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Sample records for blood gas analyzers

  1. Hemoglobin in samples with leukocytosis can be measured on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, V.; Laar, van der P.D.; Vader, H.

    2003-01-01

    To compare lactate, bilirubin and Hemoglobin F concentrations obtained on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers with those from laboratory methods. Pooled neonatal plasma, cord blood and adult plasma samples were used for comparison of bilirubin, hemoglobin F and lactate concentrations respectively.

  2. Blood gas analyzer utility in evaluating oxygen kinetics of the aqueous humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ersan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 and the pH of aqueous humor (AH and arterial blood samples from rabbits using a blood gas analyzer. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine and xylazine and were then allowed to breathe room air. Using a gas blood analyzer, arterial blood and AH samples were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, and pH. Results: The mean arterial blood pressure was 87.14 ± 15.0 mmHg. The mean blood and AH PO2 were 95.18 ± 11.76 mmHg and 88.83 ± 9.92 mmHg, the mean blood and AH PCO2 were 25.86 ± 5.46 mmHg and 29.50 ± 5.36 mmHg, and the mean blood and AH pH were 7.38 ± 0.06 and 7.33 ± 0.09, respectively. Conclusion: Conclusions: The blood gas analyzer was easily employed to evaluate the aqueous humor in rabbits. When comparing the results of studies evaluating aqueous PO2, care should be taken to determine the methods used in these studies.

  3. Impact of Endogenous and Exogenous Interferences on Clinical Chemistry Parameters Measured on Blood Gas Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieme, Caleb V; Voss, Dena R; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) was determined for residual whole blood specimens analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on blood gas analyzers. The frequency and potential impact of exogenous interference from iodide, salicylate, and thiocyanate (metabolite of sodium nitroprusside) on analysis of whole blood chloride was also assessed. Over an approximately two month period at an academic medical center, indices for HIL were determined on Roche cobas c502 analyzers for 1,986 residual whole blood specimens that had been previously analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on Radiometer ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzers. To examine exogenous interferences, retrospective analysis was performed over multiple years to ascertain whether patient samples analyzed for whole blood chloride were potentially affected by interference from iodide, salicylate, or thiocyanate. Some degree of hemolysis (defined as hemolysis index of greater than 60) was present in 9.7% of the whole blood specimens. Increasing rates of hemolysis were associated with higher whole blood potassium concentrations. Nearly 60% of specimens with potassium concentrations between 6.0 and 6.9 mEq/L had hemolysis indices of 100 or greater, and 75% of specimens with a potassium concentration of 7.0 mEq/L or greater were severely hemolyzed (hemolysis index of 300 or greater). In contrast to the hemolysis results, icterus and lipemia were determined to have minimal impact on patient results. For the exogenous interferences, we did not identify any patient samples where elevated salicylate levels or pharmaceutical iodide administration overlapped with whole blood chloride analysis (out of 75,887 and 169,229 total chloride measurements, respectively). We did, however, find that for patients receiving nitroprusside therapy in the inpatient setting, whole blood chloride concentrations were significantly higher during nitroprusside therapy [106.7 +/- 6.2 mEq/L (mean, SD)] compared to before

  4. Agreement of serum potassium measured by blood gas and biochemistry analyzer in patients with moderate to severe hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz, Seyyid Bilal; Genc, Ahmet Bilal; Sipahi, Savas; Yildirim, Mehmet; Cinemre, Behice; Tamer, Ali; Solak, Yalcin

    2016-05-01

    Several studies investigated the agreement between central laboratory biochemistry analyzers and blood gas analyzers for potassium measurements. However, data are scarce when the potassium level is moderate to severely high. We aimed to evaluate the agreement between central laboratory biochemistry analyzers and blood gas analyzer in terms of serum potassium level measurement because differences in potassium at this level translate into very different clinical actions. This was a retrospective medical record review study in which patients who presented to the emergency department and had serum potassium levels ≥6mmol/L were included. Patients who did not have simultaneous potassium measurement by blood gas analyzer were excluded. We included all patients meeting potassium criteria irrespective of their underlying disease or comorbidities. We evaluated agreement between the measurement methods with Pearson correlation, Bland-Altman plot, and Sign test. A total of 118 blood sample pairs were included. The mean serum potassium level measured by biochemistry analyzer was 6.78±0.79mmol/L, whereas it was 6.16±0.86mmol/L by blood gas analyzer (Pbiochemistry analyzer. The mean difference between the methods was 0.62±0.43mmol/L. In patients with moderate to severe hyperkalemia, blood gas analyzer and biochemistry analyzer gives significantly different serum potassium results which may be clinically important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT?1 analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, T. P.; Arango, J.; Wolc, A.; Brady, J. V.; Fulton, J. E.; Rubinoff, I.; Ehr, I. J.; Persia, M. E.; O'Sullivan, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT?1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iC...

  6. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, T P; Arango, J; Wolc, A; Brady, J V; Fulton, J E; Rubinoff, I; Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-02-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  7. Blood flow in the small intestine of cat and man as analyzed by an inert gas washout technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulten, L.; Jodal, M.; Lindhagen, J.; Lundgren, O.

    1976-01-01

    Using a recently developed 85 Kr-elimination technique, blood flow and flow distribution of the human small intestine have been investigated in patients during abdominal surgery. Total intestinal blood flow was estimated to be 38 +- 4 ml per min and 100 g of intestinal tissue (mean +- SE: n = 19), jejunal blood flow being slightly higher than ileal. In 14 of these patients muscularis blood flow was determined to be 21 +- 2 ml per min and 100 g of muscularis tissue and mucosal-submucosal blood flow was calculated to be 51 +- 6 ml per min and 100 g of mucosal-submucosal tissue. Seventy-five +-3 percent of total blood flow was distributed to the mucosa-submucosa and the remaining 25 +- 3 percent to the muscularis. It was demonstrated that an increasing fraction of flow was diverted to the mucosa-submucosa with enhanced total intestinal blood flow. The human gut exhibited great qualitative and quantitative circulatory similarities with the feline small intestine

  8. Analysis of bias in measurements of potassium, sodium and hemoglobin by an emergency department-based blood gas analyzer relative to hospital laboratory autoanalyzer results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The emergency departments (EDs of Chinese hospitals are gradually being equipped with blood gas machines. These machines, along with the measurement of biochemical markers by the hospital laboratory, facilitate the care of patients with severe conditions who present to the ED. However, discrepancies have been noted between the Arterial Blood Gas (ABG analyzers in the ED and the hospital laboratory autoanalyzer in relation to electrolyte and hemoglobin measurements. The present study was performed to determine whether the ABG and laboratory measurements of potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels are equivalent, and whether ABG analyzer results can be used to guide clinical care before the laboratory results become available.Study power analyses revealed that 200 consecutive patients who presented to our ED would allow this prospective single-center cohort study to detect significant differences between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels. Paired arterial and venous blood samples were collected within 30 minutes. Arterial blood samples were measured in the ED by an ABL 90 FLEX blood gas analyzer. The biochemistry and blood cell counts of the venous samples were measured in the hospital laboratory. The potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin concentrations obtained by both methods were compared by using paired Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and Deming regression.The mean ABG and laboratory potassium values were 3.77±0.44 and 4.2±0.55, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory sodium values were 137.89±5.44 and 140.93±5.50, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory Hemoglobin values were 12.28±2.62 and 12.35±2.60, respectively (P = 0.24.Although there are the statistical difference and acceptable biases between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium and sodium, the biases do not exceed USCLIA-determined limits. In parallel, there are no statistical differences and

  9. Use of a blood gas analyzer and a laboratory autoanalyzer in routine practice to measure electrolytes in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budak Yasemin U

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrolyte values are measured in most critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patients using both an arterial blood gas analyzer (ABG and a central laboratory auto-analyzer (AA. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether electrolyte levels assessed using an ABG and an AA were equivalent; data on sodium and potassium ion concentrations were examined. Methods We retrospectively studied patients hospitalized in the ICU between July and August 2011. Of 1,105 test samples, we identified 84 instances of simultaneous sampling of arterial and venous blood, where both Na+ and K+ levels were measured using a pHOx Stat Profile Plus L blood gas analyzer (Nova Biomedical, Waltham MA, USA and a Roche Modular P autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany. Statistical measures employed to compare the data included Spearman's correlation coefficients, paired Student’s t-tests, Deming regression analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Results The mean sodium concentration was 138.1 mmol/L (SD 10.2 mmol/L using the ABG and 143.0 mmol/L (SD 10.5 using the AA (p + and Na+, with biases of 0.150-0.352 and −0.97-10.05 respectively; the associated correlation coefficients were 0.88 and 0.90. Conclusions We conclude that the ABG and AA do not yield equivalent Na+ and K+ data. Concordance between ABG and AA should be established prior to introduction of new ABG systems.

  10. Analytical and pre-analytical performance characteristics of a novel cartridge-type blood gas analyzer for point-of-care and laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaert, Matthijs; Van Maerken, Tom; Bridts, Silke; Van Loon, Silvi; Laverge, Heleen; Stove, Veronique

    2018-03-01

    Point-of-care blood gas test results may benefit therapeutic decision making by their immediate impact on patient care. We evaluated the (pre-)analytical performance of a novel cartridge-type blood gas analyzer, the GEM Premier 5000 (Werfen), for the determination of pH, partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO 2 ), partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), chloride (Cl - ), ionized calcium ( i Ca 2+ ), glucose, lactate, and total hemoglobin (tHb). Total imprecision was estimated according to the CLSI EP5-A2 protocol. The estimated total error was calculated based on the mean of the range claimed by the manufacturer. Based on the CLSI EP9-A2 evaluation protocol, a method comparison with the Siemens RapidPoint 500 and Abbott i-STAT CG8+ was performed. Obtained data were compared against preset quality specifications. Interference of potential pre-analytical confounders on co-oximetry and electrolyte concentrations were studied. The analytical performance was acceptable for all parameters tested. Method comparison demonstrated good agreement to the RapidPoint 500 and i-STAT CG8+, except for some parameters (RapidPoint 500: pCO 2 , K + , lactate and tHb; i-STAT CG8+: pO 2 , Na + , i Ca 2+ and tHb) for which significant differences between analyzers were recorded. No interference of lipemia or methylene blue on CO-oximetry results was found. On the contrary, significant interference for benzalkonium and hemolysis on electrolyte measurements were found, for which the user is notified by an interferent specific flag. Identification of sample errors from pre-analytical sources, such as interferences and automatic corrective actions, along with the analytical performance, ease of use and low maintenance time of the instrument, makes the evaluated instrument a suitable blood gas analyzer for both POCT and laboratory use. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of strip-based glucose meters and cassette-based blood gas analyzer for monitoring glucose levels in a surgical intensive care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhout, Helena; De Prins, Martine; Mesotten, Dieter; Van den Berghe, Greet; Mathieu, Chantal; Van Eldere, Johan; Vanstapel, Florent

    2016-01-01

    We verified the analytical performance of strip-based handheld glucose meters (GM) for prescription use, in a comparative split-sample protocol using blood gas samples from a surgical intensive care unit (ICU). Freestyle Precision Pro (Abbott), StatStrip Connectivity Meter (Nova), ACCU-CHEK Inform II (Roche) were evaluated for recovery/linearity, imprecision/repeatability. The GMs and the ABL90 (Radiometer) blood gas analyzer (BGA) were tested for relative accuracy vs. the comparator hexokinase glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (HK/G6PDH) assay on a Cobas c702 analyzer (Roche). Recovery of spiked glucose was linear up to 19.3 mmol/L (347 mg/dL) with a slope of 0.91-0.94 for all GMs. Repeatability estimated by pooling duplicate measurements on samples below (n=9), in (n=51) or above (n=80) the 4.2-5.9 mM (74-106 mg/dL) range were for Freestyle Precision Pro: 4.2%, 4.0%, 3.6%; StatStrip Connectivity Meter: 4.0%, 4.3%, 4.5%; and ACCU-CHEK Inform II: 1.4%, 2.5%, 3.5%. GMs were in agreement with the comparator method. The BGA outperformed the GMs, with a MARD of 3.9% compared to 6.5%, 5.8% and 4.4% for the FreeStyle, StatStrip and ACCU-CHEK, respectively. Zero % of the BGA results deviated more than the FDA 10% criterion as compared to 9.4%, 3.7% and 2.2% for the FreeStyle, StatStrip and ACCU-CHEK, respectively. For all GMs, icodextrin did not interfere. Variation in the putative influence factors hematocrit and O2 tension could not explain observed differences with the comparator method. GMs quantified blood glucose in whole blood at about the 10% total error criterion, proposed by the FDA for prescription use.

  12. Method validation of a set of 12 GEM® Premier™ 4000 blood gas analyzers for point-of-care testing in a university teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Oris

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results met standard requirements and the 12 analyzers were assessed as suitable for point-of-care testing in services of academic medical centers, as exemplified at Clermont-Ferrand hospital.

  13. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO 2 differential (ΔCO 2 ) increased two-fold with no change in apparent R d , when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO 2 . Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO 2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 868.1700 - Nitrous oxide gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitrous oxide gas analyzer. 868.1700 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1700 Nitrous oxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrous oxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrous oxide...

  15. Method comparison and validation of a prototype device for measurement of ionized calcium concentrations cow-side against a point-of-care instrument and a benchtop blood-gas analyzer reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, R C; Stokol, T; Bach, K D; McArt, J A A

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess an optimized ion-selective electrode Ca-module prototype as a potential cow-side device for ionized Ca (iCa) measurements in bovine blood. A linearity experiment showed no deviation from linearity over a range of iCa concentrations compared with a commercial point-of-care (POC) device commonly used in the field (POC VS ; VetScan i-STAT, Abaxis North America, Union City, CA) and a laboratory gold standard benchtop blood-gas analyzer [reference analyzer (RA); ABL-800 FLEX, Radiometer Medical, Copenhagen, Denmark]. Coefficient of variation on 3 samples with high, within-range, and low iCa concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 3.9% for the prototype. A follow-up validation experiment was performed, in which our objectives were to (1) assess the performance of the prototype cow-side against the POC VS (farm gold-standard) using fresh non-anticoagulated whole-blood samples; (2) assess the performance of the prototype and the POC VS against the RA in a diagnostic laboratory using blood collected in a heparin-balanced syringe; and (3) assess the agreement of the prototype and POC VS on-farm (fresh non-anticoagulated whole blood) against the RA on heparin-balanced blood. Finally, sensitivity and specificity of the results obtained by the prototype and the POC VS cow-side compared with the results obtained by the laboratory RA using 3 different iCa cut points for classification of subclinical hypocalcemia were calculated. A total of 101 periparturient Holstein cows from 3 dairy farms in New York State were used for the second experiment. Ionized Ca results from the prototype cow-side were, on average, 0.06 mmol/L higher than the POC VS . With heparin-balanced samples under laboratory conditions, the prototype and POC VS measured an average 0.04 mmol/L higher and lower, respectively, compared with the RA. Results from the prototype and POC VS cow-side were 0.01 mmol/L higher and 0.05 mmol/L lower, respectively, compared with results from

  16. Gas chromatography in blood carbon monoxide monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drasche, H.; Funk, L.; Herbolsheimer, R.

    1975-05-01

    A description of a gas chromatography method for monitoring blood carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels in a very small quantity (100 mcl) of capillary blood: reagents and apparatus, procedures, calculation of results. To calculate HbCO content, an aliquot portion of water-diluted blood is saturated with CO; this saturation obviates the need to determine the haemoglobin or iron blood levels.

  17. Sensor gas analyzer for acetone determination in expired air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Vitaly V.

    2001-05-01

    Diseases and changes in the way of life change the concentration and composition of the expired air. Our adaptable gas analyzer is intended for the selective analysis of expired air and can be adapted for the solution of current diagnostic and analytical tasks by the user (a physician or a patient). Having analyzed the existing trends in the development of noninvasive diagnostics we have chosen the method of noninvasive acetone detection in expired air, where the acetone concentration correlates with blood and urine glucose concentrations. The appearance of acetone in expired air is indicative of disorders that may be caused not only by diabetes but also be wrong diet, incorrect sportsmen training etc. To control the disorders one should know the acetone concentration in the human body. This knowledge allows one to judge upon the state of the patient, choose a correct diet that will not cause damage to the patient's health, determine sportsmen training efficiency and results and solve the artificial pancreas problem. Our device provide highly accurate analysis, rapid diagnostics and authentic acetone quantification in the patient's body at any time aimed at prediction of the patient's state and assessing the efficiency of the therapy used. Clinical implementation of the device will improve the health and save lives of many thousands of diabetes sufferers.

  18. 21 CFR 868.1720 - Oxygen gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gases by techniques such as mass spectrometry, polarography, thermal conductivity, or gas chromatography... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen gas analyzer. 868.1720 Section 868.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mixture during pulmonary function testing. The device may use techniques such as thermal conductivity, gas... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  20. Point-of-care, portable microfluidic blood analyzer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Teimour; Fricke, Todd; Quesenberry, J. T.; Todd, Paul W.; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in MEMS technology have provided an opportunity to develop microfluidic devices with enormous potential for portable, point-of-care, low-cost medical diagnostic tools. Hand-held flow cytometers will soon be used in disease diagnosis and monitoring. Despite much interest in miniaturizing commercially available cytometers, they remain costly, bulky, and require expert operation. In this article, we report progress on the development of a battery-powered handheld blood analyzer that will quickly and automatically process a drop of whole human blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs), fluorescence analysis of labeled WBC subsets, and counting a reproducible fraction of the red blood cells (RBCs) by light scattering. The whole blood (WB) analyzer is composed of a micro-mixer, a special branching/separation system, an optical detection system, and electronic readout circuitry. A droplet of un-processed blood is mixed with the reagents, i.e. magnetic beads and fluorescent stain in the micro-mixer. Valve-less sorting is achieved by magnetic deflection of magnetic microparticle-labeled WBC. LED excitation in combination with an avalanche photodiode (APD) detection system is used for counting fluorescent WBC subsets using several colors of immune-Qdots, while counting a reproducible fraction of red blood cells (RBC) is performed using a laser light scatting measurement with a photodiode. Optimized branching/channel width is achieved using Comsol Multi-Physics™ simulation. To accommodate full portability, all required power supplies (40v, +/-10V, and +3V) are provided via step-up voltage converters from one battery. A simple onboard lock-in amplifier is used to increase the sensitivity/resolution of the pulse counting circuitry.

  1. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You work in a regional neonatal intensive care unit. An 8-day-old ... The baby was born at 28 weeks' gestation with a birth weight of 1. 100 g. ... and arterial blood taken from indwelling arterial lines.2-4 However, even ... tal age of 48 - 72 hours.

  2. Bedside arterial blood gas monitoring system using fluorescent optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, Daniel J.; Rymut, Russell A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe a bedside arterial blood gas (ABG) monitoring system which uses fluorescent optical sensors in the measurement of blood pH, PCO2 and PO2. The Point-of-Care Arterial Blood Gas Monitoring System consists of the SensiCathTM optical sensor unit manufactured by Optical Sensors Incorporated and the TramTM Critical Care Monitoring System with ABG Module manufactured by Marquette Electronics Incorporated. Current blood gas measurement techniques require a blood sample to be removed from the patient and transported to an electrochemical analyzer for analysis. The ABG system does not require removal of blood from the patient or transport of the sample. The sensor is added to the patient's existing arterial line. ABG measurements are made by drawing a small blood sample from the arterial line in sufficient quantity to ensure an undiluted sample at the sensor. Measurements of pH, PCO2 and PO2 are made within 60 seconds. The blood is then returned to the patient, the line flushed and results appear on the bedside monitor. The ABG system offers several advantages over traditional electrochemical analyzers. Since the arterial line remains closed during the blood sampling procedure the patient's risk of infection is reduced and the caregiver's exposure to blood is eliminated. The single-use, disposable sensor can be measure 100 blood samples over 72 hours after a single two-point calibration. Quality Assurance checks are also available and provide the caregiver the ability to assess system performance even after the sensor is patient attached. The ABG module integrates with an existing bedside monitoring system. This allows ABG results to appear on the same display as ECG, respiration, blood pressure, cardiac output, SpO2, and other clinical information. The small module takes up little space in the crowded intensive care unit. Performance studies compare the ABG system with an electrochemical blood gas analyzer. Study results demonstrated accurate and precise blood

  3. [Smartphone application for blood gas interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Julien; Bardo, Pascale; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four per cent of health professionals use their smartphone for business purposes and more than 50% has medical applications. The «Blood Gas» application was created to be part of this dynamic and participate to e-health development in France. The «Blood Gas» application facilitates interpretation of the results of blood gas analysis using an algorithm developed with reference to a medical bibliography. It can detect some complex or intricate acid-base disorders in evaluating the effectiveness of the secondary response. The application also studied the respiratory status of the patient by calculating the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the alveol-arterial gradient. It also indicates the presence of a shunt effect. Finally, a specific module to calculate the SID (strong ion difference) depending on the model of Stewart can detect complex acid-base disorders.

  4. 21 CFR 868.1075 - Argon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thermal conductivity. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Argon gas analyzer. 868.1075 Section 868.1075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1620 - Halothane gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infrared or ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Halothane gas analyzer. 868.1620 Section 868.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  7. Continuous intra-arterial blood-gas monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, George A.; Riccitelli, Samuel D.; Blais, Maurice; Hui, Henry K.

    1993-05-01

    Fiber optic technology and optical fluorescence have made the continuous monitoring of arterial blood gases a reality. Practical products that continuously monitor blood gases by use of an invasive sensor are now available. Anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians are beginning to explore the practical implications of this technology. With the advent of intra- arterial blood gas monitors it is possible to assess arterial blood gas values without the labor intensive steps of drawing blood and transporting a blood sample to the lab followed by the actual analysis. These intra-arterial blood gas monitors use new optical sensor technologies that can be reduced in size to the point that the sensor can be inserted into the arterial blood flow through a 20-gauge arterial cannula. In the best of these technologies the sensors accuracy and precision are similar to those in vitro analyzers. This presentation focuses on background technology and in vivo performance of a device developed, manufactured, and marketed by Puritan-Bennett Corporation.

  8. The use of mass spectrometry to analyze dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michel; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) typically consist in the deposition of small volumes of capillary blood onto dedicated paper cards. Comparatively to whole blood or plasma samples, their benefits rely in the fact that sample collection is easier and that logistic aspects related to sample storage and shipment can be relatively limited, respectively, without the need of a refrigerator or dry ice. Originally, this approach has been developed in the sixties to support the analysis of phenylalanine for the detection of phenylketonuria in newborns using bacterial inhibition test. In the nineties tandem mass spectrometry was established as the detection technique for phenylalanine and tyrosine. DBS became rapidly recognized for their clinical value: they were widely implemented in pediatric settings with mass spectrometric detection, and were closely associated to the debut of newborn screening (NBS) programs, as a part of public health policies. Since then, sample collection on paper cards has been explored with various analytical techniques in other areas more or less successfully regarding large-scale applications. Moreover, in the last 5 years a regain of interest for DBS was observed and originated from the bioanalytical community to support drug development (e.g., PK studies) or therapeutic drug monitoring mainly. Those recent applications were essentially driven by improved sensitivity of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This review presents an overall view of all instrumental and methodological developments for DBS analysis with mass spectrometric detection, with and without separation techniques. A general introduction to DBS will describe their advantages and historical aspects of their emergence. A second section will focus on blood collection, with a strong emphasis on specific parameters that can impact quantitative analysis, including chromatographic effects, hematocrit effects, blood effects, and analyte stability. A third part of the review is dedicated to

  9. Blood culture cross contamination associated with a radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.R.; Miller, A.D.; Davis, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    During a 9-day period in August 1980 in a New Jersey hospital, three pairs of consecutively numbered blood cultures from different patients were identified as positive for the same organism, for each pair, both cultures were positive in the same atmosphere, both organisms had the same sensitivities, and the second of each pair grew at least 2 days after the first and was the only positive blood culture obtained from the patient. When the hospital laboratory discontinued use of its radiometric culture analyzer for 15 days, no more consecutive pairs of positive cultures occurred. Subsequent use of the machine for 9 days with a new power unit but the original circuit boards resulted in one more similar consecutive pair (Staphylococcus epidermidis). After replacement of the entire power unit, there were no further such pairs. Examination of the machine by the manufacturer revealed a defective circuit board which resulted in inadequate needle sterilization. Laboratories which utilize radiometric analyzers should be aware of the potential for cross contamination. Recognition of such events requires alert microbiologists and infection control practitioners and a record system in the bacteriology laboratory designed to identify such clusters

  10. Polarized 3He Gas Circulating Technologies for Neutron Analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States); Hersman, Bill [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We describe the development of an integrated system for quasi-continuous operation of a large volume neutron analyzer. The system consists of a non-magnetic diaphragm compressor, a prototype large volume helium polarizer, a surrogate neutron analyzer, a non-depolarizing gas storage reservoir, a non-ferrous valve manifold for handling gas distribution, a custom rubidium-vapor gas return purifier, and wire-wound transfer lines, all of which are immersed in a two-meter external magnetic field. Over the Phase II period we focused on three major tasks required for the successful deployment of these types of systems: 1) design and implementation of gas handling hardware, 2) automation for long-term operation, and 3) improvements in polarizer performance, specifically fabrication of aluminosilicate optical pumping cells. In this report we describe the design, implementation, and testing of the gas handling hardware. We describe improved polarizer performance resulting from improved cell materials and fabrication methods. These improvements yielded valved 8.5 liter cells with relaxation times greater than 12 hours. Pumping this cell with 1500W laser power with 1.25nm linewidth yielded peak polarizations of 60%, measured both inside and outside the polarizer. Fully narrowing this laser to 0.25nm, demonstrated separately on one stack of the four, would have allowed 70% polarization with this cell. We demonstrated the removal of 5 liters of polarized helium from the polarizer with no measured loss of polarization. We circulated the gas through a titanium-clad compressor with polarization loss below 3% per pass. We also prepared for the next phase of development by refining the design of the polarizer so that it can be engineer-certified for pressurized operation. The performance of our system far exceeds comparable efforts elsewhere.

  11. Inert gas transport in blood and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A Barry; Farmery, Andrew D

    2011-04-01

    This article establishes the basic mathematical models and the principles and assumptions used for inert gas transfer within body tissues-first, for a single compartment model and then for a multicompartment model. From these, and other more complex mathematical models, the transport of inert gases between lungs, blood, and other tissues is derived and compared to known experimental studies in both animals and humans. Some aspects of airway and lung transfer are particularly important to the uptake and elimination of inert gases, and these aspects of gas transport in tissues are briefly described. The most frequently used inert gases are those that are administered in anesthesia, and the specific issues relating to the uptake, transport, and elimination of these gases and vapors are dealt with in some detail showing how their transfer depends on various physical and chemical attributes, particularly their solubilities in blood and different tissues. Absorption characteristics of inert gases from within gas cavities or tissue bubbles are described, and the effects other inhaled gas mixtures have on the composition of these gas cavities are discussed. Very brief consideration is given to the effects of hyper- and hypobaric conditions on inert gas transport. © 2011 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 1:569-592, 2011.

  12. Comparison of two analyzers to determine selected venous blood analytes of Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Heatley, J Jill; Russell, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    Point of care devices can assess electrolyte, blood gas, biochemical, and hematologic values in a critical care setting. Although these devices are commonly used in humans and companion mammals, few studies have assessed their use in avian species. This study compares electrolyte, hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), acid-base, and venous blood gas parameters between the i-STAT and IRMA TruPoint blood gas analysis systems for 35 Quaker parrots. Agreement between the two analyzers and the effect of gender, time lag between sample analysis, and cartridge expiration were evaluated. Male birds had increased Hgb and Hct compared with females, independent of analyzer method. In expired i-STAT cartridges, only glucose significantly increased. Packed cell volume determined by centrifugation was higher than Hct, as calculated by either analyzer. The analyzers had good agreement for total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, pH, and Hgb, fair agreement for potassium (K), ionized calcium (iCa), venous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and base excess, and poor agreement for sodium (Na), venous partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and oxygen saturation (SO2). Values for Na, iCa, PO2, and SO2 were significantly higher on the IRMA than the i-STAT, while K was significantly lower on the IRMA when compared with the i-STAT. The time lag between sample analyses on the i-STAT and IRMA did not be correlate to any analyte changes. Despite these differences, both the i-STAT and the IRMA appear to be acceptable clinical tools in avian critical care, although reference ranges for each analyzer should be created.

  13. Po2 temperature blood factor for blood gas apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseire, B P; Hérigault, R A; Teisseire, L J; Laurent, D N

    1984-01-01

    PO2 temperature formulae supplied by manufacturers on automatic blood gas apparatus, PO2 corr. = PO2 37 degrees C X 10F X delta T were studied and compared to the experimental determination of the delta log PO2/delta T ratio (Hérigault et al. [10]). Acid-base status at 37 degrees C appeared to have a measurable influence on the PO2 temperature factor; alkalosis increased the delta log PO2/delta T ratio, and the contrary was found for acidosis in comparison with normal acid-base status at 37 degrees C. For the same PO2, measured at 37 degrees C, all the proposed formulae of commercial blood gas automatic apparatus did not give the same temperature corrected PO2. The observed difference between the corrected PO2 may be important and greater than the precision of the initial measurement. To correct the measured PO2 for temperature, a relationship between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 is proposed, between PO2 zero and PO2 180 mmHg, which takes into account measured pH and PO2 values at 37 degrees C:delta log PO2/delta T = [(-0.35 pH + 0.658) X 10(-4) X PO2] + 0.035.

