is employed on a group of type-1 diabetic patients to regulate their impaired blood glucose levels. Preliminary simulation results are highly encouraging. The work reported in this paper represents a major paradigm shift in the management of diabetes where patient compliance is poor and the need for prior meal announcement under current treatment regimes poses a significant challenge to an active lifestyle.

  3. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Beigmohammadi, Mohammadtaghi; Iranpour, Afshin; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001). Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2). Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:27076705

  4. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001. Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01. Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2. Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia.

  5. Dynamics of glucose and insulin concentration connected to the β‐cell cycle: model development and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallenberger Martina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases with increased blood glucose concentration as the main symptom. This can be caused by a relative or a total lack of insulin which is produced by the β‐cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Recent experimental results indicate the relevance of the β‐cell cycle for the development of diabetes mellitus. Methods This paper introduces a mathematical model that connects the dynamics of glucose and insulin concentration with the β‐cell cycle. The interplay of glucose, insulin, and β‐cell cycle is described with a system of ordinary differential equations. The model and its development will be presented as well as its mathematical analysis. The latter investigates the steady states of the model and their stability. Results Our model shows the connection of glucose and insulin concentrations to the β‐cell cycle. In this way the important role of glucose as regulator of the cell cycle and the capability of the β‐cell mass to adapt to metabolic demands can be presented. Simulations of the model correspond to the qualitative behavior of the glucose‐insulin regulatory system showed in biological experiments. Conclusions This work focusses on modeling the physiological situation of the glucose‐insulin regulatory system with a detailed consideration of the β‐cell cycle. Furthermore, the presented model allows the simulation of pathological scenarios. Modification of different parameters results in simulation of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

  6. Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K; Quinn, Lauretta

    2012-08-01

    Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject's future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject's continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection.

  7. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  8. Glycemic index and postprandial blood glucose response to Japanese strawberry jam in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotobi, Tomoka; Fukuhara, Kimiaki; Inage, Hiroko; Kimura, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 30 healthy adults the glycemic index (GI) of five strawberry jams made from various sugar compositions. The jam containing the highest ratio of glucose showed a high GI, while that containing a high ratio of fructose, a jam made from polydextrose, showed a low GI. There was a high correlation (r=0.969, p=0.006) between the GI and the predicted GI calculated from the sugar composition of the jams. Moreover, the influence on postprandial blood glucose response after an intake of only 20 g of jam and one slice of bread with 20 g jam was measured in 8 healthy adults. The blood glucose level after an intake of 20 g of the high GI jam containing the high glucose ratio was higher than that of other jams at 15 min, but there was no significant difference after 30 min. Regardless of whether the GI was low or high, differences in the jams were not observed in the postprandial blood glucose level or the area under the curve after eating either one slice of bread (60 g) or one slice of bread with less than 20 g of jam.

  9. Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Owino

    Full Text Available Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors-melatonin receptor type 1(MT1 and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2. Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the removal of MT1 or MT2 in mice abolishes the daily rhythm in blood glucose levels. Interestingly, removal of melatonin receptors produced small effects on the rhythmic expression patterns of clock genes within skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the loss of the daily rhythm in blood glucose observed in MT1(-/- and MT2(-/- mice does not occur as a consequence of 'disrupted' clocks within insulin sensitive tissues. Finally our results highlight a diurnal contribution of melatonin receptor signaling in the daily regulation of blood glucose levels.

  10. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  11. Undisplayed Bicarbonate ion Concentration in Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Blood bicarbonate ion concentration (BcHCO3-) is a vital parameter in the management of acid base disorders. In an arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer, the BcHCO3- is calculated from the values of pH and pCO2.

  12. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management.

  13. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2011-02-04

    Abstract Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  14. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nadeem, Montasser

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg\\/dL (2.6 mmol\\/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg\\/dL (8.3 mmol\\/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. RESULTS: Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392\\/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11\\/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12\\/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol\\/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol\\/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome.

  15. Determination of glucose concentrations using photonic crystal LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Yang; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Chang, Cheng-Yu; Lan, Wen-Yi; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2016-09-01

    As internet of things (IOT) has become a popular topic in current consumer electronics, there is a demand for cost-effective sensors to monitor bio-signals. Traditional optical sensors employ low-dimensional gratings and high-resolution spectrometers to detect the refractive index changes of the solutions. In this work, we develop an alternative approach to correlate the concentration of molecules to the band diagrams of the photonic crystals. A relatively low-resolution spectrum analyzer can be employed, yet achieves higher sensitivity than traditional approaches.

  16. Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Wattimena, J L Darcos; Rietveld, Trinet; van Miert, Joram N I; Sijbrands, Eric J G; de Rooij, Felix W M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P oral (Cau r = -0.61, P indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0-2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83-0.98; SA 0.75-0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose homeostasis using plasma glucose concentrations. Both C-peptide and glucose in urine collected during OGTT might be used as non-invasive measures for endogenous insulin secretion and glucose tolerance state.

  17. A systematic approach for the accurate non-invasive estimation of blood glucose utilizing a novel light-tissue interaction adaptive modelling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybynok, V O; Kyriacou, P A [City University, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media.

  18. Feasibility of non-invasive optical blood-glucose detection using overtone circular dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Hokr, Brett H; Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most debilitating and costly diseases currently plaguing humanity. It is a leading cause of death and dismemberment in the world, and we know how to treat it. Accurate, continuous monitoring and control of blood glucose levels via insulin treatments are widely known to mitigate the majority of detrimental effects caused by the disease. The primary limitation of continuous glucose monitoring is patient non-compliance due to the unpleasant nature of "finger-stick" testing methods. This limitation can be largely, or even completely, removed by non-invasive testing methods. In this report, we demonstrate the vibrational overtone circular dichroism properties of glucose and analyze its use as a method of non-invasive glucose monitoring, capable of assuaging this trillion dollar scourge.

  19. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  20. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  1. Effect of miglitol (BAY m-1099) on fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, J P; Kingma, P J; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Menheere, P P; Branolte, J H; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose values are increased due to increased glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. As miglitol (BAY m-1099), an absorbable alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, can inhibit glycogenolysis, we investigated whether 200 mg miglitol ingested at bedtime could

  2. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  3. Bihormonal control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tárnik, Marían; Murgaš, Ján;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a bihormonal artificial pancreas (AP) for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) designed to provide a safe blood glucose control with minimal use of glucagon. The control algorithm uses insulin as well as glucagon to prevent hyper- and hypoglycemia. We employ a novel prediction...

  4. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in tablet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (ZODIAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanno; Hortensius, J.; Logtenberg, Susan; Slingerland, R. J.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, S. T.; Gans, R. O. B.; van Ballegooie, E; Bilo, H. J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whether self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not using insulin is questionable. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SMBG in patients with T2DM who were in persistent moderate glycaemic control whilst not

  5. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  6. Higher Blood Glucose within the Normal Range Is Associated with More Severe Strokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Rolf J; Ratan, Rajiv R; Reding, Michael J;

    2012-01-01

    in normoglycemic patients with ischemic stroke in a median of 7 days after stroke when the initial glycemic stress response has resolved. Method and Material. Included were 361 nondiabetic ischemic stroke patients with admission fasting blood glucose within 70-130 mg/dL admitted into an acute stroke rehabilitation...

  7. Bihormonal model predictive control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tarnik, Marian; Murgas, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a bihormonal control system that controls blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We use insulin together with glucagon to mitigate the negative effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The system consists of a Kalman filter, a micro-bolus insulin and glucagon...

  8. Self-monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy: indications and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is an important tool to treat diabetes during pregnancy. However, proper implementation of SMBG in pregnant women requires understanding of its applications and limitations. This article reviews issues related to the implementation, efficacy, and accuracy of SMBG and discusses factors that can confound results of SMBG during pregnancy.

  9. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  10. Sensing glucose concentrations at GHz frequencies with a fully embedded Biomicro-electromechanical system (BioMEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, M.; Ehwald, K.-E.; Basmer, T.; Kulse, P.; Reich, C.; Drews, J.; Genschow, D.; Haak, U.; Marschmeyer, S.; Matthus, E.; Schulz, K.; Wolansky, D.; Winkler, W.; Guschauski, T.; Ehwald, R.

    2013-06-01

    The progressive scaling in semiconductor technology allows for advanced miniaturization of intelligent systems like implantable biosensors for low-molecular weight analytes. A most relevant application would be the monitoring of glucose in diabetic patients, since no commercial solution is available yet for the continuous and drift-free monitoring of blood sugar levels. We report on a biosensor chip that operates via the binding competition of glucose and dextran to concanavalin A. The sensor is prepared as a fully embedded micro-electromechanical system and operates at GHz frequencies. Glucose concentrations derive from the assay viscosity as determined by the deflection of a 50 nm TiN actuator beam excited by quasi-electrostatic attraction. The GHz detection scheme does not rely on the resonant oscillation of the actuator and safely operates in fluidic environments. This property favorably combines with additional characteristics—(i) measurement times of less than a second, (ii) usage of biocompatible TiN for bio-milieu exposed parts, and (iii) small volume of less than 1 mm3—to qualify the sensor chip as key component in a continuous glucose monitor for the interstitial tissue.

  11. Sensing glucose concentrations at GHz frequencies with a fully embedded Biomicro-electromechanical system (BioMEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, M; Ehwald, K-E; Basmer, T; Kulse, P; Reich, C; Drews, J; Genschow, D; Haak, U; Marschmeyer, S; Matthus, E; Schulz, K; Wolansky, D; Winkler, W; Guschauski, T; Ehwald, R

    2013-06-28

    The progressive scaling in semiconductor technology allows for advanced miniaturization of intelligent systems like implantable biosensors for low-molecular weight analytes. A most relevant application would be the monitoring of glucose in diabetic patients, since no commercial solution is available yet for the continuous and drift-free monitoring of blood sugar levels. We report on a biosensor chip that operates via the binding competition of glucose and dextran to concanavalin A. The sensor is prepared as a fully embedded micro-electromechanical system and operates at GHz frequencies. Glucose concentrations derive from the assay viscosity as determined by the deflection of a 50 nm TiN actuator beam excited by quasi-electrostatic attraction. The GHz detection scheme does not rely on the resonant oscillation of the actuator and safely operates in fluidic environments. This property favorably combines with additional characteristics-(i) measurement times of less than a second, (ii) usage of biocompatible TiN for bio-milieu exposed parts, and (iii) small volume of less than 1 mm(3)-to qualify the sensor chip as key component in a continuous glucose monitor for the interstitial tissue.

  12. Tracking blood glucose and predicting prediabetes in Chinese children and adolescents: a prospective twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Wang

    Full Text Available We examined the tracking of blood glucose, the development of prediabetes, and estimated their genetic contributions in a prospective, healthy, rural Chinese twin cohort. This report includes 1,766 subjects (998 males, 768 females aged 6-21 years at baseline who completed a 6-year follow-up study. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed for all subjects at both baseline and follow-up. We found that subjects with low fasting plasma glucose (FPG or 2 h post-load glucose (PG levels at baseline tended to remain at the low level at follow-up. Subjects in the top tertile of baseline plasma glucose tended to have a higher risk of developing prediabetes at follow-up compared to the low tertile: in males, 37.6% vs. 27.6% for FPG and 37.2% vs. 25.7% for 2hPG, respectively; in females, 31.0% vs. 15.4% for FPG and 28.9% vs. 15.1% for 2 h PG, respectively. Genetic factors explained 43% and 41% of the variance of FPG, and 72% and 47% for impaired fasting glucose for males and females, respectively; environmental factors substantially contribute to 2hPG status and impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, in this cohort of healthy rural Chinese children and adolescents, we demonstrated that both FPG and 2hPG tracked well and was a strong predictor of prediabetes. The high proportion of children with top tertile of blood glucose progressed to prediabetes, and the incidence of prediabetes has a male predominance. Genetic factors play more important role in fasting than postload status, most of which was explained by unique environmental factors.

  13. Analysis on blood glucose excursions in well-controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Wuquan; Yu Qiongwu; Wang Fuhua; Ai Zhihua; Chen Bing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To probe glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was kept ≤6.0%.Methods: Totally 36 cases with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with HbA1c≤6.0% and 30 cases with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) from December 2005 to December 2007 in our department were subjected prospectively. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) was employed to record their continuous blood glucose level for 3 d. The blood glucose profiles including the mean blood glucose (MBG), standard differentiation (SD), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and absolute means of daily differences (MODD) were analyzed. Results: T2DM group had obviously postprandial hyperglycemia, in about 2 h after meal, especially after breakfast. Fifty-two hypoglycemic episodes occurred during the monitoring period in T2DM groups, of which 73.1% (38 episodes) were absence of symptomatic hypoglycemia with the lowest value of blood glucose only 2.0 mmol/L. And 20 episodes took place during the day hours, while 32 episodes observed during the night hours. Compared with NGT groups, SD, MAGE and MODD were all significantly higher in T2DM groups. MBG was significantly correlated with HbA1c in T2DM groups, but SD, MAGE, NGE and MODD were all independent of HbA1c. MAGE was independent of MODD. Conclusion: The amplitude of glycemic excursions is higher in normol-controlled T2DM groups than the NGT groups.Thus ideally glycemic control is not only to make HbA1c reach standard, but also to lessen glycemic excursions and reduce hypoglycemia episodes.

  14. PREANALITIC AND INTERPRETATION BLOOD GLUCOSE FOR DIAGNOSE DIABETIC MELITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Wayan Kardika

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disorder disease which has been characterised by chronic hyperglycemia as well as abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins caused by abnormalities of insulin secretion, insulin resistance or both. The Diagnoses of diabetes mellitus in addition based on the clinical aspects of which include anamnesis, physical examination and diagnoses is required in the form of investigations the laboratory examination. The simplest laboratory examination is the examination of blood sugar. The stages of preanalitic and the interpretation of results examination of the blood sugar is worth noting in order to obtain meaningful results so that a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus can be enforced and for monitoring treatment outcomes. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. INCREASING AND PROLONGING BLOOD PENICILLIN CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Favour, C B

    1945-06-29

    (1) Restriction of fluid intake to 1,500 cc and the salt intake to 3 gm a day doubles the penicillin blood level following interrupted intramuscular [See Figure in the PDF file] injections of penicillin. (2) The administration of benzoic acid to a patient on an unrestricted diet Ilay double the penicillin blood level during similar treatment. (3) The combination of these two procedures results in a four- to eight-fold increase in penicillin blood level with a prolonged effective blood concentration.

  16. Nanobiotechnology advanced antifouling surfaces for the continuous electrochemical monitoring of glucose in whole blood using a lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher, Maria M; Küpcü, Seta; Huang, Chun-Jen; Dostalek, Jakub; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Ertl, Peter

    2013-05-07

    In the current work we have developed a lab-on-a-chip containing embedded amperometric sensors in four microreactors that can be addressed individually and that are coated with crystalline surface protein monolayers to provide a continuous, stable, reliable and accurate detection of blood glucose. It is envisioned that the microfluidic device will be used in a feedback loop mechanism to assess natural variations in blood glucose levels during hemodialysis to allow the individual adjustment of glucose. Reliable and accurate detection of blood glucose is accomplished by simultaneously performing (a) blood glucose measurements, (b) autocalibration routines, (c) mediator-interferences detection, and (d) background subtractions. The electrochemical detection of blood glucose variations in the absence of electrode fouling events is performed by integrating crystalline surface layer proteins (S-layer) that function as an efficient antifouling coating, a highly-oriented immobilization matrix for biomolecules and an effective molecular sieve with pore sizes of 4 to 5 nm. We demonstrate that the S-layer protein SbpA (from Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177) readily forms monomolecular lattice structures at the various microchip surfaces (e.g. glass, PDMS, platinum and gold) within 60 min, eliminating unspecific adsorption events in the presence of human serum albumin, human plasma and freshly-drawn blood samples. The highly isoporous SbpA-coating allows undisturbed diffusion of the mediator between the electrode surface, thus enabling bioelectrochemical measurements of glucose concentrations between 500 μM to 50 mM (calibration slope δI/δc of 8.7 nA mM(-1)). Final proof-of-concept implementing the four microfluidic microreactor design is demonstrated using freshly drawn blood. Accurate and drift-free assessment of blood glucose concentrations (6. 4 mM) is accomplished over 130 min at 37 °C using immobilized enzyme glucose oxidase by calculating the difference between

  17. Using the first drop of blood for monitoring blood glucose values in critically ill patients: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sunita; Kaur, Sukhpal; Das, Karobi; Saini, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Using the first drop or second drop of blood while measuring blood glucose (BG) values. Objective: The study was planned to compare the BG values from the first and second drops of blood. Research Settings: The study was conducted at the Main Intensive Care Unit, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Research Design: This study was a comparative study. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients aged 2–93 years were enrolled in this study. BG values from the first and second drops of blood were taken and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Agreement between two drops was assessed using Bland–Altman analysis. A bias of <10 mg/dl was considered clinically acceptable. Linear regression of the mean difference (bias) with the BG readings was performed. Results: One thousand four hundred and seven pairs of BG readings were taken from the enrolled patients. BG values had a bias of 3.9 ± 14.9 mg/dl. Nearly 96.7% of BG readings were within the limits of agreement. The absolute difference between first and second drops of blood was calculated; nearly 75.4% of the readings had fallen between 0 and 10 mg/dl, i.e. clinically acceptable range. Conclusion: There is no compete concordance of values of blood glucose between the first and the second drops of blood; any of the drops can be used for measuring BG values as the difference is not statistically significant. However, if hands are visibly clean and to decrease the blood loss in the critically ill patients where the BG values are measured frequently, using the first drop of blood is advised. PMID:27994381

  18. Adolescents with clinical type 1 diabetes display reduced red blood cell glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Becker, Dorothy J; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-11-01

    Type 1 diabetic (T1D) adolescent children on insulin therapy suffer episodes of both hyper- and hypoglycemic episodes. Glucose transporter isoform GLUT1 expressed in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and red blood cells (RBC) compensates for perturbed circulating glucose toward protecting the supply to brain and RBCs. We hypothesized that RBC-GLUT1 concentration, as a surrogate for BBB-GLUT1, is altered in T1D children. To test this hypothesis, we measured RBC-GLUT1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in T1D children (n = 72; mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 yr) and control children (CON; n = 11; mean age 15.6 ± 0.9 yr) after 12 h of euglycemia and during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp with a nadir blood glucose of ~3.3 mmol/L for 90 min (clamp I) or ~3 mmol/L for 45 min (clamp II). Reduced baseline RBC-GLUT1 was observed in T1D (2.4 ± 0.17 ng/ng membrane protein); vs. CON (4.2 ± 0.61 ng/ng protein) (p increasing during acute hypoglycemia over the durations examined, may demonstrate a vulnerability of impaired RBC glucose transport (serving as a surrogate for BBB), especially in those with the worst control. We speculate that this may contribute to the perturbed cognition seen in T1D adolescents.