  14. Evaluation of system codes for analyzing naturally circulating gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state natural circulation data obtained in a 7 m-tall experimental loop with carbon dioxide and nitrogen are presented in this paper. The loop was originally designed to encompass operating range of a prototype gas-cooled fast reactor passive decay heat removal system, but the results and conclusions are applicable to any natural circulation loop operating in regimes having buoyancy and acceleration parameters within the ranges validated in this loop. Natural circulation steady-state data are compared to numerical predictions by two system analysis codes: GAMMA and RELAP5-3D. GAMMA is a computational tool for predicting various transients which can potentially occur in a gas-cooled reactor. The code has a capability of analyzing multi-dimensional multi-component mixtures and includes models for friction, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and multi-component molecular diffusion. Natural circulation data with two gases show that the loop operates in the deteriorated turbulent heat transfer (DTHT) regime which exhibits substantially reduced heat transfer coefficients compared to the forced turbulent flow. The GAMMA code with an original heat transfer package predicted conservative results in terms of peak wall temperature. However, the estimated peak location did not successfully match the data. Even though GAMMA's original heat transfer package included mixed-convection regime, which is a part of the DTHT regime, the results showed that the original heat transfer package could not reproduce the data with sufficient accuracy. After implementing a recently developed correlation and corresponding heat transfer regime map into GAMMA to cover the whole range of the DTHT regime, we obtained better agreement with the data. RELAP5-3D results are discussed in parallel.

  15. Polarized 3He gas circulating technologies for neutron analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David W. [Xemed, LLC, Durham, NH (United States)

    2017-10-02

    We outline our project to develop a circulating polarized helium-3 system for developing of large, quasi-continuously operating neutron analyzers. The project consisted of four areas: 1) Development of robust external cavity narrowed diode laser output with spectral line width < 0.17 nm and power of 2000 W. 2) Development of large glass polarizing cells using cell surface treatments to obtain long relaxation lifetimes. 3) Refinements of the circulation system with an emphasis on gas purification and materials testing. 4) Design/fabrication of a new polarizer system. 5) Preliminary testing of the new polarizer. 1. Developed Robust High-Power Narrowed Laser The optical configuration of the laser was discussed in the proposal and will be reviewed in the body of this report. The external cavity is configured to mutually lock the wavelength of five 10-bar laser stacks. All the logistical milestones were been met and critical subsystems- laser stack manifold and power divider, external laser cavity, and output telescope- were assembled and tested at low power. Each individual bar is narrowed to ~0.05 nm; when combined the laser has a cumulative spectral width of 0.17 nm across the entire beam due to variations of the bars central wavelength by +/- 0.1 nm, which is similar to that of Volume Bragg Grating narrowed laser bars. This configuration eliminates the free-running “pedestal” that occurs in other external cavity diode lasers. The full-scale laser was completed in 2016 and was used in both the older and newer helium polarizers. This laser was operated at 75% power for periods of up to 8 hours. Once installed, the spectrum became slightly broader (~.25 nm) at full power; this is likely due to very slight misalignments that occurred during handling. 2. Developed the processes to create uniform sintered sol-gel coatings. Our work on cell development comprised: 1) Production of large GE180 cells and explore different means of cell preparation, and 2) Development of

  16. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  17. Comparison of iSTAT and EPOC Blood Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    gold standard laboratory testing to two POC devices—iSTAT and EPOC—with and without expired cartridges and conditioned cartridges. The study was...analysis across a range of environmental conditions and, in extreme circumstances, use beyond the expiration date. We compared gold standard laboratory...BE) extra cellular fluid, BE blood, sulfur dioxide, Hgb) to gold standard measurements conducted by the central laboratory. The study also compared

  18. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid in...

  19. Low-Power Architecture for an Optical Life Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey; Vakhtin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Analog and digital electronic control architecture has been combined with an operating methodology for an optical trace gas sensor platform that allows very low power consumption while providing four independent gas measurements in essentially real time, as well as a user interface and digital data storage and output. The implemented design eliminates the cross-talk between the measurement channels while maximizing the sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range for each measured gas. The combination provides for battery operation on a simple camcorder battery for as long as eight hours. The custom, compact, rugged, self-contained design specifically targets applications of optical major constituent and trace gas detection for multiple gases using multiple lasers and photodetectors in an integrated package.

  20. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual benefits and risks. This review critically surveys the available evidence to generate a comparison between arterial and capillary blood gas sampling, focusing on their ...

  1. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  2. Evaluation of a point-of-care blood analyzer and determination of reference ranges for blood parameters in rockfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Tornquist, Susan J; Miller-Morgan, Timothy J; Fodness, Brian G; Clifford, Kevin E

    2005-01-15

    To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities. Prospective study. 41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus). Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses. Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish. Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data.

  3. Correlation between arterial blood gas analysis and peripheral blood gas analysis in acid-base unbalance state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Lee Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base unbalance is most common problem in severe ill patient, especially in condition of abnormal renal function state. Acid-base unbalances are respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, and metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis is frequently appeared in clinical state. Arterial blood gas analysis is considered as a basic test to the intensive care unit patient and emergency state. Recently some researches were done, comparing with arterial blood gas analysis and venous blood gas analysis. Because of venous blood sampling is safer than arterial blood gas analysis, and beside not so different among them for detecting pH, pCO2, HCO3, except pO2 measuring. This research was done in emergency room, and for explaining no different between arterial blood gas analysis and peripheral blood gas analysis result in acid-base unbalance state patient. Especially in kidney functions decreased state. : The study was done from March, 2010 to January, 2011. The object was 89 peoples who came to emergency room for treating internal medicine problem. (Women 53, average age: 66.7±12.1 Then compare between arterial blood gas analysis and peripheral blood gas analysis. Result: The mean arterial minus venous difference for pH, pCO2, and bicarbonate was −0.0170, 2.6528, and 0.6124. Bland-Altman plot was done for predicting agreement of two groups, and the scale was pH −2.95 to 4.17, pCO2 −4.45 to 9.76, bicarbonate −2.95 to 4.16, in 95% relative. Conclusion: The peripheral blood gas pH, pCO2, bicarbonate level is almost same as arterial blood gas analysis results. And enough to measuring acid-base unbalance state, in absent of arterial blood testing.

  4. Gas pressure and gas purity analyzing device in nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Chihiro; Hasegawa, Toru.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring and analyzing a pressure and a purity of a helium gas sealed in a BWR type nuclear fuel rod. Namely, a portion between a rotational shaft of an electromotive drill for perforating the fuel rod and a vacuum chamber is sealed with a magnetic fluid sealing material so that error factors can be recognized before and after the destruction detection (perforation) of a fuel rod. With such procedures, involving of an atmospheric air from the drill rotational shaft upon perforation can be eliminated. As a result, accuracy for the measurement can be improved. In addition, a filter is disposed to a pipeline connecting the vacuum chamber and the measuring system. With such a constitution, scattering of cutting dusts to the measuring system, troubles due to damages of a stop valve can be reduced. As a result, the efficiency of the measurement is improved. Further, a plurality kinds of gas collecting vessel having different capacities are connected in parallel to the pipeline of the measuring system. Then, the gas collecting vessels can be used selectively. As a result, the device can cope with a gas pressure over a wide range. (I.S.)

  5. Portable Gas Analyzer Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer for Patrolling and Examining Gas Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at monitoring emission of organic gases such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2, from coal mines, petroleum refineries, and other plants, a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer was used to develop a portable gas analyzer for patrolling and examining gas exhaust. Firstly, structure of the instrument was introduced. Then, a spectral analysis approach was presented. Finally, instrument was tested with standard gases and with actual gases emitted from a petroleum refinery. For the latter test, a gas chromatograph (GC was used as a reference instrument. The test results showed that the detection limit of every component of analyte was less than 10 × 10−6. The maximum test error of every analyte was less than 15 × 10−6 when its practical concentration was no more than 500 × 10−6. A final comparison showed that the result curves of analytes obtained with FT-IR spectrometer almost overlapped with those obtained with GC, and their resulting noise was less than 6.4% when the practical gas concentration was above 100 × 10−6. As a result, our instrument was suitable to be used as a portable instrument for monitoring exhaust gases.

  6. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted ...

  7. Alpha-ionization gas analyzer for air traces in hydrogen or deuterium at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The constructional features and the principle of operation of and α-ionization gas analyzer are described. The analyzer is based on a radioactive monometric transducer MP-2 with a plutonium source, which makes it possible to measure the volume admixture of air in H 2 or D 2 in the range from 0 to 30% with an accuracy to about 0.3%. The operating principle of the instrument involves the dependence of the saturation current in the ionization chamber on the molecular weight of the gas analysed. As the output unit of the gas analyzer, either a microamperometer or a recording potentiometer is used. The sensitivity of the gas analyzer is about the same as that of instruments based on the phenomenon of heat conduction. The gas analyzer is explosion proof and reliable in operation, which enables it to compete with thermal gas analyzers [ru

  8. The principles involved in building an optimum system of magnetic gas analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, A N; Sukhanov, S

    1980-01-01

    A short survey is given of magnetomechanical and thermo-magnetic gas analyzers for oxygen. It is noted that the principle of building magnetic gas analyzers that measure secondary phenomena has fact that disadvantages due to the fact that a gas analyzer uses galvanaomagnetic elements from Hall generators. The measurement range is 0-2% of the volume of 0/sub 2/ concentration, the accuracy class is 1 and the threshold sensitivity is .01 percent by volume.

  9. 40 CFR 1065.309 - Continuous gas analyzer system-response and updating-recording verification-for gas analyzers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not apply to any processing of individual analyzer signals that are time aligned to their t 50 times... for water removed from the sample done in post-processing according to § 1065.659 and it does not... used during emission testing. You may not use interpolation or filtering to alter the recorded values...

  10. Effect of hydrodynamic action in peristaltic pump of blood gases analyzer ABL 555

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the effect of hydrodynamic action in peristaltic pump of blood gases analyzer ABL 555 which made by (Radiometer-Copenhagen, by using theories of tribology and Reynolds equation on performance of blood film convergence area, we analyzing the influence of theoretical model for peristaltic pump (consist of steeper motor and 4 cylindrical bearings distributed on circular disc rotating around capillary tube, by using (MATLAB R 2012b programing with numerical solution of finite difference method in 5 nodes element , we fined the blood film thickness and the pressure on contact area grid ( consist from annual and axial lines , then influence of viscosity of blood on pressure generated in limited temperature of ambient and velocity of motor , and flow rate of blood in tube. The important conclusions appear that the rotating sliding movement of motor cause low pressure (positive while the rolling cylindrical rollers of bearings cause high pressure (negative which lead to push the blood in tube, that mean the direction of rotating blood opposite the direction of rotating motor of peristaltic pump, also the viscosity of blood effect on velocity of flow and the speed of motor with bearings, and the effect of blood film thickness effect on pressure generated in tube. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.18

  11. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzers for measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)...

  12. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Dispersant Data for BP Spil/Deepwater Horizon - August 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  13. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  14. Arterial blood gas reference values for sea level and an altitude of 1,400 meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapo, R O; Jensen, R L; Hegewald, M; Tashkin, D P

    1999-11-01

    Blood gas measurements were collected on healthy lifetime nonsmokers at sea level (n = 96) and at an altitude of 1,400 meters (n = 243) to establish reference equations. At each study site, arterial blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on two separate blood gas analyzers and CO-oximeters. Arterial blood gas variables included Pa(O(2)), Pa(CO(2)), pH, and calculated alveolar-arterial PO(2) difference (AaPO(2)). CO-oximeter variables were Hb, COHb, MetHb, and Sa(O(2)). Subjects were 18 to 81 yr of age with 166 male and 173 female. Outlier data were excluded from multiple regression analysis, and reference equations were fitted to the data in two ways: (1) best fit using linear, squared, and cross-product terms; (2) simple equations, including only the variables that explained at least 3% of the variance. Two sets of equations were created: (1) using only the sea level data and (2) using the combined data with barometric pressure as an independent variable. Comparisons with earlier studies revealed small but significant differences; the decline in Pa(O(2)) with age at each altitude was consistent with most previous studies. At sea level, the equation that included barometric pressure predicted Pa(O(2)) slightly better than the sea level specific equation. The inclusion of barometric pressure in the equations allows better prediction of blood gas reference values at sea level and at altitudes as high as 1,400 meters.

  15. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  16. Relocation of blood gas laboratory to the emergency department helps decrease lactic acid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazg, Jared; Huang, Phyllis; Weiner, Corey; Singh, Guneet; Likourezos, Antonios; Salem, Linda; Dickman, Eitan; Marshall, John

    2018-03-12

    accurate LA results than blood gas samples analyzed at an SL blood gas laboratory within the same institution. Hospitals may consider moving blood gas laboratories to the ED to improve accuracy of one of the most important early blood markers used in the definition of sepsis and in the identification of the critically ill. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relocation of blood gas laboratory to the emergency department helps decrease lactic acid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazg, Jared; Huang, Phyllis; Weiner, Corey; Singh, Guneet; Likourezos, Antonios; Salem, Linda; Dickman, Eitan; Marshall, John

    2018-03-20

    accurate LA results than blood gas samples analyzed at an SL blood gas laboratory within the same institution. Hospitals may consider moving blood gas laboratories to the ED to improve accuracy of one of the most important early blood markers used in the definition of sepsis and in the identification of the critically ill. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reference range determination for whole-blood platelet aggregation using the Multiplate analyzer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.; Castellone, Donna D.; Stroobants, A. K.; Francis, John

    2014-01-01

    To develop reference ranges for platelet aggregation using the Multiplate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in blood anticoagulated with sodium citrate (Na-citrate), lithium heparin (Li-heparin), or hirudin. The study was performed at three sites on consented, healthy adults (n = 193)

  19. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class II...

  20. Blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for healthy newborn Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, André M; Silva, Daniela G; Clemente, Virna; Pizauro, Lucas J L; Bernardes, Priscila A; Santana, Clarissa H; Eckersall, Peter D; Fagliari, José J

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of published work on RIs for newborn buffaloes. Establishing blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for newborn buffaloes is important for monitoring health. This study establishes blood gas and serum biochemical RIs of newborn buffaloes. Twenty-eight newborn buffaloes, 10-30 days old, were selected. Thirty blood biochemical variables were analyzed. The Anderson-Darling test was used to assess the normality of the distribution. The Dixon test and the Tukey test were used to identify outliers. The RI and 90% CI were determined using standard and robust methods and the Box-Cox transformation. A total of 30 RIs for healthy buffalo calves have been reported in this study. RIs for blood gas variables were reported for pH, partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 ), saturation of O 2 (SO 2 ), bicarbonate (cHCO 3 - ), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide (ctCO 2 ), and anion gap (AG). RIs for serum biochemical variables were reported for glucose (GLU), direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), AST, ALP, GGT, CK, LDH, creatinine (CREA), urea, cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, iCa, Cl, iron, total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB). This is the first reported study covering complete serum chemistry and blood gas RIs for healthy 1-month-old Murrah buffaloes. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Regional quality control survey of blood-gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minty, B D; Nunn, J F

    1977-09-01

    We undertook an external quality control survey of blood-gas analysis in 16 laboratories at 13 hospitals. All samples were prepared in the laboratories under investigation by equilibration of blood or serum with gas mixtures of known composition. pH of serum was measured with no significant bias but with an SD of random error 0.026 pH units, which was almost twice the SD of the reference range (0.015). An acceptable random error (half SD of reference range) was not obtained in a longitudinal internal quality control suvey although there were acceptable results for buffer pH in both field and internal surveys. Blood PO2 was measured with no significant bias but with SD of random error 1.38 kPa which reduced to 0.72 kPa by excluding one egregious result. The latter value was just over half of the SD of the reference range (1.2 kPa). PCO2 of blood was also measured without significant bias but with a much smaller SD of random error of 0.28 kPa (by excluding one egregious result), which was again just over half the SD of the reference range (0.51 kPa). Measurements of blood PO2 and PCO2 seem generally acceptable in relation to their respective reference ranges but measurements of pH were unsatisfactory in both internal and external trials.

  2. Rapid Point of Care Analyzer for the Measurement of Cyanide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Mishra, Santosh K.; Puanngam, Mahitti; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H3PO4 and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide Hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (λmax = 510 nm) to violet (λmax = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10x when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improve the limit of detection by 4x to ~ 0.5 μM for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (≥ 10 μM) can be accurately measured in ~ 2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample – smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 μM CN was 1.09% (n=5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r2 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used. PMID:21553921

  3. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  4. Blood gas testing and related measurements: National recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Kopčinović, Lara Milevoj; Dorotić, Adrijana; Baršić, Ivana

    2016-10-15

    Blood gas analysis (BGA) is exposed to risks of errors caused by improper sampling, transport and storage conditions. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) generated documents with recommendations for avoidance of potential errors caused by sample mishandling. Two main documents related to BGA issued by the CLSI are GP43-A4 (former H11-A4) Procedures for the collection of arterial blood specimens; approved standard - fourth edition, and C46-A2 Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; approved guideline - second edition. Practices related to processing of blood gas samples are not standardized in the Republic of Croatia. Each institution has its own protocol for ordering, collection and analysis of blood gases. Although many laboratories use state of the art analyzers, still many preanalytical procedures remain unchanged. The objective of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CSMBLM) is to standardize the procedures for BGA based on CLSI recommendations. The Working Group for Blood Gas Testing as part of the Committee for the Scientific Professional Development of the CSMBLM prepared a set of recommended protocols for sampling, transport, storage and processing of blood gas samples based on relevant CLSI documents, relevant literature search and on the results of Croatian survey study on practices and policies in acid-base testing. Recommendations are intended for laboratory professionals and all healthcare workers involved in blood gas processing.

  5. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A tool for analyzing loss of volatile compounds, gas sorption, and curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently procured a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Current popular uses are biological sensors, surface chemistry, and vapor detection. LANL has projects related to analyzing curing kinetics, measuring gas sorption on polymers, and analyzing the loss of volatile compounds in polymer materials. The QCM has yet to be employed; however, this review will cover the use of the QCM in these applications and its potential.

  6. Field intercomparison of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Burba, G.; Vesala, T.

    2013-06-01

    Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October) at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA), G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA) and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analyzers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and season-long performance were not assessed. The open-path gas analyzer is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, whereas for G1301-f methane measurements interference from water vapor is straightforward to correct since the instrument measures both gases simultaneously. In any case, if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyzer is needed.

  7. Aerosol ionization gas analyzer for continious detection of toxic compounds in industrial gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groze, Kh.; Dering, Kh.; Gleizberg, F.

    1979-01-01

    In is noted that the problem of the environment protection as well as protection of the personnel at their working places against influence of harmful substances in air, demands continious measuring of an increasing number of harmful substances with provision of high sensitivity and accuracy of measurements. The demands are listed to the gas analyzers developed for these purposes: flexibility towards solution of different problems of measurement; great number of the substances to be measured; acceptable threshold of determination of different substances concentration in air and small measurement error; simplicity of maintanance and technical service and high reliability in exploitation; economy of fabrication and application. The data are given for the aerosol ionization gas analyzer which, in many cases, met the requirements listed. In the gas analyzer described, the analysed substance is converted for measuring its concentration into an aerosol by means of the aerosol generator, especially designed for this substance or group of substances. The produced aerosol is introduced into an ionization chamber with build-in radiation source and caused decrease of the ionization current in it. According to the decrease of the ionization current, concentration of the harmful substance in air is determined. Characteristics and possibilities of the gas analyzer exploitation are given and discussed on the base of the results of determination of some harmful substances concentrations in air in the laboratory conditions and in the real conditions of industrial production and in the health protection system [ru

  8. Analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudasik, Mateusz; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the authors discussed the functioning of their own analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of high strength rocks. A sample is placed inside a hermetic measuring chamber, and then undergoes impact milling as a result of colliding with the vibrating blade of a knife which is rotationally driven by a high-speed brushless electric motor. The measuring chamber is equipped with all the necessary sensors, i.e. gas, pressure, and temperature sensors. Trial tests involving the comminution of dolomite and anhydrite samples demonstrated that the constructed device is able to break up rocks into grains so fine that they are measured in single microns, and the sensors used in the construction ensure balancing of the released gas. The tests of the analyzer showed that the metrological concept behind it, together with the way it was built, make it fit for measurements of the content and composition of selected gases from the rock pore space. On the basis of the conducted tests of balancing the gases contained in the two samples, it was stated that the gas content of Sample no. 1 was (0.055  ±  0.002) cm3 g-1, and Sample no. 2 contained gas at atmospheric pressure, composed mostly of air.

  9. Laboratory-based validation of the baseline sensors of the ITER diagnostic residual gas analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, C.C.; Biewer, T.M.; Marcus, C.; Graves, V.B.; Andrew, P.; Hughes, S.; Gardner, W.L.

    2017-01-01

    The divertor-specific ITER Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) will provide essential information relating to DT fusion plasma performance. This includes pulse-resolving measurements of the fuel isotopic mix reaching the pumping ducts, as well as the concentration of the helium generated as the ash of the fusion reaction. In the present baseline design, the cluster of sensors attached to this diagnostic's differentially pumped analysis chamber assembly includes a radiation compatible version of a commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer, as well as an optical gas analyzer using a plasma-based light excitation source. This paper reports on a laboratory study intended to validate the performance of this sensor cluster, with emphasis on the detection limit of the isotopic measurement. This validation study was carried out in a laboratory set-up that closely prototyped the analysis chamber assembly configuration of the baseline design. This includes an ITER-specific placement of the optical gas measurement downstream from the first turbine of the chamber's turbo-molecular pump to provide sufficient light emission while preserving the gas dynamics conditions that allow for /textasciitilde 1 s response time from the sensor cluster [1].

  10. Laboratory-based validation of the baseline sensors of the ITER diagnostic residual gas analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, C. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Marcus, C.; Andrew, P.; Gardner, W. L.; Graves, V. B.; Hughes, S.

    2017-10-01

    The divertor-specific ITER Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) will provide essential information relating to DT fusion plasma performance. This includes pulse-resolving measurements of the fuel isotopic mix reaching the pumping ducts, as well as the concentration of the helium generated as the ash of the fusion reaction. In the present baseline design, the cluster of sensors attached to this diagnostic's differentially pumped analysis chamber assembly includes a radiation compatible version of a commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer, as well as an optical gas analyzer using a plasma-based light excitation source. This paper reports on a laboratory study intended to validate the performance of this sensor cluster, with emphasis on the detection limit of the isotopic measurement. This validation study was carried out in a laboratory set-up that closely prototyped the analysis chamber assembly configuration of the baseline design. This includes an ITER-specific placement of the optical gas measurement downstream from the first turbine of the chamber's turbo-molecular pump to provide sufficient light emission while preserving the gas dynamics conditions that allow for \\textasciitilde 1 s response time from the sensor cluster [1].

  11. Laboratory-based validation of the baseline sensors of the ITER diagnostic residual gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biewer, Theodore M. [ORNL; Marcus, Chris [ORNL; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Andrew, Philip [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Gardner, W. L. [United States ITER Project Office; Graves, Van B. [ORNL; Hughes, Shaun [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France

    2017-10-01

    The divertor-specific ITER Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) will provide essential information relating to DT fusion plasma performance. This includes pulse-resolving measurements of the fuel isotopic mix reaching the pumping ducts, as well as the concentration of the helium generated as the ash of the fusion reaction. In the present baseline design, the cluster of sensors attached to this diagnostic's differentially pumped analysis chamber assembly includes a radiation compatible version of a commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer, as well as an optical gas analyzer using a plasma-based light excitation source. This paper reports on a laboratory study intended to validate the performance of this sensor cluster, with emphasis on the detection limit of the isotopic measurement. This validation study was carried out in a laboratory set-up that closely prototyped the analysis chamber assembly configuration of the baseline design. This includes an ITER-specific placement of the optical gas measurement downstream from the first turbine of the chamber's turbo-molecular pump to provide sufficient light emission while preserving the gas dynamics conditions that allow for \\textasciitilde 1 s response time from the sensor cluster [1].

  12. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Musazay, M.S.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-12-01

    A passive 'can technique' and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1} with an average of 1.35{+-}1.40 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  13. Development of a Miniaturized and Portable Methane Analyzer for Natural Gas Leak Walking Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. W.; Leen, J. B.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional natural gas leak walking surveys have been conducted with devices that are based on technologies such as flame ionization detector (FID), IR-based spectrometer and IR camera. The sensitivity is typically on the ppm level. The low sensitivity means the device cannot pick up leaks far from it, and more time is spent surveying the area before pinpointing the leak location. A miniaturized methane analyzer has been developed to significantly improve the sensitivity of the device used in walking surveys to detect natural gas leaks at greater distance. ABB/LGR's patented Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) is utilized to offer rugged and highly sensitive methane detection in a portable package. The miniaturized package weighs 13.5 lb, with a 4-hour rechargeable battery inside. The precision of the analyzer for methane is 2 ppb at 1 second. The analyzer operates at 10 Hz and its flow response time is 3 seconds for measurements through a 1-meter long sampling wand to registering on the data stream. The data can be viewed in real-time on a tablet or a smartphone. The compact and simplified package of the methane analyzer allows for more efficient walking surveys. It also allows for other applications that require low-power, low-weight and a portable package. We present data from walking surveys to demonstrate its ability to detect methane leaks.

  14. Diagnosis of Glanzmann thrombasthenia by whole blood impedance analyzer (MEA) vs. light transmission aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanyan, A; Al-Musa, A; AlNounou, R; Al Zahrani, H; Nasr, R; AlJefri, A; Saleh, M; Malik, A; Masmali, H; Owaidah, T

    2015-08-01

    Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare inherited platelet disorder that is characterized by spontaneous or postprocedural bleeding. The diagnosis of GT depends on identifying the dysfunction of the platelets. The aim of this study was to compare a whole blood impedance Multiplate analyzer (MEA) with the standard method, light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in diagnosis of GT. Fifteen patients with GT were assessed on MEA and LTA using arachidonic acid (ASPI: 15 mm), (TRAP: 1 mm), collagen (100 μg/mL), ADP (0.2 mm), and ristocetin (Risto: 10 mg/mL). Whole blood samples were collected in sodium citrate and hirudin vacuum, blood collection tubes and tested within 4 h. Platelet-rich plasma was used for LTA using platelet agonists (ristocetin 1.5 mg/mL) (arachidonic acid 0.5 mg/mL) (ADP 2.5 mg/mL) and (collagen 1 mg/mL). The platelet count and PFA-100 results were (average and SD) 319 ± 93 × 10(9) L and 252 ± 34 s, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all samples are positive for CD42a and CD42b, whereas 9/15 samples were negative for CD61 and CD41. The other six patients had either partial or full expression of CD61/CD41. Aggregation analysis using both methods showed that all samples had no aggregation response to any of the agonists used apart from six samples which, using only the MEA, showed minimal aggregation in response to collagen (average = 14.3 ± 7 μg, which may suggest ability to detect qualitative abnormality of GPIIb/IIIa). These results suggest that the MEA is sensitive for the detection of Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Furthermore, MEA may also be able to differentiate between the subtypes of Glanzmann thrombasthenia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

    2001-01-01

    A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This eight quarterly technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two to three additional wells will be selected for remediation for inclusion into the study. The results of the additional remediations will be included in the final report

  16. Evaluation of the i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer for point-of-care blood testing in the intensive care units of a university children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadea, Christine; Foster, Joyce; Grant, Sharon; Ballard, Sandra A; Cate, John C; Southgate, W Michael; Purohit, Dilip M

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer (PCA), a point-of-care testing system consisting of a hand-held analyzer and single-use cartridges that measure different panels of electrolytes, metabolites, blood gases, and hematocrit in 65-100 microl of blood. Our objective was to determine whether PCA measurements at the bedside of patients in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of the MUSC Children's Hospital would be as reliable as those performed by the clinical laboratory's primary methods (Radiometer ABL 725 blood gas analyzer; Vitros 750 chemistry analyzer; and Coulter STKS hematology analyzer). Four cartridge types: (a) EC8+ (sodium; potassium; chloride; urea; glucose; pH; blood gases [PO2; pCO2]), (b) EC6+ (sodium; potassium; ionized calcium; glucose; hematocrit; pH), (c) G3+ (pH; PO2; pCO2), and (d) creatinine, were assessed for reproducibility, linearity, and method comparisons using aqueous samples, blood samples supplemented with several analytes, and -225 blood samples from patients. Reproducibility (CV) was good ( or < 3 mo) showed that agreement between the PCA and the primary methods was clinically acceptable. After the PCA was implemented for clinical testing, the observation of discrepant results of creatinine concentrations in neonatal blood samples that would have affected clinical management led to a second creatinine comparison study (59 additional samples) and to our eventual discontinuation of the PCA creatinine assay. This problem notwithstanding, the successful implementation of the PCA is attributed to careful analytical evaluations and ongoing communication with the clinical staff.

  17. Evaluation of Portable Multi-Gas Analyzers for use by Safety Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, D. E.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Bardel, D. N.