  19. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  20. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Background Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. Methods We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. Conclusions HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia. PMID:28249034

  1. An In-Line Photonic Biosensor for Monitoring of Glucose Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'aldeen Al-Halhouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two PDMS photonic biosensor designs that can be used for continuous monitoring of glucose concentrations. The first design, the internally immobilized sensor, consists of a reactor chamber, micro-lenses and self-alignment structures for fiber optics positioning. This sensor design allows optical detection of glucose concentrations under continuous glucose flow conditions of 33 µL/h based on internal co-immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the internal PDMS surface of the reactor chamber. For this design, two co-immobilization methods, the simple adsorption and the covalent binding (PEG methods were tested. Experiments showed successful results when using the covalent binding (PEG method, where glucose concentrations up to 5 mM with a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.99 and a limit of detection of 0.26 mM are detectable. The second design is a modified version of the internally immobilized sensor, where a microbead chamber and a beads filling channel are integrated into the sensor. This modification enabled external co-immobilization of enzymes covalently onto functionalized silica microbeads and allows binding a huge amount of HRP and GOX enzymes on the microbeads surfaces which increases the interaction area between immobilized enzymes and the analyte. This has a positive effect on the amount and rate of chemical reactions taking place inside the chamber. The sensor was tested under continuous glucose flow conditions and was found to be able to detect glucose concentrations up to 10 mM with R2 of 0.98 and a limit of detection of 0.7 mM. Such results are very promising for the application in photonic LOC systems used for online analysis.

  2. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  3. Effects of electroacupuncture on microcirculatory blood flow and glucose transporter function in the hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lu; Bingbing Han; Shijun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Nerve cell metabolism in post brain ischemia depends on increased microcirculation perfusion and transport function of microvascular endothelial cells. In the present study, a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion was established to investigate the influence of electroacupuncture(EA)on hippocampal CA1 cerebral blood flow and glucose transporter 1(GLUT1)expression in the microvascular endothelial cp.lls. Following EA at Neiguan(PC 6), the cerebral blood flow in the ischemic hippocampal CA1 region was significantly elevated, the number and microvascular integrated absorbance of the GLUTl-positive cells were significantly increased, nerve cell damage was ameliorated, and GLUT1 protein expression in the ischemic hippocampus was significantly increased. Results demonstrate that EA increased the cerebral blood flow of the hippocampal CA1 region and improved the glucose transport function, thereby attenuating neuronal injuries.

  4. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  5. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  6. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  7. New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting, October 28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Vigersky, Robert A; Schwartz, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Glucose meters (GMs) are routinely used for self-monitoring of blood glucose by patients and for point-of-care glucose monitoring by health care providers in outpatient and inpatient settings. Although widely assumed to be accurate, numerous reports of inaccuracies with resulting morbidity and mortality have been noted. Insulin dosing errors based on inaccurate GMs are most critical. On October 28, 2011, the Diabetes Technology Society invited 45 diabetes technology clinicians who were attending the 2011 Diabetes Technology Meeting to participate in a closed-door meeting entitled New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors. This report reflects the opinions of most of the attendees of that meeting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the public, and several medical societies are currently in dialogue to establish a new standard for GM accuracy. This update to the FDA standard is driven by improved meter accuracy, technological advances (pumps, bolus calculators, continuous glucose monitors, and insulin pens), reports of hospital and outpatient deaths, consumer complaints about inaccuracy, and research studies showing that several approved GMs failed to meet FDA or International Organization for Standardization standards in postapproval testing. These circumstances mandate a set of new GM standards that appropriately match the GMs' analytical accuracy to the clinical accuracy required for their intended use, as well as ensuring their ongoing accuracy following approval. The attendees of the New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting proposed a graduated standard and other methods to improve GM performance, which are discussed in this meeting report.

  8. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  9. Blood glucose lowering effect of ophiopogonis tuber extract and mechanism of anti-insulin-resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng NING

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the hypoglycemic effect and insulin sensitization mechanism of ophiopogonis tuber extracts on the 3T3-L1-induced adipocytes, and also in rats with reproduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods  3T3-L1 cells were induced and differentiated into adipocytes. After the intervention with ophiopogonpolysaccharide (OPSR and ophiopogonin (OPG, glucose consuming rate was detected for screening the extracts which may have effective hypoglycemic effects. The insulin resistance (IR adipocyte model was established by dexamethasone induction, and then it was treated with OPSR. The protein expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin were detected by Western blotting. The T2DM rat model was reproduced and then treated with OPSR for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW, triglyeride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINs of the rats were measured respectively. Results  OPSR in dosage of 0.5-50mg/L promoted glucose consumption of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, the glucose consumption ratios were 32.27%, 75.14% and 90.47% respectively. OPG of 50mg/L showed very weak activity with glucose consumption ratio of only 8.49%. OPSR could significantly promote the protein expression of leptin and adiponectin, and showed an inhibitory effect on the protein expression of resistin (P<0.05. After treatment with OPSR for 4 weeks, the BW of rats increased obviously, while TG, FBG and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions  OPSR may promote glucose transport and utilization of adipocytes, decrease the level of FBG and TG, and improve the condition of IR in T2DM rats. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering effect may be attributed to secretion of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin by IR adipocytes.

  10. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  11. [Today data management in self-monitoring of blood glucose for diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermon, C

    2003-04-01

    Improving diabetes treatment needs intensive glucose monitoring which is restricting for patients and time-consuming for physicians. Up-to-date tools of data management were developed, following progress in computing technology and home computing. Glucometers with memory and softwares are able to improve data management of self blood glucose monitoring, personalized interactivity with physician. They are very important to develop telemedecine systems in diabetes care. These systems are designed to complement the daily care and intensive management of diabetics through telemonitoring and telecare services.

  12. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed JW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James W Reed Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose

  13. Improved Extended Multiplicative Scatter Correction Algorithm Applied in Blood Glucose Noninvasive Measurement with FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the predictive accuracy of human blood glucose quantitative analysis model with fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, this paper uses a method named improved extended multiplicative scatter correction (Im-EMSC, which can effectively eliminate the scattering effects caused by human body strong scattering. The principal components of the differential spectra are used instead of the pure spectra of the analytes in this algorithm. Calibrate the unwanted physical characteristic through the shape of the curve of principal components, and extract the original glucose concentration information. Im-EMSC can efficiently remove most of the pathlength difference and baseline shift influences. Firstly, Im-EMSC is used as a preprocessing method, and then partial least squares (PLS regression method is adopted to establish a quantitative analysis model. In this paper, the result of Im-EMSC is compared with those popular scattering correction algorithms of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and extended multiplicative scatter correction (EMSC preprocessing methods. Experimental results show that the prediction accuracy has been greatly improved with Im-EMSC method, which is helpful for human noninvasive glucose concentration detection technology.

  14. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  15. Associations of fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid with peripheral glucose concentrations and energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Jumpertz

    Full Text Available Rodent experiments have emphasized a role of central fatty acid (FA species, such as oleic acid, in regulating peripheral glucose and energy metabolism. Thus, we hypothesized that central FAs are related to peripheral glucose regulation and energy expenditure in humans. To test this we measured FA species profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of 32 individuals who stayed in our clinical inpatient unit for 6 days. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and glucose regulation by an oral glucose test (OGTT followed by measurements of 24 hour (24EE and sleep energy expenditure (SLEEP as well as respiratory quotient (RQ in a respiratory chamber. CSF was obtained via lumbar punctures; FA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As expected, FA concentrations were higher in plasma compared to CSF. Individuals with high concentrations of CSF very-long-chain saturated FAs had lower rates of SLEEP. In the plasma moderate associations of these FAs with higher 24EE were observed. Moreover, CSF monounsaturated long-chain FA (palmitoleic and oleic acid concentrations were associated with lower RQs and lower glucose area under the curve during the OGTT. Thus, FAs in the CSF strongly correlated with peripheral metabolic traits. These physiological parameters were most specific to long-chain monounsaturated (C16:1, C18:1 and very-long-chain saturated (C24:0, C26:0 FAs.Together with previous animal experiments these initial cross-sectional human data indicate that central FA species are linked to peripheral glucose and energy homeostasis.

  16. The Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transorter Isoform GLUT4 Concentration in the Obese Zucker Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    NUMBERS The Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transorter Isoform GLUT4 Concentration in the Obese Zucker Rat 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric A...Zr) THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON SKELETAL MUSCLE GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER ISOFORM GLUT4 CONCENTRATION IN THE OBESE ZUCKER RAT by Eric Anthony Banks...laboratory for their help. Eric A. Banks v ABSTRACT THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON SKELETAL MUSCLE GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER ISOFORM GLUT4 CONCENTRATION IN

  17. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors.

  18. Postmortem Quetiapine Reference Concentrations in Brain and Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and related to concentrations in postmortem blood. For cases, where quetiapine was unrelated to the cause of death (N 5 36), the 10–90 percentiles for quetiapine concentrations in brain tissue were 0.030 – 1.54 mg/kg (median 0.48 mg/kg, mean 0.79 mg/kg). Corresponding blood 10 –90 percentile values were 0.......007 – 0.39 mg/kg (median 0.15 mg/kg, mean 0.19 mg/kg), giving brain –blood ratio 10 –90 percentiles of 2.31 – 6.54 (median 3.87, mean 4.32). Both correspond well to the limited amount of data found in the literature. For cases where quetiapine was a contributing factor to death (N 5 5), the median value.......08 –6.05, which correspond to those of the nontoxic concentrations. A single case, where quetiapine was ruled as the sole cause of death, a suicide by quetiapine overdose, had an even higher value of 25.74 mg/kg in brain tissue. The blood concentration was 8.99 mg/kg, giving a brain–blood ratio of 2...

  19. Self-tuning GMV control of glucose concentration in fed-batch baker's yeast production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitit, Zeynep Yilmazer; Boyacioglu, Havva; Ozyurt, Baran; Ertunc, Suna; Hapoglu, Hale; Akay, Bulent

    2014-04-01

    A detailed system identification procedure and self-tuning generalized minimum variance (STGMV) control of glucose concentration during the aerobic fed-batch yeast growth were realized. In order to determine the best values of the forgetting factor (λ), initial value of the covariance matrix (α), and order of the Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous (ARMAX) model (n a, n b), transient response data obtained from the real process wereutilized. Glucose flow rate was adjusted according to the STGMV control algorithm coded in Visual Basic in an online computer connected to the system. Conventional PID algorithm was also implemented for the control of the glucose concentration in aerobic fed-batch yeast cultivation. Controller performances were examined by evaluating the integrals of squared errors (ISEs) at constant and random set point profiles. Also, batch cultivation was performed, and microorganism concentration at the end of the batch run was compared with the fed-batch cultivation case. From the system identification step, the best parameter estimation was accomplished with the values λ = 0.9, α = 1,000 and n a = 3, n b = 2. Theoretical control studies show that the STGMV control system was successful at both constant and random glucose concentration set profiles. In addition, random effects given to the set point, STGMV control algorithm were performed successfully in experimental study.

  20. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  1. Detection accuracy of three glucose meters estimated by capillary blood glucose measurements compared with venous blood evaluated by the diabetes unit of the Hospital Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro Gama, Camile Fiorese Cruzeta, Ana Carolina Ossowski, Marina Rech Bay, Mariella Muller Michaelis, Stênio Lujan CamachoEndocrinology and Diabetes Service, Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, BrazilObjective: To compare capillary blood glucose measurements between three different glucose meters and with the serum glucose values of inpatients at the diabetes unit of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba, Brazil.Materials and methods: A total of 132 non-intensive care unit patients admitted for medical and surgical pathologies were evaluated. All patients reported a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, were under 60 years of age, had no hematocrit alterations, remained hemodynamically stable during the time of data collection, and were given no ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, dopamine, or mannitol during follow-up. Capillary and serum blood glucose samples were collected simultaneously by finger-stick and venipuncture 2 hours after lunch, by the same observer, who was blinded to the serum glucose results. First, between July and November 2009, capillary glucose levels were measured using the blood glucose meters OneTouch SureStep® and MediSense Optium®. Between November 2009 and February 2010, capillary blood glucose levels were measured on the glucose meters OneTouch SureStep and Optium Xceed®. The capillary glucose readings were analyzed between meters and also in relation to the serum blood glucose values by the t-test for paired samples and the Mood two-sample test.Results: The patients’ mean age was 50.45 years. The blood glucose means obtained using the meters OneTouch SureStep, MediSense Optium, and Optium Xceed were, respectively, 183.87 mg/dL, 178.49 mg/dL, and 192.73 mg/dL, and the mean for the serum glucose values was 174.58 mg/dL. A significant difference was found between the capillary measurements taken by the glucose meters and the serum glucose measurements (P < 0.05, and no

  2. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  3. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  4. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  5. THE PURIFICATION OF GLUCOSE SYRUP FROM TAPIOCA BY USING ABSORPTION METHOD AND THE CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY VACUUM EVAPORATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal; Laga, Amran; Bastian, Februadi

    2013-01-01

    The glucose syrupe production from tapioca needs to remove dirt and the colour. The water content should also be reduced. The aobjectives of this research were to identify the efffectiveness of glucose syrup purification by using the combination of activated charcoal and zeolit, and to determine the optimal evaporation time on the concentration process of glucose syrup to produce high glucose syrup. The materials were tapioca, activated charcoal, and zeolit. The research was started with conv...

  6. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. H. Lunde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO. Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (<.05, as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety.

  7. Ontogenetic oxygen changes alter zebra fish size, behavior, and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, C; Kaut, K P; Moore, F B-G; Bagatto, B

    2012-01-01

    Four male and four female zebra fish were crossed in all possible combinations, resulting in 389 offspring. These offspring were divided among four treatments: normoxia for 90 d, hypoxia for 90 d, normoxia for 30 d followed by hypoxia for 60 d, and hypoxia for 30 d followed by normoxia for 60 d. The effects of early oxygen environment, later oxygen environment, and genotype were then assessed with respect to zebra fish behavior, size, and blood glucose. Fish were tested in an arena where they could shoal with conspecifics before, during, and after the introduction of a novel stimulus. Blood glucose and size were also measured. Early oxygen environment influenced fish size, time spent swimming, and reactivity to a novel stimulus. Environmentally induced plasticity was predominate, with little evidence of among-sire variation for any of the measured parameters.

  8. Effect of Jiang Zhuo Mixture on Blood Glucose Level and Insulin Resistance in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiabo; Wang Hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the knowledge of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine and modem biomedical sciences,Dr. Wang Hui (王晖) designed Jiang Zhuo Mixture (降浊合剂) , a preparation for treatment of fat diabetes type 2. Jiang Zhuo Mixture showed good actions of strengthening the spleen and stomach,separating the clear from the turbid, resolving the stasis and decreasing the blood glucose level. These were reported as follows.

  9. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there ...

  10. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  11. Effects of intravenous ghrelin injection on plasma growth hormone, insulin and glucose concentrations in calves at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Rika; Mita, Takako; Sugino, Toshihisa; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Kojima, Masayasu; Kangawa, Kenji; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin action, which stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, may alter during the weaning period in calves. Our objective was to compare the effects of intravenous ghrelin injection on plasma GH, insulin and glucose concentrations in calves around the weaning period. Four Holstein bull calves were fed whole milk and allowed free access to solid feeds, and weaned at 7 weeks of age. Measurements were performed at weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13, when calves were intravenously injected with ghrelin (1.0 μg/kg body weight (BW)) through a catheter, and jugular blood samples were obtained temporally relative to the injection time. Estimated digestible energy intake per metabolic BW transiently decreased at week 7 because of low solid intake immediately after weaning, and thereafter gradually increased. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were not affected by ghrelin injection at all ages. In contrast, plasma GH concentrations increased with ghrelin injection at all ages. The incremental area of GH at week 7 was greatest and significantly higher compared with weeks 2, 4, 6 and 9. This result suggests that nutrient insufficiency immediately after weaning enhances GH responsiveness to ghrelin.