    1998-01-01

    During confined space entry operations as well as Shuttle-safing operations, United Space Alliance (USA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) safety personnel use a variety of portable instrumentation to monitor for hazardous levels of compounds such as nitrogen dioxide (N%), monomethylhydrazine (NMM), FREON 21, ammonia (NH3), oxygen (O2), and combustibles (as hydrogen (H2)). Except for O2 and H2, each compound is monitored using a single analyzer. In many cases these analyzers are 5 to 10 years old and require frequent maintenance. In addition, they are cumbersome to carry and tend to make the job of personnel monitoring physically taxing. As part of an effort to upgrade the sensor technology background information was requested from a total of 27 manufacturers of portable multi-gas instruments. A set of criteria was established to determine which vendors would be selected for laboratory evaluation. These criteria were based on requests made by USA/NASA Safety personnel in order to meet requirements within their respective areas for confined-space and Shuttle-safing operations. Each of the 27 manufacturers of multi-gas analyzers was sent a copy of the criteria and asked to fill in the appropriate information pertaining to their instrumentation. Based on the results of the sensor criteria worksheets, a total of 9 vendors out of 27 surveyed manufacturers were chosen for evaluation. Each vendor included in the final evaluation process was requested to configure each of two analyzers with NO2, NH3, O2, and combustible sensors. A set of lab tests was designed in order to determine which of the multi-gas instruments under evaluation was best suited for use in both shuttle and confined space operations. These tests included linearity/repeatability, zero/span drift response/recovery, humidity, interference, and maintenance. At the conclusion of lab testing three vendors were selected for additional field testing. Based on the results of both the lab and

  18. Development of a primary diffusion source of organic vapors for gas analyzer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuna, M.; Demichelis, A.; Sassi, G.; Sassi, M. P.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of reference mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at trace levels (10 ppt-10 ppb) is a challenge for both environmental and clinical measurements. The calibration of gas analyzers for trace VOC measurements requires a stable and accurate source of the compound of interest. The dynamic preparation of gas mixtures by diffusion is a suitable method for fulfilling these requirements. The estimation of the uncertainty of the molar fraction of the VOC in the mixture is a key step in the metrological characterization of a dynamic generator. The performance of a dynamic generator was monitored over a wide range of operating conditions. The generation system was simulated by a model developed with computational fluid dynamics and validated against experimental data. The vapor pressure of the VOC was found to be one of the main contributors to the uncertainty of the diffusion rate and its influence at 10-70 kPa was analyzed and discussed. The air buoyancy effect and perturbations due to the weighing duration were studied. The gas carrier flow rate and the amount of liquid in the vial were found to play a role in limiting the diffusion rate. The results of sensitivity analyses were reported through an uncertainty budget for the diffusion rate. The roles of each influence quantity were discussed. A set of criteria to minimize the uncertainty contribution to the primary diffusion source (25 µg min-1) were estimated: carrier gas flow rate higher than 37.7 sml min-1, a maximum VOC liquid mass decrease in the vial of 4.8 g, a minimum residual mass of 1 g and vial weighing times of 1-3 min. With this procedure a limit uncertainty of 0.5% in the diffusion rate can be obtained for VOC mixtures at trace levels (10 ppt-10 ppb), making the developed diffusion vials a primary diffusion source with potential to become a new reference material for trace VOC analysis.

  19. Relationships among ventilation-perfusion distribution, multiple inert gas methodology and metabolic blood-gas tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A S; Patterson, R W; Kaufman, R D

    1987-12-01

    The retention equations upon which the Multiple Inert Gas Method is based are derived from basic principles using elementary algebra. It is shown that widely disparate distributions produce indistinguishable sets of retentions. The limits of resolution of perfused compartments in the VA/Q distribution obtainable by the use of the multiple inert gas method are explored mathematically, and determined to be at most shunt and two alveolar compartments ("tripartite" distribution). Every continuous distribution studied produced retentions indistinguishable from those of its unique "matching" tripartite distribution. When a distribution is minimally specified, it is unique. Any additional specification (increased resolution--more compartments) of the distribution results in the existence of an infinitude of possible distributions characterized by indistinguishable sets of retention values. No further increase in resolution results from the use of more tracers. When sets of retention values were extracted from published multiple inert gas method continuous distributions, and compared with the published "measured" retention sets, substantial differences were found. This illustrates the potential errors incurred in the practical, in vivo application of the multiple inert gas method. In preliminary studies, the tripartite distribution could be determined with at least comparable accuracy by blood-gas (oxygen, carbon dioxide) measurements.

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liukang [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); McDermitt, Dayle [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Anderson, Tyler [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Riensche, Brad [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Komissarov, Anatoly [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Howe, Julie [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been

  1. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  2. The effect of different forms of heparin on point-of-care blood gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and heparin vacutainers on blood gas and electrolyte analysis and ... This prospective, cross-sectional study took place in the ED of a ... the effect of two concentrations of liquid heparin and the use of heparin vacutainers on the reliability of blood gas ... Germany) and (iv) a 2 mL plastic syringe (BD) washed with 5 000 IU/.

  3. [Multicenter clinical study on umbilical cord arterial blood gas parameters for diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    To obtain the normal range of statistics of umbilical artery blood gas parameters of the newborns for diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia. From March 2008 through September 2009, 17 978 singleton term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or larger than gestational age (LGA) newborns in six hospitals of five provinces/autonomous regions were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The normal ranges of umbilical artery blood gas parameters were obtained from 17 645 newborns with 1 min Apgar score ≥ 8. The correlations between umbilical artery blood pH, BE and prenatal high-risk factors, Apgar scores, and organ damage were analyzed. The diagnostic criteria for asphyxia included the following: (1) Having high-risk factors that might cause asphyxia; (2) 1 min Apgar score ≤ 7 (the respiratory depression must be present); (3) At least one organ showed evidence of hypoxic damage; (4) Other causes of low Apgar score were excluded. The study focused on the distributive characteristics of umbilical artery blood pH (clinically corrected by Eisenberg formula) and BE values of the asphyxiated and non-asphyxiated cases in low Apgar score group, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of different selected pH and BE threshold spots within their distributing ranges. Among the 17 978 singleton term AGA or LGA newborns, the statistically normal range of umbilical artery blood pH, BE for the 17 645 cases with 1 min Apgar scores ≥ 8 were 7.20 ± 0.20 (x(-) ± 1.96 s) and -7.64 ± 10.02 (x(-) ± 1.96 s), respectively. The pH well correlated positively with BE (r = 0.734, P blood pH and BE values correlated positively with the Apgar scores. The umbilical artery blood pH and BE values correlated negatively with organ damage (r = 1, the P values = 0.000 for both). Among the 333 low Apgar score cases, the umbilical artery blood pH corrected values and BE values of the asphyxiated group (163 cases) were 7.011 ± 0.09 (x(-) ± s) and -14.98 ± 2.99 (x(-) ± s), being lower than

  4. [Investigation of reference intervals of blood gas and acid-base analysis assays in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and analyze the upper and lower limits and their sources of reference intervals in blood gas and acid-base analysis assays. The data of reference intervals were collected, which come from the first run of 2014 External Quality Assessment (EQA) program in blood gas and acid-base analysis assays performed by National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL). All the abnormal values and errors were eliminated. Data statistics was performed by SPSS 13.0 and Excel 2007 referring to upper and lower limits of reference intervals and sources of 7 blood gas and acid-base analysis assays, i.e. pH value, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-. Values were further grouped based on instrument system and the difference between each group were analyzed. There were 225 laboratories submitting the information on the reference intervals they had been using. The three main sources of reference intervals were National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures [37.07% (400/1 079)], instructions of instrument manufactures [31.23% (337/1 079)] and instructions of reagent manufactures [23.26% (251/1 079)]. Approximately 35.1% (79/225) of the laboratories had validated the reference intervals they used. The difference of upper and lower limits in most assays among 7 laboratories was moderate, both minimum and maximum (i.e. the upper limits of pH value was 7.00-7.45, the lower limits of Na+ was 130.00-156.00 mmol/L), and mean and median (i.e. the upper limits of K+ was 5.04 mmol/L and 5.10 mmol/L, the upper limits of PCO2 was 45.65 mmHg and 45.00 mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), as well as the difference in P2.5 and P97.5 between each instrument system group. It was shown by Kruskal-Wallis method that the P values of upper and lower limits of all the parameters were lower than 0.001, expecting the lower limits of Na+ with P value 0.029. It was shown by Mann-Whitney that the statistic differences were found among instrument

  5. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - June 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  6. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  7. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - August 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  8. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - July 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  9. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - May 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  10. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1985-08-05

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises: (1) a whole blood sample disc; (2) a serum sample disc; (3) a sample preparation rotor; and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analyticaly rotor for conventional methods. 5 figs.

  11. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises (1) a whole blood sample disc, (2) a serum sample disc, (3) a sample preparation rotor, and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc in capillary tubes filled by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analytical rotor for analysis by conventional methods.

  13. Development of a Contingency Gas Analyzer for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bill; Carney, Kenneth; Steiner, George; OHarra, William; Lewis, John

    2010-01-01

    NASA's experience with electrochemical sensors in a hand-held toxic gas monitor serves as a basis for the development of a fixed on-board instrument, the Contingency Gas Analyzer (CGA), for monitoring selected toxic combustion products as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Oxygen and carbon dioxide are major components of the cabin environment and accurate measurement of these compounds is critical to maintaining a safe working environment for the crew. Fire or thermal degradation events may produce harmful levels of toxic products, including carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the environment. These three components, besides being toxic in their own right, can serve as surrogates for a panoply of hazardous combustion products. On orbit monitoring of these surrogates provides for crew health and safety by indicating the presence of toxic combustion products in the environment before, during and after combustion or thermal degradation events. Issues identified in previous NASA experiences mandate hardening the instrument and components to endure the mechanical and operational stresses of the CEV environment while maintaining high analytical fidelity. Specific functional challenges involve protecting the sensors from various anticipated events- such as rapid pressure changes, low cabin pressures, and extreme vibration/shock exposures- and extending the sensor lifetime and calibration periods far beyond the current state of the art to avoid the need for on-orbit calibration. This paper focuses on lessons learned from the earlier NASA hardware, current testing results, and engineering solutions to the identified problems. Of particular focus will be the means for protecting the sensors, addressing well known cross-sensitivity issues and the efficacy of a novel self monitoring mechanism for extending sensor calibration periods.

  14. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    study attempts to bridge that gap by analyzing behavioral data and investigate the applicability of additive nonparametric regression to this task. This study evaluates the impact of 31 regressors on residential natural gas usage. The regressors include weather, economic variables, demographic and behavioral characteristics, and building attributes related to energy use. In general, most of the regression results were in line with previous engineering and economic studies in this area. There were, however, some counterintuitive results, particularly with regard to thermostat controls and behaviors. There are a number of possible reasons for these counterintuitive results including the inability to control for regional climate variability due to the data sanitization (to prevent identification of respondents), inaccurate data caused by to self-reporting, and the fact that not all relevant behavioral variables were included in the data set, so we were not able to control for them in the study. The results of this analysis could be used as an in-sample prediction for approximating energy demand of a residential building whose characteristics are described by the regressors in this analysis, but a certain combination of their particular values does not exist in the real world. In addition, this study has potential applications for benefit-cost analysis of residential upgrades and retrofits under a fixed budget, because the results of this study contain information on how natural gas consumption might change once a particular characteristic or attribute is altered. Finally, the results of this study can help establish a relationship between natural gas consumption and changes in behavior of occupants.

  15. Validation of spectroscopic gas analyzer accuracy using gravimetric standard gas mixtures: impact of background gas composition on CO2 quantitation by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong Sik; Park, Miyeon; Lee, Jinbok; Lee, Jeongsoon

    2017-12-01

    The effect of background gas composition on the measurement of CO2 levels was investigated by wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectrometry (WS-CRDS) employing a spectral line centered at the R(1) of the (3 00 1)III ← (0 0 0) band. For this purpose, eight cylinders with various gas compositions were gravimetrically and volumetrically prepared within 2σ = 0.1 %, and these gas mixtures were introduced into the WS-CRDS analyzer calibrated against standards of ambient air composition. Depending on the gas composition, deviations between CRDS-determined and gravimetrically (or volumetrically) assigned CO2 concentrations ranged from -9.77 to 5.36 µmol mol-1, e.g., excess N2 exhibited a negative deviation, whereas excess Ar showed a positive one. The total pressure broadening coefficients (TPBCs) obtained from the composition of N2, O2, and Ar thoroughly corrected the deviations up to -0.5 to 0.6 µmol mol-1, while these values were -0.43 to 1.43 µmol mol-1 considering PBCs induced by only N2. The use of TPBC enhanced deviations to be corrected to ˜ 0.15 %. Furthermore, the above correction linearly shifted CRDS responses for a large extent of TPBCs ranging from 0.065 to 0.081 cm-1 atm-1. Thus, accurate measurements using optical intensity-based techniques such as WS-CRDS require TPBC-based instrument calibration or use standards prepared in the same background composition of ambient air.

  16. Assessment of a continuous blood gas monitoring system in animals during circulatory stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzulli Attilio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was aimed to determine the measurement accuracy of The CDI™ blood parameter monitoring system 500 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor MI in the real-time continuous measurement of arterial blood gases under different cardiocirculatory stress conditions Methods Inotropic stimulation (Dobutamine 2.5 and 5 μg/kg/min, vasoconstriction (Arginine-vasopressin 4, 8 and 16 IU/h, hemorrhage (-10%, -20%, -35%, and -50% of the theoretical volemia, and volume resuscitation were induced in ten swine (57.4 ± 10.7 Kg.Intermittent blood gas assessments were carried out using a routine gas analyzer at any experimental phase and compared with values obtained at the same time settings during continuous monitoring with CDI™ 500 system. The Bland-Altman analysis was employed. Results Bias and precision for pO2 were - 0.06 kPa and 0.22 kPa, respectively (r2 = 0.96; pCO2 - 0.02 kPa and 0.15 kPa, respectively; pH -0.001 and 0.01 units, respectively ( r2 = 0.96. The analysis showed very good agreement for SO2 (bias 0.04,precision 0.33, r2 = 0.95, Base excess (bias 0.04,precision 0.28, r2 = 0.98, HCO3 (bias 0.05,precision 0.62, r2 = 0.92,hemoglobin (bias 0.02,precision 0.23, r2 = 0.96 and K+ (bias 0.02, precision 0.27, r2 = 0.93. The sensor was reliable throughout the experiment during hemodynamic variations. Conclusions Continuous blood gas analysis with the CDI™ 500 system was reliable and it might represent a new useful tool to accurately and timely monitor gas exchange in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, our findings need to be confirmed by larger studies to prove its reliability in the clinical setting.

  17. Incentives for Blood Donation: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Analyze Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Andrew; Shi, Ling; Bethge, Susanne; Mühlbacher, Axel

    2018-04-01

    Background: Demographic trends affect size and age structure of populations. One of the consequences will be an increasing need for blood products to treat age-related diseases. Donation services rely on voluntariness and charitable motivation. It might be questioned whether there will be sufficient blood supply with voluntary donation. The present study focused on elicitation of preferences for incentives and aimed to contribute to the discussion on how to increase donation rates. Methods: A self-administered discrete choice experiment (DCE) was applied. Respondents were repeatedly asked to choose between hypothetical blood donation centers. In case of reluctance to receiving incentives a none-option was included. Random parameter logit (RPL) and latent class models (LCM) were used for analysis. Results: The study sample included 416 college students from the US and Germany. Choice decisions were significantly influenced by the characteristics of the donation center in the DCE. Incentives most preferred were monetary compensation, paid leave, and blood screening test. LCM identified subgroups with preference heterogeneity. Small subgroups indicated moderate to strong aversion to incentives. Conclusion: The majority of the sample positively responded to incentives and indicated a willingness to accept incentives. In face of future challenges, the judicious use and appropriate utilization of incentives might be an option to motivate potential donors and should be open to discussion.

  18. Evaluation of hematologic, blood gas, and select biochemical variables in ovine whole blood stored in CPDA-1 bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Rejane S; Barrêto, Raimundo A; Sousa, Isadora K F; Chaves, Dowglish F; Soares, Herbert S; Barros, Isabella O; Minervino, Antonio H H; Ortolani, Enrico L

    2013-03-01

    The economic consequences from mortality of sheep after blood loss can be considerable. To date there are no reports addressing hematologic, blood gas, and biochemical changes in ovine blood stored in CPDA-1 bags. The aim of this study was to investigate hematologic, blood gas, and biochemical alterations resulting from storage of ovine blood in CPDA-1 bags to establish transfusion protocols in sheep. From each of 7 healthy 8-month-old sheep 450 mL of blood were collected into CPDA-1 bags and stored for 35 days in at 3-6°C. Samples were taken from the bags at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 35. Whole blood was used to assess PCV, MCV, RBC count, pH, pO2 , pCO2 , and concentrations of bicarbonate, sodium, and lactate. Plasma was used to measure potassium, hemoglobin, and glucose concentrations. The PCV remained stable throughout the storage period, while plasma hemoglobin and MCV began to increase on days 7 and 21, respectively. The RBC count began to decrease on day 21. Blood pH decreased and pCO2 increased steadily throughout the storage period. Potassium concentration increased from 3.8 to 18.3 mmol/L on day 7 and remained high thereafter. In contrast, sodium concentration began to decrease on day 7. The results show that ovine blood undergoes hematologic, blood gas, and biochemical changes during storage. Further studies are required to establish RBC viability in CPDA-1 bags after a storage period of 35 days. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Effectiveness of the Stewart Method in the Evaluation of Blood Gas Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Mustafa; Bulucu, Fatih; Ozturk, Kadir; Kilic, Selim; Kaldirim, Umit; Eyi, Yusuf Emrah

    2015-03-01

    In 1981, Peter A. Stewart published a paper describing his concept for employing Strong Ion Difference. In this study we compared the HCO3 levels and Anion Gap (AG) calculated using the classic method and the Stewart method. Four hundred nine (409) arterial blood gases of 90 patients were collected retrospectively. Some were obtained from the same patients in different times and conditions. All blood samples were evaluated using the same device (ABL 800 Blood Gas Analyzer). HCO3 level and AG were calculated using the Stewart method via the website AcidBase.org. HCO3 levels, AG and strong ion difference (SID) were calculated using the Stewart method, incorporating the parameters of age, serum lactate, glucose, sodium, and pH, etc. According to classic method, the levels of HCO3 and AG were 22.4±7.2 mEq/L and 20.1±4.1 mEq/L respectively. According to Stewart method, the levels of HCO3 and AG were 22.6±7.4 and 19.9±4.5 mEq/L respectively. There was strong correlation between the classic method and the Stewart method for calculating HCO3 and AG. The Stewart method may be more effective in the evaluation of complex metabolic acidosis.

  20. Utilization of arterial blood gas measurements in a large tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Szymanski, Trevor; Rogers, Selwyn O; Jarolim, Petr; Frendl, Gyorgy; Rawn, James D; Cooper, Zara; Ferrigno, Massimo

    2007-04-01

    We describe the patterns of utilization of arterial blood gas (ABG) tests in a large tertiary care hospital. To our knowledge, no hospital-wide analysis of ABG test utilization has been published. We analyzed 491 ABG tests performed during 24 two-hour intervals, representative of different staff shifts throughout the 7-day week. The clinician ordering each ABG test was asked to fill out a utilization survey. The most common reasons for requesting an ABG test were changes in ventilator settings (27.6%), respiratory events (26.4%), and routine (25.7%). Of the results, approximately 79% were expected, and a change in patient management (eg, a change in ventilator settings) occurred in 42% of cases. Many ABG tests were ordered as part of a clinical routine or to monitor parameters that can be assessed clinically or through less invasive testing. Implementation of practice guidelines may prove useful in controlling test utilization and in decreasing costs.

  1. Determination of tetrahydrozoline in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Judy; Garg, Uttam

    2010-01-01

    Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is widely used for the symptomatic relief of conjunctival and nasal congestion; however, intentional or unintentional high doses can result in toxicity manifested by hypotension, tachycardia, and CNS depression. The detection of the drug in blood and urine is helpful in the diagnosis and management of a toxic patient. For the analysis, plasma, serum, or urine is added to a tube containing alkaline buffer and organic extraction solvents, and tetrahydrozoline from the sample is extracted into the organic phase by gentle mixing. After centrifugation, the upper organic solvent layer containing the drug is removed and dried under stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue is reconstituted in a hexane-ethanol mixture and analyzed using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitation of the drug is done by comparing responses of unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. Naphazoline is used as an internal standard.

  2. Thermodilution versus inert gas rebreathing for estimation of effective pulmonary blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Clemensen, P; Andersen, P K

    2000-01-01

    To compare measurements of the effective pulmonary blood flow (Qep, i.e., nonshunted fraction of cardiac output, Qt) by the inert gas rebreathing (RB) method and the thermodilution (TD) technique in critically ill patients.......To compare measurements of the effective pulmonary blood flow (Qep, i.e., nonshunted fraction of cardiac output, Qt) by the inert gas rebreathing (RB) method and the thermodilution (TD) technique in critically ill patients....

  3. Real-Time Gas Identification by Analyzing the Transient Response of Capillary-Attached Conductive Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Bahraminejad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ability of the Capillary-attached conductive gas sensor (CGS in real-time gas identification was investigated. The structure of the prototype fabricated CGS is presented. Portions were selected from the beginning of the CGS transient response including the first 11 samples to the first 100 samples. Different feature extraction and classification methods were applied on the selected portions. Validation of methods was evaluated to study the ability of an early portion of the CGS transient response in target gas (TG identification. Experimental results proved that applying extracted features from an early part of the CGS transient response along with a classifier can distinguish short-chain alcohols from each other perfectly. Decreasing time of exposition in the interaction between target gas and sensing element improved the reliability of the sensor. Classification rate was also improved and time of identification was decreased. Moreover, the results indicated the optimum interval of the early transient response of the CGS for selecting portions to achieve the best classification rates.

  4. Possibilities of analyzing dump and sewage gas, and determination of halogen and sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, R

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the utilization of refuse and sewage gas efficacions analytical methods are gaining increasing importance especially with regard to halogen and sulfur compounds. The paper describes various possibilities to determine those substances. Besides gas chromatography it takes into account classic analytical methods which can be superior in biogas analytics to modern physical processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and practical experiences obtained by their application reported.

  5. Resource planning for gas utilities: Using a model to analyze pivotal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, J.F.; Comnes, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of wellhead price decontrols that began in the late 1970s and the development of open access pipelines in the 1980s and 90s, gas local distribution companies (LDCs) now have increased responsibility for their gas supplies and face an increasingly complex array of supply and capacity choices. Heretofore this responsibility had been share with the interstate pipelines that provide bundled firm gas supplies. Moreover, gas supply an deliverability (capacity) options have multiplied as the pipeline network becomes increasing interconnected and as new storage projects are developed. There is now a fully-functioning financial market for commodity price hedging instruments and, on interstate Pipelines, secondary market (called capacity release) now exists. As a result of these changes in the natural gas industry, interest in resource planning and computer modeling tools for LDCs is increasing. Although in some ways the planning time horizon has become shorter for the gas LDC, the responsibility conferred to the LDC and complexity of the planning problem has increased. We examine current gas resource planning issues in the wake of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Order 636. Our goal is twofold: (1) to illustrate the types of resource planning methods and models used in the industry and (2) to illustrate some of the key tradeoffs among types of resources, reliability, and system costs. To assist us, we utilize a commercially-available dispatch and resource planning model and examine four types of resource planning problems: the evaluation of new storage resources, the evaluation of buyback contracts, the computation of avoided costs, and the optimal tradeoff between reliability and system costs. To make the illustration of methods meaningful yet tractable, we developed a prototype LDC and used it for the majority of our analysis.

  6. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H A; Aamer, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10), at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10) and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10) for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0), there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (ppO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (preference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  7. Thermal study of sintered (Th-U)O2 MOX pellet by a commercial thermo-gravimetric analyzer coupled with an evolved gas analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanty, B.N.; Khan, F.A.; Karande, A.; Prakash, A.; Afzal, Md.; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Fabrication of (Th-U)O 2 MOX pellets by the impregnation agglomerate pelletization (lAP) process is being explored in Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur for the forthcoming Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). High temperature thermal study of this fuel is important in order to understand the behaviour of the fuel under the operational temperature of the reactor. In this study, fabrication of ThO 2 -3%UO 2 was carried out by impregnation agglomerate pelletization process and subsequently sintered in reducing or air atmosphere. The degassed pellets were broken into small pieces and subjected to high temperature (1050 deg C-1250 deg C) heating under high pure argon gas in a commercial thermal analyzer. Subsequently the evolved gases were qualitatively analyzed by a quadrupole mass analyzer. The pellet sintered in reducing atmosphere (IAP-R) shows an increase in weight after the analysis where as the pellet sintered in oxidizing atmosphere (IAP-O) shows a decrease in final weight. The IAP-R pellet may become slightly hyper-stoichiometric on heating due to the presence of small amount of oxygen in the high pure argon gas. This is further supported by the mass spectrum at m/z 32(O 2 + ) that shows a decrease in the signal intensity as the temperature of analysis increases. The sharp decrease of the signal intensity at m/z 32(O 2 + ) started at 920 deg C temperature may be attributed to the formation of SO 2 (m/z=64) and CO 2 (m/z=44) gases. On the other hand the IAP-O pellet being hyper stoichiometric initially may lose its weight to form water on reaction with the excess oxygen on heating due to the presence ( small amount of hydrogen in the high pure argon gas. This is being supported by the appearance of small peak at m/z 18 (H 2 O + ) in the mass spectrum. The formation of SO 2 and CO 2 gases started at higher temperature in case of IAP-O pellet as compared to that of IAP-R pellet. This may be due to the higher density achieved in case of

  8. Results of analyzing natural gas during the use of biochemical processes in a petroleum deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulbarisov, E M

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory and commercial scale experiments with a geobioreagent and the Arlanskii deposit petroleum gave a sharp increase in the content of heavier hydrocarbons, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in the gas and an increase in the yield of gasoline fraction boiling below 122/sup 0/C. The commercial scale experiments were done in a stratum 1200 m deep during waterflood recovery at 200 kg/cm/sup 2/. A substantial increase in ethane and higher hydrocarbons in the gas and increased petroleum yield were observed, especially after each waterflood. The effect of water was explained by higher activity of the bacteria at a lower concentration of rock salts.

  9. Field measurements of flue gases from combustion of miscellaneous fuels using a low-resolution FTIR gas analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larjava, K.T.; Tormonen, K.E.; Jaakkola, P.T.; Roos, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion flue gases of three different industrial boilers firing miscellaneous fuels (peat, wood, and bark, sawdust and biological sludge) were monitored for a two-week period. Nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and total hydrocarbons (C x H y ) were continuously measured using single-component gas analyzers in parallel with a low-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) gas analyzer. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) was measured continuously using the FTIR analyzer and semi-continuously using a traditional liquid-absorption technique. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and water vapor (H 2 O) were continuously measured using the FTIR analyzer only. Laboratory tests were conducted prior to the field measurements to assess the detection limits of the different measurement methods for each gas component. No significant differences were found between the results of the low-resolution FTIR analyzer and the single-component analyzers or the liquid absorption method. 11 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Determination of natural in vivo noble-gas concentrations in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yama Tomonaga

    Full Text Available Although the naturally occurring atmospheric noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe possess great potential as tracers for studying gas exchange in living beings, no direct analytical technique exists for simultaneously determining the absolute concentrations of these noble gases in body fluids in vivo. In this study, using human blood as an example, the absolute concentrations of all stable atmospheric noble gases were measured simultaneously by combining and adapting two analytical methods recently developed for geochemical research purposes. The partition coefficients determined between blood and air, and between blood plasma and red blood cells, agree with values from the literature. While the noble-gas concentrations in the plasma agree rather well with the expected solubility equilibrium concentrations for air-saturated water, the red blood cells are characterized by a distinct supersaturation pattern, in which the gas excess increases in proportion to the atomic mass of the noble-gas species, indicating adsorption on to the red blood cells. This study shows that the absolute concentrations of noble gases in body fluids can be easily measured using geochemical techniques that rely only on standard materials and equipment, and for which the underlying concepts are already well established in the field of noble-gas geochemistry.

  11. Oil and gas property transfers: Analyzing the environmental risk through the environmental site assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratberg, D.; Hocker, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Superfund Act made anyone buying contaminated real estate liable for cleanup costs whether they know about the contamination or contributed to the contamination. In 1986, SARA amended the Superfund Act to include a provision known as the ''Innocent Landowner Defense.'' This provision created a defense for purchasers of contaminated property who did not contribute to the contamination and had no reason to believe that the property was contaminated at the time of the real estate transfer. SARA allows the purchasers and lenders to perform an environmental assessment using ''due diligence'' to identify contamination problems existing at a site. Since the passing of SARA, the environmental site assessment (ESA) process has become commonplace during the transfer of commercial real estate. Since the introduction of SARA, many professional associations, governmental agencies, and proposed federal legislation have struggled to produce a standard for conducting Phase 1 ESAs. Only recently has a standard been produced. Until recently, the domestic oil and gas industry has been relatively unconcerned about the Superfund liability issues. This approach was created by Congress's decision in 1980 to temporarily exempt the majority of oil and gas exploration and production wastes from federal hazardous waste rulings. However, new stringent rules governing oil and gas waste management practices are being considered by federal and state regulatory agencies. Based upon this knowledge and the awakening of public awareness, the use of ESAs for oil and gas transactions is increasing

  12. Analyzing transient closed chamber effects on canopy gas exchange for optimizing flux calculation timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langensiepen, M.; Kupisch, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Ewert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Transient type canopy chambers are still the only currently available practical solution for rapid screening of gas-exchange in agricultural fields. The technique has been criticized for its effect on canopy microclimate during measurement which affects the transport regime and regulation of plant

  13. Hybrid recoil mass analyzer at IUAC – First results using gas-filled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kinematics (to access heavy nuclei around 200 amu mass and beyond) and both ... totype each of RFQ and DTL are undergoing detailed tests for field ... magnet MD1 in gas-filled mode and is especially attractive in reactions induced by ... calculated using GIOS [11] ion-optical program to get the maximum count rate on.

  14. Leukemic Cells "Gas Up" Leaky Bone Marrow Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-09-11

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Passaro et al. demonstrate how leukemia through aberrant induction of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production trigger marrow vessel leakiness, instigating pro-leukemic function. Disrupted tumor blood vessels promote exhaustion of non-malignant stem and progenitor cells and may facilitate leukemia relapse following chemotherapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  16. Monitoring pulmonary function with superimposed pulmonary gas exchange curves from standard analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Harvey A; Noe, Frances E; Szalados, James E; Goodrich, Michael D; Busby, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    A repetitive graphic display of the single breath pulmonary function can indicate changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology brought on by clinical events. Parallel advances in computer technology and monitoring make real-time, single breath pulmonary function clinically practicable. We describe a system built from a commercially available airway gas monitor and off the shelf computer and data-acquisition hardware. Analog data for gas flow rate, O2, and CO2 concentrations are introduced into a computer through an analog-to-digital conversion board. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) are calculated for each breath. Inspired minus expired concentrations for O2 and CO2 are displayed simultaneously with the expired gas flow rate curve for each breath. Dead-space and alveolar ventilation are calculated for each breath and readily appreciated from the display. Graphs illustrating the function of the system are presented for the following clinical scenarios; upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm, bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary perfusion changes and inadequate oxygen delivery. This paper describes a real-time, single breath pulmonary monitoring system that displays three parameters graphed against time: expired flow rate, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production. This system allows for early and rapid recognition of treatable conditions that may lead to adverse events without any additional patient measurements or invasive procedures. Monitoring systems similar to the one described in this paper may lead to a higher level of patient safety without any additional patient risk.

  17. Analyzing the blood-brain barrier: the benefits of medical imaging in research and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassidim, Yoash; Vazana, Udi; Prager, Ofer; Veksler, Ronel; Bar-Klein, Guy; Schoknecht, Karl; Fassler, Michael; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Shelef, Ilan

    2015-02-01

    A dysfunctional BBB is a common feature in a variety of brain disorders, a fact stressing the need for diagnostic tools designed to assess brain vessels' permeability in space and time. Biological research has benefited over the years various means to analyze BBB integrity. The use of biomarkers for improper BBB functionality is abundant. Systemic administration of BBB impermeable tracers can both visualize brain regions characterized by BBB impairment, as well as lead to its quantification. Additionally, locating molecular, physiological content in regions from which it is restricted under normal BBB functionality undoubtedly indicates brain pathology-related BBB disruption. However, in-depth research into the BBB's phenotype demands higher analytical complexity than functional vs. pathological BBB; criteria which biomarker based BBB permeability analyses do not meet. The involvement of accurate and engineering sciences in recent brain research, has led to improvements in the field, in the form of more accurate, sensitive imaging-based methods. Improvements in the spatiotemporal resolution of many imaging modalities and in image processing techniques, make up for the inadequacies of biomarker based analyses. In pre-clinical research, imaging approaches involving invasive procedures, enable microscopic evaluation of BBB integrity, and benefit high levels of sensitivity and accuracy. However, invasive techniques may alter normal physiological function, thus generating a modality-based impact on vessel's permeability, which needs to be corrected for. Non-invasive approaches do not affect proper functionality of the inspected system, but lack in spatiotemporal resolution. Nevertheless, the benefit of medical imaging, even in pre-clinical phases, outweighs its disadvantages. The innovations in pre-clinical imaging and the development of novel processing techniques, have led to their implementation in clinical use as well. Specialized analyses of vessels' permeability

  18. Data from the analytical performance of the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress point of care analyzer in whole blood, serum, and plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Murata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the analytical performance of 14 comprehensive metabolic panel analytes on the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress® Point of Care analyzer in serum, plasma, and whole blood. A method comparison was performed on all three specimen types intended for use on the Piccolo Xpress®: serum, heparinized plasma, and whole blood. This data is also presented in Murata et al. (2015 [1]. This article includes the actual Bland-Altman bias plots of the difference in results obtained for analytes in the comprehensive metabolic panel from the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress and the comparison instrument, the Ortho Vitros. Keywords: Clinical chemistry, Point-of care testing

  19. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  20. Design of a diagnostic residual gas analyzer for the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, C.C., E-mail: kleppercc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Biewer, T.M.; Graves, V.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Andrew, P. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lukens, P.C. [US ITER Project Office, 1055 Commerce Park Dr #1, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Marcus, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Shimada, M., E-mail: shimada.michiya@jaea.go.jp [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hughes, S.; Boussier, B. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johnson, D.W. [US ITER Diagnostics Office, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Gardner, W.L. [US ITER Project Office, 1055 Commerce Park Dr #1, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Hillis, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The divertor DRGA for ITER will measure neutral gas composition in the pumping ducts during plasma. • System must respond in timescales relevant to compositional changes in the divertor plasma. • It is shown that times can vary from 1 to 6 s for fuel (H2, D2, T2) up to 50 s for He (fusion reaction ash). • It is shown that present design delivers ∼ 1 s response even via an 8m long sampling pipe sampling. • Response time validated with VacTran{sup ®} over anticipated the 0.1–10 Pa pressure range in the ducts. - Abstract: One of the ITER diagnostics having reached an advanced design stage is a diagnostic RGA for the divertor, i.e. residual gas analysis system for the ITER divertor, which is intended to sample the divertor pumping duct region during the plasma pulse and to have a response time compatible with plasma particle and impurity lifetimes in the divertor region. Main emphasis is placed on helium (He) concentration in the ducts, as well as the relative concentration between the hydrogen isotopes (mainly in the form of diatomic molecules of H, D, and T). Measurement of the concentration of radiative gases, such as neon (Ne) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}), is also intended. Numerical modeling of the gas flow from the sampled region to the cluster of analysis sensors, through a long (∼8 m long, ∼110 mm diameter) sampling pipe originating from a pressure reducing orifice, confirm that the desired response time (∼1 s for He or D{sub 2}) is achieved with the present design.

  1. Method for continuous exposure of blood in vitro and in vivo to light, radiation or gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kook-Hyun (Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea). Coll. of Medicine); Takeshita, Jiro; Kushiyama, Sanzo; Morioka, Tohru

    1989-07-01

    Various medical treatments with extracorporeal circulation have increased the opportunities of exposing blood to light, radiation, or gas. In this paper, several simple methods of exposing blood to these bioactive exogenic agents are introduced. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two cylindrical glass bottles which have openings on both ends. After the bottles are connected with a vinyl tube to make a circuit, they are mounted parallel on the axis of a rotating rod. The air (or laboratory gas) is circulated by a vibration pump incorporated into this gas circuit to equalize the temperature in the two bottles. When the rod is rotated, a thin film of blood is formed over the internal surface of the bottles. This method permits blood to be in contact with the gas inside and to be exposed to light from the outside of the bottle. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two thin-walled, transparent, rectangular bags placed parallel on a tilting board. When the board is tilted intermittently, a thin blood layer is formed in each bag. If the bags are installed with inlet and outlet tubes and connected with blood accesses to either animals or humans, this device will become a circuit for an in vivo study. When one of the two bottles or bags is covered with metal foil to shield it from light or radiation, it can be used as a control. These devices will offer a laboratory method to study the effects of the exposure of blood to some exogenous bioactive agents as well as a new therapeutic method with such agents. (author).

  2. Analyzing PSU’s Performance: A Case from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The high economic growth in the past few years and increasing industrialization coupled with a burgeoning population have created a lot of concern for India’s energy scenario. India’s crude oil production has not shown significant growth in the last 10 or more years whereas its refining capacity has grown by more than 20% over the last 5 years. Oil consumption is growing at approximately 4.1% per year and natural gas consumption is growing at 68% per year. Therefore, evaluation performances and pushing energy companies to improve become important issues. The purpose of this research is of evaluation the performance of Indian energy industry under multiple different inputs and outputs criteria. The data envelopment analysis (DEA and grey theory are used to conduct this study. There are total 14 public sector undertakings (PSUs under this industry and no any private company. However, only 10 of them are mature enough to be published in India stock markets. Therefore, the realistic data of all 10 companies are used for this evaluation. The results demonstrate that Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL, and Oil India Limited (OIL are the top 3 of ranking influences. This integrated numerical study gives a better “past-present-future” insights into evaluation performance in India energy industry.

  3. An integrated simulation tool for analyzing the Operation and Interdependency of Natural Gas and Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    PAMBOUR Kwabena A.; CAKIR BURCIN; BOLADO LAVIN Ricardo; DIJKEMA Gerard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated simulation tool for analyzing the interdependency of natural gas and electric power systems in terms of security of energy supply. In the first part, we develop mathematical models for the individual systems. In part two, we identify the interconnections between both systems and propose a method for coupling the combined simulation model. Next, we develop the algorithm for solving the combined system and integrate this algorithm into a simulation softwa...

  4. Analyzing the greenhouse gas impact potential of smallholder development actions across a global food security program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, Uwe; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Bockel, Louis; Galford, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; Costa Junior, Ciniro; White, Julianna; Pirolli, Gillian; Wollenberg, Eva

    2018-04-01

    This article analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact potential of improved management practices and technologies for smallholder agriculture promoted under a global food security development program. Under ‘business-as-usual’ development, global studies on the future of agriculture to 2050 project considerable increases in total food production and cultivated area. Conventional cropland intensification and conversion of natural vegetation typically result in increased GHG emissions and loss of carbon stocks. There is a strong need to understand the potential greenhouse gas impacts of agricultural development programs intended to achieve large-scale change, and to identify pathways of smallholder agricultural development that can achieve food security and agricultural production growth without drastic increases in GHG emissions. In an analysis of 134 crop and livestock production systems in 15 countries with reported impacts on 4.8 million ha, improved management practices and technologies by smallholder farmers significantly reduce GHG emission intensity of agricultural production, increase yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while either decreasing or only moderately increasing net GHG emissions per area. Investments in both production and post-harvest stages meaningfully reduced GHG emission intensity, contributing to low emission development. We present average impacts on net GHG emissions per hectare and GHG emission intensity, while not providing detailed statistics of GHG impacts at scale that are associated to additional uncertainties. While reported improvements in smallholder systems effectively reduce future GHG emissions compared to business-as-usual development, these contributions are insufficient to significantly reduce net GHG emission in agriculture beyond current levels, particularly if future agricultural production grows at projected rates.

  5. COMPARISON OF WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN GREEN TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS) DETERMINED USING A GLUCOMETER AND A DRY CHEMISTRY ANALYZER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bresette, Michael J; Mott, Cody R; Stacy, Nicole I

    2018-01-01

    :  We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement ( r s =0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).

  6. Possible Calcite and Magnesium Perchlorate Interaction in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument detected a calcium carbonate phase decomposing at high temperatures (approx.700 C) from the Wicked Witch soil sample [1]. TEGA also detected a lower temperature CO2 release between 400 C and 680 C [1]. Possible explanations given for this lower temperature CO2 release include thermal decomposition of Mg or Fe carbonates, a zeolitictype desorption reaction, or combustion of organic compounds in the soil [2]. The detection of 0.6 wt % soluble perchlorate by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on Phoenix [3] has implications for the possibility of organic molecules in the soil. Ming et al. [4] demonstrated that perchlorates could have oxidized organic compounds to CO2 in TEGA, preventing detection of their characteristic mass fragments. Here, we propose that a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate present in martian soil reacted to produce the 400 C - 680 C TEGA CO2 release. The parent salts of the perchlorate on Mars are unknown, but geochemical models using WCL data support the possible dominance of Mg-perchlorate salts [5]. Mg(ClO4)2 6H2O is the stable phase at ambient martian conditions [6], and breaks down at lower temperatures than carbonates giving off Cl2 and HCl gas [7,8]. Devlin and Herley [7] report two exotherms at 410-478 C and 473-533 C which correspond to the decomposition of Mg(ClO4)2.

  7. Analyzing Drivers of Conflict in Energy Infrastructure Projects: Empirical Case Study of Natural Gas Pipeline Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Young Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy infrastructure projects have caused various conflicts between stakeholders, particularly among the residents around construction sites and operators. The conflicts are largely due to the “Not in My Backyard” mentality associated with hazardous projects. In natural gas pipeline (NGP projects, conflicts have been increasing with the increase in a wider range of linear projects, and they have been worsening because of the lack of clear countermeasures. This study proposes an effective conflict management strategy for NGP projects in Korea. To achieve the objectives, 25 conflict drivers were identified and 143 case-based surveys were conducted to determine the causal relationship between the drivers and the level of conflict using structural equation modeling (SEM. The SEM results show that factors such as economic (e.g., decreased value of the land, construction-related (e.g., disturbance due to using the original route and site, and safety-related characteristics (e.g., concerns about explosions and accidents are the most important in understanding the causes of conflicts. Based on the causal relationship, five key strategies were proposed to manage the critical conflicts. This study can serve as a basis for implementing better conflict management plans in the future for a more sustainable project execution.

  8. Systematization of by-product plant. (1) Development of on-line analyzers for treatment of gas liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Susumu; Taketomi, Hirofumi; Ohashi, Shigeru [Nippon Kokan K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1988-04-07

    As a part of systematization of absorption and refinery processing installation for coke oven gas, on-line analyzers for gas liquor treatment with activated sludge were developed and established. A T-NH{sub 3} analyzer using a potential difference titration method was equipped to control NH{sub 3} which had a bad influence upon activated sludge. The oxygen intake rate is measured with an activity measuring instrument in order to get the activity condition of bacteria. The SCN concentration of precipitator outlet solution is measured with an SCN(thiocyanogen) measuring instrument so that conditions of bacteria can be seized. An absorptiometry with ferric chloride is used to analyze it. For a COD measuring instrument, precipitator outlet solution is used and analysis with the JIS method is entirely automated. As a transparency measuring instrument, a color-difference colorimeter is used instead of the former instrument made of glass. According to the collected data, charged coal conditions, and operating conditions of coke oven, the process computer does the calculation for optimization and indicates operation control guidances to the operator. Automated on -line analyzers are useful to save a great deal of labor and contribute to the control and stabilization of operations. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effect of stratified inequality of blood flow on gas exchange in liquid-filled lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Maloney, J. E.; Castle, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation set out to answer two questions: (1) are the distal alveoli in the terminal lung units less well perfused than the proximal alveoli, i.e., is there stratification of blood flow; and (2) if so, does this enhance gas exchange in the presence of stratified inequality of ventilation. Excised dog lungs were ventilated with saline and perfused with blood. Following single inspirations of xenon 133 in saline and various periods of breath holding, the expired xenon concentration against volume was measured and it confirmed marked stratified inequality of ventilation under these conditions. By measuring the rate of depletion of xenon from alveoli during a period of blood flow, we showed that the alveoli which emptied at the end of expiration had 16% less blood flow than those exhaling earlier. However, by measuring the xenon concentration in pulmonary venous blood, we found that about 10% less tracer was transferred from the alveoli into the blood when the inspired xenon was stratified within the respiratory zone. Thus while stratification of blood flow was confirmed, it was shown to impair rather than enhance the efficiency of gas transfer.

  10. Changes in electrolytes and blood gas after transfusion of irradiated MAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyao, Hideki; Katayama, Akinori; Okamoto, Yumi; Koyama, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Jun; Kawazoe, Taro

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the changes in recipient serum electrolytes and arterial blood gas after irradiated blood transfusion. We measured electrolytes and arterial blood gas before and after the transfusion during elective surgery in 55 patients. The mean blood loss was 1,477 g and the mean transfused blood unit of irradiated Mannitol-Adenine-Phosphate (MAP) was 5.9 units. Potassium concentration increased from 3.8 to 4.2 mEq·l -1 . A total of 187 units, which had been stored for 12.3±3.5 days after donation and for 5.1±3.8 days after irradiation, was used. There was a significant correlation between the storage period from the day of irradiation and the potassium concentration of the supernatant (r=0.56, p<0.0001). This study recommends that a safe transfusion rate of irradiated blood should be determined because the high potassium concentration of irradiated blood may lead to lethal complications in case of rapid transfusion. (author)

  11. An evaluation of the AVL 937C blood-gas and pH microanalyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, W P; Aitchison, T C; Thorburn, J; Sharp, F

    1976-12-01

    The AVL 937C blood-gas and pH microanalyser was evaluated with particular reference to its use in obsterics and in neonatal paediatrics in which its ability to analyse blood smaples as small as 40 micronlitre would be of particular value. Analysing samples of cord blood, maternal venous blood and foetal scalp blood, the reproducibility over the range of values measured was excellent with samples of 40-100 micronlitre. SD of the variation in values measured on samples collected in syringes were po2 0.11 kPa; Pco2 0.21 kPa; PH 0.005 unit. The same values for specimens collected in capillary tubes were: Po2 0.19 kPa;Pco 0.43 kPa; pH 0.013 unit. Analysis of tonometered blood samples showed a similar high standard of accuracy. The 91-98% confidence limits for the measurement of blood-gas values in samples collected in syringes were: Po2-0.22 to +0.49kPa; Pco2-0.53 to +0.42 kPa. The same values for samples collected in capillary tubes were: Po2 -0.38 to +0.70 kPa; Pco2 -0.97 to +0.86 kPa.

  12. [Evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system: RapidPoint 500(®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Thierry; Cabrolier, Nadège; Bardonnet, Karine; Davani, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We present here evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system, RapidPoint 500(®) (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The aim of this research was to compare the ergonomics and analytical performances of this analyser with those of the RapidLab 1265 for the following parameters: pH, partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and the CO-oximetry parameters: hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, neonatal bilirubin; as well as with the Dimension Vista 500 results for chloride and glucose. The Valtec protocol, recommended by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC), was used to analyze the study results. The experiment was carried out over a period of one month in the Department of medical biochemistry. One hundred sixty five samples from adult patients admitted to the ER or hospitalized in intensive care were tested. The RapidPoint 500(®) was highly satisfactory from an ergonomic point of view. Intra-and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) with the three control levels were below those recommended by the SFBC for all parameters, and the comparative study gave coefficients of determination higher than 0.91. Taken together, the RapidPoint 500(®) appears fully satisfactory in terms of ergonomics and analytical performance.

  13. Blood gas and electrolyte values of (Capra hircus Canindé breed goats raised in the northeastern semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talyta Lins Nunes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Nunes T.L., Oliveira M.G.C., Paiva A.L.C., Bezerra T.C.G., Barrêto Júnior R.A. & Paula V.V. [Blood gas and electrolyte values of (Capra hircus Canindé breed goats raised in the northeastern semiarid.] Valores hemogasométricos de caprinos (Capra hircus da raça Canindé criados no semiárido nordestino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:255-260, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, BR 110, Km 47, Bairro Presidente Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: talyta_lins@hotmail.com Canindé goat breed is native of northeastern Brazil and is in danger of extinction. The objective of this research was to determine blood gas and electrolytes values in Canindé goat breed reared in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, establishing baseline data for the breed in the semi-arid conditions. Blood samples from 83 clinically healthy animals were collected and distributed in four groups: Group I comprised of 32 pregnant females, Group II, 29 non-pregnant, Group III, 10 males, and group IV consisted of 12 pups. The blood sample was submitted for blood gas analysis, determining the concentration of sodium, potassium, chloride, total carbon dioxide, pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, sodium bicarbonate, excess base, and anion gap. Data with normal distribution were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test; those which did not have a normal distribution were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Spearman. The results were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The values obtained were similar to those found in other studies with different goat and sheep breeds, and thus may serve as reference for the Canindé breed. The data suggest an influence of age, sex and reproductive status in the variables analyzed.

  14. Method for optical 15N analysis of small amounts of nitrogen gas released from an automatic nitrogen analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Yasuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A method of optical 15 N analysis is proposed for application to small amounts of nitrogen gas released from an automatic nitrogen analyzer (model ANA-1300, Carlo Erba, Milano) subjected to certain set modifications. The ANA-1300 was combined with a vacuum line attached by a molecular sieve 13X column. The nitrogen gas released from the ANA-1300 was introduced with a carrier gas of helium into the molecular sieve column which was pre-evacuated at 10 -4 Torr and cooled with outer liquid nitrogen. After removal of the helium by evacuation, the nitrogen gas fixed on the molecular sieve was released by warming the column, and then, it was sealed into pre-evacuated pyrex glass tubes at 4.5 - 5.0 Torr. In the preparation of discharge tubes, contamination of unlabelled nitrogen occurred from the carrier gas of standard grade helium, and the relative lowering of the 15 N value by it was estimated to be less than 1% when over 700 μg nitrogen was charged on the ANA-1300; when 200 μg nitrogen was charged, it was about 3.5%. However, the effect of the contamination could be corrected for by knowing the amount of contaminant nitrogen. In the analysis of plant materials by the proposed method, the coefficient of variation was less than 2%, and no significant difference was observed between results given by the present method and by the ordinary method in which samples were directly pyrolyzed in the discharge tubes by the Dumas method. The present method revealed about 1.5 μg of cross-contaminated nitrogen and was applicable to more than 200 μg of sample nitrogen. (author)

  15. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  16. Theoretical study of inspiratory flow waveforms during mechanical ventilation on pulmonary blood flow and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, S C; Bidani, A; Ghorbel, F; Zwischenberger, J B; Clark, J W

    1999-08-01

    A lumped two-compartment mathematical model of respiratory mechanics incorporating gas exchange and pulmonary circulation is utilized to analyze the effects of square, descending and ascending inspiratory flow waveforms during mechanical ventilation. The effects on alveolar volume variation, alveolar pressure, airway pressure, gas exchange rate, and expired gas species concentration are evaluated. Advantages in ventilation employing a certain inspiratory flow profile are offset by corresponding reduction in perfusion rates, leading to marginal effects on net gas exchange rates. The descending profile provides better CO2 exchange, whereas the ascending profile is more advantageous for O2 exchange. Regional disparities in airway/lung properties create maldistribution of ventilation and a concomitant inequality in regional alveolar gas composition and gas exchange rates. When minute ventilation is maintained constant, for identical time constant disparities, inequalities in compliance yield pronounced effects on net gas exchange rates at low frequencies, whereas the adverse effects of inequalities in resistance are more pronounced at higher frequencies. Reduction in expiratory air flow (via increased airway resistance) reduces the magnitude of upstroke slope of capnogram and oxigram time courses without significantly affecting end-tidal expired gas compositions, whereas alterations in mechanical factors that result in increased gas exchanges rates yield increases in CO2 and decreases in O2 end-tidal composition values. The model provides a template for assessing the dynamics of cardiopulmonary interactions during mechanical ventilation by combining concurrent descriptions of ventilation, capillary perfusion, and gas exchange. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Rapid identification of pork for halal authentication using the electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjuliana, M; Che Man, Y B; Mat Hashim, D; Mohamed, A K S

    2011-08-01

    The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  19. Establishing blood gas ranges in healthy bovine neonates differentiated by age, sex, and breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Patrick; Krump, Lea; Kennedy, Aideen; Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P

    2018-04-01

    Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors. The study was conducted on healthy neonatal calves (n = 288), and completed over a 2-yr period. Individual calf blood gas analysis was conducted for parameters of pH, base excess, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , glucose, total hemoglobin, HCO 3 - , pCO 2 , anion gap, strong ion difference, and hematocrit levels. Regression procedures examined the combined effect of year, farm, age, breed type, sex, and hours postfeeding on each variable. Significant effects were observed for age, sex, and breed type on several of the blood gas variables. Furthermore, year, farm, and hours postfeeding appeared to have less of an influence on neonatal bovine blood gas profiles. Consequently, specific ranges based on the neonate's age, sex, and breed type will allow for more detailed and accurate diagnosis of health and ill health in neonatal calves. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  20. Comparing laser-based open- and closed-path gas analyzers to measure methane fluxes using the eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detto, Matteo; Verfaillie, Joseph; Anderson, Frank; Xu, Liukang; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Closed- and open-path methane gas analyzers are used in eddy covariance systems to compare three potential methane emitting ecosystems in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (CA, USA): a rice field, a peatland pasture and a restored wetland. The study points out similarities and differences of the systems in field experiments and data processing. The closed-path system, despite a less intrusive placement with the sonic anemometer, required more care and power. In contrast, the open-path system appears more versatile for a remote and unattended experimental site. Overall, the two systems have comparable minimum detectable limits, but synchronization between wind speed and methane data, air density corrections and spectral losses have different impacts on the computed flux covariances. For the closed-path analyzer, air density effects are less important, but the synchronization and spectral losses may represent a problem when fluxes are small or when an undersized pump is used. For the open-path analyzer air density corrections are greater, due to spectroscopy effects and the classic Webb–Pearman–Leuning correction. Comparison between the 30-min fluxes reveals good agreement in terms of magnitudes between open-path and closed-path flux systems. However, the scatter is large, as consequence of the intensive data processing which both systems require.

  1. Determination of ketone bodies in blood by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Linnet, Kristian; Rasmussen, Brian Schou

    2010-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for determination of ketone bodies (ß-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, and acetoacetate) in blood is presented. The method is based on enzymatic oxidation of D-ß-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, followed by decarboxylation to acetone, which...... was quantified by the use of headspace GC-MS using acetone-(13)C(3) as an internal standard. The developed method was found to have intra- and total interday relative standard deviations

  2. Headspace gas chromatographic method for the measurement of difluoroethane in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, L A; Broussard, A; Pittman, T; Lafferty, D; Presley, L

    2001-01-01

    To develop a gas chromatographic assay for the analysis of difluoroethane, a volatile substance, in blood and to determine assay characteristics including linearity, limit of quantitation, precision, and specificity. Referral toxicology laboratory Difluoroethane, a colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas used as a refrigerant blend component and aerosol propellant, may be abused via inhalation. A headspace gas chromatographic procedure for the identification and quantitation of difluoroethane in blood is presented. A methanolic stock standard prepared from pure gaseous difluoroethane was used to prepare whole blood calibrators. Quantitation of difluoroethane was performed using a six-point calibration curve and an internal standard of 1-propanol. The assay is linear from 0 to 115 mg/L including a low calibrator at 4 mg/L, the limit of quantitation. Within-run coefficients of variation at mean concentrations of 13.8 mg/L and 38.5 mg/L were 5.8% and 6.8% respectively. Between-run coefficients of variation at mean concentrations of 15.9 mg/L and 45.7 mg/L were 13.4% and 9.8% respectively. Several volatile substances were tested as potential interfering compounds with propane having a retention time identical to that of difluoroethane. This method requires minimal sample preparation, is rapid and reproducible, can be modified for the quantitation of other volatiles, and could be automated using an automatic sampler/injector system.

  3. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate depletion associated with hypophosphatemia detected by routine arterial blood gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, V H; Waldau, T; Gravesen, H; Siggaard-Andersen, O

    1996-01-01

    To describe a clinical case where an extremely low erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration (2,3-DPG) was discovered by routine blood gas analysis supplemented by computer calculation of derived quantities. The finding of a low 2,3-DPG revealed a severe hypophosphatemia. Open uncontrolled study of a patient case. Intensive care observation during 41 days. A 44 year old woman with an abdominal abscess. Surgical drainage, antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. daily routine blood gas analyses with computer calculation of the hemoglobin oxygen affinity and estimation of the 2,3-DPG. An abrupt decline of 2,3-DPG was observed late in the course coincident with a pronounced hypophosphatemia. The fall in 2,3-DPG was verified by enzymatic analysis. 2,3-DPG may be estimated by computer calculation of routine blood gas data. A low 2,3-DPG which may be associated with hypophosphatemia causes an unfavorable increase in hemoglobin oxygen affinity which reduces the oxygen release to the tissues.

  4. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics

  5. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics.

  6. Determination of Chlorpyrifos in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of chlorpyrifos in human blood samples. The chlorpyrifos and parathion (internal standard in human blood were extracted with a mixed solvent of hexane and acetonitrile. Chlorpyrifos was well separated from the internal standard. The linear range of chlorpyrifos was 0.01–2 μg/ml in blood. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were estimated at 0.002 and 0.01 μg/ml, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions, accuracy, and recovery were assessed to verify this method. The results showed that the developed method is rapid, sensitive, and reliable. It is suitable for the determination of chlorpyrifos in forensic toxicological analysis and clinical diagnosis.

  7. [Umbilical blood-gas status at cesarean section for breech presentation: a comparison with vertex presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M; Saeki, N; Naka, Y; Funato, T; Ohtsuki, Y

    1989-10-01

    Umbilical blood-gas status at elective cesarean section with oxygen inhalation for breech presentation (25 cases) was compared with that for vertex presentation (25 cases), so as to confirm the security of full-term breech fetuses delivered by cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Umbilical arterial oxygen levels were significantly lower in the breech group (Mean PO2:18.9 mmHg; SO2:37.3%; Oxygen content:7.6 ml/dl). The number of hypoxemic fetuses was significantly higher in the breech group (the breech: 7; the vertex; 0). The other umbilical blood-gas values revealed no significant differences between the breech and vertex groups, and were within normal limits in both groups. Oxygen extraction in the breech (Mean: 49.0%) was higher than that in the vertex (32.9%). Therefore decreased umbilical blood flow in the breech was suggested. The incidence of depression at 1 minute after delivery in the breech infants (24%) was significantly higher than that in the vertex infants (0%). It became obvious in the breech that as the interval between the uterine incision and delivery increased, umbilical arterial blood tended to acidosis and the 1 minute Apgar score decreased. Cesarean section for breech presentation requires sufficient and optimal incisions of the abdominal wall and uterus as well as a skillful manual delivery technique, because the fetus or neonate should be protected against asphyxia resulting from umbilical compression and prolonged delivery interval.

  8. Arterial blood gas management in retrograde cerebral perfusion: the importance of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, K; Takamoto, S; Miyairi, T; Morota, T; Shibata, K; Murakami, A; Kotsuka, Y

    2001-11-01

    Many interventional physiological assessments for retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) have been explored. However, the appropriate arterial gas management of carbon dioxide (CO2) remains controversial. The aim of this study is to determine whether alpha-stat or pH-stat could be used for effective brain protection under RCP in terms of cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), and distribution of regional cerebral blood flow. Fifteen anesthetized dogs (25.1+/-1.1 kg) on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were cooled to 18 degrees C under alpha-stat management and had RCP for 90 min under: (1), alpha-stat; (2), pH-stat; or (3), deep hypothermic (18 degrees C) antegrade CPB (antegrade). RCP flow was regulated for a sagittal sinus pressure of around 25 mmHg. CBF was monitored by a laser tissue flowmeter. Serial analyses of blood gas were made. The regional cerebral blood flow was measured with colored microspheres before discontinuation of RCP. CBF and CMRO2 were evaluated as the percentage of the baseline level (%CBF, %CMRO2). The oxygen content of arterial inflow and oxygen extraction was not significantly different between the RCP groups. The %CBF and %CMRO2 were significantly higher for pH-stat RCP than for alpha-stat RCP. The regional cerebral blood flow, measured with colored microspheres, tended to be higher for pH-stat RCP than for alpha-stat RCP, at every site in the brain. Irrespective of CO2 management, regional differences were not significant among any site in the brain. CO2 management is crucial for brain protection under deep hypothermic RCP. This study revealed that pH-stat was considered to be better than alpha-stat in terms of CBF and oxygen metabolism in the brain. The regional blood flow distribution was considered to be unchanged irrespective of CO2 management.