  12. Relationship between postprandial changes in cardiac left ventricular function, glucose and insulin concentrations, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digestion of food is known to alter the hemodynamics of the body significantly. The purpose of this study was to study the postprandial changes in stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO and left ventricular (LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions measured with tissue Doppler imaging, in relation to gastric emptying rate (GER, satiety, and glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in this study. The fasting and postprandial changes at 30 min and 110 min in CO, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Moreover, tissue Doppler imaging systolic (S', early (E' and late (A' mitral annular diastolic velocities were measured in the septal (s and lateral (l walls. Glucose and insulin concentrations, and satiety were measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the meal. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of the meal. Results This study show that both CO, systolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (S's and lateral wall (S'l, the early diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the lateral wall (E'l, the late diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (A's and lateral wall (A'l increase significantly, and were concomitant with increased satiety, antral area, glucose and insulin levels. The CO, HR and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting. The satiety was correlated to HR and diastolic blood pressure. The insulin level was correlated to HR. Conclusions This study shows that postprandial CO, HR, SV and LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions increase concomitantly with increased satiety, antral area, and glucose and insulin levels. Therefore, patients should not eat prior to, or during, cardiac evaluation as the effects of a meal may

  13. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  14. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  15. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  16. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (way ANOVA and post hoc Tuky-Krammer test were used for finding significant differences (P sleep duration at night (< 7 hrs) does not affect the blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  17. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  18. Postmortem Femoral Blood Reference Concentrations of Aripiprazole, Chlorprothixene, and Quetiapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Postmortem femoral blood concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs aripiprazole, chlorprothixene and its metabolite, and quetiapine were determined by LC-MS-MS in 25 cases for aripiprazole and 60 cases each for chlorprothixene and quetiapine. For cases where the cause of death was not related to ...

  19. Oxyntomodulin increases the concentrations of insulin and glucose in plasma but does not affect ghrelin secretion in Holstein cattle under normal physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ThanThan, S; Zhao, H; Yannaing, S; Ishikawa, T; Kuwayama, H

    2010-10-01

    Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a), has been shown to stimulate growth hormone (GH) secretion. Regulation of ghrelin secretion in ruminants is not well studied. We investigated the effects of oxyntomodulin (OXM) and secretin on the secretions of ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in pre-ruminants (5 wk old) and ruminants (10 wk old) under normal physiological (feeding) conditions. Eight male Holstein calves (pre-ruminants: 52 +/- 1 kg body weight [BW]; and ruminants: 85 +/- 1 kg BW) were injected intravenously with 30 microg of OXM/kg BW, 50 microg of secretin/kg BW, and vehicle (0.1% bovine serum albumin [BSA] in saline as a control) in random order. Blood samples were collected, and plasma hormones and metabolites were analyzed using a double-antibody radioimmunoassay system and commercially available kits, respectively. We found that OXM increased the concentrations of insulin and glucose but did not affect the concentrations of ghrelin in both pre-ruminants and ruminants and that there was no effect of secretin on the concentrations of ghrelin, insulin, and glucose in these calves. We also investigated the dose-response effects of OXM on the secretion of insulin and glucose in 8 Holstein steers (401 +/- 1 d old, 398 +/- 10 kg BW). We found that OXM increased the concentrations of insulin and glucose even at physiological plasma concentrations, with a minimum effective dose of 0.4 microg/kg for the promotion of glucose secretion and 2 microg/kg for the stimulation of insulin secretion. These findings suggest that OXM takes part in glucose metabolism in ruminants.

  20. Haemolymph glucose concentrations of juvenile rock lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, feeding on different carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, C A; Marsden, I D; Davison, W; Taylor, H H

    2005-02-01

    Postprandial changes in haemolymph glucose concentration ([Glc]H) were measured in 4-day-fasted juvenile intermoult spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, provided with meals composed of glycogen, maltose, sucrose, glucose, or fructose in a gelatine base, or with gels of the algal glycans agar, alginate and carrageenan. Baseline [Glc]H was 0.61+/-0.02 mmol L(-1). After consumption of glycogen, maltose or sucrose, [Glc]H approximately doubled, peaked after 3 h and returned to baseline between 12 and 24 h. Glucose and fructose meals were followed by periods of sustained hyperglycaemia lasting more than 24 h (peaking at approximately 2.5 times baseline at 6 and 3 h respectively). Suggested explanations for augmented hyperglycaemic responses to glucose and fructose are: 1) these monosaccharides by-passed contact digestion and absorption in the R-cells of the digestive gland, directing them away from storage and toward transepithelial scavenging routes; or 2) glucose and fructose directly elicited release of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone via a chemosensory reflex. Agar and alginate induced significant postprandial glycaemic responses, consistent with reports of carbohydrases in this species and indicating their potential for inclusion in artificial diets as both binders and energy sources. Carrageenan, a highly sulphated galactan, did not produce a glycaemic response. The measurement of glycaemic responses is a quick method of obtaining nutritional information on carbohydrates considered for inclusion in formulated diets prior to lengthy growth trials.

  1. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  2. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  3. Chronic glucose infusion causes sustained increases in tubular sodium reabsorption and renal blood flow in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W; Bell, Tracy D; Rodriquez, Nancy A; Polavarapu, Praveen; Panteleyev, Dmitriy

    2009-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that inducing hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in dogs, by infusing glucose chronically intravenously, would increase tubular sodium reabsorption and cause hypertension. Glucose was infused for 6 days (14 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) iv) in five uninephrectomized (UNX) dogs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured 18 h/day using DSI pressure units and Transonic flow probes, respectively. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased significantly on day 1 and remained decreased over the 6 days, coupled with a significant, sustained increase in RBF, averaging approximately 20% above control on day 6. Glomerular filtration rate and plasma renin activity (PRA) also increased. However, although MAP tended to increase, this was not statistically significant. Therefore, the glucose infusion was repeated in six dogs with 70% surgical reduction in kidney mass (RKM) and high salt intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin increased similar to the UNX dogs, and there was significant sodium retention, but MAP still did not increase. Interestingly, the increases in PRA and RBF were prevented in the RKM dogs. The decrease in UNaV, increased RBF, and slightly elevated MAP show that glucose infusion in dogs caused a sustained increase in tubular sodium reabsorption by a mechanism independent of pressure natriuresis. The accompanying increase in PRA, together with the failure of either RBF or PRA to increase in the RKM dogs, suggests the site of tubular reabsorption was before the macula densa. However, the volume retention and peripheral edema suggest that systemic vasodilation offsets any potential renal actions to increase MAP in this experimental model in dogs.

  4. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  5. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James W

    2016-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose control. PMID:27822054

  6. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  7. 糖尿病血糖精准监测%Accurate monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭淑芹

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Precision medicine is the medical model proposed in the era of big data,diabetes blood glucose monitoring is also affected by the impact of precision thinking.Based on adequate assessment of various means of monitoring blood glucose,blood glucose monitoring is recommended from the self monitoring of the"point"blood sugar,to dynamically monitor the blood glucose change curve,and then to reflect the total blood glucose level of three months of glycosylated hemoglobin under the present stage.Future artificial pancreas technology will achieve accurate blood glucose management.%精准医学是在大数据时代提出的医疗模式,糖尿病血糖监测也受到精准思维的影响。充分评估血糖监测手段精准性基础上,现阶段血糖监测推荐从自我监测的“点”血糖,到动态监测血糖变化“曲线”,再到反映3个月总体血糖水平的糖化血红蛋白。未来人工胰腺技术将实现精准的血糖管理。

  8. The Influence of Variation in Time and HCl Concentration to the Glucose Produced from Kepok Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo M, Rohman; Noviyanto, Denny; RM, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a plant that has many advantagesfrom its fruit, stems, leaves, flowers and cob. However, we just tend to take benefit from the fruit. We grow and harvest the fruit without taking advantages from other parts. So they would be a waste or detrimental to animal nest if not used. The idea to take the benefit from the banana crop yields, especially cob is rarely explored. This study is an introduction to the use of banana weevil especially from the glucose it contains. This study uses current methods of hydrolysis using HCl as a catalyst with the concentration variation of 0.4 N, 0.6 N and 0.8 N and hydrolysis times variation of 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. The stages in the hydrolysis include preparation of materials, the process of hydrolysis and analysis of test results using Fehling and titrate with standard glucose solution. HCl is used as a catalyst because it is cheaper than the enzyme that has the same function. NaOH 60% is used for neutralizing the pH of the filtrate result of hydrolysis. From the results of analysis, known thatthe biggest yield of glucose is at concentration 0.8 N and at 30 minutes reaction, it contains 6.25 gram glucose / 20 gram dry sampel, and the convertion is 27.22% at 20 gram dry sampel.

  9. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  10. Effects of Propylene Glycol on Energy Balance, Blood Parameter, Concentration of Glucose and Adipose in the Liver during Peripartum Period in Dairy Cows%丙二醇对围产期奶牛能量平衡及代谢产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 王聪; 张延利; 张拴林; 裴彩霞; 李新; 石彩叶; 白元生; 师周戈

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of propylene glycol on energy balance, blood parameter, concentration of glucose and adipose in the liver during peripartum period in dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein dairy cows with similar body weight ((683. 1±14. 9)kg), lactation number (2. 5 + 0. 2), corrected milk yield in last lactation ((7 339±18)kg) and expected calving date ((24. 5±0. 2)d ) were allocated into four treatments at random. Graded levels (0, 150, 300 and 450 mL · D-1) of propylene glycol were supplemented in the four treatments from day 19 prepartum. The results showed that body condition score at 7, 21 and 35 d postpartum increased, body weight loss from 7 to 35 d postpartum reduced, energy balance at 14 d prepartum and 7, 21 and 35 d postpartum was improved significantly by the 300 and 450 mL · D-1 treatment compared with 0 mL · D-1 treatment (P<0. 05). Cows receiving 300 and 450 mL · D-1 propylene glycol had a higher plasma glucose and insulin at 14 d prepartum and 7, 21 and 35 d postpartum, lower plasma NEFA, p-hydroxybutyrate and triacylglycerol at 7, 21 and 35 d postpartum than that of 0 mL · D-1 treatment (P<0. 05). 300 and 450 mL · D-1 propylene glycol supplementation decreased the contents of triacylglycerol in the liver and increased the contents of glycogen in the liver compared to 0 mL · D-1 propylene glycol treatment (P<0. 05). The results indicated that propyleneglycol supplementation was beneficial to peripartum cows in reducing the lipolysis, enhancing the gluco-neogenesis and improving energy balance status, the optimum dose was about 300 mL · D-1.%为了研究丙二醇对围产期奶牛能量平衡、血液指标和肝脏甘油三酯与糖原含量的影响.选用24头体质量(683.1±14.9)kg、胎次(2.5±0.2)、上一泌乳期305 d产奶量(7 339士18)kg和预产期(24.5±0.2)d的经产奶牛,随机分为4组,从分娩前19 d开始分别在基础日粮中添加丙二醇0、150、300和450mL·d-1.结果表

  11. BH4 treatment in BH4-responsive PKU patients: preliminary data on blood prolactin concentrations suggest increased cerebral dopamine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Danique; Anjema, Karen; Jahja, Rianne; de Groot, Martijn J; Liemburg, Geertje B; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; Derks, Terry G J; Kema, Ido P; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), cerebral neurotransmitter deficiencies have been suggested to contribute to brain dysfunction. Present treatment aims to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations by a phenylalanine-restricted diet, while in some patients blood phenylalanine concentrations also respond to cofactor treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Recently, a repurposing approach of BH4 was suggested to increase cerebral neurotransmitter synthesis. To investigate whether BH4 may improve cerebral dopamine concentrations in PKU patients beyond its effect through lowering blood phenylalanine concentrations, we investigated blood prolactin concentrations-as a parameter of brain dopamine availability. We retrospectively compared blood prolactin in relation to blood phenylalanine concentrations of nine (male) BH4-responsive PKU patients, when being treated without and with BH4. Blood prolactin concentrations positively correlated to blood phenylalanine concentrations (p=0.002), being significantly lower with than without BH4 treatment (p=0.047). In addition, even in this small number of male patients, blood prolactin concentrations tended to be lower at increasing BH4 dose (p=0.054), while taking blood phenylalanine concentrations into account (p=0.002). In individual BH4-responsive patients, median blood prolactin concentrations were significantly lower while using BH4 than before using BH4 treatment (p=0.024), whereas median blood phenylalanine concentrations tended to be lower, but this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.107). Therefore, these data show that high blood phenylalanine in BH4-responsive PKU male patients seems to be associated with increased blood prolactin concentrations, suggesting reduced cerebral dopamine availability. Moreover, these data suggest that BH4 treatment in itself could decrease blood prolactin concentrations in a dose-responsive way, independent of blood phenylalanine concentrations. We conclude that these preliminary data

  12. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

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    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  13. PET imaging of blood flow and glucose metabolism in localized musculoskeletal tumors of the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Paula, E-mail: paula.lindholm@tyks.f [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Sutinen, Eija [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Oikonen, Vesa [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Mattila, Kimmo [Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Tarkkanen, Maija [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kallajoki, Markku [Department of Pathology, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Aro, Hannu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Boehling, Tom [Department of Pathology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kivioja, Aarne [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, FI-00029 (Finland); Elomaa, Inkeri [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku FI-20521 (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: Little is known about blood flow in sarcomas. Our purpose was to study glucose metabolism and blood flow in untreated localized musculoskeletal tumors of the extremities using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), oxygen-15 labeled water ([15O]H{sub 2}O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Six patients with high-grade osteosarcoma (OS), two with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) and one with aneurysmal bone cyst had PET studies with [15O]H{sub 2}O and FDG. Arterial blood sampling and autoradiography calculation method were used to define blood flow as milliliters per 100 g times minutes. Tumor FDG uptake was measured as standardized uptake values (SUVs) and regional metabolic rates for FDG (rMRFDG). Two patients also had FDG PET studies during (one patient) and after (two patients) preoperative chemotherapy. All patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The PET findings were compared with the clinical follow-up data and results of DCE-MRI. Results: Blood flow in bone tumors was 31.7-75.2 ml/(100 gxmin) and in STS 9.0-45.9 ml/(100 gxmin). [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and rMRFDG in untreated bone tumors were 5.4-18.4 and 10.9-57.4 {mu}mol/100 g/min, respectively. [{sup 18}F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and rMRFDG in STS were 2.6-11.5 and 5.6-32.2 {mu}mol/100 g/min, respectively. Four of five sarcomas with SUV>9.0 have already relapsed. High blood flow in untreated OS was related to long overall survival, while the predictive power of glucose metabolism was less apparent. Good histopathological response to therapy was not associated with long survival. Conclusions: Measurement of blood flow in musculoskeletal tumors appears to be feasible by PET and [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O. The influence of tumor blood flow and glucose metabolism on the final outcome in sarcoma is variable and needs further research.

  14. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Bae, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Wakisaka, Takuya; Matsui, Yuji; Takeshita, Masao; Yasunaga, Koichi

    2014-11-14

    Elevated postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and CVD. Green tea catechin possesses antidiabetic properties and antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we examined the acute and continuous effects of ingestion of catechin-rich green tea on postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned into the placebo (P, n 11) or green tea (GT, n 11) group. The GT group consumed a catechin-rich green tea (catechins 615 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. The P group consumed a placebo (catechins 92 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. At baseline and after 4 weeks, participants of each group consumed their designated beverages with breakfast and consumed lunch 3 h after breakfast. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose concentrations were 3 % lower in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, Pcatechin-rich green tea intake was observed. Conversely, serum postprandial thioredoxin concentrations were 5 % higher in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, Pcatechin-rich green tea has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose and redox homeostasis in postmenopausal women.

  15. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  16. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

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    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  17. Progressive artificial endocrine pancreas: The era of novel perioperative blood glucose control for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    Strict glycemic control needs to be maintained in critically ill surgical patients to reduce the mortality and morbidity due to hyperglycemia and associated infection. However, conventional intensive insulin therapy (IIT), which consists of intermittent blood glucose measurement and manually controlled infusions of insulin, tends to induce hypoglycemia and glucose variability. Many randomized clinical trials have been conducted to improve the efficacy of IIT, although some of these were stopped owing to frequent hypoglycemia. In pursuing safe and strict glycemic control for critically ill surgical patients, we found that a closed-loop glycemic control system was able to maintain appropriate blood glucose levels without hypoglycemia in more than 400 clinical cases. Considering the need for the perioperative and intensive care environment, a well-established artificial pancreas was modified into a new closed-loop glycemic control system, called the progressive artificial pancreas. The new device is slim in shape and shows clinical compatibility with the conventional artificial pancreas. We herein review this new closed-loop glycemic control system and the expectations for its future application in critically ill surgical patients.

  18. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (pdance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers.

  19. Effect of glucose concentration on the rate of fructose consumption in native strains isolated from the fermentation of Agave duranguensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Campillo, M; Urtíz, N; Soto, O; Barrio, E; Rutiaga, M; Páez, J

    2012-12-01

    Studies on hexose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that glucose is consumed faster than fructose when both are present (9:1 fructose to glucose) in the medium during the fermentation of Agave. The objective of this work was to select strains of S. cerevisiae that consume fructose equal to or faster than glucose at high fructose concentrations by analyzing the influence of different glucose concentrations on the fructose consumption rate. The optimal growth conditions were determined by a kinetics assay using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using 50 g of glucose and 50 g of fructose per liter of synthetic medium containing peptone and yeast extract. Using the same substrate concentrations, strain ITD-00185 was shown to have a higher reaction rate for fructose over glucose. At 75 g of fructose and 25 g of glucose per liter, strain ITD-00185 had a productivity of 1.02 gL(-1) h(-1) after 40 h and a fructose rate constant of 0.071 h(-1). It was observed that glucose concentration positively influences fructose consumption when present in a 3:1 ratio of fructose to glucose. Therefore, adapted strains at high fructose concentrations could be used as an alternative to traditional fermentation processes.

  20. Enzymatic etching of gold nanorods by horseradish peroxidase and application to blood glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa, Laura; Coronado-Puchau, Marc; Pavlov, Valeri; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have become some of the most used nanostructures for biosensing and imaging applications due to their plasmon-related optical response, which is highly sensitive toward minute changes in the AuNR aspect ratio. In this context, H2O2 has been used to trigger the chemical etching of AuNRs, thereby inducing a decrease of their aspect ratio. However, special conditions and relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are usually required, preventing the applicability of the system for biodetection purposes. To overcome this limitation we have introduced a biocatalytic species, the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that is able to induce a gradual oxidation of AuNRs in the presence of trace concentrations of H2O2. Interestingly, the presence of halide ions has also been found to be essential for this process. As a consequence, other enzymatic reactions, such as those catalyzed by glucose oxidase, can be easily coupled to HRP activity, allowing the detection of different amounts of glucose. On the basis of these findings, we developed a highly sensitive and simple colorimetric assay that can be read out by the naked eye and allows the detection of physiological glucose concentrations in human serum.Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have become some of the most used nanostructures for biosensing and imaging applications due to their plasmon-related optical response, which is highly sensitive toward minute changes in the AuNR aspect ratio. In this context, H2O2 has been used to trigger the chemical etching of AuNRs, thereby inducing a decrease of their aspect ratio. However, special conditions and relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are usually required, preventing the applicability of the system for biodetection purposes. To overcome this limitation we have introduced a biocatalytic species, the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that is able to induce a gradual oxidation of AuNRs in the presence of trace concentrations of H2O2. Interestingly, the presence of

  1. Effect of glucose concentration on formation of AGEs in erythrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Deemer, Elizabeth K; Brock, Jonathan W; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2005-06-01

    Posttranslational modifications, such as advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end products (AGE/ALEs), are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that AGE/ALEs are generated not only in extracellular matrix proteins, but also in intracellular proteins from metabolic intermediates. In this study we investigate the effect of glucose concentration on the formation of the AGE/ALEs, Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), S-(carboxymethyl)cysteine (CMC), and S-(2-succinyl)cysteine (2SC) in erythrocytes as a function of glucose concentration. Human erythrocytes (10% hematocrit) were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 5 mM or 30 mM glucose for 5 days at 37 degrees C. Globin was recovered by precipitation with 0.25 M HCl in acetone. Following acid hydrolysis, amino acids were converted to their trifluoroacetyl methyl ester derivatives and analyzed by GC/MS/MS. The CML and CEL content of globin increased in a time- and glucose-dependent manner and also increased 1.3- and 1.8-fold, respectively, in incubations containing 30 mM glucose; whereas CMC and 2SC content did not change during the five-day incubations. Furthermore, CEL content of globin in erythrocytes incubated with 30 mM was the highest in the other AGEs, indicating that methylglyoxal may play a major role in AGE formation in erythrocytes. The erythrocyte system should be useful for cellular screening of the efficacy of inhibitors of AGE/ALE formation.

  2. BH4 treatment in BH4-responsive PKU patients : Preliminary data on blood prolactin concentrations suggest increased cerebral dopamine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Danique; Anjema, Karen; Jahja, Rianne; de Groot, Martijn J; Liemburg, Geertje B; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; Derks, Terry G J; Kema, Ido P; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), cerebral neurotransmitter deficiencies have been suggested to contribute to brain dysfunction. Present treatment aims to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations by a phenylalanine-restricted diet, while in some patients blood phenylalanine concentrations also respond to c

  3. Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic properties of the methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on blood glucose. Forty eight of the rats were randomly distributed into six. Group one served as the normal control and Group two rats were administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg intraperitoneally and served as the diabetic control. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg once daily for 4weeks. Group six rats were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks. The serum concentration of glucose of all the rats in each group was determined after the 14th and 28th dose of treatment. There was significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose in the three groups of rats administered with methanolic extract of fruit pulp at second and fourth week of the treatment. The group of animal treated with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose compared to most effective dose of the methanolic extract (300 mg/kg during the second and fourth week of the treatment. The result of qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp indicated the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. This result suggests that the methanolic fruit pulp extract of Adansonia digitata possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  4. Effect of Vit C Supplement on Fasting Blood Glucose and Plasma Lipid Level in Type II Diabetic Patients

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    Mehri Delvarianzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic people are more at risk of diseases such as vascular, kidneys and eye diseases, compared with normal people. Since Vit C competitively replaces glucose in most chemical reactions; so inhibit on non enzymatic glycosylation such as hemoglobin and lipoproteins, it seems that Vit C can be effective to prevent diabetic complications .In this study effect of Vit C supplements on blood sugar and fats level in type II diabetic patients was investigated. Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial using paired random sampling on 136 type II diabetic patients. At first, the patients weights, age, type of diet were recorded .Then their fasting blood glucose (FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAIC, Cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL were measured. After that the patients were divided in two randomized groups. The first group (control was subject of administration of Vit C supplement (1250 mg, 5 times a day, for a period of 3 months and the second group received placebo. Data were analyzed by paired t- test and SPSS Software. Results: In this study most of patients were women (62.2% of control group and 64.7% of placebo group. The mean age between the control group and placebo group were reported 51.2 ± 6.8 and 50.37± 9.71 years respectively. At the end of study , after 3 months of administration of Vit C supplement to control group, the mean concentration of FBS, LDL triglyceride Cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin has been reduced significantly with respect to the placebo group and the mean value of HDL has been increased as well. Conclusion: The finding shows that Vit C supplements might reduce the amount of glucose, lipids and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its consumption in diabetic patients can be recommended and as a result patient complications will be significantly reduced.

  5. Kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis growth on high glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbert-Molina, M A; Prata, A M R; Pessanha, L G; Silveira, M M

    2008-11-01

    The kinetic and general growth features of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were evaluated. Initial glucose concentration (S0) in fermentation media varied from 10 to 152 g/l. The results afforded to characterize four morphologically and physiologically well-defined culture phases, independent of S0 values: Phase I, vegetative growth; Phase II, transition to sporulation; Phase III, sporulation; and Phase IV, spores maturation and cell lysis. Important process parameters were also determined. The maximum specific growth rates (microX,m) were not affected with S0 up to 75 g/l (1.0-1.1 per hour), but higher glucose concentrations resulted in growth inhibition by substrate, revealed by a reduction in microX,m values. These higher S0 values led to longer Phases III and IV and delayed sporulation. Similar biomass concentrations (Xm=15.2-15.9 g/l) were achieved with S0 over 30.8 g/l, with increasing residual substrate, suggesting a limitation in some other nutrients and the use of glucose to form other metabolites. In this case, with S0 from 30.8 to 152 g/l, cell yield (YX/S) decreased from 0.58 to 0.41 g/g. On the other hand, with S0=10 g/l growth was limited by substrate, and YX/S has shown its maximum value (0.83 g/g).

  6. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L. Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes,α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L. extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose, a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL. The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL. Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053 on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model

  7. Effects of propylene glycol drenching before and after luteolysis on blood glucose, ovarian steroids and follicular dynamics in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, A; Tanaka, T; Kamomae, H

    2012-02-01

    The effect of propylene glycol drenching on ovarian and hormonal dynamics was studied in heifers. Five cycling heifers were used twice (as control and treatment) with crossover design. After the confirmation of ovulation (day 0), the heifers in the treatment group received propylene glycol on days 6, 7 and 8 as an oral drench (250 ml of 90% propylene glycol). On day 10, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), 15 mg per head of dinoprost, was administered intramuscularly to induce luteal regression followed by the follicular phase and then propylene glycol was again administered twice daily (500 ml/day) on days 10, 11 and 12. Palpation per rectum and ovarian ultrasonography were performed every other day from days 0 to 10, and daily after PGF2α administration until the subsequent ovulation (second ovulation) for analysis of follicular and luteal dynamics. Blood samples were also collected every other day from days 0 to 10, and then at 6 h intervals after PGF2α administration until the second ovulation. For the samples taken at 6-h intervals after PGF2α administration, the concentrations of glucose showed clear daily fluctuations in both groups. Changes in the plasma concentration of glucose in the treatment group were significantly (P propylene glycol drenching in heifers. However, no significant changes in ovarian and hormonal dynamics were found under such metabolic conditions.

  8. Development and Testing of a Plastic Optical Fiber Grating Biosensor for Detection of Glucose in the Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, M.; Eka, D.; Permata, A. N.; Ariningrum, D.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Marzuki, A.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to detect glucose content in human blood serum using optical fiber grating with LED wavelength corresponding to the absorption of glucose content in blood serum. The testing used a UV-Vis spectrometer and Rays spectrometers, in which in the ray spectrometer it was used optical fiber biosensor using optical fiber grating. The result obtained is the typical peak of glucose absorption in UV-Vis at 581 nm wavelength and rays spectrometer on green LED at 514.2 nm wavelength with linear regression result by 0.97 and 0.94, respectively.

  9. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  10. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kriebel

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5 and 0.047. In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1 was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5 and 3.0x10(-3. Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047. Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1 was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10(-9. Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and

  11. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, Jennifer; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10(-5) and 3.0x10(-3)). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10(-9)). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes

  12. Blood Glucose-lowering Effect of T. procumbens L.: A Pilot Clinical Study in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gauri S; Desai, Shirish V; Gavaskar, Rajendra S; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Wu, Yonnie; Mathews, Suresh T

    2015-06-22

    Traditional knowledge, in vitro studies, and studies using animal models suggest that Tridax procumbens L. exhibits blood glucose-lowering properties and antiinflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens supplementation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. An extract (asava) of T. procumbens L. was prepared following Ayurveda guidelines. Chemical and microbial analyses indicated presence of phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids, and absence of microbial contamination, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticide residues. A chemical fingerprint of T. procumbens L. asava, developed using Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography/electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS) in negative mode, suggest the presence of several compounds including polyphenols. T. procumbens asava demonstrated strong total antioxidant capacity, Fe(3+) reducing potential, Fe(2+) chelation, H2 O2 scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. We recruited 20 type 2 diabetic individuals from Kolhapur, India. Participants received 15 mL of T. procumbens asava, twice daily, for 4 weeks, while continuing their prescribed antidiabetic medications. Fasting blood glucose decreased by 11% in men (p < 0.01) and 20% in women (p < 0.05), and post-prandial blood glucose concentrations were lowered by 26% in men (p < 0.001) and 29% in women (p < 0.001) following 4 weeks of asava supplementation. No adverse events or side effects were reported. This is the first clinical study demonstrating a significant blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens asava in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Blood glucose testing in the hospital: error sources and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James H

    2011-01-01

    Glucose testing in the hospital with point-of-care devices presents multiple opportunities for error. Any device can fail under the right conditions. For glucose monitoring in the hospital, with thousands of operators, hundreds of devices, and dozens of locations involved, there is ample opportunity for errors that can impact the quality of test results. Errors can occur in any phase of the testing process: preanalytic, analytic, or postanalytic. Common sources of meter error include patient or methodology interferences, operator mistakes, environmental exposure, and device malfunction. Early models of glucose meters had few internal checks or capability to warn the operator of meter problems. The latest generation of glucose monitors has a number of internal checks and controls engineered into the testing process to prevent serious errors or warn the operator by suppressing test results. Some of these control processes are built into the software and data management system of the meters, others require the hospital to do something, such as regularly clean the meter or analyze control samples of known glucose concentration, to verify meter performance. Hospitals need to be aware of the potential for errors by understanding weaknesses in the testing process that could lead to erroneous results and take steps to prevent errors from occurring or to minimize the harm to patients when errors do occur. The reliability of a glucose result will depend on the balance of internal control features available from manufacturers in conjunction with the liquid control analysis and other control processes (operator training, device validation, and maintenance) utilized by the hospitals.

  14. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  15. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E.; Priebe, Marion G.; Heimweg, Janneke A. J.; Heiner, A. Marius; Englyst, Klaus N.; Holst, Jens. J.; Stellaard, Frans; Vonk, Roel J.

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like pepticle-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one of the

  16. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Michael; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with both pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies of GLP-1 reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. GLP-1 mimetics are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 interacts with peripheral functions in which the autonomic nervous system plays an important role, and emerging pre-clinical findings indicate a potential neuroprotective role of the peptide, for example in models of stroke and in neurodegenerative disorders. A century ago, Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten described the steady-state enzyme kinetics that still apply to the multiple receptors, transporters and enzymes that define the biochemical reactions of the brain, including the glucose-dependent impact of GLP-1 on blood-brain glucose transfer and metabolism. This MiniReview examines the potential of GLP-1 as a molecule of interest for the understanding of brain energy metabolism and with reference to the impact on brain metabolism related to appetite and satiety regulation, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. These effects can be understood only by reference to the original formulation of the Michaelis-Menten equation as applied to a chain of kinetically controlled steps. Indeed, the effects of GLP-1 receptor activation on blood-brain glucose transfer and brain metabolism of glucose depend on the glucose concentration and relative affinities of the steps both in vitro and in vivo, as in the pancreas.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism following transient forebrain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsinelli, W A; Levy, D E; Duffy, T E

    1982-05-01

    Progressive brain damage after transient cerebral ischemia may be related to changes in postischemic cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU) were measured in adult rats prior to, during (only rCBF), and serially after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were subjected to 30 minutes of forebrain ischemia by occluding both common carotid arteries 24 hours after cauterizing the vertebral arteries. Regional CBF was measured by the indicator-fractionation technique using 4-iodo-[14C]-antipyrine. Regional CGU was measured by the 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method. The results were correlated with the distribution and progression of ischemic neuronal damage in animals subjected to an identical ischemic insult. Cerebral blood flow to forebrain after 30 minutes of moderate to severe ischemia (less than 10% control CBF) was characterized by 5 to 15 minutes of hyperemia; rCBF then fell below normal and remained low for as long as 24 hours. Post-ischemic glucose utilization in the forebrain, except in the hippocampus, was depressed below control values at 1 hour and either remained low (neocortex, striatum) or gradually rose to normal (white matter) by 48 hours. In the hippocampus, glucose utilization equaled the control value at 1 hour and fell below control between 24 and 48 hours. The appearance of moderate to severe morphological damage in striatum and hippocampus coincided with a late rise of rCBF above normal and with a fall of rCGU; the late depression of rCGU was usually preceded by a period during which metabolism was increased relative to adjacent tissue. Further refinement of these studies may help identify salvageable brain after ischemia and define ways to manipulate CBF and metabolism in the treatment of stroke.

  18. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  19. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanne Kleefstra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanne Kleefstra1, Johanna Hortensius1, Kornelis JJ van Hateren1, Susan JJ Logtenberg1, Sebastiaan T Houweling2, Rijk OB Gans3, Henk JG Bilo11Diabetes Centre, Isala Clinics, Zwolle, The Netherlands; 2Langerhans Medical Research Group, The Netherlands; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The NetherlandsIntroduction: The effectiveness of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in noninsulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM remains unclear. We aimed to review the trials investigating the effects of SMBG in this population.Methods: Medline was searched until June 29, 2009. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of at least 12 weeks’ duration were included. Data on the following aspects were gathered: patient and study characteristics, effects on HbA1c, quality of life and treatment satisfaction, and methodological quality.Results: The search revealed 9 original RCTs. These studies were very heterogeneous, and 5 were classified as of high quality. The studies with the best methodology did not show an effect of SMBG on HbA1c, the studies with the worst methodological quality did. Two out of the 4 studies that assessed quality of life showed a significant change in favor of the control group, 1 study showed a significant change in favor of SMBG.Discussion and conclusion: We found an inverse relation between study quality and efficacy of SMBG. At this moment, there is no basis for general use of SMBG in noninsulin-treated T2DM patients.Keywords: blood glucose self-monitoring, diabetes mellitus, type 2, blood glucose, hemoglobin A, glycosylated

  20. Cost effectiveness and cost utility of the noncoding blood glucose meter CONTOUR® TS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Holko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Przemyslaw Holko, Pawal KawalecHTA Centre, Kraków, PolandAims: This study assessed the cost efficacy and cost utility of the automatic blood glucose meter CONTOUR® TS from the public payer (National Health Fund [NHF] and payer (patient and NHF perspectives over a 26-year analysis horizon.Methods: Clinical effectiveness data were obtained from prior clinical studies of automatic versus manually coded blood glucose meters. Cost data were obtained from the NHF. The probability of procedure use related to diabetic complications was obtained from four medical centers in Poland. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio related to 1 life year gained and the incremental cost-utility ratio related to 1 quality-adjusted life year gained were calculated.Results: Assuming co-funding from public funds, introduction of the CONTOUR® TS is associated with savings of Polish złoty (PLN 31,846.19 (€8916.93 and PLN 113,018.19 (€31,645.09 per life year gained from the payer and public payer perspectives, respectively. Cost utility analyses showed that the CONTOUR® TS is associated with savings of PLN 40,465.59 (€11,330.37 and PLN 11,434.82 (€3201.75 per quality-adjusted life year gained from the payer and the public payer perspectives, respectively.Conclusion: The CONTOUR® TS appears superior to manually coded meters available in Poland both from the payer and the public payer perspectives and may represent an improved strategy for glycemic control.Keywords: blood glucose self monitoring, costs and cost analysis, health care costs, diabetes mellitus, diabetes complications 

  1. Patient and healthcare professional satisfaction with a new, high accuracy blood glucose meter with color range indicator and wireless connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence B; Grady, Mike; Stewart, Lorna; Cameron, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. The OneTouch VerioFlex(™) (OTVF) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated for accuracy in a clinical setting. Patients also used OTVF for a 1-wk trial period and reported their level of satisfaction with meter features. In a separate study, healthcare professionals used an on-line simulator of the BGMS and answered questions about its potential utility to their patients. OTVF was accurate over a wide glucose range and met lay user and system accuracy blood glucose standards described in ISO15197:2013 as well as the accuracy requirements to fulfill US FDA expectations for 510(k) clearance of BGMS. Patients and healthcare professionals felt the features of OTVF, which has the capability to connect wirelessly to mobile devices and interact wirelessly with diabetes management software, could provide significant benefits to them or their patients.