  9. An optimized two-step derivatization method for analyzing diethylene glycol ozonation products using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ran; Duan, Lei; Jiang, Jingkun; Hao, Jiming

    2017-03-01

    The ozonation of hydroxyl compounds (e.g., sugars and alcohols) gives a broad range of products such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. This study developed and optimized a two-step derivatization procedure for analyzing polar products of aldehydes and carboxylic acids from the ozonation of diethylene glycol (DEG) in a non-aqueous environment using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Experiments based on Central Composite Design with response surface methodology were carried out to evaluate the effects of derivatization variables and their interactions on the analysis. The most desirable derivatization conditions were reported, i.e., oximation was performed at room temperature overnight with the o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxyl amine to analyte molar ratio of 6, silylation reaction temperature of 70°C, reaction duration of 70min, and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide volume of 12.5μL. The applicability of this optimized procedure was verified by analyzing DEG ozonation products in an ultrafine condensation particle counter simulation system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. BLOOD SUBSTITUTES: EVOLUTION FROM NON-CARRYING TO OXYGEN AND GAS CARRYING FLUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The development of oxygen (O2) carrying blood substitutes has evolved from the goal of replicating blood O2 transports properties to that of preserving microvascular and organ function, reducing the inherent or potential toxicity of the material used to carry O2, and treating pathologies initiated by anemia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the emphasis has shifted from blood replacement fluid to “O2 therapeutics” that restore tissue oxygenation to specific tissues regions. This review covers the different alternatives, potential and limitations of hemoglobin based O2 carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon based O2 carriers (PFCOCs), with emphasis on the physiological conditions disturbed in the situation that they will be used. It describes how concepts learned from plasma expanders without O2 carrying capacity can be applied to maintain O2 delivery and summarizes the microvascular responses due to HBOCs and PFCOCs. This review also presents alternative applications of HBOCs and PFCOCs namely: 1) How HBOC O2 affinity can be engineered to target O2 delivery to hypoxic tissues; and 2) How the high gas solubility of PFCOCs provides new opportunities for carrying, dissolving and delivering gases with biological activity. It is concluded that current blood substitutes development has amplified their applications horizon by devising therapeutic functions for oxygen carriers requiring limited O2 delivery capacity restoration. Conversely, full, blood-like O2 carrying capacity re-establishment awaits control of O2 carrier toxicity. PMID:23820271

  11. Gas exchange efficiency of an oxygenator with integrated pulsatile displacement blood pump for neonatal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanstein, Peter C; Borchardt, Ralf; Mager, Ilona; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenators have been used in neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) since the 1970s. The need to develop a more effective oxygenator for this patient cohort exists due to their size and blood volume limitations. This study sought to validate the next design iteration of a novel oxygenator for neonatal ECMO with an integrated pulsatile displacement pump, thereby superseding an additional blood pump. Pulsating blood flow within the oxygenator is generated by synchronized active air flow expansion and contraction of integrated silicone pump tubes and hose pinching valves located at the oxygenator inlet and outlet. The current redesign improved upon previous prototypes by optimizing silicone pump tube distribution within the oxygenator fiber bundle; introduction of an oval shaped inner fiber bundle core, and housing; and a higher fiber packing density, all of which in combination reduced the priming volume by about 50% (50 to 27 mL and 41 to 20 mL, respectively). Gas exchange efficiency was tested for two new oxygenators manufactured with different fiber materials: one with coating and one with smaller pore size, both capable of long-term use (OXYPLUS® and CELGARD®). Results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer for both oxygenators was 5.3-24.7 mlO2/min for blood flow ranges of 100-500 mlblood/min. Carbon dioxide transfer for both oxygenators was 3.7-26.3 mlCO2/min for the same blood flow range. These preliminary results validated the oxygenator redesign by demonstrating an increase in packing density and thus in gas transfer, an increase in pumping capacity and a reduction in priming volume.

  12. Sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and blood gas responses to highly selective mu and delta opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsy-Roy, J A; Marson, L; Van Loon, G R

    1989-12-01

    The relative importance of mu and delta opioid receptors in brain regulation of sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and respiratory function was investigated using highly selective mu and delta opioid peptide analogs. Groups of conscious rats received i.c.v. injections of either the mu-selective agonist, [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) or the delta-selective agonist, [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded continuously via a chronic catheter in the carotid artery, and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals through the same catheter for determination of blood pH, pCO2, pO2 and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Both DAMGO and DPDPE increased plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure in a dose-related manner. The slopes of the dose-response lines were parallel, but the delta compound was about 250 times less potent than DAMGO. Only the highest dose of 5 nmol of DAMGO caused a significant bradycardia, mediated by parasympathetic (vagal) activation. DAMGO and DPDPE also induced dose-dependent acidosis, with DAMGO again being much more potent than DPDPE. The effects of both DAMGO and DPDPE on plasma catecholamines, blood pressure and blood gases were antagonized by a mu-selective dose of naloxone (0.4 mg/kg i.a.). Intracerebroventricular administration of the delta-selective antagonist, ICI 174,864, only partially attenuated sympathoadrenal and blood gas responses to DAMGO or DPDPE. The pressor responses to DAMGO or DPDPE were resistant to antagonism by ICI 174,864. These results indicate that brain opioid receptors regulating autonomic outflow, cardiovascular and respiratory function are mainly of the mu type, although a delta opioid system may contribute to sympathoadrenal and respiratory effects of opioids.

  13. [Conjunct changes in the resistance and engorgement of the cerebral vessels in shifts in the blood gas composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'nikov, V G; Artem'eva, A I

    1982-08-01

    In anesthetized cats, under perfusion and with constant volume of the hemodynamically isolated brain, hypercapnia and hypoxia led to a decrease of cerebral vessels resistance and to a reduction of the brain blood flow, whereas a decrease in the PCO2 and an increase in the PO2 in the blood exerted on opposite effect. The different responses of the vessels had some similar features in respect to threshold changes of the PCO2 and PO2, to potentiation of effects of both parts of the brain vascular system on increased shifts of the blood gas tension, to greater sensitivity of both parts to PCO2 changes, to effect of the blood gas tension on reactivity of both parts to noradrenaline. The authors suggest a possibility of alterations of the filter-absorption interrelationships in the brain due to different responses of arterial and venous vessels to changes of the blood gas tension.

  14. Impaired fetal blood gas status in polyhydramnios and its relation to raised amniotic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, N M; Vaughan, J; Talbert, D

    1994-01-01

    A substantial proportion of perinatal losses in polyhydramnios occur as unexplained normally formed stillbirths. In order to investigate the relationship between fetal condition and raised amniotic pressure (AP), fetal blood gas and acid-base status were determined together with AP in 22 pregnancies with polyhydramnios. At fetal blood sampling, 8 (36%) had a venous pH value and 16 (73%) a pO2 value below the reference range. Both fetal pH and pO2 were significantly negatively correlated with the degree of elevation in AP (y = 7.43 - 0.036x, r = 0.56, p = 0.006, where y = pH and x = AP z score, and y = -1.6 - 0.48x, r = 0.54, p = 0.01, where y = pO2 z score, respectively). Although some of these fetuses were hydropic, had congenital anomalies, or were from multiple pregnancies, univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the above associations could not be accounted for by these potentially confounding variables. This work suggests that abnormal fetal blood gas status in human pregnancies with poly-hydramnios is associated with elevated AP.

  15. Exergy-based method for analyzing the composition of the electricity cost generated in gas-fired combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarraf Borelli, Samuel Jose [Promon Engenharia Ltda., Av. Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek, 1830, Itaim, CEP:04543-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sborelli@terra.com.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Environmental and Thermal Engineering Laboratory, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvio.oliveira@poli.usp.br

    2008-02-15

    The proposed method to analyze the composition of the cost of electricity is based on the energy conversion processes and the destruction of the exergy through the several thermodynamic processes that comprise a combined cycle power plant. The method uses thermoeconomics to evaluate and allocate the cost of exergy throughout the processes, considering costs related to inputs and investment in equipment. Although the concept may be applied to any combined cycle or cogeneration plant, this work develops only the mathematical modeling for three-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) configurations and total condensation of the produced steam. It is possible to study any nx1 plant configuration (n sets of gas turbine and HRSGs associated to one steam turbine generator and condenser) with the developed model, assuming that every train operates identically and in steady state. The presented model was conceived from a complex configuration of a real power plant, over which variations may be applied in order to adapt it to a defined configuration under study [Borelli SJS. Method for the analysis of the composition of electricity costs in combined cycle thermoelectric power plants. Master in Energy Dissertation, Interdisciplinary Program of Energy, Institute of Eletro-technical and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2005 (in Portuguese)]. The variations and adaptations include, for instance, use of reheat, supplementary firing and partial load operation. It is also possible to undertake sensitivity analysis on geometrical equipment parameters.

  16. Exergy-based method for analyzing the composition of the electricity cost generated in gas-fired combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Samuel Jose Sarraf [Promon Engenharia Ltda., Av. Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek, 1830, Itaim, CEP:04543-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); De Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Environmental and Thermal Engineering Laboratory, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-900 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    The proposed method to analyze the composition of the cost of electricity is based on the energy conversion processes and the destruction of the exergy through the several thermodynamic processes that comprise a combined cycle power plant. The method uses thermoeconomics to evaluate and allocate the cost of exergy throughout the processes, considering costs related to inputs and investment in equipment. Although the concept may be applied to any combined cycle or cogeneration plant, this work develops only the mathematical modeling for three-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) configurations and total condensation of the produced steam. It is possible to study any n x 1 plant configuration (n sets of gas turbine and HRSGs associated to one steam turbine generator and condenser) with the developed model, assuming that every train operates identically and in steady state. The presented model was conceived from a complex configuration of a real power plant, over which variations may be applied in order to adapt it to a defined configuration under study [Borelli SJS. Method for the analysis of the composition of electricity costs in combined cycle thermoelectric power plants. Master in Energy Dissertation, Interdisciplinary Program of Energy, Institute of Eletro-technical and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2005 (in Portuguese)]. The variations and adaptations include, for instance, use of reheat, supplementary firing and partial load operation. It is also possible to undertake sensitivity analysis on geometrical equipment parameters. (author)

  17. Exergy-based method for analyzing the composition of the electricity cost generated in gas-fired combined cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarraf Borelli, Samuel Jose; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2008-01-01

    The proposed method to analyze the composition of the cost of electricity is based on the energy conversion processes and the destruction of the exergy through the several thermodynamic processes that comprise a combined cycle power plant. The method uses thermoeconomics to evaluate and allocate the cost of exergy throughout the processes, considering costs related to inputs and investment in equipment. Although the concept may be applied to any combined cycle or cogeneration plant, this work develops only the mathematical modeling for three-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) configurations and total condensation of the produced steam. It is possible to study any nx1 plant configuration (n sets of gas turbine and HRSGs associated to one steam turbine generator and condenser) with the developed model, assuming that every train operates identically and in steady state. The presented model was conceived from a complex configuration of a real power plant, over which variations may be applied in order to adapt it to a defined configuration under study [Borelli SJS. Method for the analysis of the composition of electricity costs in combined cycle thermoelectric power plants. Master in Energy Dissertation, Interdisciplinary Program of Energy, Institute of Eletro-technical and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2005 (in Portuguese)]. The variations and adaptations include, for instance, use of reheat, supplementary firing and partial load operation. It is also possible to undertake sensitivity analysis on geometrical equipment parameters

  18. Development of new process network for gas chromatograph and analyzers connected with SCADA system and Digital Control Computers at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, Cornel; Popa Nemoiu, Dragos; Nica, Dana; Bucur, Cosmin

    2007-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of gas mixture concentrations (deuterium/ hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen) accumulated in 'Moderator Cover Gas', 'Liquid Control Zone' and 'Heat Transport D 2 O Storage Tank Cover Gas', as well as the continuous monitoring of Heavy Water into Light Water concentration in 'Boilers Steam', 'Boilers Blown Down', 'Moderator heat exchangers', and 'Recirculated Water System', sensing any leaks of Cernavoda NPP U1 led to requirement of developing a new process network for gas chromatograph and analyzers connected to the SCADA system and Digital Control Computers of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. In 2005 it was designed and implemented the process network for gas chromatograph which connected the gas chromatograph equipment to the SCADA system and Digital Control Computers of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. Later this process network for gas chromatograph has been extended to connect the AE13 and AE14 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzers with either. The Gas Chromatograph equipment measures with best accuracy the mixture gases (deuterium/ hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen) concentration. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) AE13 and AE14 Analyzers measure the Heavy Water into Light Water concentration in Boilers Steam, Boilers BlownDown, Moderator heat exchangers, and Recirculated Water System, monitoring and signaling any leaks. The Gas Chromatograph equipment and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) AE13 and AE14 Analyzers use the new OPC (Object Link Embedded for Process Control) technologies available in ABB's VistaNet network for interoperability with automation equipment. This new process network has interconnected the ABB chromatograph and Fourier Transform Infrared analyzers with plant Digital Control Computers using new technology. The result was an increased reliability and capability for inspection and improved system safety

  19. Changes in pulmonary blood flow do not affect gas exchange during intermittent ventilation in resting turtles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tobias; Hicks, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The breathing pattern of many different air-breathing vertebrates, including lungfish, anuran amphibians, turtles, crocodiles and snakes, is characterized by brief periods of lung ventilation interspersed among apnoeas of variable duration. These intermittent ventilatory cycles are associated...... experimentally. The present study measured pulmonary gas exchange in fully recovered, freely diving turtles, where changes in pulmonary blood flow were prevented by partial occlusion of the pulmonary artery. Prevention of L-R shunt during ventilation did not impair CO2 excretion and overall, oxygen uptake and CO...

  20. [Prehospital arterial blood gas analysis after collapse connected to triathlon participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettrup-Christensen, Asbjørn; Amstrup-Hansen, Louise; Zwisler, Stine T

    2017-05-01

    Long-distance athletes are at risk of serious fluid and electrolyte disturbances, such as hypernatraemia (dehydration). Recently, cases of serious morbidity have been reported, due to acute exercise-associated hyponatraemia, which can advance to encephalopathy. An arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) was drawn from collapsed athletes at the championship of full-distance triathlon 2015, and different electrolyte imbalances were found. Our findings show that prehospital ABG can assist in differentiating the cause of collapse, and presumably, targeted treatment can be initiated already on scene.

  1. [Gas chromatography in quantitative analysis of hydrocyanic acid and its salts in cadaveric blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iablochkin, V D

    2003-01-01

    A direct gas chromatography method was designed for the quantitative determination of cyanides (prussic acid) in cadaveric blood. Its sensitivity is 0.05 mg/ml. The routine volatile products, including substances, which emerge due to putrefaction of organic matters, do not affect the accuracy and reproducibility of the method; the exception is H-propanol that was used as the internal standard. The method was used in legal chemical expertise related with acute cyanide poisoning (suicide) as well as with poisoning of products of combustion of nonmetals (foam-rubber). The absolute error does not exceed 10% with a mean quadratic deviation of 0.0029-0.0033 mg.

  2. Study Impact of Gas Delivery Systems on Imaging Studies of Human Cerebral Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, J.R.; Parkes, L.M.; Jackson, A.; Parkes, L.M.; Eadsforth, P.; Beards, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    To compare a semiopen breathing circuit with a non-rebreathing (Hudson mask) for MRI experiments involving gas delivery. Methods and Materials. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by quantitative phase contrast angiography of the internal carotid and basilar arteries in 18 volunteers (20-31 years). In 8 subjects, gases were delivered via a standard non-re breathing (Hudson mask). In 10 subjects, gases were delivered using a modified “Mapleson A” semiopen anesthetic gas circuit and mouthpiece. All subjects were given 100% O 2 , medical air, and carbogen gas (95% O 2 and 5% CO 2 ) delivered at 15 L/min in a random order. Results. The Hudson mask group showed significant increases in CBF in response to increased FiCO 2 compared to air (+9.8%). A small nonsignificant reduction in CBF (-2.4%) was seen in response to increased inspired concentrations of oxygen (FiO 2 ). The Mapleson A group showed significantly larger changes in CBF in response to both increased inspired concentrations of carbon dioxide (FiCO 2 ) (+32.2%, Ρ<0.05) and FiO 2 (-14.6%, Ρ<0.01). Conclusions. The use of an anaesthetic gas delivery circuit avoids entrainment of room air and re breathing effects that may otherwise adversely affect the experimental results.

  3. Comparison of gas clearance and radioactive microspheres for pancreatic blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMar, A.R.; Graham, L.S.; Lake, R.; Fink, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of pancreatic blood flow (PBF) is technically demanding. Although radiolabeled microspheres are considered the gold standard for PBF assessment, they have practical limitations. In the current study, H 2 and xenon-133 gas clearance techniques were adapted to PBF measurement and compared to radiolabeled microsphere techniques. Simultaneous measurements of PBF were made using either hydrogen or xenon gas washout and radiolabeled microspheres. Measurements were made under basal, vasoconstricted (vasopressin 2U i.v. or nicotine 4 micrograms/kg/h) and stimulated (secretin 125 ng/kg/h or 2 U/kg i.v.) conditions (random order). Mean PBF was 26.9 +/- 5.3, 50.5 +/- 2.3 and 27.6 +/- 5.2 ml/min/100 g basally, 36.9 +/- 8.0, 90.1 +/- 18.9, and 81.7 +/- 14.5 ml/min/100 g in the stimulated state, and 24.2 +/- 7.8, 25.0 +/- 3.5, and 14.9 +/- 7.5 ml/min/100 g in the vasoconstricted state for hydrogen gas clearance, xenon gas clearance, and radiolabeled microspheres, respectively. The H 2 clearance technique resulted in tissue trauma, was complicated by frequent electrode displacement, and correlated poorly (r2 = 0.36, p greater than 0.05) with microsphere values. In contrast, xenon clearance measurement had no apparent effect on the pancreas and correlated well (r2 = 0.83, p less than 0.01) with microsphere data. We conclude that xenon clearance offers an attractive, validated alternative to radiolabeled microspheres for measuring pancreatic blood flow

  4. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Addo Pambour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consists of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to liquefied natural gas (LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of

  5. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  6. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 ± 0.99 vs. 3.38 ± 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  7. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Erdener, Burcin Cakir; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding

  8. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  9. Construction of dose-effect curves by irradiating peripheral blood mononuclear cells analyzed with the alkaline comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, Lenin; Rosales Jaime; Leon, Kety; Espinoza, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of the alkaline comet assay to detect levels of DNA damage in human monocytes and lymphocytes under radiation was tested. For this purpose, four dose-effect curves by irradiation of cells isolated from blood samples of 4 young, health and non-smoker donors. A gamma ray source of "6"0Co was used and doses of 0, 2.5, 5 and 7 Gy were delivered to blood cells. The results show good correlation (R2 = 0.973, SD = 0.009) between the radiation dose and DNA damage as measured by the parameter Tail Intensity (percentage of DNA in the tail of the 'comet'). Furthermore, we observe the variability in predicting DNA damage by Gy (7.59, SD = 1.5). Potential use of this technique in the biological dosimetry of ionizing radiations is being evaluated. (author)

  10. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-04-29

    A method is disclosed using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen from the red blood cells at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate. 4 figs.

  11. Measuring the level of agreement between a veterinary and a human point-of-care glucometer and a laboratory blood analyzer in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-12-01

    Although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. A veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. To obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer, blood samples were obtained from 25 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) in a 2-phase study. In the initial phase, blood samples were obtained from 20 parrots twice at a 2-week interval. For each sample, the packed cell volume was determined, and the blood glucose concentration was measured by the veterinary glucometer. The rest of each sample was placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube and centrifuged, and plasma was removed and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days, tubes were thawed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured with a laboratory analyzer. The data from both procedures were used to develop a psittacine bird-specific code. For the second phase of the study, the same procedure was repeated twice at a 2-week interval in 25 birds to determine agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer. Neither glucometer was in good agreement with the laboratory analyzer (veterinary glucometer bias, 9.0; level of agreement, -38.1 to 56.2; standard glucometer bias, 69.4; level of agreement -17.8 to 156.7). Based on these results, the use of handheld glucometers in the diagnostic testing of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacine birds cannot be recommended.

  12. Multiple scattering effects in fast neutron polarization experiments using high-pressure helium-xenon gas scintillators as analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Mertens, G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to study multiple scattering effects both in the gas and particularly in the solid materials of high-pressure gas scintillators, two asymmetry experiments have been performed by scattering of 15.6 MeV polarized neutrons from helium contained in stainless steel vessels of different wall thicknesses. A monte Carlo computer code taking into account the polarization dependence of the differential scattering cross sections has been written to simulate the experiments and to calculate corrections for multiple scattering on helium, xenon and the gas containment materials. Besides the asymmetries for the various scattering processes involved, the code yields time-of-flight spectra of the scattered neutrons and pulse height spectra of the helium recoil nuclei in the gas scintillator. The agreement between experimental results and Monte Carlo calculations is satisfactory. (Auth.)

  13. A method for continuous exposure of blood in vitro and in vivo to light, radiation or gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kook-Hyun; Takeshita, Jiro; Kushiyama, Sanzo; Morioka, Tohru.

    1989-01-01

    Various medical treatments with extracorporeal circulation have increased the opportunities of exposing blood to light, radiation, or gas. In this paper, several simple methods of exposing blood to these bioactive exogenic agents are introduced. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two cylindrical glass bottles which have openings on both ends. After the bottles are connected with a vinyl tube to make a circuit, they are mounted parallel on the axis of a rotating rod. The air (or laboratory gas) is circulated by a vibration pump incorporated into this gas circuit to equalize the temperature in the two bottles. When the rod is rotated, a thin film of blood is formed over the internal surface of the bottles. This method permits blood to be in contact with the gas inside and to be exposed to light from the outside of the bottle. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two thin-walled, transparent, rectangular bags placed parallel on a tilting board. When the board is tilted intermittently, a thin blood layer is formed in each bag. If the bags are installed with inlet and outlet tubes and connected with blood accesses to either animals or humans, this device will become a circuit for an in vivo study. When one of the two bottles or bags is covered with metal foil to shield it from light or radiation, it can be used as a control. These devices will offer a laboratory method to study the effects of the exposure of blood to some exogenous bioactive agents as well as a new therapeutic method with such agents. (author)

  14. Maternal Body Mass Index Does Not Affect Neonatal Umbilical Artery Blood Gas Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam E. Chalouhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the impact of obesity on fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women. Medical charts of all patients admitted to the labor and delivery department at our institution between January, 2011 and July, 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension were excluded. A total of 100 women, 50 lean and 50 obese, were included. Umbilical artery blood gas parameters (BGPs were compared in lean (<25 kg/m2 and obese (≥30 kg/m2 women. Obese and lean women were comparable with respect to all baseline characteristics. There was no difference in any of the BGP or Apgar scores between obese and lean patients. Pearson’s correlation coefficient found no significant correlation between BMI and BGP/Apgar scores. Maternal obesity does not seem to affect BGP and fetal well-being in glucose-tolerant and nonhypertensive women.

  15. GFR and Blood Lead Levels in Gas Station Workers Based on δ-Alad Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantip Rujito

    2015-04-01

    showed that the proportion of ALAD genotype for ALAD 1-1, 1-2 and 2-2 were 94.7%, 5.3%, and 0% respectively. The mean of serum levels in homozygous 1-1 was 15.94 ppb and heterozygote 1-2 was 1.15 ppb. GFR of participants ranged from 71.11 mL/min to 185.20 mL/min with a mean of 117.34mL/min. There was no correlation between serum Pb and GFR (p = 0.19. Study also could not determine the correlation between GFR and ALAD gene Polymorphism. Discussion: Study then concluded that there was no correlation between blood lead levels in the GFR on each δ-ALAD genotypes. Keywords: Lead intoxication, GFR, δ-ALAD, gas station workers

  16. Assessment of blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline treatment of COPD complicated with type II respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ru Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline therapy on blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure. Methods: A total of 80 patients with COPD and type Ⅱ respiratory failure were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=40, control group received symptomatic treatment + aminophylline treatment, observation group received symptomatic treatment + aminophylline + noninvasive positive pressure ventilation treatment, and then differences in blood gas parameters, pulmonary function parameters, hemorheology parameters and inflammatory factor levels were compared between two groups of patients after treatment. Results: Radial artery pH and PO2 values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group while PCO2, Cl- and CO2CP values were lower than those of control group; pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75, MMF, PEF and FRC values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group; whole blood viscosity (150 s- and 10 s-, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation index and erythrocyte rigidity index values in peripheral venous blood of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum IL-17, IL-33, TREM-1, sICAM-1 and PGE2 levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation combined with aminophylline can optimize the respiratory function of patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure and improve blood gas parameters and the degree of inflammation.

  17. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-01-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000...

  18. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Hong; Li, Shu-Gang; Zhao, Yu; Qiu, Giu-Xing

    2012-01-01

    It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis. Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery. However, few studies have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction. This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity treatment between January 2002 and April 2010. A total of 73 scoliotic patients (23 males and 50 females) with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction were included. The average age of the patients was 16.53 years (ranged 10 - 44). The demographic distribution, medical records, and radiographs of all patients were collected. All patients received arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery. The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters: partial pressure of arterial oxygen, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, pH, and standard bases excess. The pulmonary function tests included three parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio, forced vital capacity ratio, and peak expiratory flow ratio. All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis. Similarly, all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared. The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range, 50° - 180°). A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications, including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%), increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%), pneumonia in 2 (13.3%), atelectasis in 2 (13.3%), pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%), and hydrothorax in 1 (6.7%). No significant differences

  19. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Finn, M C; Federspiel, W J

    2015-10-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (Premoval increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas. A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal

  20. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood

    OpenAIRE

    Arazawa, D. T.; Kimmel, J. D.; Finn, M.C.; Federspiel, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (< 500 mL/min) ECCO2R devices necessitates more efficient gas exchange devices. Since over 90% of blood CO2 is transported as bicarbonate (HCO3−), we previously reported development of a carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal ...

  1. Utility of arterial blood gas, CBC, biochemistry and cardiac hormones as evaluation parameters of cardiovascular disease in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shunya; Koie, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kiichi; Katakai, Yuko; Ito-Fujishiro, Yasuyo; Sankai, Tadashi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Ageyama, Naohide

    2018-06-11

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has a tremendous impact on the quality of life of humans. While experimental animals are valuable to medical research as models of human diseases, cardiac systems differ widely across various animal species. Thus, we examined a CVD model in cynomolgus monkeys. Laboratory primates are precious resources, making it imperative that symptoms of diseases and disorders are detected as early as possible. Thus, in this study we comprehensively examined important indicators of CVD in cynomolgus monkeys, including arterial blood gas, complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, and cardiac hormones. The control group included 20 healthy macaques showing non-abnormal findings in screening tests, whereas the CVD group included 20 macaques with valvular disease and cardiomyopathy. An increase of red blood cell distribution width was observed in the CBC, indicating chronic inflammation related to CVD. An increase of HCO 3 was attributed to the correction of acidosis. Furthermore, development of the CVD model was supported by significant increases in natriuretic peptides. It is suggested that these results indicated a correlation between human CVD and the model in monkeys. Moreover, blood tests including arterial blood gas are non-invasive and can be performed more easily than other technical tests. CVD affected animals easily change their condition by anesthesia and surgical invasion. Pay attention to arterial blood gas and proper respond to their condition are important for research. This data may facilitate human research and aid in the management and veterinary care of nonhuman primates.

  2. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-01-01

    Method using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen therefrom at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate.

  3. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  4. Mathematical modeling of blood-gas kinetics for the volatile organic compounds isoprene and acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.