  2. Olanzapine-induced changes in glucose metabolism are independent of the melanin-concentrating hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Elodie M; Toonen, Pim W; Eggels, Leslie; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-11-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Ola) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side-effects are currently unknown. Chagnon et al. showed that the common allele rs7973796 of the prepro-melanin-concentrating hormone (PMCH) gene is associated with a greater body mass index in Ola-treated schizophrenic patients. As PMCH encodes for the orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), it was hypothesized that MCH is involved in Ola-induced metabolic changes. We have recently reported that the intragastric infusion of Ola results in hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in male rats. In order to test in vivo the possible involvement of the PMCH gene in the pathogenesis of Ola side-effects, we administered Ola intragastrically in wild-type (WT) and PMCH knock-out (KO) rats. Our results show that glucose and corticosterone levels, as well as endogenous glucose production, are elevated by the infusion of Ola in both WT and KO animals. Thus, the lack of MCH does not seem to affect the acute effects of Ola on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, these effects might be obliterated by compensatory changes in other hypothalamic systems. In addition, possible modulatory effects of the MCH KO on the long term effects of Ola, i.e. increased adiposity, body weight gain, have not been investigated yet.

  3. Application of fuzzy reasoning to control of glucose and ethanol concentrations in baker's yeast culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.S.; Shi Zhongping; Shiba, Sumihisa; Chantal, C.; Iijima, Shinji; Kobayashi, Takeshi (Dept. of Biotechnology, Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    Fuzzy reasoning was applied to control both ethanol and glucose concentrations in fed-batch cultures of baker's yeast. This fuzzy controller consisted of three membership functions (concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), ethanol and glucose) and 18 production rules. Fuzzy inference was carried out by IF [l brace]A is a and B is b, ...[r brace], THEN [l brace]C is c[r brace] from the on-line measured concentrations of DO, ethanol and glucose. When 'medium' concentrations of ethanol and glucose in fed-batch culture of baker's yeast were set at 2 g/l and 0.2 g/l, both ethanol and glucose concentrations were controlled at 2.67[+-]0.35 g/l and 0.27[+-]0.25 g/l, respectively, ethanol production was reduced from 26 g/l to 3-4 g/l, cell yield increased from 0.38 to 0.53 g dry cell/g consumed glucose and ethanol yield decreased from 0.50 to 0.14 g ethanol/g consumed glucose, respectively, as compared with those of the glucose only control at 0.2 g/l. (orig.).

  4. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Byoung Geun; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Elena E. Tchekneva; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Chieh Allen; Ebrahim, Benyamin; Raymond C Harris; Kern, Timothy S.; Wasserman, David H.; Breyer, Matthew D; Qi, Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A1c in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A1c, as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R2 values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.9...

  5. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  6. Determination of glucose concentration from near-infrared spectra using locally weighted partial least square regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bilal; Benaissa, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of locally weighted partial least square regression (LW-PLSR) as an alternative multivariate calibration method for the prediction of glucose concentration from NIR spectra. The efficiency of the proposed model is validated in experiments carried out in a non-controlled environment or sample conditions using mixtures composed of glucose, urea and triacetin. The collected data spans the spectral region from 2100 nm to 2400 nm with spectra resolution of 1 nm. The results show that the standard error of prediction (SEP) decreases to 23.85 mg/dL when using LW-PLSR in comparison to the SEP values of 49.40 mg/dL, and 27.56 mg/dL using Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Square (PLS) regression respectively.

  7. The Influence of Eleutheroside on Blood Glucose and Blood Lipid of D-Galactose-Induce Rats through Inhibiting Blood Superoxide Dismutase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at evaluation mechanisms of natural plant eleutheroside extracts for ameliorating the blood lipid and blood glucose. The eleutherosides derived from the roots of eleutheroccus senticosus and is purported to behave as an “adaptogen”, we assessed effects of eleutheroside at doses of 3.6, 7.2 and 14.4 g/(kg day on SD rats injected daily with D-gal (50 mg/(kg day. Eleutheroside-fed rats showed higher the level HDL-C, decrease the level of HCT, TG, TC, LDL-C compared with D-gal-treated rats. We further examined the mechanisms involved in effects of 3.63.6, 7.2 and 14.4 g/(kg day on rat blood. In summary, eleutheroside significantly increased Superoxide Dismutase (SOD activity and decreased the Malondialdehyde (MDA level.

  8. The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Anita Mofidi; Parsons, Patricia M; Duncan, Alison M; Robinson, Lindsay E; Yada, Rickey Y; Graham, Terry E

    2009-02-01

    Structural characteristics and baking conditions influence the metabolic responses to carbohydrate-containing foods. We hypothesized that consumption of whole wheat or sourdough breads would have a favourable effect on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis after first and second meals, compared with those for white bread. Ten overweight volunteers consumed 50 g available carbohydrate of each of the four breads (white, whole wheat, sourdough, whole wheat barley) followed 3 h later by a standard second meal. Blood was sampled for 3 h following bread ingestion and a further 2 h after the second meal for determination of glucose, insulin, paracetamol (indirect marker of gastric emptying), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose and GLP-1 responses to sourdough bread were lower (P breads. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough bread was lower than those for whole wheat (P breads for the entire study. GIP AUC after sourdough bread ingestion was lower compared to white (P breads following the second meal. There were no significant differences in insulin and paracetamol concentrations among the test breads. Ultra-fine grind whole wheat breads did not result in postprandial responses that were lower than those of white bread, but sourdough bread resulted in lower glucose and GLP-1 responses compared to those of these whole wheat breads following both meals.

  9. Changes in blood lactate concentrations during taekwondo combat simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger-Mendonça, Marcos; de Oliveira, João Carlos; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Bielavsky, Monica; Azevedo, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze blood lactate response before, during and after simulated taekwondo fight in young male athletes. The experiment was composed of simulated official taekwondo fight. During the experiment a total of 7 blood samples (25 μL) were collected that following: at rest, after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds, and 3, 5, and 10 min after the end of combat. The results showed that blood lactate concentrations [Lac]B increased significantly after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds of the combat compared to the rested values. The [Lac]B after 3rd round was higher when compared to 3, 5, and 10 min of recovery. After 10 min of passive recovery, the [Lac]B was significantly lesser than 3 and 5 min of recovery, and 2nd round. These data showed that taekwondo requires high activation of anaerobic lactic metabolism, and improves the ability to rapidly remove the lactate from blood.

  10. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  11. The role of red blood cell S-nitrosation in nitrite bioactivation and its modulation by leucine and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Wajih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that red blood cells (RBCs reduce nitrite to NO under conditions of low oxygen. Strong support for the ability of red blood cells to promote nitrite bioactivation comes from using platelet activation as a NO-sensitive process. Whereas addition of nitrite to platelet rich plasma in the absence of RBCs has no effect on inhibition of platelet activation, when RBCs are present platelet activation is inhibited by an NO-dependent mechanism that is potentiated under hypoxia. In this paper, we demonstrate that nitrite bioactivation by RBCs is blunted by physiologically-relevant concentrations of nutrients including glucose and the important signaling amino acid leucine. Our mechanistic investigations demonstrate that RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation is largely dependent on nitrosation of RBC surface proteins. These data suggest a new expanded paradigm where RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation not only directs blood flow to areas of low oxygen but also to areas of low nutrients. Our findings could have profound implications for normal physiology as well as pathophysiology in a variety of diseases including diabetes, sickle cell disease, and arteriosclerosis.

  12. Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration using differential absorption low-coherence interferometry based on rapid scanning optical delay line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yong; Zeng Nan; He Yonghong, E-mail: heyh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A non-invasive method of detecting glucose concentration using differential absorption low-coherence interferometry (DALCI) based on rapid scanning optical delay line is presented. Two light sources, one centered within (1625 nm) a glucose absorption band, while the other outside (1310 nm) the glucose absorption band, are used in the experiment. The low-coherence interferometry (LCI) is employed to obtain the signals back-reflecting from the iris which carries the messages of material concentration in anterior chamber. Using rapid scanning optical delay line (RSOD) as the reference arm, we can detect the signals in a very short time. Therefore the glucose concentration can be monitored in real-time, which is very important for the detection in vivo. In our experiments, the cornea and aqueous humor can be treated as nearly non-scattering substance. The difference in the absorption coefficient is much larger than the difference in the scattering coefficient, so the influence of scattering can be neglected. By subtracting the algorithmic low-coherence interference signals of the two wavelengths, the absorption coefficient can be calculated which is proportional to glucose concentration. To reduce the speckle noise, a 30 variation of signals were used before the final calculation of the glucose concentration. The improvements of our experiment are also discussed in the article. The method has a potential application for noninvasive detection of glucose concentration in vivo and in real-time.

  13. Gastric emptying of glucose solution and associated plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, and PYY before and after fundoplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miholic, J; Hoffmann, M; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the relationship between gastric emptying of glucose solution and the ensuing plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in patients having undergone fundoplicatio...

  14. Serum vaspin level in relation to postprandial plasma glucose concentration in subjects with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yin; HOU Xu-hong; PAN Xiao-ping; LU Jun-xi; JIA Wei-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Vaspin is a newly-identified adipocytokine related to obesity and insulin sensitivity.However,its pathophysiologic role in humans remains largely unknown.The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between serum vaspin level and glucose metabolism or obesity in Chinese adults.Methods A total of 123 subjects,including 84 subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)and 39 subjects with diabetes,were enrolled in this study.Anthropometric parameters,abdominal fat areas,plasma glucose concentration,serum insulin,lipids,and vaspin level were measured in each participant.Results Serum vaspin concentration was significantly higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects(592 (438-695)pg/ml vs 380(294-517)pg/ml,P=0.020)in women.In all participants,age,fasting plasma glucose concentration(FPG),2-hour post-load plasma glucose(PG2h),hemoglobin Alc(HbAlc)and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c)significantly increased from the lower tertile to the higher tertile of vaspin.Univariate linear regression analyses revealed that vaspin level was only positively correlated with age(β=0.340,P=0.002)in NGT subjects.And vaspin was positively associated with FPG(β=0.365,P=0.023),PG2h(β=0.526,P=0.001),HbA1c(13=0.388,P=0.016),and HDL-c(β=0.353,P=0.027),while negatively with homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function(HOMA-β)(β=-0.361,P=0.024)in diabetic patients.In stepwise multivariate regression analyses,age was independently associated with circulating vaspin in NGT subjects,whereas PG2h was an independent predictor of vaspin in diabetic patients.In addition,there was no significant difference of serum vaspin level between men and women.And no significant correlations between vaspin and body fat indexes were detected.Conclusions Serum vaspin level is higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects in women.Age predicts serum vaspin level in NGT subjects,while PG2h is independently associated with vaspin in diabetic patients.

  15. Effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, whole body glucose tolerance, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, A J; Wood, K V; Thyfault, J P; Campbell, W W

    2009-05-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3- O-methyl- D- CHIRO-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62+/-1 years, mean+/-SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Subjects consumed a non-nutritive beverage with nothing (placebo) or 1,000 mg pinitol. Sixty minutes later, the subjects consumed beverages that were either energy- and carbohydrate-free (Sham) or contained 75 g glucose (OGTT). Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min testing period. For the OGTT trials only, vastus lateralis samples were obtained before the placebo and pinitol supplementation and 60 min after consuming the 75 g glucose beverage. Plasma pinitol concentration increased and was maintained for 240 min. Pinitol did not influence the fasting state and 180-min area under the curves for plasma glucose and insulin during the Sham and OGTT trials or hepatic (placebo 0.83+/-0.08; pinitol 0.80+/-0.08) and whole-body (placebo 6.10+/-0.54; pinitol 6.22+/-0.52) insulin sensitivities. Activation of the muscle insulin receptor was increased by 140% with glucose ingestion (Pre 0.62+/-0.12; Post 1.49+/-0.35), but pinitol did not influence this response. These results show that the pinitol supplement was quickly absorbed, but did not acutely influence indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, or the activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older, nondiabetic humans.

  16. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  17. Obestatin and Ghrelin in Regulation of Blood Glucose%Obestatin、Ghrelin与血糖调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰辉

    2011-01-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin participate and antagonize each other in blood glucose regulation. Obestatin inhibits food intake, gastrointestinal evacuation and motility, and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, whereas ghrelin enhances appetite, gastrointestinal emptying and motility, decreases fat consumption, prevents apoptosis of pancreatic (β-cells and human islets thereby controlling insulin secretion. However, the mechanisms of both obestatin and ghrelin in blood glucose regulation remain controversial.%肥胖抑制素(obestatin)和生长激素释放肽(ghrelin)能互相拮抗,参与血糖的调节.其中obestatin与GPR-39(G-protein-coupled receptor 39)结合抑制摄食和胃肠排空、促进胰岛β细胞功能,影响胰岛素的分泌;而ghrelin与生长激素促分泌受体(GHSR1a)结合,促进食欲和胃肠排空,减少脂肪的利用,抑制胰岛细胞凋亡,调节胰岛素的分泌.但两者参与血糖调节的具体机制尚存在争议.

  18. EFFECT OF REGULAR GARLIC INGESTION ON BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD GLUCOSE: A CASE STUDY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Djankpa, A. Osonuga*, J. Ekpale, C.E. Quaye, P. Otoo, O.A. Osonuga and S.K. Amoah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic a perennial erect plant is known to have sulphur-containing compounds that act on the hypothalamus increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to leptin which alters the set point at which satiety is reached causing an organism to eat less. Nine mice (six of which were obese were used in this study and grouped into three. Groups A and B were made of 3 obese mice each whereas group C consisted of 3 non-obese mice. For group A and group C mice, 20 ml aqueous garlic extract was added to their feed daily whereas no garlic was added to the feed of group B mice. The study was carried out over a period of 44 days. The weight and blood glucose was measured weekly and the average for each group was computed. Results indicated that Group A mice recorded a reduction in mean body weight by 46.5% (p<0.05. Group B mice had significant increase in mean body weight by 46.2% (p<0.05. The blood glucose level dropped significantly by 18.5% (p<0.05 in group A mice. Garlic had weight loss and hypoglycemic effect in obese mice. These effects were absent in non-obese mice.

  19. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  20. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  1. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  2. USING CAPILLARY WHOLE BLOOD GLUCOSE TEST IN SCREENING FOR GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-kai; LUO Lai-min; GU Jing-hong; LI Ping; HUANG Ya-juan; FENG Jie; ZHANG Rui

    2007-01-01

    Objective To discuss whether the capillary whole blood glucose (CBG) test can be used in glucose screening test (GST) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to the venous plasma glucose (VPG) method, and to determine the cutoff value of CBG. Methods This was a self-control test. The 50-g oral GST was conducted among 1 557 pregnant women between 24-28 weeks. Every woman was measured CBG and VPG at the same time and same arm. Three hundred and forty women underwent 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Receiver operation curve (ROC) was used to determine the potential cutoff level of CBG and VPG. Diagnose criteria of GDM was based on NDDG criteria. OGTT diagnosed GDM and VPG ≥ 7. 8 mmol/L were used as golden standard for ROC. Results There was good relationship between CBG and VPG ( P < 0.01 ). Correlation coefficient was 0. 86. The value of CBG was lower than VPG. The statistical and high-sensitivity cutoff values were 7. 4 mmol/L in CBG and 7. 8 mmol/L in VPG when GDM was used as golden standard. Cutoff value of CBG was 7. 0 mmol/L when VPG≥ 7. 8 mmol/L was used as golden standard. The pregnant outcomes of positive cases of three thresholds had no significant differences. But it was better in case of the pregnant woman when the CBG value was more than 7. 4 mmol/L. Conclusion CBG can be used in GST, the threshold of CBG was suggested as 7. 4 mmol/L. CBG test was more convenience and effective than VPG test.

  3. Glucose sensing by means of silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstaele, Ronny; Ryckeboer, Eva; Hattasan, Nannicha; De Koninck, Yannick; Muneeb, Muhammad; Verstuyft, Steven; Delbeke, Danaë; Bogaerts, Wim; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes is a fast growing metabolic disease, where the patients suffer from disordered glucose blood levels. Monitoring the blood glucose values in combination with extra insulin injection is currently the only therapy to keep the glucose concentration in diabetic patients under control, minimizing the long-term effects of elevated glucose concentrations and improving quality of life of the diabetic patients. Implantable sensors allow continuous glucose monitoring, offering the most reliable data to control the glucose levels. Infrared absorption spectrometers offer a non-chemical measurement method to determine the small glucose concentrations in blood serum. In this work, a spectrometer platform based on silicon photonics is presented, allowing the realization of very small glucose sensors suitable for building implantable sensors. A proof-of-concept of a spectrometer with integrated evanescent sample interface is presented, and the route towards a fully implantable spectrometer is discussed.