    2010-01-01

    Breath gas analysis is based on the compelling concept that the exhaled breath levels of endogenously produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide a direct, non-invasive window to the blood and hence, by inference, to the body. In this sense, breath VOCs are regarded as a comprehensive repository of valuable physiological and clinical information, that might be exploited in such diverse areas as diagnostics, therapeutic monitoring or general dynamic assessments of metabolic function, pharmacodynamics (e.g., in drug testing) and environmental exposure (e.g., in occupational health). Despite this enormous potential, the lack of standardized breath sampling regimes as well as the poor mechanistic understanding of VOC exhalation kinetics could cast a cloud over the widespread use of breath gas analysis in the biomedical sciences. In this context, a primary goal of the present thesis is to provide a better quantitative insight into the breath behavior of two prototypic VOCs, isoprene and acetone. A compartmental modeling framework is developed and validated by virtue of real-time breath measurements of these trace gases during distinct physiological states. In particular, the influence of various hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters on VOC concentrations in exhaled breath is investigated. This approach also complements previous steady state investigations in toxicology. From a phenomenological point of view, both acetone and isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath are demonstrated to exhibit a reproducible non-steady state behavior during moderate workload challenges on a stationary bicycle. However, these dynamics depart drastically from what is expected on the basis of classical pulmonary inert gas elimination theory. More specifically, the start of exercise is accompanied by an abrupt increase in breath isoprene levels, usually by a factor of 3 to 4 compared with the steady state value during rest. This phase is followed by a gradual decline and the

  5. A new ppb-gas analyzer by means of GC-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    IMS-detectors are using beta-sources like tritium or nickel-63. This detection principle uses fast ion-molecular reactions between air cluster ions, produced by beta ionization and the analyte. The system works at normal pressure, the very high sensitivity and selectivity is used widely in industry, research, medicine and environmental control. In the last few years especially, small tritium sources were reduced to a level of some 50 MBq, which is 20 times less than the exemption levels for these sources. One of the handicaps of that technology is the problem of cross sensitivities. To overcome these problems a special GC-column of 1 m length has been included into the gas inlet and mixtures of compounds get separated by their retention times before entering the drift sensor. By means of that method a new analytical quality of IMS is arrived. The application of these analytical devices got a spin off in the last year. The main applications being discussed are as follows: (1) anti terror systems in buildings and facilities, (2) working place monitoring in chemical industry, (3) microelectronics: HF, HCl, Cl 2 , NMP, NH 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , (4) environment: NH 3 , HCN, HCl, CH 2 O, organic compounds, SO 2 , NO 2 , (5) gas and petrol: gas-carottage, H 2 S, mercaptans, (6) household, furniture: solvents, clue, organic vapour from furniture, and (7) health care: diagnostics of various diseases. (author)

  6. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Brouwer, René

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the

  7. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Akira; Ogawa, Tatsuhisa; Okamoto, Keishi; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Nitta, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  8. Application of model MTS5 dew-point meter in gas sampling and analyzing system of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang; Li Zhihui

    2010-01-01

    The feature of humidity detector to measure the content of water in pure helium of main loop of reactor was discussed, and the circumstances using Al 2 O 3 moisture sensor to measure the content of water in helium on-line were introduced. During those few years, the dew-point meter has sufficed to measure the content of water in the helium gas during the running of the reactor. On the other hand, excursion can happen when the instrument running. Demarcate must be made periodically to improve the veracity of the meter. (authors)

  9. Cardiac Morphology and Function, and Blood Gas Transport in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer eAl-Samir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have studied cardiac and respiratory functions of aquaporin- 1-deficient mice by the Pressure-Volume-loop technique and by blood gas analysis. In addition, the morphological properties of the animals’ hearts were analysed. In anesthesia under maximal dobutamine stimulation, the mice exhibit a moderately elevated heart rate of < 600 min-1 and an O2 consumption of ~0.6 ml/min/g, which is about twice the basal rate. In this state, which is similar to the resting state of the conscious animal, all cardiac functions including stroke volume and cardiac output exhibited resting values and were identical between deficient and wildtype animals. Likewise, pulmonary and peripheral exchange of O2 and CO2 were normal. In contrast, several morphological parameters of the heart tissue of deficient mice were altered: 1 left ventricular wall thickness was reduced by 12%, 2 left ventricular mass, normalized to tibia length, was reduced by 10-20%, 3 cardiac muscle fiber cross sectional area was decreased by 17%, and 4 capillary density was diminished by 10%. As the P-V-loop technique yielded normal end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes, the deficient hearts are characterized by thin ventricular walls in combination with normal intraventricular volumes. The aquaporin-1-deficient heart thus seems to be at a disadvantage compared to the wildtype heart by a reduced left-ventricular wall thickness and an increased diffusion distance between blood capillaries and muscle mitochondria. While under the present quasi-resting conditions these morphological alterations have no consequences for cardiac function, we expect that the deficient hearts will show a reduced maximal cardiac output.

  10. Comparison of extracapillary and endocapillary blood flow oxygenators for open heart surgery in dogs: efficiency of gas exchange and platelet conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Katsuichiro; Tanaka, Ryou; Shibazaki, Akira; Nagashima, Yukiko; Hirao, Hidehiro; Namiki, Ryosuke; Takashima, Kazuaki; Noishiki, Yasuharu; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2003-03-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare the efficiency of gas exchange and platelet conservation of a new extracapillary blood flow oxygenator versus an endocapillary blood flow oxygenator during open heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation in dogs. Dilation and remodeling of the right ventricular outflow tract of dogs was performed using a patch graft technique to simulate pulmonary stenosis. Sequential pre- and post-operative blood analysis revealed that gas exchange efficiency and platelet conservation was significantly greater with the extracapillary blood flow oxygenator than with the endocapillary blood flow oxygenator. However, the priming volume of the extracapillary blood flow oxygenator was significantly greater, leading to hemodilution. We conclude that while the extracapillary blood flow oxygenator provided benefits in terms of gas exchange and platelet conservation, development of a smaller extracapillary blood flow type oxygenator to reduce hemodilution effects would be beneficial.

  11. High spatio-temporal resolution pollutant measurements of on-board vehicle emissions using ultra-fast response gas analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irwin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing ultra-fast response engine exhaust emissions analyzers have been adapted for on-board vehicle use combined with GPS data. We present, for the first time, how high spatio-temporal resolution data products allow transient features associated with internal combustion engines to be examined in detail during on-road driving. Such data are both useful to examine the circumstances leading to high emissions, and reveals the accurate position of urban air quality hot spots as deposited by the candidate vehicle, useful for source attribution and dispersion modelling. The fast response time of the analyzers, which results in 100 Hz data, makes accurate time-alignment with the vehicle's engine control unit (ECU signals possible. This enables correlation with transient air fuel ratio, engine speed, load, and other engine parameters, which helps to explain the causes of the emissions spikes that portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS and conventional slow response analyzers would miss or smooth out due to mixing within their sampling systems. The data presented is from NO and NOx analyzers, but other fast analyzers (e.g. total hydrocarbons (THC, CO and CO2 can be used similarly. The high levels of NOx pollution associated with accelerating on entry ramps to motorways, driving over speed bumps, accelerating away from traffic lights, are explored in detail. The time-aligned ultra-fast analyzers offer unique insight allowing more accurate quantification and better interpretation of engine and driver activity and the associated emissions impact on local air quality.

  12. Analisis Gas Darah pada Kucing yang Mengalami Laparohisterotomi dengan Anestesi Xylazin-Ketamin dan Xylazin-Propofol (BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS OF XYLAZIN- KETAMIN AND XYLAZIN-PROPOFOL FOR ANESTHESIA TO LAPARO-HISTEROTOMY SURGERY IN CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Sari Yudaniayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the safety application of xylazine-ketamine and xylazinepropofolrecurrent dosage combination as anesthesia for laparo-histerotomy surgery in cat. Thisresearch used 10 female cats, 12-18 months of age, followed randomly divided into two groups, P1:atropine 0,04 mg/kgBW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + ketamine 20 mg/kg BW/IM; P2 : atropine0,04mg/kg BW/SC + xylazine 2 mg/kg BW/IM + Propofol 20 mg/kg BW/IV. The blood of the allgroups was taken from vena femuralis at 0 minute (before treatment, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutesduring anesthesia for measurement of blood gas value pH, pCO2 and HCO3. After all animals wereanesthetized, the animals were treated laparo-histerotomy surgery. The data were analyzed byusing Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The result showed both of groups were notsignificantly difference (p>0,05 to blood gas values for pH, pCO2 dan HCO3. Besides, both groupsanaesthetic agent perfectly caused metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis compensationperfectly, therefore it is relatively safe to use as anaesthetic agent for surgery that needs long timeprocedure, as laparo-histerotomy.

  13. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  14. TOPEX: An expert system for estimating and analyzing the operating costs of oil and gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greffioz, J.; Olver, A.J.; Schirmer, P.

    1993-01-01

    TOPEX is a new approach to operating costs estimation of oil and gas installations. It does not rely on knowledge of the capital cost of the installation and uses a computerized expert system (or knowledge base). Estimates are generated from specific details of the equipment and systems and general databases of prices and man hours. A novel methodology has been developed for quantifying the operational complexity of an installation which is then correlated with operations manpower. The use of a computerized application allows rapid calculation of estimates so that what-if and sensitivity studies can be readily done. The knowledge base provides a powerful tool to handle the large amounts of data involved and acts as a repository for the expertise used in its development

  15. Versatile, ultra-low sample volume gas analyzer using a rapid, broad-tuning ECQCL and a hollow fiber gas cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesel, Jason M.; Makarem, Camille N.; Phillips, Mark C.; Moran, James J.; Coleman, Max L.; Christensen, Lance E.; Kelly, James F.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a versatile mid-infrared (Mid-IR) spectroscopy system developed to measure the concentration of a wide range of gases with an ultra-low sample size. The system combines a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) with a hollow fiber gas cell. The ECQCL has sufficient spectral resolution and reproducibility to measure gases with narrow features (e.g., water, methane, ammonia, etc.), and also the spectral tuning range needed to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (e.g., aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons), sulfur compounds, chlorine compounds, etc. The hollow fiber is a capillary tube having an internal reflective coating optimized for transmitting the Mid-IR laser beam to a detector. Sample gas introduced into the fiber (e.g., internal volume = 0.6 ml) interacts strongly with the laser beam, and despite relatively modest path lengths (e.g., L 3 m), the requisite quantity of sample needed for sensitive measurements can be significantly less than what is required using conventional IR laser spectroscopy systems. Example measurements are presented including quantification of VOCs relevant for human breath analysis with a sensitivity of 2 picomoles at a 1 Hz data rate.

  16. Versatile, ultra-low sample volume gas analyzer using a rapid, broad-tuning ECQCL and a hollow fiber gas cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriesel, Jason M.; Makarem, Camille N.; Phillips, Mark C.; Moran, James J.; Coleman, Max; Christensen, Lance; Kelly, James F.

    2017-05-05

    We describe a versatile mid-infrared (Mid-IR) spectroscopy system developed to measure the concentration of a wide range of gases with an ultra-low sample size. The system combines a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) with a hollow fiber gas cell. The ECQCL has sufficient spectral resolution and reproducibility to measure gases with narrow features (e.g., water, methane, ammonia, etc.), and also the spectral tuning range needed to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (e.g., aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons), sulfur compounds, chlorine compounds, etc. The hollow fiber is a capillary tube having an internal reflective coating optimized for transmitting the Mid-IR laser beam to a detector. Sample gas introduced into the fiber (e.g., internal volume = 0.6 ml) interacts strongly with the laser beam, and despite relatively modest path lengths (e.g., L ~ 3 m), the requisite quantity of sample needed for sensitive measurements can be significantly less than what is required using conventional IR laser spectroscopy systems. Example measurements are presented including quantification of VOCs relevant for human breath analysis with a sensitivity of ~2 picomoles at a 1 Hz data rate.

  17. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  18. L-Cysteine ethyl ester reverses the deleterious effects of morphine on, arterial blood-gas chemistry in tracheotomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, James; Passafaro, Rachael; Baby, Santhosh; Young, Alex P; Bates, James N; Gaston, Benjamin; Lewis, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study determined whether the membrane-permeable ventilatory stimulant, L-cysteine ethylester (L-CYSee), reversed the deleterious actions of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Morphine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) elicited sustained decreases in arterial blood pH, pO₂ and sO₂, and increases in pCO₂ (all responses indicative of hypoventilation) and alveolar-arterial gradient (indicative of ventilation-perfusion mismatch). Injections of L-CYSee (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) reversed the effects of morphine in tracheotomized rats but were minimally active in non-tracheotomized rats. L-cysteine or L-serine ethylester (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) were without effect. It is evident that L-CYSee can reverse the negative effects of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry and alveolar-arterial gradient but that this positive activity is negated by increases in upper-airway resistance. Since L-cysteine and L-serine ethylester were ineffective, it is evident that cell penetrability and the sulfur moiety of L-CYSee are essential for activity. Due to its ready penetrability into the lungs, chest wall muscle and brain, the effects of L-CYSee on morphine-induced changes in arterial blood-gas chemistry are likely to involve both central and peripheral sites of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A policy of routine umbilical cord blood gas analysis decreased missing samples from high-risk births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, M; Elvander, C; Johansson, S; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O

    2017-01-01

    This study compared obstetric units practicing routine or selective umbilical cord blood gas analysis, with respect to the risk of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. This was a Swedish population-based cohort study that used register data for 155 235 deliveries of live singleton infants between 2008 and 2014. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the association between routine and selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling strategies and the risk of missing samples. Selective sampling increased the risk ratios when routine sampling was used as the reference, with a value of 1.0, and these were significant in high-risk deliveries and birth asphyxia. The risk ratios for selective sampling were large-for-gestational age (9.07), preterm delivery at up to 36 weeks of gestation (8.24), small-for-gestational age (7.94), two or more foetal scalp blood samples (5.96), an Apgar score of less than seven at one minute (2.36), emergency Caesarean section (1.67) and instrumental vaginal delivery (1.24). Compared with routine sampling, selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling significantly increased the risks of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The correlation between the rise of the tumor temperature during the hyperthermia treatment and the tumor blood flow measured by dynamic CT and 15O gas-positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hideyuki

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the correlation between the rise of tumor temperature during hyperthermia treatment and the blood flow of the tumors measured by dynamic CT (DCT) and 15 O gas-positron emission tomography. In this report, we observed 20 patients with malignant tumors which underwent hyperthermia treatment. In each case, the temperature of the tumor was monitored with a photofiber sensor. DCT's and 15 O gas-positron emission tomographies were applied before the hyperthermia treatment. During the DCT, the tumor blood flow of each tumor was estimated by analyzing the time-dependent activity curve after a bolus injection. During the 15 O gas-positron emission tomography, the tumor blood flow was estimated by the C 15 O 2 -steady-state method. The value of the tumor blood flow estimated by DCT were proportional to those calculated by the 15 O gas-positron emission tomography. These values were inversely proportional to the rise of the temperature of the tumors during hyperthermia treatment. Our results imply that DCT as well as the 15 O gas-positron emission tomography can be used for the prediction of the tumor temperature rise during the hyperthermia treatment. (author)

  1. Stability and Application of Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species-Induced Hemoglobin Modifications in Dry Blood Spots As Analyzed by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hauh-Jyun Candy; Fan, Chih-Huang; Yang, Ya-Fen

    2016-12-19

    Dried blood spot (DBS) is an emerging microsampling technique for the bioanalysis of small molecules, including fatty acids, metabolites, drugs, and toxicants. DBS offers many advantages as a sample format including easy sample collection and cheap sample shipment. Hemoglobin adducts have been recognized as a suitable biomarker for monitoring chemical exposure. We previously reported that certain modified peptides in hemoglobin derived from reactive chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen species are associated with factors including smoking, diabetes mellitus, and aging. However, the stability of these oxidation-induced modifications of hemoglobin remains unknown and whether they can be formed artifactually during storage of DBS. To answer these questions, globin extracted from the DBS cards was analyzed, and the stability of the modifications was evaluated. After storage of the DBS cards at 4 °C or room temperature up to 7 weeks, we isolated globin from a quarter of the spot every week. The extents of 11 sites and types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), including nitration and nitrosylation of tyrosine and oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues, in human hemoglobin were measured in the trypsin digest by nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS) using selected reaction monitoring. The extents of all these PTMs are stable within 14 days when stored on DBS at room temperature and at 4 °C, while those from direct extraction of fresh blood are stable for at least 8 weeks when stored as an aqueous solution at -20 °C. Extraction of globin from a DBS card is of particular importance for hemolytic blood samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stability of oxidative modifications of hemoglobin on DBSs, which are stable for 14 days under ambient conditions (room temperature, in air). Therefore, it is feasible and convenient to analyze these hemoglobin modifications from DBSs in studies

  2. Characterization of a Gas-Purge Method to Access 11C-Carbon-Dioxide Radioactivity in Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.; Green, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-11 (t 1/2 : 20 minutes) labeled radiotracers, such as 11 C-acetate and 11 C-palmitate are widely used in positron emission tomography (PET) for noninvasive evaluation of myocardial metabolism under varied physiological conditions. These tracers are attractive probes of tissue physiology, because they are simply radiolabeled versions of the native biochemical substrates. One of the major metabolites generated by these tracers upon the administration is 11 CO 2 produced via the citric acid cycle. In quantitative modeling of 11 C-acetate and 11 C-palmitate PET data, the fraction of blood 11 C radioactivity present as 11 CO 2 needs to be measured to obtain a correct radiotracer arterial input function. Accordingly, the literature describes a method whereby the total blood 11 C-activity is counted in blood samples treated with base solution, while the fraction of 11 CO 2 is measured after the blood is treated with acid followed by a 10 minutes gas-purge. However, a detailed description of the experimental validation of this method was not provided. The goal of this study was to test the reliability of a 10-minute gas purging method used to assay 11 CO 2 radioactivity in blood. (author)

  3. Analyze Experiment For Vigas and Pertamax to Performance and Exhaust Gas Emission for Gasoline Motor 2000cc

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'adi, Muhamad; Chrisna Ayu Dwiharpini Tupan, Diachirta

    2018-02-01

    The purpose and target for this analyze experiment is we get the performance variabel from gasoline motor which used LGV for fuel and Pertamax, so can give knowledge to community if LGV can be using LGV for fuel to transportation industry and more economic. We used experiment method of engine gasoline motor with 2000 cc which is LGV and Pertamax for fuel. The experiment with static experiment tes above Dyno Test. The result is engine perform to subscribe Torque, power, fuel consumption. Beside the static test we did the Exhaust Steam Emission. The result is the used LGV with the commercial brand Vigas can increase the maximum Engine Power 20.86% and Average Power 14.1%, the maximum torque for Motor which is use LGV as fuel is smaller than Motor with Pertamax, the decrease is 0.94%.Using Vigas in Motor can increase the mileage until 6.9% compare with the Motor with pertamax.Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) for both of the fuels still below the standard, so still happen waste of fuel, specially in low compression.Using Vigas can reduce the Exhaust Steam Emission especially CO2

  4. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  5. Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Flux at Remote Sites with New Low-Power Lightweight Fast Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liukang; Burba, George; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Zona, Donatella; McDermitt, Dayle K.; Anderson, Tyler; Oberbauer, Steven; Oechel, Walter; Komissarov, Anatoly; Riensche, Brad

    2010-05-01

    Majority of natural methane production happens at remote unpopulated areas in ecosystems with little or no infrastructure or easily available grid power, such as arctic and boreal wetlands, tropical mangroves, etc. Present approaches for direct measurements of CH4 fluxes rely on fast closed-path analyzers, which have to work under significantly reduced pressures, and require powerful pumps and grid power. Power and labor demands may be reasons why CH4 flux is often measured at locations with good infrastructure and grid power, and not with high CH4 production. An instrument was developed to allow Eddy Covariance measurements of CH4 flux with power consumption 30-150 times below presently available technologies. This instrument, LI-7700, uses proposed extremely low-power technology would allows placing methane Eddy Covariance stations in the middle of the source (wetland, rice paddy, forest, etc.) in the absence of the grid power. This could significantly expand the Eddy Covariance CH4 flux measurements coverage, and possibly, significantly improve the budget estimates of world CH4 emissions and budget. Various prototypes of the LI-7700 were field-tested for three seasons at the remote site in middle of Everglades National Park (Florida, USA) using solar panels, at three stationary and several mobile sites during three seasons at remote Arctic wetlands near Barrow (Alaska, USA), in the tropical mangroves near La Paz (Mexico) using portable generator, and in bare agricultural field near Mead (Nebraska, USA) during 2005 through 2010. Latest data on CH4 concentration, co-spectra and fluxes, and latest details of instrumental design are examined in this presentation. Overall, hourly methane fluxes ranged from near-zero at night to about 4 mg m-2 h-1 in midday in arctic tundra. Observed fluxes were within the ranges reported in the literature for a number of wetlands in North America, including the Everglades wetlands. Diurnal patterns were similar to those measured by

  6. Detection of haemoglobins with abnormal oxygen affinity by single blood gas analysis and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, G; Morabito, A; Samaja, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim is to determine if a single measurement of blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate combined with gas analysis (pH, PCO2, PO2 and saturation) can identify the cause of an altered blood-oxygen affinity: the presence of an abnormal haemoglobin or a red cell disorder. The population (n=94) was divided into healthy controls (A, n=14), carriers of red cell disorders (B, n=72) and carriers of high oxygen affinity haemoglobins (C, n=8). Those variables were measured both in samples equilibrated at selected PCO2 and PO2 and in venous blood. In the univariable approach applied to equilibrated samples, we correctly identified C subjects in 93.6% or 96.8% of the cases depending on the selected variable, the standard P50 (PO2 at which 50% of haemoglobin is oxygenated) or a composite variable calculated from the above measurements. After introducing the haemoglobin concentration as a further discriminating variable, the A and B subjects were correctly identified in 91.9% or 94.2% of the cases, respectively. These figures become 93.0% or 86.1%, and 93.7% or 94.9% of the cases when using direct readings from venous blood, thereby avoiding the blood equilibration step. This test is feasible also in blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 48 h, or at room temperature for 8 h.

  7. Development and operation of an integrated sampling probe and gas analyzer for turbulent mixing studies in complex supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswall, John D.

    -temporal characteristic scales of the flow on the resulting time-area-averaged concentration measurements. Two series of experiments were performed to verify the probe's design; the first used Schlieren photography and verified that the probe sampled from the supersonic flowfield isokinetically. The second series involved traversing the probe across a free mixing layer of air and helium, to obtain both mean concentration and high frequency measurements. High-frequency data was statistically analyzed and inspection of the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the hot-film response was instrumental to interpret how well the resulting average mixing measurements represent these types of complex flows. The probe is minimally intrusive, has accuracy comparable to its predecessors, has an improved frequency response for mean concentration measurements, and samples from a very small area in the flowfield.

  8. Effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Ming Zhu1

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o analyze the effect of adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas parameters, cardiac function and inflammatory state in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and type II respiratory failure. Methods: 90 patients with COPD and type II respiratory failure were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=45. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received conventional therapy + adjuvant noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and differences in blood gas parameters, cardiac function, inflammatory state, etc., were compared between two groups of patients 2 weeks after treatment. Results: Arterial blood gas parameters pH and alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A-aO2] levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while, potassium ion (K+, chloride ion (Cl﹣ and carbon dioxide combining power (CO2CP levels were lower than those of control group 2 weeks after treatment; echocardiography parameters Doppler-derived tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (DTIS and pulmonary arterial velocity (PAV levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05 while pulmonary artery accelerating time (PAACT, left ventricular enddiastolic dimension (LVDd and right atrioventricular tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum cardiac function indexes adiponectin (APN, Copeptin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, cystatin C (CysC, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 and heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory factors hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Adjuvant

  9. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J; Weerwind, P W; Teerenstra, S; Brouwer, M H J

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the GEM Premier 3000 was compared with the Ciba Corning 865 analyser for blood gas/electrolytes/metabolites, and for hematocrit with the Sysmex XE 2100 instrument. During a 6-month period, 127 blood samples were analysed on both the GEM Premier 3000 analyser and our laboratory analysers (Ciba Corning 865/Sysmex 2100 instrument), and compared using the agreement analysis for quantitative data. With the exception of K+, the other parameters (pCO2, pO2, Na+, Ca2+, hematocrit, glucose, and lactate) can be described in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the differences. For K+ measurement, a clear linear trend (r=0.79, panalyser seems to be suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes, metabolites, and blood gases during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, its downward bias in hematocrit values below 30% suggests that using the GEM Premier 3000 as a transfusion trigger leads to overtreatment with packed red cells.

  10. Development of a radiochemical method for analyzing radon gas in uranium mine atmospheres: covering the period February 3, 1975--March 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, L.; Shearer, J.A.; Hohorst, F.A.; Markun, F.

    1977-01-14

    A simplified radiochemical method has been developed for quantitatively analyzing radon gas in underground uranium mines. In this method, a measured volume of air is drawn by a pump through a drying tube and a cartridge containing dioxygenyl hexafluoroantimonate reagent. Radon is captured as a nonvolatile product. After radioactive equilibrium has been established between radon and its short-lived daughters (approximately 4 hours), the gamma-emission of the cartridge is measured with a scintillation counter. The amount of radon is then calculated from the gamma-emission rate. The effect of cartridge geometry, reagent load, and air flow rate upon collection efficiency and counting efficiency is reported.

  11. Development of a radiochemical method for analyzing radon gas in uranium mine atmospheres: covering the period February 3, 1975--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, L.; Shearer, J.A.; Hohorst, F.A.; Markun, F.

    1977-01-01

    A simplified radiochemical method has been developed for quantitatively analyzing radon gas in underground uranium mines. In this method, a measured volume of air is drawn by a pump through a drying tube and a cartridge containing dioxygenyl hexafluoroantimonate reagent. Radon is captured as a nonvolatile product. After radioactive equilibrium has been established between radon and its short-lived daughters (approximately 4 hours), the gamma-emission of the cartridge is measured with a scintillation counter. The amount of radon is then calculated from the gamma-emission rate. The effect of cartridge geometry, reagent load, and air flow rate upon collection efficiency and counting efficiency is reported

  12. The effect of altering pulmonary blood flow on pulmonary gas exchange in the turtle Trachemys (Pseudemys) scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, S R; Wang, T; Hicks, J W

    1996-10-01

    In resting reptiles, the PO2 of pulmonary venous return (PLAO2; left atrial blood) may be 20 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.1333 kPa) lower than the PO2 of gas in the lung. This level of PO2 is considerably higher than that observed in resting mammals and birds and results from ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) heterogeneity, pulmonary diffusion limitation and intrapulmonary shunting. However, the relative contribution of each of these factors is unknown. Many reptiles, particularly chelonians, exhibit an intermittent ventilation pattern where pulmonary blood flow (QL) increases during the ventilatory periods and, therefore, we hypothesized that V/Q matching would improve with increasing QL. We applied the multiple inert gas elimination technique in anaesthetized turtles at 22 degrees C. Turtles were continuously ventilated at a rate of 140 ml kg-1 min-1, equivalent to the rate of ventilation within a ventilatory period. Trace amounts of six inert gases were infused through the jugular vein. Blood samples from the pulmonary artery and the left atrium and mixed expired gases were collected for analysis. QL was reduced by a factor of six (low flow) using a vascular occluder placed around the common pulmonary artery or increased by a factor of two (high flow) through bolus injection of adrenaline. V/Q heterogeneity was significantly reduced with increasing pulmonary blood flow (P means +/- S.E.M.) and PLAO2 increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 88 +/- 17 mmHg (low flow) to 120 +/- 14 mmHg (high flow). There was evidence of pulmonary diffusion limitation under all conditions, which was unchanged with increasing blood flow. These findings suggest that increased pulmonary blood flow during a ventilatory period results in both temporal and spatial matching of ventilation and perfusion, without altering pulmonary diffusion limitation.

  13. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  14. Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2003-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad libitum and maintained at 24

  15. Changes in blood lactate and respiratory gas exchange measures in sports with discontinuous load profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekal, Gerhard; von Duvillard, Serge P; Pokan, Rochus; Tschan, Harald; Baron, Ramon; Hofmann, Peter; Wonisch, Manfred; Bachl, Norbert

    2003-06-01

    This study compares two different sport events (orienteering = OTC; tennis = TEC) with discontinuous load profiles and different activity/recovery patterns by means of blood lactate (LA), heart rate (HR), and respiratory gas exchange measures (RGME) determined via a portable respiratory system. During the TEC, 20 tennis-ranked male subjects [age: 26.0 (3.7) years; height: 181.0 (5.7) cm; weight: 73.2 (6.8) kg; maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max): 57.3 (5.1) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] played ten matches of 50 min. During the OTC, 11 male members of the Austrian National Team [age: 23.5 (3.9) years; height: 183.6 (6.8) cm; weight: 72.4 (3.9) kg; VO(2)max: 67.9 (3.8) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] performed a simulated OTC (six sections; average length: 10.090 m). In both studies data from the maximal treadmill tests (TT) were used as reference values for the comparison of energy expenditure of OTC and TEC. During TEC, the average VO(2) was considerably lower [29.1 (5.6) ml(.)kg(-1.)min(-1)] or 51.1 (10.9)% of VO(2)max and 64.8.0 (13.3)% of VO(2) determined at the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) on the TT. The short high-intensity periods (activity/recovery = 1/6) did not result in higher LA levels [average LA of games: 2.07 (0.9) mmol.l(-1)]. The highest average VO(2 )value for a whole game was 47.8 ml.kg(-1.)min(-1) and may provide a reference for energy demands required to sustain high-intensity periods of tennis predominantly via aerobic mechanism of energy delivery. During OTC, we found an average VO(2) of 56.4 (4.5) ml.kg(-1).min(-1) or 83.0 (3.8)% of VO(2)max and 94.6 (5.2)% of VO(2) at IAT. In contrast to TEC, LA were relatively high [5.16 (1.5) mmol.l(-1)) although the average VO(2) was significantly lower than VO(2) at IAT. Our data suggest that portable RGEM provides valuable information concerning the energy expenditure in sports that cannot be interpreted from LA or HR measures alone. Portable RGEM systems provide valuable assessment of under- or over-estimation of

  16. A custom on-line ultrasonic gas mixture analyzer with simultaneous flowmetry developed for use in the LHC-ATLAS experiment, with wide application in high and low flow gas delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.; Bitadze, A.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Berthoud, J.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho- Direito, J.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; DiGirolamo, B.; Da Riva, E.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Lombard, D.; Zwalinski, L.; Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A.; Boyd, G.; Deterre, C.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Degeorge, C.; Katunin, S.; Langevin, N.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.