  4. A PI-fuzzy logic controller for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, M

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript investigates different fuzzy logic controllers for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients. While fuzzy logic control is still intuitive and at a very early stage, it has already been implemented in many industrial plants and reported results are very promising. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) scheme was recently proposed for maintaining blood glucose level in diabetics within acceptable limits, and was shown to be more effective with better transient characteristics than conventional techniques. In fact, FLC is based on human expertise and on desired output characteristics, and hence does not require precise mathematical models. This observation makes fuzzy rule-based technique very suitable for biomedical systems where models are, in general, either very complicated or over-simplistic. Another attractive feature of fuzzy techniques is their insensitivity to system parameter variations, as numerical values of physiological parameters are often not precise and usually vary from patient to another. PI and PID controllers are very popular and are efficiently used in many industrial plants. Fuzzy PI and PID controllers behave in a similar fashion to those classical controllers with the obvious advantage that the controller parameters are time dependant on the range of the control variables and consequently, result in a better performance. In this manuscript, a fuzzy PI controller is designed using a simplified design scheme and then subjected to simulations of the two common diabetes disturbances--sudden glucose meal and system parameter variations. The performance of the proposed fuzzy PI controller is compared to that of the conventional PID and optimal techniques and is shown to be superior. Moreover, the proposed fuzzy PI controller is shown to be more effective than the previously proposed FLC, especially with respect to the overshoot and settling time.

  5. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanga Ranasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II, using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG (Groups 1 and 2 and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4 blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05. Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05. Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001. Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001. Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

  6. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  7. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. Case Summary An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient’s general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of ...

  8. Effect of initial glucose concentrations on carbon material and energy balances in hydrogen-producing Clostridium tyrobutyricum JM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Hye; Lee, Dae Sung; Kim, Junhoon; Park, Jong Moon

    2009-03-01

    The carbon metabolism of newly isolated Clostridium tyrobutyricum JM1 was investigated at varying initial glucose concentrations (27.8-333.6mM). Because an understanding of metabolic regulations was required to provide guidance for further effective metabolic design or optimization, in this case, maximizing hydrogen production, carbon material, and energy balances by C. tyrobutyricum JM1 were determined and applied in anaerobic glucose metabolism. The overall carbon distribution suggested that initial glucose concentrations had strong influence on the stoichiometric coefficients of products and the molar production of ATP on the formation of biomass. C. tyrobutyricum JM1 had a high capacity for hydrogen production at the initial glucose concentration of 222.4 mM with high concentrations of acetate and butyrate.

  9. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, and decreased late postprandial secretion of ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Dietary thylakoids may be a novel agent in reducing the glycaemic responses to high carbohydrate and high glycaemic index foods. Thylakoids may in the future be promising for treatment and prevention of diabetes, overweight and obesity....

  10. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  11. Elevated glucose concentration changes the content and cellular localization of AMPA receptors in the retina but not in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, A F; Liberal, J T; Baptista, F I; Gaspar, J M; Carvalho, A L; Ambrósio, A F

    2012-09-06

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic encephalopathy are two common complications of diabetes mellitus. The impairment of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the retina and hippocampus has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diabetic complications. In this study, we investigated the effect of elevated glucose concentration and diabetes on the protein content and surface expression of AMPA receptor subunits in the rat retina and hippocampus. We have used two models, cultured retinal and hippocampal cells exposed to elevated glucose concentration and an animal model of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. The immunoreactivity of GluA1, GluA2 and GluA4 was evaluated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. The levels of these subunits at the plasma membrane were evaluated by biotinylation and purification of plasma membrane-associated proteins. Elevated glucose concentration increased the total levels of GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors in retinal neural cells, but not of the subunits GluA1 or GluA4. However, at the plasma membrane, elevated glucose concentration induced an increase of all AMPA receptor subunits. In cultured hippocampal neurons, elevated glucose concentration did not induce significant alterations in the levels of AMPA receptor subunits. In the retinas of diabetic rats there were no persistent changes in the levels of AMPA receptor subunits comparing to aged-matched control retinas. Also, no consistent changes were detected in the levels of GluA1, GluA2 or GluA4 in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. We demonstrate that elevated glucose concentration induces early changes in AMPA receptor subunits, mainly in GluA2 subunit, in retinal neural cells. Conversely, hippocampal neurons seem to remain unaffected by elevated glucose concentration, concerning the expression of AMPA receptors, suggesting that AMPA receptors are more susceptible to the stress caused by elevated glucose concentration in retinal cells than in hippocampal neurons.

  12. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  13. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Darwich Gassan; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Jönsson Jenny; Hlebowicz Joanna; Almér Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 ...

  14. Carbon material distribution and flux analysis under varying glucose concentrations in hydrogen-producing Clostridium tyrobutyricum JM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Hye; Kim, Woong

    2016-06-20

    Anaerobic glucose metabolism in hydrogen-producing Clostridium tyrobutyricum was investigated in batch culture with varying initial glucose concentrations (27.8-333.6mM). To understand the regulation of metabolism, the carbon material and reduction balances were applied to estimate the carbon flux distribution for the first time, and metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used to provide qualitative information and guidance for effective metabolic design. The overall flux distribution suggested that C. tyrobutyricum metabolism has a high capacity for the production of butyrate and hydrogen at an initial glucose concentration of 222.4mM, with balanced activities of NADH and ATP.

  15. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  16. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly....... There was a significant inverse relationship between superficial nephron ED(NaCl) and PRC. We conclude that ED(Na) decreases during osmotic diuresis, suggesting that the increase in PRC was mediated by the macula densa. The results suggest that the natriuresis during osmotic diuresis is a result of impaired sodium...

  17. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  18. Infiltrated photonic crystal cavity as a highly sensitive platform for glucose concentration detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Safia; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Bouchemat, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem; Hocini, Abdesselam

    2017-02-01

    A Bio-sensing platform based on an infiltrated photonic crystal ring shaped holes cavity-coupled waveguide system is proposed for glucose concentration detection. Considering silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, it has been demonstrated that the ring shaped holes configuration provides an excellent optical confinement within the cavity region, which further enhances the light-matter interactions at the precise location of the analyte medium. Thus, the sensitivity and the quality factor (Q) can be significantly improved. The transmission characteristics of light in the biosensor under different refractive indices that correspond to the change in the analyte glucose concentration are analyzed by performing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Accordingly, an improved sensitivity of 462 nm/RIU and a Q factor as high as 1.11х105 have been achieved, resulting in a detection limit of 3.03х10-6 RIU. Such combination of attributes makes the designed structure a promising element for performing label-free biosensing in medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring.

  19. Acute postexercise effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew David; Myers, Stephen David; Kelly, John Stephen Michael; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-02-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance was shown to be present 48 hr following muscle-damaging eccentric exercise. We examined the acute effect of concentric and muscle-damaging eccentric exercise, matched for intensity, on the responses to a 2-hr 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten men (27 ± 9 years, 178 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 11 kg, VO₂max: 52.3 ± 7.3 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹) underwent three OGTTs after an overnight 12 hr fast: rest (control), 40-min (5 × 8-min with 2-min interbout rest) of concentric (level running, 0%, CON) or eccentric exercise (downhill running, -12%, ECC). Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m. quadriceps femoris of both legs was measured before and after the running protocols. Downhill running speed was higher (level: 9.7 ± 2.1, downhill: 13.8 ± 3.2 km · hr⁻¹, p eccentric exercise.

  20. Effects of Petroselinum crispum extract on pancreatic B cells and blood glucose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tabakoğlu-Oğuz, Ayse; Ozsoy-Saçan, Ozlem

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated both morphologically and biochemically whether parsley (Petroselinum crispum), which is used as a folk remedy to decrease blood glucose, has any antidiabetic effect on pancreatic B cells of rats. Parsley extract was given to male diabetic rats. In the diabetic group given parsley extract, it was detected that the number of secretory granules and cells in islets and other morphologic changes were not different from the control diabetic group, while the blood glucose levels in the diabetic group given the plant extract were reduced in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, a decrease was observed in the weight of the control diabetic group and the diabetic group given the plant extract. It is suggested that the plant therapy can provide blood glucose homeostasis and cannot regenerate B cells of the endocrine pancreas.

  1. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Byoung Geun; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Tchekneva, Elena E; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Chieh Allen; Ebrahim, Benyamin; Harris, Raymond C; Kern, Timothy S; Wasserman, David H; Breyer, Matthew D; Qi, Zhonghua

    2008-10-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A(1c) in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A(1c), as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R(2) values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 in KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J, respectively. Six-hour fasting blood glucose correlated more closely with the level of daily averaged blood glucose and with Hb A(1c) than did blood glucose following an overnight fast. To validate the immunoassay-determined Hb A(1c), we also measured total glycosylated hemoglobin using boronate HPLC. Hb A(1c) values correlated well with total glycosylated hemoglobin in all three strains but were relatively lower than total glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic DBA/2J mice. These results show that 6-h fasting glucose provides a superior index of glycemic control and correlates more closely with Hb A(1c) than overnight-fasted blood glucose in these strains of mice.

  2. In Vitro Infection of Trypanosoma cruzi Causes Decrease in Glucose Transporter Protein-1 (GLUT1 Expression in Explants of Human Placental Villi Cultured under Normal and High Glucose Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mezzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic Chagas' disease agent, induces changes in protein pattern of the human placenta syncytiotrophoblast. The glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 is the primary isoform involved in transplacental glucose transport. We carried out in vitro assays to determine if T. cruzi infection would induce changes in placental GLUT1 protein expression under normal and high concentration of glucose. Using Western blot and immunohistological techniques, GLUT1 expression was determined in normal placental villi cultured under normal or high concentrations of glucose, with or without in vitro T. cruzi infection, for 24 and 48 hours. High glucose media or T. cruzi infection alone reduced GLUT1 expression. A yet more accentuated reduction was observed when infection and high glucose condition took place together. We inform, for the first time, that T. cruzi infection may induce reduction of GLUT1 expression under normal and high glucose concentrations, and this effect is synergic to high glucose concentrations.

  3. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: Does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-28

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (Psugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of consuming an energy drink on the concentration of glucose and triacylglycerols and on fatty tissue deposition. A model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. The animal model study was aimed at evaluating the effect of diet composition and energy drink intake on body weight, accumulation and distribution of deposited fatty tissue, and concentrations of glucose and triacylglycerols in blood plasma. Material and methods. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats. The animals were sorted into three groups, fed on group I – standard feed, groups II and III – modified feed, in which part of whole wheat and corn grains were isocalorically substituted with wheat flour and saccharose. Animals from groups I and II were receiving settled tap water for drinking, whereas these from group III were administered 3 ml of an energy drink, and then were provided drinking water. Results. In analysing the results obtained it was stated that the addition of the energy drink to diet affected diminished body weight gains of the animals (per energy unit in the diet as compared to the group of animals fed modified diet. The animals receiving the energy drink were additionally characterised by a lower content of peri-intestinal and intramuscular fatty tissue, whereas were found to deposit significantly higher amounts of peri-cardiac fatty tissue. Samples of blood plasma of these animals were found to contain a significantly higher concentration of glucose, compared to those of the animals fed modified diet. In turn, the concentration of triacylglycerols was comparable in all groups of animals. Conclusions. The analysis of results achieved enabled concluding that the addition of energy drink to diet was significantly modifying the rate and tendency of metabolic changes, which was manifested in: increased glucose concentration in blood plasma, diminished body weight gains of the animals and deposition of peri-cardial fat.  

  5. Caffeine modifies blood glucose availability during prolonged low-intensity exercise in individuals with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study investigated the effect of supplementation with maltodextrin (CHO alone or associated to caffeine during exercise in T2DM subjects.Methods: Pilot study, using Eight subjects with T2DM, aged 55±10 years, received CHO (1g/kg or caffeine (1.5 mg/kg alone or associated before exercise protocol. The exercise was executed at 40% heart rate (HR reserve for 40 min, with 10-min recovery. Blood pressure (BP and perceived exertion scale (Borg were checked every 2 min. Blood glucose (BG was checked every 10 min. For statistical analysis, ANOVA test was used and the value was considered statistically significant at p <0.05.Results: The results showed that BP and HR did not change significantly among all treatments. Caffeine promoted a significant reduction in BG of 75 mg/dL (65%, p <0.05 during 40 min of exercise protocol compared to all groups.Conclusion: Supplementation with 1.5 mg/kg of caffeine reduces BG concentration during prolonged exercise in T2DM patients.

  6. Multivariate regression and discreminant calibration models for a novel optical non-invasive blood glucose measurement method named pulse glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tamura, Toshiyo; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    A novel optical non-invasive in vivo blood glucose concentration (BGL) measurement technique, named "Pulse Glucometry", was combined with a kernel method; support vector machines. The total transmitted radiation intensity (I(lambda)) and the cardiac-related pulsatile changes superimposed on I(lambda) in human adult fingertips were measured over the wavelength range from 900 to 1700 nm using a very fast spectrophotometer, obtaining a differential optical density (DeltaOD(lambda)) related to the blood component in the finger tissues. Subsequently, a calibration model using paired data of a family of DeltaOD(lambda)s and the corresponding known BGLs was constructed with support vector machines (SVMs) regression instead of using calibration by a conventional primary component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Secondly, SVM method was applied to make a nonlinear discriminant calibration model for "Pulse glucometry." Our results show that the regression calibration model based on the support vector machines can provide a good regression for the 101 paired data, in which the BGLs ranged from 89.0-219 mg/dl (4.94-12.2 mmol/l). The resultant regression was evaluated by the Clarke error grid analysis and all data points fell within the clinically acceptable regions (region A: 93%, region B: 7%). The discriminant calibration model using SVMs also provided a good result for classification (accuracy rate 84% in the best case).

  7. [Clinical research on improvement of glucose metabolic marker level by coffee drinking-validity of saliva caffeine concentration measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kono, Suminori; Shimazoe, Takao

    2010-05-01

    We measured both serum and saliva caffeine concentration using HPLC and assessed the correlation between them in volunteers with mild obesity. Significant correlation was shown between saliva and serum caffeine concentration. It may be necessary to measure caffeine metabolite concentration because its metabolites may also have an improving effect of glucose metabolism. In summary, we found that saliva caffeine concentration measurement was useful to assess caffeine intake level. Moreover, it will be helpful to know whether caffeine has an improving effect of glucose metabolism.

  8. Association between self-monitoring of blood glucose and diet among minority patients with diabetes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McANDREW, Lisa M.; HOROWITZ, Carol R.; LANCASTER, Kristie J.; QUIGLEY, Karen S.; POGACH, Leonard M.; MORA, Pablo A.; LEVENTHAL, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is used to regulate glucose control. It is unknown whether SMBG can motivate adherence to dietary recommendations. We predicted that participants who used more SMBG would also report lower fat and greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods The present study was a cross-sectional study of 401 primarily minority individuals living with diabetes in East Harlem, New York. Fat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured with the Block Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber and Fat Screeners. Results Greater frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake (rs = −0.15; P < 0.01), but not fruit and vegetable consumption. The effects of SMBG were not moderated by insulin use; thus, the relationship was significant for those individuals both on and not on insulin. A significant interaction was found between frequency of SMBG and changing one’s diet in response to SMBG on total fat intake. The data suggest that participants who use SMBG to guide their diet do not have to monitor multiple times a day to benefit. Conclusion The present study found that the frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake. Patients are often taught to use SMBG to guide their self-management. This is one of the first studies to examine whether SMBG is associated with better dietary intake. PMID:21599868

  9. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications.

  10. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy.

  11. Effects of Flavonoids in Morus indica on Blood Lipids and Glucose in Hyperlipidemia-diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-qing; JIANG Zheng-ju; XU Shi-qiang; YU Xing; HU Xia-min; PAN Hong-yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of flavonoids extracted from Morus indica(FMI)on blood lipids and glucose.Methods The experimental hyperlipidemia-diabetic rats were induced by high-fat diet(HFD)and low dose of Streptozotocin(STZ).Flavonoids-treated rats were pretreated with FMI(50,100,and 200 mg/kg).The plasma,skeletal muscle,and livers were isolated for biochemical assays,HE staining,immunohistochemistry,and Western blotting analysis.Results The results showed that the body weight in flavonoidstreated(100 and 200 mg/kg)rats was reduced(P<0.05,0.01)compared to HFD-fed rats.FMI obviously reduced total cholesterol(P<0.01),triglycerides(P<0.05),and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(P<0.05),increased high-density lipoprotein(P<0.05),and significantly decreased the atherosclerosis index(P<0.01);FMI(100 and 200 mg/kg)also down-regulated the elevation of blood glucose induced by STZ(P<0.05,0.01);At the meantime,FMI increased hepatic superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and reduced hepatic malondialdehyde(MDA)content obviously.In addition,the results showed that the expression of hepatic CYP2E1 was markedly decreased while the expression of GLUT-4 in skeletal muscles was increased by FMI.Conclusion The above results demonstrate that the effect of FMI is related to its up-regulation of hepatic SOD activity,reduction of hepatic MDA content,down-regulation of hepatic CYP2E1 expression,and increase of GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle,which suggests that FMI may prevent or improve hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia caused by an excessive HFD.

  12. Blood glucose control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki Hirasawa; Shigeto Oda; Masataka Nakamura

    2009-01-01

    The main pathophysiological feature of sepsis is the uncontrollable activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses arising from the overwhelming production of mediators such as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Such an uncontrollable inflammatory response would cause many kinds of metabolic derangements.One such metabolic derangement is hyperglycemia.Accordingly, control of hyperglycemia in sepsis is considered to be a very effective therapeutic approach. However, despite the initial enthusiasm, recent studies reported that tight glycemic control with intensive insulin therapy failed to show a beneficial effect on mortality of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. One of the main reasons for this disappointing result is the incidence of harmful hypoglycemia during intensive insulin therapy. Therefore, avoidance of hypoglycemia during intensive insulin therapy may be a key issue in effective tight glycemic control.It is generally accepted that glycemic control aimed at a blood glucose level of 80-100 mg/dL, as initially proposed by van den Berghe, seems to be too tight and that such a level of tight glycemic control puts septic patients at increased risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore,now many researchers suggest less strict glycemic control with a target blood glucose level of 140-180 mg/dL.Also specific targeting of glycemic control in diabetic patients should be considered. Since there is a significant correlation between success rate of glycemic control and the degree of hypercytokinemia in septic patients,some countermeasures to hypercytokinemia may be an important aspect of successful glycemic control. Thus,in future, use of an artificial pancreas to avoid hypoglycemia during insulin therapy, special consideration of septic diabetic patients, and control of hypercytokinemia should be considered for more effective glycemic control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

  13. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  14. The effects of whole grain high-amylose maize flour as a source of resistant starch on blood glucose, satiety, and food intake in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Mollard, Rebecca C; Yurchenko, Svitlana; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Berengut, Shari; Liu, Ting Ting; Smith, Christopher E; Pelkman, Christine L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose response effect of whole grain high-amylose maize (HAM) flour as a source of resistant starch (RS) on blood glucose, appetite and short-term food intake. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, healthy men (n = 30, 22.9 ± 0.6 y, BMI of 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 cookies once a week for 3 wk. Cookies were control (100% wheat flour), low-dose (63% wheat flour,37% HAM flour), and high-dose (33% wheat flour, 67% HAM flour) providing 53.5, 43.5, and 36.3 g of available carbohydrate, respectively. Ad libitum food intake was measured 120 min at a pizza meal, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured after consumption of the cookie (0 to 120 min) and after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min). Blood glucose concentrations were lower at 30 and 45 min after high-dose treatment, and at 120 min after both high- and low-dose treatments compared to control (P < 0.05). Blood glucose AUC before the pizza meal (0 to 120 min) was 44% and 14% lower, and higher by 43% and 41% after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min) compared with control. Yet despite the higher response following the meal, cumulative AUC (0 to 200 min) was still 22% lower after the high-dose treatment (P < 0.05). All treatments equally suppressed subjective appetite and there was no effect on food intake. In conclusion, HAM flour as a source of RS and incorporated into a cookie was associated with better glycemic control in young men.

  15. Blood constituents trigger brain swelling, tissue death, and reduction of glucose metabolism early after acute subdural hematoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechli, Heidi; Behzad, Melika; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Heimann, Axel; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2010-03-01

    Outcome from acute subdural hematoma is often worse than would be expected from the pure increase of intracranial volume by bleeding. The aim was to test whether volume-independent pathomechanisms aggravate damage by comparing the effects of blood infusion with those of an inert fluid, paraffin oil, on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), local cerebral blood flow (CBF), edema formation, glucose metabolism ([18F]-deoxyglucose, MicroPET ), and histological outcome. Rats were injured by subdural infusion of 300 muL venous blood or paraffin. ICP, CPP, and CBF changes, assessed during the first 30 mins after injury, were not different between the injury groups at most time points (n=8 per group). Already at 2 h after injury, blood caused a significantly more pronounced decrease in glucose metabolism in the injured cortex when compared with paraffin (P<0.001, n=5 per group). Ipsilateral brain edema did not differ between groups at 2 h, but was significantly more pronounced in the blood-treated groups at 24 and 48 h after injury (n=8 per group). These changes caused a 56.2% larger lesion after blood when compared with paraffin (48.1+/-23.0 versus 21.1+/-11.8 mm(3); P<0.02). Blood constituent-triggered pathomechanisms aggravate the immediate effects due to ICP, CPP, and CBF during hemorrhage and lead to early reduction of glucose metabolism followed by more severe edema and histological damage.

  16. Elevated glucose concentrations promote receptor-independent activation of adherent human neutrophils: an experimental and computational approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kummer, Ursula; Zobeley, Jürgen; Brasen, Jens Christian;

    2007-01-01

    these dynamic metabolic changes, mathematical simulations were performed. A model for glycolysis in neutrophils was created. The results indicated that the frequency change in NAD(P)H oscillations can result from the activation of the hexose monophosphate shunt, which competes with glycolysis for glucose-6......-phosphate. Experimental confirmation of these simulations was performed by measuring the effect of glucose concentrations on flavoprotein autofluorescence, an indicator of the rate of mitochondrial electron transport. Moreover, after prolonged exposure to elevated glucose levels, neutrophils return......Neutrophil activation plays integral roles in host tissue damage and resistance to infectious diseases. As glucose uptake and NADPH availability are required for reactive oxygen metabolite production by neutrophils, we tested the hypothesis that pathological glucose levels (>or=12 m...

  17. Blood glucose levels and performance in a sports cAMP for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Dylan; Hamilton, Jill K; Riddell, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Background. Acute hypo- and hyperglycemia causes cognitive and psychomotor impairment in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) that may affect sports performance. Objective. To quantify the effect of concurrent and antecedent blood glucose concentrations on sports skills and cognitive performance in youth with T1DM attending a sports camp. Design/Methods. 28 youth (ages 6-17 years) attending a sports camp carried out multiple skill-based tests (tennis, basketball, or soccer skills) with glucose monitoring over 4 days. Glucose levels at the time of testing were categorized as (a) hypoglycemic (13.9 mM). Results. Overall, sports performance skill was approximately 20% lower when glucose concentrations were hypoglycemic compared to either acceptable or hyperglycemic at the time of skill testing (P lasting an average of 84 minutes, but this did not affect sports skill performance the following day. Conclusions. Mild hypoglycemia markedly reduces sports skill performance and cognition in young athletes with T1DM.

  18. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  19. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH... Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer is a device that consists of a catheter-tip pH electrode and that...

  20. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (∼800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (∼530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but the total energy provided was the same as control (800 kcal), with the “missing” fat (∼30 g) provided via an intravenous lipid infusion]. All three meals contained [13C]glucose (3 mg/kg body wt) to assess the bioavailability of ingested glucose. During the 5-h period after each meal, we measured the recovery of [13C]glucose in plasma, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. We also measured plasma concentration of the gastrointestinal peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). The recovery of the ingested [13C]glucose in the hour after ingestion was greater (P < 0.05) after the low-fat than after the control meal [area under the curve (AUC): 1,206 ± 252 and 687 ± 161 μM·h, respectively]. However, removing dietary fat from the meal did not affect the plasma concentration of glucose or insulin. Importantly, [13C]glucose recovery was not different during the low-fat and lipid infusion trials (AUC: 1,206 ± 252 and 1,134 ± 247 μM·h, respectively), indicating that the accelerated delivery of exogenous glucose found after removing fat from the meal is due exclusively to the reduction of fat in the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel with these findings, the reduction in fat calories from the meal reduced plasma concentration of GIP, GLP-1, and PYY3-36. In summary, these data suggest that removing fat from the diet expedited exogenous glucose delivery into the systemic circulation

  1. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  2. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-07-07

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population.

  3. Effects of enalapril, losartan, and verapamil on blood pressure and glucose metabolism in the Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, T; Erlich, Y; Rosenmann, E; Cohen, A

    1997-06-01

    We undertook the present study to examine the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, the angiotensin II antagonist losartan, and calcium antagonist verapamil on systolic pressure and spontaneous blood glucose levels in rats from the Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive strain. Genetic hypertension and diabetes developed in this strain after crossbreeding of Cohen diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The new rat strain was fed their usual copper-poor sucrose diet, which is essential for the development of this model, and for 4 weeks received either enalapril, losartan, or verapamil. Systolic pressure was reduced significantly compared with controls in all treated groups. Chronic treatment with enalapril or verapamil, but not with losartan, succeeded in lowering spontaneous blood glucose, indicating improved diabetic control. Data suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by enalapril, but not angiotensin II antagonism by losartan, can improve glucose metabolism in addition to its hypotensive effect in a genetic diabetic hypertensive rat strain. This confirms that the drop in glucose with converting enzyme inhibition is highly dependent on bradykinin accumulation. Data further suggest that calcium channel blockade by verapamil can also improve glucose metabolism. The question remains whether the reduction in glucose by verapamil was a result of inhibition of glucogenesis.

  4. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  5. High glucose induces the expression of osteopontin in blood vessels in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjia; Ni, Leng; Liu, Xinnong; Wang, Zhanqi; Liu, Changwei

    2016-11-11

    Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in mineral metabolism and the inflammatory response while diabetes mellitus is associated with severe and extensive vascular calcification. Therefore, we speculated that OPN could be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of blood vessels exposed to high glucose. To identify the relationship between high glucose and OPN, we used high glucose medium to stimulate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro and diabetic rats for in vivo analyses. As assessed by flow cytometry and western blots, SMC and VEC apoptosis levels increased with high glucose. Potassium and calcium uptake by cells were also increased with high glucose. These findings demonstrated the relationship between mineral metabolism and high glucose. Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that OPN increased in vitro with high glucose stimulation. The inflammatory factor ICAM1 and the inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) (Thr495) were also upregulated by high glucose. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2 and the activating phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser1177) were downregulated. Similar to the change of OPN, phosphorylated P38 was increased with high glucose. SB203580, an inhibitor of P38 phosphorylation, downregulated the expression of OPN and related inflammatory factors. Additionally, OPN was increased in the aortas and plasma of diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high glucose can induce the expression of OPN, which may be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of the vascular wall in diabetes.

  6. Clinical significance of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and its relationship with blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武秀玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) .Methods Totally 784 T2DM patients and 197 healthy controls were enrolled in this study.Age,duration,body mass index (BMI) ,systolic blood pressure (SBP) ,diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ,levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) ,postprandial blood glucose (PBG) ,hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride (TG) ,

  7. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren; Bang, Ole

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization.

  8. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile...... and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body...... a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization....

  9. 血糖与前列腺癌患者的关系%The Relationship between Blood Glucose and Prostate Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敬; 李纲; 殷虎明; 沈卫东; 张学锋; 浦金贤; 侯建全

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the relationship between blood glucose of prostate biopsy patients and prostate cancer patients.Methods:We prospectively collected the blood glucose,prostate specific antigen,Gleason score and other clinical data of 416 patients who underwent prostate biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) first time.All patients were divided into two groups by the concentration of 6.1 mmol/L of blood glucose,and the differences of the detection rate of prostate cancer and Gleason score were compared between the hyperglycemia and the normal blood glucose groups.Results:There were 165 cases of prostate cancer was detected in 416 patients with prostate biopsy,including 38 cases (40.00%) and 127 cases (39.56%) in the hyperglycemia and the normal blood glucose groups,respectively,it was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05).However,the constituent ratio of low grade prostate cancer (Gleason<7) was 0.184,0.071,respectively,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the levels of blood glucose in prostate cancer patients negatively correlated with Gleason score (r=-0.228,P<0.05).Conclusions:The blood glucose had no statistically significant effect on the detection rate of prostate cancer in patients with prostate biopsy,but raising the constituent ratio of low grade prostate cancer (Gleason<7).Blood glucose might be used as an independent factor influencing on Gleason score of prostate cancer in patients with prostate biopsy.%目的:探讨前列腺活检患者的血糖与前列腺癌患者的关系.方法:前瞻性收集416例初次经直肠超声引导下前列腺穿刺活检患者的血糖、前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)和Gleason评分等临床资料,所有患者以血糖浓度6.1 mmoUL为界分成两组,比较高血糖组和正常血糖组前列腺癌检出率和Gleason评分的差异.结果:416例前列腺活检患者中,检出前列腺癌165例,高血糖组38例(40.00

  10. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  11. Effects of L-lysine monohydrochloride on insulin and blood glucose levels in spinal cord injured rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-ling; ZHAO Yu-wu; LIU Xue-yuan; DING Su-ju

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia in brain and spinal cord could aggravate neurologic impairment. Recent studies showed that L-lysine monohydrochlonde (LMH) could increase the insulin secretion and regulate the blood glucose level. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of LMH on pancreatic islet B cells, the levels of endogenous insulin and blood glucose in spinal cord injured rats.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, namely, normal control group, model group, high-dose LMH group (621.5 mg/kg equal to LMH 1/8 LD50), and low-dose LMH group (310.8 mg/kg equal to LMH 1/16 LD50). The model of spinal cord injured rat was established by hemi-transection at the lower right thoracic spinal cord. LMH was administered via intraperitoneal injection once spinal cord injury was produced in rats. All rats were sacrificed 48 hours after spinal cord injured. The effects of LMH on pancreatic islet B cells, the content of endogenous insulin, end the level of blood glucose were observed with immunohistochemical method, radioimmunoassay method, end biochemical analyzer, respectively. Results The insulin immunohistochemical intensities of islet B cells were significantly weaker in model group then those in normal control group (P 0.05). Conclusion LMH, but dose-dependent, might participate in the regulation of pancreatic islet B cells, and then reduce the blood glucose levels in the spinal cord injured rats.

  12. Changes of hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus by water extracts of Azadirachta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shori; Amal Bakr

    2012-01-01

    Presently,there is a growing interest in herbal remedies.Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been used in traditional medicine over centuries.In the present study,the effects of water extracts of Azadirachta indica seeds,stems,flowers and bark on the changes of hemoglobin content (Hb) and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus were investigated.Different doses of A.indica water extracts of seeds,stems,flowers and bark were injected to the tested animals every 48 h for 14 days.Significant decrease in both hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood samples in all groups of injected rats were compared to control group.However,in all groups higher decrease was shown in the rats injected with 1 g·mL-1 ofA.indica water extracts.In addition,the present study showed no significant relationship between decreased hemoglobin content and glucose levels in blood samples,and increased doses injected.In conclusion,A.indica has the potential to decrease both hemoglobin content and blood glucose levels.

  13. Impact of control of blood glucose level during treatment of sudden deafness in diabetics: relationship with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang-Ki; Shin, Ji-Ho; Chang, Mun-Young; Min, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Sei-Young; Yang, Hoon-Shik; Hong, Young-Ho; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of control of blood glucose level during treatment of sudden deafness. A retrospective study was performed involving 197 patients from January, 2011 to September, 2015. All patients were administrated prednisolone (Pharmaprednisolone tab(®), 5 mg/T; KoreaPharma) p.o under the following regimen: 60 mg/day for 4 days, 40 mg/day for 2 days, 30 mg/day for 1 day, 20 mg/day for 1 day, and 10 mg/day for 2 days. During treatment, pure tone audiometry and blood glucose level were investigated for each patient and the results were statistically analyzed. Mean hearing improvement was 19.2 dB for the non-diabetes group and 24.8 dB for the diabetes group. The greater improvement for diabetics was not statistically significant (p = 0.146). Hearing improvement was 25.1 dB for subjects with mean blood glucose 200 mg/dl; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.267). Mean blood glucose level was 200.8 mg/dl for subjects with hearing improvement >20 dB and 181.8 mg/dl for subjects with hearing improvement sudden deafness does not have a direct effect on prognosis.

  14. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  15. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  16. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  17. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...

  18. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  19. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  20. Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 - evaluation of the effect of evidence based patient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Guido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based patient information (EBPI has been recognised as important tool for informed choice in particular in the matter of preventive options. An objective, on the best scientific evidence-based consumer information about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and primary prevention of diabetes, is not available yet. Thus we developed a web-based EBPI and aim to evaluate its effects on informed decision making in people 50 years or older. Methods/Design We conduct a web-based randomised-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of information about elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention on five specific outcomes: (i knowledge of elevated blood glucose level-related issues (primary outcome; (ii attitudes to a metabolic testing; (iii intention to undergo a metabolic testing; (iv decision conflict; (v satisfaction with the information. The intervention group receives a specially developed EBPI about subthreshold elevated blood glucose levels and diabetes primary prevention, the control group information about this topic, available in the internet. The study population consists of people between 50 and 69 years of age without known diabetes. Participants will be recruited via the internet page of the cooperating health insurance company, Techniker Krankenkasse (TK, and the internet page of the German Diabetes Centre. Outcomes will be measured through online questionnaires. We expect better informed participants in the intervention group. Discussion The design of this study may be a prototype for other web-based prevention information and their evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN22060616.

  1. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  2. Review of Blood Glucose Detective Methods%血糖检测方法的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 张松; 杨琳

    2011-01-01

    The control of the blood glucose is an important way for understanding pathogenic condition and evaluating treatment effects of mellitus diabetes. In this paper, the invasive, minimally invasive and non-invasive blood glucose detecting techniques in clinic are summarized respectively. Advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are compared and analyzed from the technical aspect. The technical principles of the current blood glucose monitoring instruments are analyzed. Non-invasive detection methods and their development foreground are specially introduced. Although there are many types of non-invasive blood glucose detectors, there is a lack of a non-invasive, continuous, dynamic, accurate, good- repeatability product, which can be widely used in home health care, and replace the traditional invasive blood glucose detector. At present, every one of the invasive, minimally invasive or non-invasive blood glucose detecting technique has its characteristic, can not be substituted each other. The non-invasive technique is the future of blood glucose detector, which still needs studied in a multi-interdisciplinary subject.%掌握血糖的变化是了解糖尿病病情和评价治疗效果的重要途径.本文从有创、微创和无创三个方面对血糖检测方法及存在问题进行了陈述;从技术方面对目前的血糖仪进行分析,着重介绍了无创检测方式的原理及发展前景.虽然无创血糖检测方法很多,但目前仍然缺乏一种无创伤、连续、动态、准确、重复性良好的方法,使之能够广泛应用于家庭保健,并取代传统的有创血糖检测仪.有创、微创、无创血糖检测方法目前各有优劣,尚无法相互取代,而无创血糖检测是未来血糖检测技术发展的方向,有待于多学科的综合研究.

  3. Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, M.; Volgger, L.; Genner, A.; Jungbauer, C.; Lendl, B.