    2013-06-01

    parts of the tracker is aspirated through two instruments and analyzed. A long duration continuous study of more than a year has demonstrated a sensitivity to mixture variation of better than 5.10 -5 . The developed instrument has many applications where continuous knowledge of binary gas composition is required. Such applications include anaesthesia, the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, and vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture. (authors)

  17. The value of arterial blood gas parameters for prediction of mortality in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Isabel von Auenmueller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sudden cardiac death is one of the leading causes of death in Europe, and early prognostication remains challenging. There is a lack of valid parameters for the prediction of survival after cardiac arrest. Aims: This study aims to investigate if arterial blood gas parameters correlate with mortality of patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Materials and Methods: All patients who were admitted to our hospital after resuscitation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, were included in this retrospective study. The patient's survival 5 days after resuscitation defined the study end-point. For the statistical analysis, the mean, standard deviation, Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were used (level of significance P< 0.05. Results: Arterial blood gas samples were taken from 170 patients. In particular, pH < 7.0 (odds ratio [OR]: 7.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.11–16.69; P< 0.001 and lactate ≥ 5.0 mmol/L (OR: 6.79; 95% CI: 2.77–16.66; P< 0.001 showed strong and independent correlations with mortality within the first 5 days after hospital admission. Conclusion: Our study results indicate that several arterial blood gas parameters correlate with mortality of patients after out-of-hospital resuscitation. The most relevant parameters are pH and lactate because they are strongly and independently associated with mortality within the first 5 days after resuscitation. Despite this correlation, none of these parameters by oneself is strong enough to allow an early prognostication. Still, these parameters can contribute as part of a multimodal approach to assessing the patients' prognosis.

  18. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  19. Comparative analysis of succinate dehydrogenase activity in mammalian peripheral blood lymphocytes and radiomodifying action of gas hypoxis mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdamakin, A.N.; Abramov, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radiprotective efficiency of gas hypoxic mixtures (GHM) containing 5-12% of oxygen and the rate of the reaction of succinate dehydrogenase (V SDG ) activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon breathing GHM were comparatively studied in rats and dogs. V SDG was 4393.5 (%O 2 ) -2,58 and 130.76 (%O 2 ) -1.42 in dogs and rats respectively. Taking into account that DMF in rats is a function of oxygen concentration in the mixture one can obtain a formula for determining a dose modifying factors (DMF) as a function of the rate of SDG activity reaction

  20. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  1. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  2. Evaluation of the performance and response of the bacharach TLV sniffer and H-Nu photoionization gas analyzer to common hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelton, C F; Zakraysek, N; Lautner, G M; Confer, R G

    1983-10-01

    Two direct reading instruments, the H-Nu PI 101 photoionization analyzer and the J.W. Bacharach TLV Sniffer, were evaluated under laboratory conditions to determine their performance characteristics when challenged by vapors of common hydrocarbon solvent mixtures. Each instrument was evaluated against the manufacturer's recommended test solvent for rise time, fall time, noise, span drift, zero drift, position sensitivity, battery life, and recharge time. The precision, accuracy, and operating linear range were also determined for the test solvents and some petroleum solvent mixtures which are common refinery products. For these latter mixtures, correction factors are presented which allow for an improved estimate of ambient concentrations when monitoring with each of these instruments. All tests except operating humidity range were performed by challenging each instrument with a known concentration of hydrocarbon generated by evaporating calculated liquid volumes into a static chamber. Humidity tests were performed using a dynamic dilution apparatus generating a fixed concentration of hydrocarbon while relative humidity was varied. Concentrations in both systems were verified by gas injection into gas chromatograph. Each instrument performed well when challenged by manufacturers' recommended test solvents. Humidity was shown to influence each instrument's readings. Also, the instruments were shown to have application as monitors of airborne concentrations of common hydrocarbon solvent mixtures.

  3. The effects of hypotension on differences between the results of simultaneous venous and arterial blood gas analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Shirani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of venous blood gas (VBG can represent arterial blood gas (ABG analysis in patients with various diseases. The effects of hypotension on differences between the results of simultaneous venous and arterial blood gas analyses were reviewed. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to October 2010 in emergency depart-ments of two university hospitals in Tehran (Iran on consecutive adult patients for whom ABG had been indicated for diagnosis/treatment. Arterial and peripheral venous bloods were simultaneously sampled with blood pressure measure-ment. The VBG-ABG amount of difference regarding pH, HCO 3 , PCO 2 , PO 2 , SO 2 , and Base Excess (BE was com-pared between those with and without hypotension. Results: During the study, 192 patients (51.6 ± 23.6 years, 67.7% males were entered into the hypotension (n = 78 and normotensive groups (n = 114. The average VBG-ABG amount of difference (95% limits of agreement in the hypotension versus normotensive group were -0.030 (-0.09 to 0.03 vs. -0.016 (-0.1 to 0.068 for pH (p = 0.01, 1.79 (-1.91 to 5.49 vs. 1.32 (-1.94 to 4.58 mEq/L for HCO 3 (p = 0.032, 2.69 (-20.43 to 25.81 vs. 2.03 (-7.75 to 11.81 mmHg for PCO 2 (p = 0.295, -35.97 (-130.17 to 58.23 vs. -32.65 (-104.79 to 39.49 mmHg for PO 2 (p = 0.293, -18.58 (-14.66 to 51.82 vs. -9.06 (-31.28 to 13.16 percent (p < 0.001 for SO 2 , and 0.25 (-3.73 to 4.23 vs. 0.79 (-2.51 to 4.09 for BE (p = 0.036. Conclusions: Hypotensive status is associated with an increase in the amount of difference between VBG and ABG analysis regarding pH, HCO 3 , and BE, though the amount of increase does not seem to be clinically important. Studying the precise effects of replacing ABG with VBG on the clinical decision-making and the following outcomes is worth-while.

  4. Nitric oxide transport in blood: a third gas in the respiratory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Allan; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2011-01-01

    The trapping, processing, and delivery of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity by red blood cells (RBCs) have emerged as a conserved mechanism through which regional blood flow is linked to biochemical cues of perfusion sufficiency. We present here an expanded paradigm for the human respiratory cycle based on the coordinated transport of three gases: NO, O₂, and CO₂. By linking O₂ and NO flux, RBCs couple vessel caliber (and thus blood flow) to O₂ availability in the lung and to O₂ need in the periphery. The elements required for regulated O₂-based signal transduction via controlled NO processing within RBCs are presented herein, including S-nitrosothiol (SNO) synthesis by hemoglobin and O₂-regulated delivery of NO bioactivity (capture, activation, and delivery of NO groups at sites remote from NO synthesis by NO synthase). The role of NO transport in the respiratory cycle at molecular, microcirculatory, and system levels is reviewed. We elucidate the mechanism through which regulated NO transport in blood supports O₂ homeostasis, not only through adaptive regulation of regional systemic blood flow but also by optimizing ventilation-perfusion matching in the lung. Furthermore, we discuss the role of NO transport in the central control of breathing and in baroreceptor control of blood pressure, which subserve O₂ supply to tissue. Additionally, malfunctions of this transport and signaling system that are implicated in a wide array of human pathophysiologies are described. Understanding the (dys)function of NO processing in blood is a prerequisite for the development of novel therapies that target the vasoactive capacities of RBCs. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  5. Simultaneous determination of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol in human blood by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, J; Chiadmi, F; Gandon, V; Chariot, P

    2014-01-01

    Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and ethanol, which are commonly used as biomarkers of several diseases, in acute intoxications, and forensic settings, can be detected and quantified in biological fluids. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry techniques are complex, require highly trained personnel and expensive materials. Gas chromatographic determinations of ethanol, methanol, and acetone have been reported in one study with suboptimal accuracy. Our objective was to improve the assessment of these compounds in human blood using GC with flame ionization detection. An amount of 50 µl of blood was diluted with 300 µl of sterile water, 40 µl of 10% sodium tungstate, and 20 µl of 1% sulphuric acid. After centrifugation, 1 µl of the supernatant was injected into the gas chromatograph. We used a dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column of 30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm. We observed linear correlations from 7.5 to 240 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and from 75 to 2400 mg/l for ethanol. Precision at concentrations 15, 60, and 120 mg/l for methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone and 150, 600, and 1200 mg/ml for ethanol were 0.8-6.9%. Ranges of accuracy were 94.7-98.9% for methanol, 91.2-97.4% for acetaldehyde, 96.1-98.7% for acetone, and 105.5-111.6% for ethanol. Limits of detection were 0.80 mg/l for methanol, 0.61 mg/l for acetaldehyde, 0.58 mg/l for acetone, and 0.53 mg/l for ethanol. This method is suitable for routine clinical and forensic practices.

  6. Regulation of acid-base status in ectothermic vertebrates: the consequences for oxygen pressures in lung gas and arterial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, M L; Soncini, R

    1995-01-01

    Extensive literature reports a negative delta pHa/delta t in ectothermic vertebrates, but data are scarce as to its consequences for O2 transport. In reptiles, the negative delta pHa/delta t results from an elevated lung gas PCO2 (PACO2) at higher temperatures, implying a corresponding fall of PAO2. In parallel, arterial PO2 rises with temperature, due to a combination of central vascular shunt and decreasing Hb.O2 affinity. As a result, the PO2 gradient between lung gas and blood (PA-aO2) becomes reduced at higher temperatures. In amphibians, the negative delta pHa/delta t results from combined cutaneous and pulmonary CO2 elimination. We propose that this leads to a rather temperature-independent lung gas PO2. Moreover, our calculations suggest that resting reptiles and amphibians maintain a relatively large PA-aO2 also at high temperatures. The negative delta pHa/delta t in teleost fish is generally considered to be a result of modulated plasma [HCO3-]. Recent data from our laboratory suggest that acute pH adjustments at high temperatures may involve alterations of PaCO2 through gill ventilation, leading to a decrease of PaO2 with rising temperature.

  7. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  8. The influence of ganglioside on the blood gas analysis and serum inflammatory cytokines in newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jing Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the influence of ganglioside on the blood gas analysis and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Method: A total of 100 newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group and the observation group. Conventional oxygen inhalation, reducing intracranial pressure, controlling eclampsia and neurotrophic drug treatment were given to the observation group. Treatment of ganglioside was given to the control group on the basis of observation group. Blood gas analysis and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were detected before treatment (T0, 3 d after treatment (T1, and 7 d after treatment (T2. Result: (1 The comparison of pH, PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2 in the two groups in T0 was not statistically significant. The comparison of pH, PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2 in T0, T1, T2 was considered to be statistically significant. Among these, the result of comparision of pH, PaO2, SaO2: T0<T1<T2. comparision of PaCO2: T0>T1>T2. The pH, PaO2, SaO2 in observation group were higher, PaCO2 in observation group was lower compared with that in control group in T1 and T2. The difference was considered to be statistically significant. (2 The comparision of IL-2, IL-6, hs-CRP, TNF-α in the two groups in T0 was not statistically significant. IL-2 in the observation in T1 and T2 was higher than that in the control group, IL-6, hs-CRP, TNF-α in the observation in T1 and T2 was lower than that in the control group. The difference was considered to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Ganglioside can improve blood gas analysis indexes, decrease the serum inflammatory cytokines in newborns with anoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

  9. Integrated Chemical and Microorganism Monitoring of Air Using Gas Chromatography/Ion Mobility Spectometry: Toward an Expanded-Use Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiceman, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this research program originated with the choice by NASA of an ion mobility spectrometer for air quality monitoring on-board the international spacestation. Though the gas chromatograph-ion mobility spectrometer analyzer known as VOA met or exceeded expectations, limitations in the basic understanding of response and the utilization of foundational principles into usable technology was considered unacceptable. In this research program, a comprehensive model for the origins of mobility spectra was proposed, tested and verified. The principles considered responsible for the appearance of mobility spectra have now been elucidated through this project. This understanding has been applied in automated identification of mobility spectra using neural networks and routine procedures for this now exist. Finally, the limitation on linear range has been shown to be a technical limitation and not a fundamental limitation so that a hardware component was crafted to extend the linear range of a mobility spectrometer by 10X. This project has led to one Ph.D. dissertation and one MS thesis. In addition, over ten public presentations at professional meetings and six journal publications have resulted from this program of research. The findings are so plentiful that total analysis of the findings may require four to six years or more. The findings confirm that the decision to use VOA was sound and that the chemical and physical principles of mobility spectrometry are both understandable and predictable.

  10. Real-time ambient air monitoring adjacent to the Houston ship channel for volatile organic compounds associated with the refinery operations using the trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickunas, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    An Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to help evaluate the potential toxic air pollution in urban areas. The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) was used to monitor the ambient air for target compounds associated with industrial, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources in areas adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel in Texas. In this study, the TAGA used triple quadrupole technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses for benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl tert-butyl ether, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The concentrations for the various ion pairs of the target compounds were updated approximately every 2 seconds. The information was incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS) along with the global positioning system (GPS) information for the TAGA location, aerial views of the monitoring area, and meteorological data for the associated region. The information is used to isolate the emission sources and help reduce air pollution. The GPS output helps determine a path-averaged concentration along various routes. Combined with meteorological data, this information can be used in risk assessment to calculate downwind impacts associated with the target compounds under other meteorological conditions and to determine health impacts. It was concluded that the TAGA can provide rapid, accurate and reliable analytical information for monitoring ambient air. 2 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. Real-time ambient air monitoring adjacent to the Houston ship channel for volatile organic compounds associated with the refinery operations using the trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickunas, D.B. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Response Team; Wood, J.; Weeks, W. [Lockheed Martin Response Engineering and Analytical Contract, Edison, NJ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    An Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to help evaluate the potential toxic air pollution in urban areas. The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) was used to monitor the ambient air for target compounds associated with industrial, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources in areas adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel in Texas. In this study, the TAGA used triple quadrupole technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses for benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl tert-butyl ether, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The concentrations for the various ion pairs of the target compounds were updated approximately every 2 seconds. The information was incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS) along with the global positioning system (GPS) information for the TAGA location, aerial views of the monitoring area, and meteorological data for the associated region. The information is used to isolate the emission sources and help reduce air pollution. The GPS output helps determine a path-averaged concentration along various routes. Combined with meteorological data, this information can be used in risk assessment to calculate downwind impacts associated with the target compounds under other meteorological conditions and to determine health impacts. It was concluded that the TAGA can provide rapid, accurate and reliable analytical information for monitoring ambient air. 2 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  12. Sol-gel electrospinning preparation of hybrid carbon silica nanofibers for extracting organophosphorus pesticides prior to analyzing them by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Kermani, Mansoure

    2018-07-13

    Carbon-silica hybrid nanofibers as high performance coatings for solid-phase microextraction fibers were used for analyzing some pesticides by using gas chromatography-corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry. To that end, the fibers were prepared by carbonizing sol-gel based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile and tetraethyl orthosilicate nanofibers as carbon and silica precursors, respectively. Different parameters affecting the electrospinning and the extraction processes including spinning distance, voltage, feeding rate, stirring rate, salt concentration, temperature and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology. The method involved deionized water samples spiked with pesticides at different concentration levels. The calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 0.1-20 and 0.05-20 μg L -1 with determination coefficients (R 2 ) of 0.9976 and 0.9928 for malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The limits of detection of 0.032 and 0.019 μg L -1 and the limits of quantification of 0.1 and 0.05 μg L -1 were found for malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Acceptable reproducibility values were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3) lower than 6 and 15%, for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. Finally, the relative recoveries of the proposed method were calculated in the range of 80-111% for real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. NH3/O2 mixed gas plasmas alter the interaction of blood components with stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zamora, Paul O; Peña, Louis; Som, Prantika; Osaki, Shigemasa

    2003-12-01

    Stainless steel treated with a mixed gas plasma of NH(3) plus O(2) had chemical and biologic characteristics distinct from untreated stainless steel or stainless steel treated with NH(3) or O(2) plasmas used separately. NH(3)/O(2) plasmas deposited nitrogen as both -CN (organic) and -NO (nitrate, nitrite)--materials not found on untreated stainless steel--and the contact angle changed from 44 degrees to 23 degrees. Treatment of stainless steel (and titanium) resulted in surfaces with enhanced resistance to platelet and leukocyte attachment. A gas plasma of N(2)O/O(2) also was found to reduce platelet and leukocyte attachment, suggesting that these properties may be common to surfaces coated with oxynitrites (nitrides). Upon subcutaneous implantation, no inflammation, hemolysis, or untoward thrombosis was noted in the tissue surrounding the wafers treated with the NH(3)/O(2) plasmas, although the cellular density was considerably reduced by 2 weeks after implant. Collectively, the results suggest that NH(3)/O(2) plasmas impart a unique character to stainless steel that may be useful in the construction of medical devices. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 994-1000, 2003

  14. Rapid determination of quetiapine in blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to post-mortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guarnido, Olga; Tabernero, María Jesús; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Bermejo, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive method for the determination of quetiapine in human blood has been developed and validated. The method involved a basic liquid-liquid extraction procedure and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, previous derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoro-acetamide and chorotrimethylsilane (99 : 1). The methods of validation included linearity with a correlation coefficient > 0.99 over the range 0.02-1 µg ml(-1), intra- and interday precision (always < 12%) and accuracy (mean relative error always < 12%) to meet the bioanalytical acceptance criteria. The limit of detection was 0.005 µg ml(-1). The procedure was further applied to post mortems from the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Influence of myocardial oxygen demand on the coronary vascular response to arterial blood gas changes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Tyler Dennis; Boulet, Lindsey M; Stembridge, Mike; Williams, Alexandra Mackenzie; Anholm, James D; Subedi, Prajan; Gasho, Chris; Ainslie, Philip N; Feigl, Eric O; Foster, Glen Edward

    2018-03-30

    It remains unclear if the human coronary vasculature is inherently sensitive to changes in arterial PO 2 and PCO 2 or if coronary vascular responses are the result of concomitant increases in myocardial O 2 consumption/demand (MVO 2 ). We hypothesized that the coronary vascular response to PO 2 and PCO 2 would be attenuated in healthy men when MVO 2 was attenuated with β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade. Healthy men (n=11; age: 25 {plus minus} 1 years) received intravenous esmolol (β 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) or volume-matched saline in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, and were exposed to poikilocapnic hypoxia, isocapnic hypoxia, and hypercapnic hypoxia. Measurements made at baseline and following 5-min of steady state at each gas manipulation included left anterior descending coronary blood velocity (LAD V ; Doppler echocardiography), heart rate and arterial blood pressure. LAD V values at the end of each hypoxic condition were compared between esmolol and placebo. Rate pressure product (RPP) and left-ventricular mechanical energy (ME LV ) were calculated as indices of MVO 2 . All gas manipulations augmented RPP, ME LV , and LAD V but only RPP and ME LV were attenuated (4-18%) following β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade (P<0.05). Despite attenuated RPP and MELV responses, β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade did not attenuate the mean LADV vasodilatory response when compared to placebo during poikilocapnic hypoxia (29.4{plus minus}2.2 vs. 27.3{plus minus}1.6 cm/s) and isocapnic hypoxia (29.5{plus minus}1.5 vs. 30.3{plus minus}2.2 cm/s). Hypercapnic hypoxia elicited a feed-forward coronary dilation that was blocked by β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade. These results indicate a direct influence of arterial PO 2 on coronary vascular regulation that is independent of MVO 2 .

  16. The effect of CPAP treatment on venous lactate and arterial blood gas among obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting; Huang, Jie-Feng; Lin, Qi-Chang; Chen, Gong-Ping; Wang, Bi-Ying; Zhao, Jian-Ming; Qi, Jia-Chao

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this observational study was to investigate the influence of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on arterial blood gas and venous lactate, markers of tissue hypoxia, among obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients, and determine the risk factor of serum lactate and hydrogen ion concentration (PH) in OSAS patients. One-hundred and nine patients with newly diagnosed OSAS were enrolled in the study. All individuals were treated with CPAP for one night. Venous lactate and arterial blood gas were gathered from all subjects in the morning at the end of polysomnography and the next morning after CPAP treatment. Of the 109 selected subjects, the average lactate level was 2.23 ± 0.59 mmol/L, and the mean PH, PaO 2 , and PaCO 2 were 7.380 ± 0.23, 88.14 ± 17.83 mmHg, and 38.70 ± 4.28 mmHg, respectively. Compared to baseline, lactic acid significantly decreased (2.10 ± 0.50 mmol/L, p = 0.03), while PH increased (7.388 ± 0.27, p treatment. In addition, neck circumference and the polysomnographic parameters, including apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), and the percentage of sleep time with SpO 2 treatment could reduce serum lactate and increase PH in OSAS patients and might alleviate acid-base balance disorders in OSAS. Furthermore, TS90 % was a risk factor for elevated lactate, and age was independently associated with PH.

  17. Determination of perfluorobutane in rat blood by automatic headspace capillary gas chromatography and selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvattum, E; Normann, P T; Oulie, I; Uran, S; Ringstad, O; Skotland, T

    2001-01-01

    A new contrast agent (Sonazoid; NC100100) for ultrasound imaging has been developed. It is an aqueous suspension of lipid stabilised perfluorobutane (PFB) gas microbubbles. An automatic headspace capillary gas-chromatographic mass spectrometric method using electron impact ionisation was developed for analysis of Sonazoid PFB in rat blood. The calibration standards were gaseous PFB dissolved in ethanol in the range of 0.5-5000 ng PFB. Fluorotrichloromethane (CFC 11) was used as an internal standard of the method and the MS detector was set to single ion monitoring of the base fragment ions of PFB (m/z 69 and 119) and CFC 11 (m/z 101). The calibration graph, made by plotting the peak area ratios of PFB (m/z 69) to CFC 11(m/z 101) against the amount of PFB, was fitted to a second-order polynomial equation with weighting 1/y2 and found to be reproducible. The limit of quantification of the method was set to 0.4 ng PFB. The between-day variation of the method was below 9.2% relative standard deviation (RSD) and the within-day variation of the method was below 7.6% RSD. The accuracy of the method, as compared to Coulter counter, was estimated by determination of PFB in samples where Sonazoid was added to saline and found to range from 91.5% to 105.2%. PFB, added as Sonazoid, was found to be stable for at least 7 months in rat blood samples when stored at -20 degrees C.

  18. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1β mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamasawa, Atsuko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Saito, Miyoko; Ishida, Hidenori; Doguchi, Satako; Yanagiya, Syoko; Osonoi, Takeshi

    2015-09-05

    Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, leads to the production of hydrogen gas, which reduces oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effects of a single dose of acarbose immediately before a test meal on postprandial hydrogen gas in breath and peripheral blood interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen Japanese patients (14 men, 2 women) participated in this study. The mean±standard deviation age, hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were 52.1±15.4 years, 10.2±2.0%, and 27.7±8.0kg/m(2), respectively. The patients were admitted into our hospital for 2 days and underwent test meals at breakfast without (day 1) or with acarbose (day 2). We performed continuous glucose monitoring and measured hydrogen gas levels in breath, and peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels before (0min) and after the test meal (hydrogen gas: 60, 120, 180, and 300min; IL-1β: 180min). The induction of hydrogen gas production and the reduction in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA after the test meal were not significant between days 1 (without acarbose) and 2 (with acarbose). However, the changes in total hydrogen gas production from day 1 to day 2 were closely and inversely associated with the changes in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels. Our results suggest that an increase in hydrogen gas production is inversely associated with a reduction of the peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA level after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computed tomography and blood gas analysis of anesthetized bloodhounds with induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Hartsfield, S.; Matthews, N.; White, G.; Slater, M.; Thoos, J.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly severe degrees of pneumothorax were produced in 6 adult anesthetized bloodhounds. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed on each dog to evaluate the effects of pneumo thorax on thoracic and on pulmonary cross-sectional area (TA and PA). Arterial PO 2 (PaO 2 ) and PCO 2 (PaCO 2 ), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were determined and related to the severity of pneumothorax. Volumes of air equal to 1, 1.5 and 2 times functional residual capacity of the lung produced approximately 33%, 40%, and 50% reductions in pulmonary area respectively. These amounts of atelectasis correspond to a radiographically “moderate” degree of pneumothorax. As severity of pneumothorax increased, thoracic area consistently increased, PaO 2 consistently decreased, and PaCO 2 consistently increased, with all being statistically significant relationships (p 0.2)

  20. Method of examination of blood microcirculation in skin by multiple using of an identical dose of radioactive Xe/sup 133/ gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, J.; Bogdanowski, T.; Brzezinska-Wcislo, L. (Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    The introduced method of Xe/sup 133/ gas application on epidermis serves to the investigation of microcirculation of blood within skin. It consists in a single use a dose of radioactive gas which is injected under the plastic membrane adhering to the skin surface. Our method of gaseous Xe/sup 133/ contact with epidermis enabling the multiple utilization of once applied dose to further examination is described.

  1. Validation of myocardial blood flow estimation with nitrogen-13 ammonia PET by the argon inert gas technique in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Glatting, G.; Neumaier, B.; Reske, S.N.; Hoff, J. van den; Hoeher, M.; Woehrle, J. n

    2001-01-01

    We simultaneously determined global myocardial blood flow (MBF) by the argon inert gas technique and by nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) to validate PET-derived MBF values in humans. A total of 19 patients were investigated at rest (n=19) and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia (n=16). Regional coronary artery stenoses were ruled out by angiography. The argon inert gas method uses the difference of arterial and coronary sinus argon concentrations during inhalation of a mixture of 75% argon and 25% oxygen to estimate global MBF. It can be considered as valid as the microspheres technique, which, however, cannot be applied in humans. Dynamic PET was performed after injection of 0.8±0.2 GBq 13 N-ammonia and MBF was calculated applying a two-tissue compartment model. MBF values derived from the argon method at rest and during the hyperaemic state were 1.03±0.24 ml min -1 g -1 and 2.64±1.02 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively. MBF values derived from ammonia PET at rest and during hyperaemia were 0.95±0.23 ml min -1 g -1 and 2.44±0.81 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively. The correlation between the two methods was close (y=0.92x+0.14, r=0.96; P 13 N-ammonia PET. (orig.)

  2. Prehospital point of care testing of blood gases and electrolytes — an evaluation of IRMA

    OpenAIRE

    Prause, Gerhard; Ratzenhofer-Komenda, Beatrice; Offner, Anton; Lauda, Peter; Voit, Henrika; Pojer, Horst

    1997-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the feasibility of blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements during emergency transport prior to hospital admission. Results: A portable, battery-powered blood analyzer was used on patients in life threatening conditions to determine pH, pCO2, pO2, sodium, potassium and ionized calcium. Arterial blood was used for blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements. Venous blood was used for electrolyte measurement alone. During the observation period of 4 m...

  3. Application of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Mateusz Kacper; Wiergowski, Marek; Aszyk, Justyna; Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Biziuk, Marek

    2018-01-30

    Amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) are the most popular amphetamine-type stimulants. The use of these substances is a serious societal problem worldwide. In this study, a method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the six aforementioned amphetamine derivatives in blood and urine. The detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The most important advantage of the method is the minimal sample volume (as low as 200μL) required for the extraction procedure. The validation parameters, i.e., the recovery (90.5-104%), inter-day accuracy (94.2-109.1%) and precision (0.5-5.8%), showed the repeatability and sensitivity of the method for both matrices and indicated that the proposed procedure fulfils internationally established acceptance criteria for bioanalytical methods The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of real blood and urine samples examined in 22 forensic toxicological cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work presenting the use of GC-MS/MS for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in blood and urine. In view of the low limits of detection (0.09-0.81ng/mL), limits of quantification (0.26-2.4ng/mL), and high selectivity, the procedure can be applied for drug monitoring in both fatal and non-fatal intoxication cases in routine toxicology analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, M.I.; Beltran, J.; Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. → Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. → Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. → HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 μm fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 μg L -1 ). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs

  5. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervera, M.I. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Beltran, J., E-mail: joaquim.beltran@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. {yields} Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. {yields} Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. {yields} HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 {mu}m fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with

  6. Fetal blood gas values during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair performed under carbon dioxide insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschat, Ahmet A; Ahn, Edward S; Murphy, Jamie; Miller, Jena L

    2018-05-10

    Fetoscopic myelomeningocele (MMC) repair is performed with intrauterine carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation. While lamb experiments have shown significant fetal acidemia following CO 2 insufflation corresponding information for human pregnancies is not available. We performed umbilical venous cord blood sampling in three patients during fetoscopic MMC repair at 25+1, 25+3 and 24+1 weeks gestation. Fetal venous pH at the beginning of CO 2 insufflation were 7.36, 7.46 and 7.37; repeat values were 7.28, 7.35, 7.36 after 181, 159 and 149 minutes respectively. The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide was maintained in the normal range at these times and pH decrease was less in patient 3 receiving humidified CO2 insufflation. Our observations suggest that in contrast to sheep experiments, CO2 insufflation during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair does not cause fetal acidemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical value of determination of changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after transfusion of Red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingting; Li Xinghua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigation the changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 contents after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 (with RIA), serum IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with peptic ulcer and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion,the serum IL-2 level in the patients was significantly lower than that in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels is clinically useful for monitoring progress and favourable prognosis of patients with peptic ulcer possess important clinical value. (authors)

  8. Basic arterial blood gas biomarkers as a predictor of mortality in tetralogy of Fallot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vandana; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Irpachi, Kalpana; Ladha, Suruchi; Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Serum lactate and base deficit have been shown to be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Poor preoperative oxygenation appears to be one of the significant factors that affects early mortality in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). There is little published literature evaluating the utility of serum lactate, base excess (BE), and oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ) as simple, widely available, prognostic markers in patients undergoing surgical repair of TOF. This prospective, observational study was conducted in 150 TOF patients, undergoing elective intracardiac repair. PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels at three different time intervals were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected after induction (T1), after cardiopulmonary bypass (T2), and 48 h (T3) after surgery in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). To observe the changes in PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels over a period of time, repeated measures analysis was performed with Bonferroni method. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to find area under curve (AUC) and cutoff values of various biomarkers for predicting mortality in ICU. The patients who could not survive showed significant elevated lactate levels at baseline (T1) and postoperatively (T2) as compared to patients who survived after surgery (P curve analysis showed that lactate levels (T3) have highest mortality predictive value (AUC: 96.9%) as compared to BE (AUC: 94.5%) and PO 2 (AUC: 81.1%). Serum lactate and BE may be used as prognostic markers to predict mortality in patients undergoing TOF repair. The routine analysis of these simple, fast, widely available, and cost-effective biomarkers should be encouraged to predict prognosis of TOF patients.