    2013-02-01

    This work reports on a compact sensor for fast and reagent-free point-of-care determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum based on a tunable (1030-1230 cm-1) external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL). For simple and robust operation a single beam set-up was designed and only thermoelectric cooling was used for the employed laser and detector. Full computer control of analysis including liquid handling and data analysis facilitated routine measurements. A high optical pathlength (>100 μm) is a prerequisite for robust measurements in clinical practice. Hence, the optimum optical pathlength for transmission measurements in aqueous solution was considered in theory and experiment. The experimentally determined maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was around 140 μm for the QCL blood sensor and around 50 μm for a standard FT-IR spectrometer employing a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. A single absorption spectrum was used to calculate the analyte concentrations simultaneously by using a partial-least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. Glucose was determined in blood serum with a prediction error (RMSEP) of 6.9 mg/dl and triglycerides with an error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 17.5 mg/dl in a set of 42 different patients. In spiked serum samples the lactate concentration could be determined with an RMSECV of 8.9 mg/dl.

  4. Additional benefit of higher dose green tea in lowering postprandial blood glucose

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    Rita Lahirin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea contains catechins that have inhibitory effects on amylase, sucrase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT which result in lowering of postprandial blood glucose (PBG. This beneficial effect has been widely demonstrated using the usual dose (UD of green tea preparation. Our study was aimed to explore futher lowering of PBG using high dose (HD of green tea in healthy adolescents.Methods: 24 subjects received 100 mL infusion of either 0.67 or 3.33 grams of green tea with test meal. Fasting, PBG at 30, 60, 120 minutes were measured. Subjects were cross-overed after wash out. PBG and its incremental area under the curve (IAUC difference between groups were analyzed with paired T-test. Cathecin contents of tea were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The PBG of HD group was lower compared to UD (at 60 minutes =113.70 ± 13.20 vs 124.16 ± 8.17 mg/dL, p = 0.005; at 120 minutes = 88.95 ± 6.13 vs 105.25 ± 13.85 mg/dL, p < 0.001. The IAUC of HD was also found to be lower compared to UD (2055.0 vs 3411.9 min.mg/dL, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Additional benefit of lowering PBG can be achieved by using higher dose of green tea. This study recommends preparing higher dose of green tea drinks for better control of PBG.

  5. Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats

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    A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.

  6. Bio-enhancing effect of Piperine with Metformin on lowering blood glucose level in Alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Shubham Atal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21 st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL, Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg, Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg, and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg. All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28. Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14 th and 28 th day (P < 0.05. Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects.

  7. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

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    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  8. Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Jim; McNamara, Paul; Clancy, Neil T.; Enfield, Joey G.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2009-05-01

    The use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) is well known in the noninvasive investigation of microcirculatory blood flow. This work compares the two techniques with the recently developed tissue viability (TiVi) imaging system, which is proposed as a useful tool to quantify red blood cell concentration in microcirculation. Three systems are evaluated with common skin tests such as the use of vasodilating and vasoconstricting drugs (methlynicotinate and clobetasol, respectively) and a reactive hyperaemia maneuver (using a sphygmomanometer). The devices investigated are the laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS), the laser speckle perfusion imager (FLPI)-both from Moor Instruments (Axminster, United Kingdom)-and the TiVi imaging system (WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden). Both imaging and point scanning by the devices are used to quantify the provoked reactions. Perfusion images of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are acquired with both LDLS and FLPI, while TiVi images are acquired with the TiVi imager. Time acquisitions of an averaged region of interest are acquired for temporal studies such as the reactive hyperaemia. In contrast to the change in perfusion over time with pressure, the TiVi imager shows a different response due its measurement of blood concentration rather than perfusion. The responses can be explained by physiological understanding. Although the three devices sample different compartments of tissue, and output essentially different variables, comparisons can be seen between the three systems. The LDLS system proves to be suited to measurement of perfusion in deeper vessels, while FLPI and TiVi showed sensitivity to more superficial nutritional supply. LDLS and FLPI are insensitive to the action of the vasoconstrictor, while TiVi shows the clear boundaries of the reaction. Assessment of the resolution, penetration depth, and acquisition rate of each instrument show complimentary features that should

  9. ACUTE EFFECT OF FLUCONAZOLE, ITRACONAZOLE AND VORICONAZOLE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE IN NORMOGLYCEAMIC & DIABETIC RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

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    Jadhav Amol, Nayak BB, Vakade Kiran P, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Vijay Kumar AN, Vrushali Nibrad, Raul AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fungal and antimicrobials are frequently co-prescribed either to manage or treat either the secondary complications or other diseases. Among antifungal drugs Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriconazole are most commonly used. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effect of Voriconazole as well as other antifungal drugs on blood Glucose level. Aim & Objectives: 1. To Study the effect of Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriaconazole in Normoglycemic & Diabetic Rats on Blood Glucose. 2. To compare the effects between all drugs. Material & Methodology: Grouping: Animals divided into 8 groups in each group 6 animals. Group 1- 4: Normoglycemic rats, Group 5-8 Diabetic rats (alloxan induced Group 1,5: received vehicle (Normal saline Group 2,6: received Fluconazole (18mg/kg BW, Group 3,7 received Itraconazole (18mg/kg BW Group 4,8 received Voriconazole (18mg/kg BW. The glucose levels were estimated by Glucometer method (Accu-check active at the interval of 0, ½ hr, 1hrs, 2hrs & 4hrs after drug administration. Results: Effect on blood glucose in Normoglycemic Rats: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value= 0.0102 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.0001. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in normoglycemic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole. Effect on blood glucose in Diabetic Rats: (Table 2: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value=0.013 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.001 in acute studies. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in diabetic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole treated. Conclusion: Itraconazole, Fluconazole can be safely used in diabetic with fungal infections. Voriconazole should be avoided in diabetics to

  10. Glucose supplementation has minimal effects on blood neutrophil functionand gene expression in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    During early lactation, glucose availability is low and the effect of glucose supply on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of glucose supplementation on the function and transcriptomic inflammatory respons...

  11. 桑枝降血糖的活性部位研究%Study on Active Components of Reducing Blood Glucose from Ramulus Mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛凤菊; 周祉延

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the active part of Ramulus Mori that reduces blood glucose,so as to extract it and obtain the active parts. Methods The percentage of reduction blood glucose was taken as in-dex and the in vivo hypoglycemic experiment was used to optimize the active components which can lower the blood glucose percolated from Ramulus Mori extracting solution. Polyamide was used to separate the active ex-traction,and the percentage of reduction blood glucose was also taken as index and the same experiment was used to optimize the active separated components which could lower the blood. Chromogenic reaction was used to identify the active extraction preliminarily. Results The experiment proved that the most effective extrac-tion was Ramulus Mori extracted by n - butyl alcohol and the percentage of reducing blood glucose was 26. 20% . The active extraction was separated by polyamide used different concentration of ethanol,then the most effective part was eluted by 10% ethanol and the percentage of reducing blood glucose was 31% . The result of chromogenic reaction proved that alkaloid compounds and amino acids were existed in the effective part. Conclusion It is initially identified that alkaloid compounds exist in active sites of reducing blood glu-cose in Ramulus Mori.%目的:研究桑枝降血糖的活性部位,对桑枝进行提取分离,初步得出降糖活性成分。方法桑枝渗漉后经过不同溶剂萃取,通过小鼠体内降糖实验,以高糖小鼠的血糖下降百分率为指标,确定桑枝的降糖活性萃取部位。采用聚酰胺树脂对活性萃取部位进行分离,同样通过降糖实验,以高糖小鼠的血糖下降百分率为指标,确定桑枝的降糖活性分离部位。采用理化显色反应,初步鉴别降糖活性物质。结果通过对桑枝提取液萃取后,降糖效果最明显的为正丁醇萃取部位,高糖小鼠血糖下降百分率为26.20%。正丁醇萃取部位采用聚酰胺树脂分

  12. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays.

  13. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

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    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  14. Influence of peritoneal transfer status on fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic nephropathy patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xu-fang; ZHOU Yun-fei; FENG Ling; ZHANG Dong-liang; LIU Wen-hu

    2009-01-01

    Background Extra glucose load in peritoneal dialysis is an important cause of newly-occurred diabetic mellitus, which initiates insulin treatment in some of the dialytic patients.The purpose of this study was to discuss the influence of the peritoneal transfer status on fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic nephropathy patients who are on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).Methods One hundred and forty-five patients with total KT/V per week over 2.0 were recruited, including 60 males and 85 females. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood albumin, blood lipid profile and blood C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed at the beginning of the peritoneal dialysis and after 12 months. A peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was carried out at the 3rd month of CAPD, and meantime residual renal function, peritoneal solute clearance rate, ultrafiltration volume and urine volume were also evaluated.Results Twenty-one cases were identified as a low transfer group (L), 32 cases as a low average transfer group (LA), 58 cases as a high average transfer group (HA) and 34 cases as a high transfer group (H). At the end of the 12th month, 83 cases had elevated FBG Through stepwise multiple regression analysis we found the FBG level in these patients was positively related to glucose load and CRP, and negatively related to glucose absorption in the peritoneum (D/D_0) and blood albumin (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis during a 48-month follow-up found the morbidity of hyperglycemia to be 17/34 cases (50.1%) in the high transfer group, 20/58 cases (34.5%) in the high average transfer group, 11/32 cases (34.3%) in the low average transfer group, and 1/21 cases (5.4%) in the low transfer group.Conclusions Patients with high peritoneal transfer capacity might have the highest morbidity from hyperglycemia among patients with these four different peritoneal transfer status. Glucose load, baseline CRP and FBG level before peritoneal dialysis, and

  15. Related research of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zeng; Jie Ou; Yun-Mei He; Chun-Yu Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between levels of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods:A total of 240 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus receiving physical examinations in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2015 were selected and divided into three groups. The control group was consisted of type 2 diabetes patients without lower-extremity arterial disease, the observation group 1 included type 2 diabetes patients with mild or moderate lower-extremity arterial disease, and the observation group 2 was formed by type 2 diabetes patients with severe lower-extremity arterial disease. Each group contained 80 cases. Then, the heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences of patients in the three groups were determined and the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated; the fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 h PG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c) in two groups were detected; and the levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and cystatin C (CysC) in two groups were also tested.Results:Compared with the control group, the WHR, FBG, HOMA-IR, 2 h PG, HBA1c, LDL-C, apoB and CysC all increased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant. Besides, there were statistically significances existing between the observation groups 1 and 2. What’s more, the serum levels of TC, HDL-C, TG and apoA1 in the observation groups were not significantly different from those of the control group.Conclusions: There is a close relationship between blood glucose, blood lipid, serum cystatin C level and lower-extremity arterial

  16. Cytotoxicity of β-D-glucose/sucrose-coated silver nanoparticles depends on cell type, nanoparticles concentration and time of incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergallo, Cristian; Panzarini, Elisa; Carata, Elisabetta; Ahmadi, Meysam; Mariano, Stefania; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta Anna; Dini, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    The use of silver NanoParticles (AgNPs) in several consumer commercialized products, like food contact materials, medical devices and cosmetics has increased significantly, owing to their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Even though the NPs are widely diffused, due to the great variety in size, coating or shape, controversial data on their possible detrimental health effects still exist. Herein, by performing an easy and fast green method synthesis, we used β-D-glucose/sucrose to stabilize AgNPs and avoid the release of cytotoxic soluble silver ions Ag+ in the culture medium. The cytotoxic effects of these β-D-Glucose/Sucrose-Coated AgNPs (AgNPs-GS) was assessed on two cell culture models, which are human liver HepG2 and human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) cells. AgNPs-GS, as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses, had an average diameter of 30±5 nm, a spherical shape and were well-dispersed in the freshly-prepared solution. In addition, they were found spectrophotometrically stable throughout the experiment. Cytotoxicity, determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, was evaluated by using two AgNPs-GS amounts, indicated as highest (10×103 of NPs/cell) and lowest (2×103 NPs/cell) concentration for 6, 12 and 24 h. The highest concentration of AgNPs-GS was significantly cytotoxic for both HepG2 and PBLs cells at all times, when compared with the negative control; conversely, the lowest amount of AgNPs-GS was toxic only for HepG2 cells. A significant increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay, was observed only in PBLs after treatment with NPs, by reaching maximum levels after the incubation with the lowest amount of NPs for 24 h. Significant morphological changes, depending on NPs/cell amount, characteristic of cell toxicity, like shape, cytoplasm, and nucleus alterations, were observed in lymphocytes and Hep

  17. Blood glucose test in the fast blood glucose meter and the value of conventional biochemical instrument analysis%血糖检验中快速血糖仪和常规生化仪的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡政兵; 刘宁

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨快速血糖仪和常规生化仪在临床血糖检验中应用的价值差异。方法:某院收治的82例患者为研究对象,对所有患者均采用快速血糖仪和常规生化仪检验血糖,对比两种方法的应用价值的差异。结果:快速血糖仪单次检测的血糖值为(6.20±1.18)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.53±1.03)mmol/L,常规生化仪单次检测的血糖值为(5.69±1.12)mmol/L,多次检测的血糖值为(5.81±0.96)mmol/L。经统计学分析,两种方法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:快速血糖仪具有常规生化仪在检验血糖方面的准确性,而且使用更简易可行和经济实用,能一定程度上减轻患者的身心负担和经济压力,利于医生及时确诊和给予救治措施,具有一定的临床推广和应用价值。%Objective:To study the fast blood glucose meter and conventional biochemical instrument in clinical application value of differences in blood sugar test. Methods: 82 cases of patients as the research object, adopt the fast blood glucose meter for all patients and normal biochemical analyzer test blood sugar, compared the difference of the value of the application of the two methods. Results:blood sugar value of fast blood glucose meter single detection (6.20±1.18)mmol/L, repeatedly testing blood glucose value is (5.53± 1.03) mmol/L;Routine biochemistry analyzer the blood sugar value of single detection (5.69 ± 1.12) mmol/L, multiple testing blood glucose value is (5.81 ± 0.96) mmol/L.After statistical analysis, P>0.05 there was no statistically significant difference comparing the two methods. Conclusion:fast blood glucose meter with conventional biochemical analyzer in the accuracy of the test blood glucose, and more simple and feasible and economical and practical to use, and to a certain extent, reduce the patient's physical and mental burden and economic pressures, conducive to the doctor in time

  18. Effect of Desmodium gangeticum extract on blood glucose in rats and on insulin secretion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Raghavan; Asare-Anane, Henry; Persaud, Shanta; Jones, Peter; Houghton, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    Desmodium gangeticum is widely used in the indigenous system of medicine in India and is reported to contain flavone and isoflavonoid glycosides. It forms the ingredient of many Ayurvedic formulations used for diabetes. The present study was thus aimed at evaluating the insulin secretion and antidiabetic activity of Desmodium gangeticum. Treatment of diabetic rats with aerial parts of D. gangeticum extract (DG, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. D. gangeticum extract caused a significant increase in insulin secretion from MIN6 cells grown as monolayers and as pseudoislets, indicating that the antidiabetic activity may be as a result of increased insulin secretion. It also had a role on the lipid profile of the rats by causing reductions in cholesterol and triglycerides and increasing the HDL significantly (p < 0.05). This works supports the traditional use of D. gangeticum in the treatment of diabetes and this is likely to be due, at least in part, to its stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic islet cells.

  19. Fasting Blood Glucose Profile among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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    I. O. Oluwayemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the past two decades there has been an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in children. Baseline data is needed to assess the impact of changing lifestyles on Ado-Ekiti, a previously semiurban community in Southwest Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to assess the fasting blood glucose (FBG of adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study involving 628 adolescents from three different secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. With parental consent, volunteers completed a structured questionnaire, and an overnight FBG was measured. Results. There were 346 males and 282 females (male : female ratio = 1.2 : 1. Their ages ranged from 10 to 19 years (mean age: 14.2±1.7 years. Four hundred and forty-four (70.7% had normal FBG, while 180 (28.7% and 4 (0.6% had FBG in the prediabetic and diabetic range, respectively. Female gender, age group 10–14 years, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with impaired FBG (P value <0.001, <0.001, and 0.045, resp.. Conclusion. Impaired FBG is common among secondary school adolescents and it is more prevalent among younger female adolescents (10–14 years with positive family history of obesity.

  20. Zonisamide prevents olanzapine-associated hyperphagia, weight gain, and elevated blood glucose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Nicholas M; Sinnayah, Puspha; Bymaster, Frank P; Gadde, Kishore M; Krishnan, Ranga K; McKinney, Anthony A; Landbloom, Ronald P; Tollefson, Gary D; Cowley, Michael A

    2008-11-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), one of the second-generation atypical antipsychotics (SGAs), has shown relative advantages in patient adherence and outcomes. However, OLZ has also been associated with a higher incidence of weight gain than most other SGAs. Excessive weight gain may in turn contribute to long-term health concerns for some individuals. Zonisamide (ZNS), a medication approved in the United States as an adjunct in the management of epilepsy, has a diverse pharmacological profile, including sodium channel blockade, monoamine enhancement, and inhibition of carbonic anhydrase. ZNS has also been reported to cause weight loss in both humans and rodents. We hypothesized that this profile might be beneficial when co-administered with OLZ. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of OLZ on body weight, as well as the pathways known to regulate feeding behavior and arousal in the Sprague-Dawley rat. As indicated via c-Fos expression, we found an OLZ-induced activation in the nucleus accumbens and orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. An OLZ-associated development of hyperphagia, weight gain and elevated blood glucose in the rat was also found. These outcomes were attenuated and reversed in the presence of concomitant ZNS. These results suggest the hypothesis that ZNS may effectively treat or prevent weight gain or metabolic changes associated with the SGAs. Future studies of this combination in patients through appropriately designed human clinical studies are encouraged.