  9. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  10. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  11. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  12. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  13. Basic arterial blood gas biomarkers as a predictor of mortality in tetralogy of Fallot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lactate and base deficit have been shown to be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Poor preoperative oxygenation appears to be one of the significant factors that affects early mortality in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. There is little published literature evaluating the utility of serum lactate, base excess (BE, and oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 as simple, widely available, prognostic markers in patients undergoing surgical repair of TOF. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study was conducted in 150 TOF patients, undergoing elective intracardiac repair. PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels at three different time intervals were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected after induction (T1, after cardiopulmonary bypass (T2, and 48 h (T3 after surgery in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. To observe the changes in PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels over a period of time, repeated measures analysis was performed with Bonferroni method. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis was used to find area under curve (AUC and cutoff values of various biomarkers for predicting mortality in ICU. Results: The patients who could not survive showed significant elevated lactate levels at baseline (T1 and postoperatively (T2 as compared to patients who survived after surgery (P < 0.001. However, in nonsurvivors, the BE value decreased significantly in the postoperative period in comparison to survivors (−2.8 ± 4.27 vs. 5.04 ± 2.06 (P < 0.001. In nonsurvivors, there was a significant fall of PO 2 to a mean value of 59.86 ± 15.09 in ICU (T3, whereas those who survived had a PO 2 of 125.86 ± 95.09 (P < 0.001. The ROC curve analysis showed that lactate levels (T3 have highest mortality predictive value (AUC: 96.9% as compared to BE (AUC: 94.5% and PO 2 (AUC: 81.1%. Conclusion: Serum lactate and BE may be used as prognostic markers to predict mortality in patients undergoing TOF repair. The

  14. Can we Replace Arterial Blood Gas Analysis by Pulse Oximetry in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome, who are Treated According to INSURE Protocol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Niknafs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, who are treated according to INSURE protocol; require arterial blood gas (ABG analysis to decide on appropriate management. We conducted this study to investigate the validity of pulse oximetry instead of frequent ABG analysis in the evaluation of these patients. From a total of 193 blood samples obtained from 30 neonates <1500 grams with RDS, 7.2% were found to have one or more of the followings: acidosis, hypercapnia, or hypoxemia. We found that pulse oximetry in the detection of hyperoxemia had a good validity to appropriately manage patients without blood gas analysis. However, the validity of pulse oximetry was not good enough to detect acidosis, hypercapnia, and hypoxemia.

  15. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  16. Comparison of arterial blood gas with continuous intra-arterial and transcutaneous PO2 sensors in adult critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G E; Hassell, K T; Mahutte, C K

    1987-05-01

    We compared the partial pressure of oxygen directly via a continuous intra-arterial probe (PiaO2) and indirectly using a transcutaneous device (PtcO2) with simultaneously obtained arterial blood PaO2. The PiaO2 values were measured using a bipolar oxygen sensor placed through an 18-ga arterial catheter. The PtcO2 values were measured using a transcutaneous O2-CO2 sensor placed on the abdomen. Seven critically ill, hemodynamically stable, ventilator-dependent adult patients were studied. Measurements were obtained at varying concentrations (0.25 to 1.0) of inspired oxygen after a 10-min stabilization. A total of 78 simultaneous values were obtained; by linear regression: PiaO2 = 0.91 PaO2 + 1.39 (r = .98, standard errors of the estimate [SEE] = 18.6); PtcO2 = 0.39 PaO2 + 36.2 (r = .89, SEE = 14.1). To assess these instruments as trend monitors, we compared the changes in simultaneous PaO2, PiaO2, and PtcO2 values; by linear regression: delta PiaO2 = 0.90 delta PaO2 + 3.88 (r = .96, SEE = 27.7); delta PtcO2 = 0.43 delta PaO2 + 5.6 (r = .94, SEE = 15.2). We conclude that, although these instruments correlate highly with the PaO2, the SEE was substantial and therefore may limit their clinical reliability in adults. Any acute or clinically significant change in PiaO2 or PtcO2 should be confirmed with a blood gas PaO2.

  17. Variations of the blood gas levels and thermodilutional parameters during ICP monitoring after severe head trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrano, Riccardo; Elli, Marco; Stoppa, Francesca; Di Traglia, Mario; Di Nardo, Matteo; Perrotta, Daniela; David, Piero; Paoli, Sara; Cecchetti, Corrado

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to define, in children following head trauma and GSC ≤ 8, at which level of intracranial pressure (ICP), the thermodilutional, and gas analytic parameters implicated in secondary cerebral insults shows initial changes. We enrolled in the study 56 patients: 30 males and 26 females, mean age 71 ± 52 months. In all children, volumetric hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were monitored following initial resuscitation and every 4 h thereafter or whenever a hemodynamic deterioration was suspected. During the cumulative hospital stay, a total of 1050 sets of measurements were done. All parameters were stratified in seven groups according to ICP (group A1 = 0-5 mmHg, group A2 = 6-10 mmHg, group A3 = 11-15 mmHg, group A4 16-20 mmHg, group A5 21-25 mmHg, group A6 26-30 mmHg, group A7 >31 mmHg). Mean values of jugular oxygen saturation (SJO2), jugular oxygen partial pressure (PJO2), extravascular lung water (EVLWi), pulmonary vascular permeability (PVPi), fluid overload (FO), and cerebral extraction of oxygen (CEO2) vary significantly from A3 (11-15 mmHg) to A4 (16-20 mmHg). They relate to ICP in a four-parameter sigmoidal function (4PS function with: r(2) = 0.90), inflection point of 15 mmHg of ICP, and a maximum curvature point on the left horizontal asymptote at 13 mmHg of ICP. Mean values of SJO2, PJO2, EVLWi, PVPi, FO, and CEO2 become pathologic at 15 mmHg of ICP; however, the curve turns steeper at 13 mmHg, possibly a warning level in children for the development of post head trauma secondary insult.

  18. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using standard and non-standard collection methods in 24 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Karin; Kutter, Annette Pn; Schefer, Rahel Jud; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Sigrist, Nadja

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine in-house reference intervals (RIs) for venous blood analysis with the RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas analyser using blood gas syringes (BGSs) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGSs. Methods Venous blood was collected from 24 healthy cats and directly transferred into a BGS and an LH tube. The BGS was immediately analysed on the RAPIDPoint 500 followed by the LH tube. The BGSs and LH tubes were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok analysis. To assess clinical relevance, bias or percentage bias between BGSs and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa) recommended for the respective parameter. Results Based on the values obtained from the BGSs, RIs were calculated for the evaluated parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate, while pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap were significantly different to the samples collected in BGSs ( P glucose and lactate can be made based on blood collected in LH tubes and analysed within 5 mins. For pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, anion gap and ionised calcium the clinically relevant alterations have to be considered if analysed in LH tubes.

  19. Effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture on blood oxygenation and vascularity of head-and-neck tumors as measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijpkema, Mark; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Joosten, Frank; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Heerschap, Arend

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: For head-and-neck tumors, breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture and administration of nicotinamide has been shown to result in a significantly improved tumor response to accelerated radiotherapy (ARCON, Accelerated Radiotherapy with CarbOgen and Nicotinamide). This may be caused by improved tumor oxygenation, possibly mediated by vascular effects. In this study, both blood oxygenation and vascular effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture (98% O 2 +2% CO 2 ) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with head-and-neck tumors. Methods and Materials: Tumor vascularity and oxygenation were investigated by dynamic gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI, respectively. Eleven patients with primary head-and-neck tumors were each measured twice; with and without breathing the hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture. Results: BOLD MR imaging revealed a significant increase of the MRI time constant of transverse magnetization decay (T 2 *) in the tumor during hypercapnic hyperoxygenation, which correlates to a decrease of the deoxyhemoglobin concentration. No changes in overall tumor vascularity were observed, as measured by the gadolinium contrast uptake rate in the tumor. Conclusion: Breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture improves tumor blood oxygenation in patients with head-and-neck tumors, which may contribute to the success of the ARCON therapy

  20. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  1. Droplet digital PCR combined with minisequencing, a new approach to analyze fetal DNA from maternal blood: application to the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhant, Lucie; Anselem, Olivia; Fradin, Mélanie; Becker, Pierre Hadrien; Beugnet, Caroline; Deburgrave, Nathalie; Tafuri, Gilles; Letourneur, Franck; Goffinet, François; Allach El Khattabi, Laïla; Leturcq, France; Bienvenu, Thierry; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Nectoux, Juliette

    2016-05-01

    Achondroplasia is generally detected by abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings in the third trimester of pregnancy and then confirmed by molecular genetic testing of fetal genomic DNA obtained by aspiration of amniotic fluid. This invasive procedure presents a small but significant risk for both the fetus and mother. Therefore, non-invasive procedures using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma have been developed for the detection of the fetal achondroplasia mutations. To determine whether the fetus carries the de novo mis-sense genetic mutation at nucleotide 1138 in FGFR3 gene involved in >99% of achondroplasia cases, we developed two independent methods: digital-droplet PCR combined with minisequencing, which are very sensitive methods allowing detection of rare alleles. We collected 26 plasmatic samples from women carrying fetus at risk of achondroplasia and diagnosed to date a total of five affected fetuses in maternal blood. The sensitivity and specificity of our test are respectively 100% [95% confidence interval, 56.6-100%] and 100% [95% confidence interval, 84.5-100%]. This novel, original strategy for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia is suitable for implementation in routine clinical testing and allows considering extending the applications of these technologies in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of many other monogenic diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-09-15

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery.

  3. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350) or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cláudio Luís Nina; Ribeiro Filho, José Dantas; Faleiros, Rafael Resende; Dantas, Fernanda Timbó D'el Rey; Amorim, Lincoln da Silva; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following tr...

  4. Influence of artificially aged gas diffusion layers on the water management of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells analyzed with in-operando synchrotron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Tobias; Klages, Merle; Messerschmidt, Matthias; Scholta, Joachim; Manke, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    The influence of artificial ageing of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) on the cell performance was investigated using high resolution synchrotron radiography. State-of-the-art GDLs of the type SIGRACET ® SGL 25BC were aged for 0 h, 16 h and 24 h in a hydrogen peroxide solution before they were assembled in the fuel cells. In-operando radiographic measurements were combined with voltage and contact angle measurements. Correlations between applied ageing conditions, GDL water saturation and cell performance were revealed. Hereby, all cell operating conditions were tested several times to estimate the reproducibility of in-operando radiographic fuel cell measurements. Water films at the GDL-membrane and at the GDL-flow field interfaces were found and attributed to MPL cracks and large pores in the GDL structure. The combination of these cracks and pores are assumed to play a crucial role for blocked gas paths, leading to an undersupply with reactants and an increased humidification of the membrane. It is shown that water agglomerations directly impact the membrane resistance. We assume that the hydrophobicity of the fibers inside the GDL is more important for the cell performance than water agglomerations at the membrane-GDL interface. - Highlights: • Influence of ageing of gas diffusion layers on cell performance was investigated. • Cell performance decreased using artificially aged GDLs. • Performance decrease correlated to altered water distribution. • Reproducibility of water thickness measurements with synchrotron imaging.

  5. National surveys on internal quality control for blood gas analysis and related electrolytes in clinical laboratories of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Min; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; Zhang, Chuanbao; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-05-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) is essential for precision evaluation and continuous quality improvement. This study aims to investigate the IQC status of blood gas analysis (BGA) in clinical laboratories of China from 2014 to 2017. IQC information on BGA (including pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-) was submitted by external quality assessment (EQA) participant laboratories and collected through Clinet-EQA reporting system in March from 2014 to 2017. First, current CVs were compared among different years and measurement systems. Then, percentages of laboratories meeting five allowable imprecision specifications for each analyte were calculated, respectively. Finally, laboratories were divided into different groups based on control rules and frequency to compare their variation trend. The current CVs of BGA were significantly decreasing from 2014 to 2017. pH and pCO2 got the highest pass rates when compared with the minimum imprecision specification, whereas pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- got the highest pass rates when 1/3 TEa imprecision specification applied. The pass rates of pH, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- were significantly increasing during the 4 years. The comparisons of current CVs among different measurement systems showed that the precision performance of different analytes among different measurement systems had no regular distribution from 2014 to 2017. The analysis of IQC practice indicated great progress and improvement among different years. The imprecision performance of BGA has improved from 2014 to 2017, but the status of imprecision performance in China remains unsatisfying. Therefore, further investigation and continuous improvement measures should be taken.

  6. Usefulness of Clinical Prediction Rules, D-dimer, and Arterial Blood Gas Analysis to Predict Pulmonary Embolism in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Awan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pulmonary embolism (PE is seven times more common in cancer patients than non-cancer patients. Since the existing clinical prediction rules (CPRs were validated predominantly in a non-cancer population, we decided to look at the utility of arterial blood gas (ABG analysis and D-dimer in predicting PE in cancer patients. Methods: Electronic medical records were reviewed between December 2005 and November 2010. A total of 177 computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPAs were performed. We selected 104 individuals based on completeness of laboratory and clinical data. Patients were divided into two groups, CTPA positive (patients with PE and CTPA negative (PE excluded. Wells score, Geneva score, and modified Geneva score were calculated for each patient. Primary outcomes of interest were the sensitivities, specificities, positive, and negative predictive values for all three CPRs. Results: Of the total of 104 individuals who had CTPAs, 33 (31.7% were positive for PE and 71 (68.3% were negative. There was no difference in basic demographics between the two groups. Laboratory parameters were compared and partial pressure of oxygen was significantly lower in patients with PE (68.1 mmHg vs. 71 mmHg, p = 0.030. Clinical prediction rules showed good sensitivities (88−100% and negative predictive values (93−100%. An alveolar-arterial (A-a gradient > 20 had 100% sensitivity and negative predictive values. Conclusions: CPRs and a low A-a gradient were useful in excluding PE in cancer patients. There is a need for prospective trials to validate these results.

  7. Accuracy of noninvasive multiwave pulse oximetry compared with carboxyhemoglobin from blood gas analysis in unselected emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Dominik; Herkner, Harald; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Hubmann, Nina; Gamper, Gunnar; Laggner, Anton N; Havel, Christof

    2011-07-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is difficult because of nonspecific symptoms. Multiwave pulse oximetry might facilitate the screening for occult poisoning by noninvasive measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), but its reliability is still unknown. We assess bias and precision of COHb oximetry compared with the criterion standard blood gas analysis. This was a prospective diagnostic accuracy study according to STARD (Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies) criteria, performed at a tertiary care hospital emergency department. We included all patients for whom both invasive and noninvasive measurement within 60 minutes was available, regardless of their complaints, during a 1-year period. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight subjects were studied, of whom 17 (1.1%) received a diagnosis of CO poisoning. In accordance with this limited patient cohort, we found a bias of 2.99% COHb (1.50% for smokers, 4.33% for nonsmokers) and a precision of 3.27% COHb (2.90% for smokers, 2.98% for nonsmokers), limits of agreement from -3.55% to 9.53% COHb (-4.30% to 7.30% for smokers, -1.63% to 10.29% for nonsmokers). Upper limit of normal cutoff of 6.6% COHb had the highest sensitivity in screening for CO poisoning. Smoking status and COHb level had the most influence on the deviation between measurements. Multiwave pulse oximetry was found to measure COHb with an acceptable bias and precision. These results suggest it can be used to screen large numbers of patients for occult CO poisoning. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of cage vs. floor litter environments on the pulmonary hypertensive response to intravenous endotoxin and on blood-gas values in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Erf, G F; Wideman, R F

    2002-11-01

    Intravenous endotoxin has been shown to trigger a delayed pulmonary hypertensive response that varies widely in magnitude and duration among individual broilers. It was proposed that this individual variability may reflect immunological differences acquired during previous respiratory challenges that might have subsequently altered the endotoxin-initiated biochemical cascade. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that, when compared with broilers reared in clean stainless steel cages (Cage group), broilers reared on floor litter (Floor group) should experience a greater respiratory challenge and therefore may consistently exhibit a more enhanced pulmonary hypertensive response to intravenous endotoxin. Birds in the Cage group were grown in stainless steel cages at a low density (72 birds/8 m2 chamber), and fecal and dander materials were removed daily. Birds in the Floor group were reared on wood-shavings litter at a higher density (110 birds/8 m2 chamber). Pulmonary and systemic mean arterial pressures and blood-gas values were evaluated prior to and following the intravenous administration of 1 mg Salmonella typhimurium endotoxin. Broilers in the Floor and Cage groups exhibited pulmonary hypertensive responses to endotoxin that were very similar in terms of time of onset, duration, and magnitude, as well as variability in the response among individuals. Systemic hypotension also developed similarly in both groups following endotoxin injection. Blood-gas values indicated that the partial pressure of CO2 and the HCO3- concentration in arterial blood were higher (P broilers, and confirmed the negative impact of floor rearing on blood-gas values. We conclude that broilers reared on the floor inhaled litter dust and noxious fumes, which impaired pulmonary gas exchange and increased the arterial partial pressure of CO2 when compared with broilers reared in clean stainless steel cages. Nevertheless, the pulmonary hypertensive response to endotoxin did not differ

  9. Analyzing natural gas distribution in Brazil through EVA (Economic Value Added); Analise economico-financeira da industria de distribuicao de gas natural brasileiro sob a otica da geracao de valor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando Rodrigues; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    Although the Brazilian gas market has been showing steady growth and positive news regarding new discoveries, it is not immune to be questioned about its capacity of value generation, and, in particular, if the new companies, operating in distribution have generated it. Value creation, and its management, has become one of the main activities of the modern corporation in order to align the management and shareholders interests. Despite its advancements, the Brazilian NG industry can be considered at its early stages when compared to those of other countries whose industry is more traditional and mature. The process of unbundling of the gas industry, as well as of the public utilities, has become one of the icons of the Brazilian government policies since the mid 90's. Taking into account regulatory change which had only allowed in the last couple of decades the participation of private ownership into the domestic gas market, a follow up of these companies' performances is of interest. Following the concept of value generation, the present study examines the Brazilian gas distribution sector. Based on a detailed analysis of the financial statements of some of the main companies in the sector, that together represent around 68% of the total Brazilian market, this paper verifies whether the gas distribution sector have presented a positive or negative EVA{sup R}, in other words, if, during the period from 2002 to 2007, these newly companies in the gas industry have created or destroyed value in Brazil. (author)

  10. Part I. Analyzing the distribution of gas law questions in chemistry textbooks. Part II. Chlorine-35 NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Gabriel

    Part I. Two studies involving the gas law questions in eight high school and Advanced Placement/college chemistry textbooks were performed using loglinear analysis to look for associations among six variables. These variables included Bloom's Taxonomy (higher-order, lower-order), Book Type (high school, college), Question Format (multiple-choice, problem, short answer), Question Placement (in-chapter, end-of-chapter, test bank), Representation (macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and Arkansas Science Standard (conceptual, mathematical; gas laws, pressure conversion, stoichiometry). The first study, involving the conceptual gas law questions, found the Book Type and Question Placement variables had the biggest impact, each appearing in 5 of the 11 significant associations. The second study, involving the mathematical gas law questions, found the Question Placement had the biggest impact, appearing in 7 of the 11 significant associations, followed by Book Type and the Arkansas Science Standard variables, which appeared in 5 of the 11 significant associations. These studies showed that compared to the high school books, college books have fewer multiple-choice questions (compared to short-answer and problem questions), fewer in-chapter questions (compared to end-of-chapter and test bank questions), fewer questions in the chapters and more questions at the end of the chapters and fewer multiple-choice questions in and at the end of the books and more multiple-choice questions in the test banks. Part II. The dichloromethanesulfonate salts of several +1 charged cations, M+Cl2CHSO3 - (M = Li, Na, K, Rb Ag, Cs Tl) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, which was neutralized with the metal carbonates to produce the corresponding metal dichloromethanesulfonate salts. This study completed the NQR investigation of the family of chloroacetates

  11. Combining density functional theory (DFT) and collision cross-section (CCS) calculations to analyze the gas-phase behaviour of small molecules and their protonation site isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmans, Jasper; Jacobs, Sam; Williams, Jonathan P; Palmer, Martin; Richardson, Keith; Giles, Kevin; Lapthorn, Cris; Herrebout, Wouter A; Lemière, Filip; Sobott, Frank

    2016-06-20

    Electrospray ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) data show that for some small molecules, two (or even more) ions with identical sum formula and mass, but distinct drift times are observed. In spite of showing their own unique and characteristic fragmentation spectra in MS/MS, no configurational or constitutional isomers are found to be present in solution. Instead the observation and separation of such ions appears to be inherent to their gas-phase behaviour during ion mobility experiments. The origin of multiple drift times is thought to be the result of protonation site isomers ('protomers'). Although some important properties of protomers have been highlighted by other studies, correlating the experimental collision cross-sections (CCSs) with calculated values has proven to be a major difficulty. As a model, this study uses the pharmaceutical compound melphalan and a number of related molecules with alternative (gas-phase) protonation sites. Our study combines density functional theory (DFT) calculations with modified MobCal methods (e.g. nitrogen-based Trajectory Method algorithm) for the calculation of theoretical CCS values. Calculated structures can be linked to experimentally observed signals, and a strong correlation is found between the difference of the calculated dipole moments of the protomer pairs and their experimental CCS separation.

  12. Comparison study of the rates of manual peripheral blood smear review from 3 automated hematology analyzers, Unicel DxH 800, ADVIA 2120i, and XE 2100, using international consensus group guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sue Jung; Kim, Yoonjung; Shin, Saeam; Song, Jaewoo; Choi, Jong Rak

    2012-11-01

    In the clinical laboratory, it is important both to reduce the number of peripheral blood slide reviews to save time and money and to avoid reporting false results. To determine differences in the slide review rates of 3 widely used automated hematologic analyzers, the Unicel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter Inc, Fullerton, California), ADVIA 2120i (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, New York), and XE 2100 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan), using International Consensus Group for Hematology Review guidelines. A total of 1485 samples were tested, and 300 were manually reviewed. Slide review rates, sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive and false-negative rates were estimated using consensus group rules and compared using χ(2) tests, Fisher exact tests, or generalized estimating equations. Unicel DxH 800, ADVIA 2120i, and XE 2100 showed 22.8%, 20.2%, and 28.6% slide review rates; 14.3%, 14.3%, and 9.7% false-negative rates; and 13.7, 11.3%, and 17.3% false-positive rates, respectively. All analyzers showed significantly higher false-negative rates than that of the consensus group (2.9%). False-negative rates were higher than the recommended levels. Among 3 automated hematologic analyzers, XE 2100 showed the highest rate of slide review. Because the present study clearly shows that the slide review rates have distinct characteristics among the studied analyzers, each individual laboratory should consider selecting the most appropriate analyzer according to clinical characteristics. Analyzers with high sensitivity may be advantageous in outpatient settings for screening patients, whereas analyzers with high specificity may be beneficial in inpatient settings for efficient patient care.

  13. Optofluidic Sensor for Inline Hemolysis Detection on Whole Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chen; Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Zhu, Xiaolong

    2018-01-01

    Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells and constitutes the most common reason for unsuitable blood samples in the clinic. To detect hemolysis, one has to separate the hemoglobin in blood plasma from that in red blood cells. However, current methods entail centrifugation for cell......-time inline detection on whole blood without extra sample preparation like centrifugation. Long-term testing with inline integration in a modified, commercial blood gas analyzer shows high reliability and repeatability of the measurements even with the presence of interference from bilirubin. We envision...... that the present work has large potential in improving diagnosis quality by enabling PoC hemolysis detection in blood gas analyzers and can also lend unique sensing capabilities to other applications dealing with complex turbid media....

  14. A selective and sensitive method for quantitation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in whole blood by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libong, Danielle; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Ricordel, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    A gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ion trap MS-MS) method for detection and quantitation of LSD in whole blood is presented. The sample preparation process, including a solid-phase extraction step with Bond Elut cartridges, was performed with 2 mL of whole blood. Eight microliters of the purified extract was injected with a cold on-column injection method. Positive chemical ionization was performed using acetonitrile as reagent gas; LSD was detected in the MS-MS mode. The chromatograms obtained from blood extracts showed the great selectivity of the method. GC-MS quantitation was performed using lysergic acid methylpropylamide as the internal standard. The response of the MS was linear for concentrations ranging from 0.02 ng/mL (detection threshold) to 10.0 ng/mL. Several parameters such as the choice of the capillary column, the choice of the internal standard and that of the ionization mode (positive CI vs. EI) were rationalized. Decomposition pathways under both ionization modes were studied. Within-day and between-day stability were evaluated.

  15. Effect of different dosages of nitroglycerin infusion on arterial blood gas tensions in patients undergoing on- pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Gholamreza; Pour, Evaz Hidar; Sadeghpour, Ali; Ziayeefard, Mohsen; Alavi, Mostapha; Anbardan, Sanam Javid; Shirani, Shahin

    2012-02-01

    On-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery impairs gas exchange in the early postoperative period. The main object on this study was evaluation of changes in arterial blood gas values in patients underwent on pump CABG surgery receiving different dose of intravenous nitroglycerin (NTG). sixty-seven consecutive patients undergoing elective on-pump CABG randomly enrolled into three groups receiving NTG 50 μg/min (Group N1, n =67), 100 μg/min (Group N2, n = 67), and 150 μg/min (Group N3, n = 67). Arterial blood gas (ABG) tensions were evaluated just before induction of anesthesia, during anesthesia, at the end of warming up period, and 6 h after admission to the intensive care unit. Pao2 and PH had the highest value during surgery in Group N1, Group N2, and Group N3. No significant difference was noted in mean values of Pao2 and PH during surgery between three groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in HCO3 values in different time intervals among three groups (P > 0.05). our results showed that infusing three different dosage of NTG (50, 100, and 150 μg/min) had no significant effect on ABG tensions in patients underwent on-pump CABG surgery.

  16. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Johannes B; Lehmann, Monika; Hofer, Stefan; Hüsing, Johannes; Alles, Catharina; Werner, Jens; Stiller, Jürgen; Künnecke, Wolfgang; Luntz, Steffen; Motsch, Johann; Weigand, Markus A

    2012-09-22

    Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA). In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU) study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already available. However, none of these devices were successful in

  17. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Johannes B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA. Methods/design In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Discussion Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already

  18. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  19. Modeling and analyzing the effects of heat treatment on the characteristics of magnesium alloy joint welded by the tungsten-arc inert gas welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Te-Chang; Chou, Chih-Chung; Tsai, Deng-Maw; Chiang, Ko-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The mathematical model was provided to study the effect of heat treatment on the magnesium alloy welded joint. → The solution strengthening effect of β-phase Mg 17 Al 12 gain promotes the strengthening matrix and ductility of hcp-α-phase Mg. → The average size and proportion of α-phase Mg grain decreases with the increase of the tempering time and temperature. → An increase in the high value of tempering temperature and tempering time leads to increase the maximum tensile strength. → The values of the elongation increases with increasing in both the value of tempering temperature and tempering time. -- Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present the mathematical models for modeling and analysis of the effects of heat treatment on the characteristics of magnesium alloy joint welded by the tungsten-arc inert gas (TIG) welding. The process of heat treatment adopts the tempering process with varying processing parameters, including tempering temperature and tempering time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint are considered in the characteristic evaluation and explored by experiment. An experimental plan of the face-centered central composite design (CCD) based on the response surface methodology (RSM) has been employed to carry out the experimental study. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparisons of experimental data show that the mathematical models of the value of the maximum tensile strength and elongation are fairly well fitted with the experimental values with a 95% confidence interval. In the tempering process, the microstructure of welded joint in the weld bead displays two main microstructures of hcp-α-phase Mg and bcc-β-phase Mg 17 Al 12 . Results show that the average size and proportion of α-phase Mg grains decreases with the increase of the tempering time and temperature. But, the increase of the tempering time and temperature promote increasing the average size and

  20. A sequential input–output framework to analyze the economic and environmental implications of energy policies: Gas taxes and fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Hubacek, Klaus; Nader, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework integrates monetary and physical changes in sequential input–output analysis. • Estimate economy-wide environmental changes as a result of combined energy policies. • Life cycle resource consumption and emission data for the U.S. economic sectors are adopted. • Ecosystem impacts could increase as a consequence of combined gasoline tax and bio-subsidy. - Abstract: A novel generic sequential input–output framework is developed to model the economy-wide changes in resource consumption and environmental emissions as a result of combined applied energy policies, e.g. taxes for non-renewables and subsidies for renewables. Many input–output analyses are based on a single period analysis. However, in the case of analyzing the effects of multiple policy interventions over time, the input–output table reflecting the state of the economy before the energy policy was introduced cannot be used for analyzing the economic effects of another policy intervention in the next time period since the monetary and physical transaction of commodities have already been affected. To show the efficacy of the proposed method, a case study is developed that introduced a gasoline tax and earmarks the revenues to subsidize biofuel production in the subsequent time period in the United States. In order to assess the change of environmental indicators after sequential policy interventions, Ecologically-based Life Cycle Analysis (ECO-LCA) inventories which include data on resource consumption, emissions, ecosystem goods and services related to the U.S. economic sectors are adopted. The environmentally extended input–output framework is ideally suited to model the interlinkages between a range for environmental indicators and detailed structural economic information at the sector level for the analysis of energy policies. The proposed framework can be utilized as a tool for leveraging the energy and environmental policy trade-off decisions which

  1. Comparison of net CO2 fluxes measured with open- and closed-path infrared gas analyzers in an urban complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvi, L.; Mammarella, I.; Eugster, W.

    2009-01-01

    and their suitability to accurately measure CO2 exchange in such non-ideal landscape. In addition, this study examined the effect of open-path sensor heating on measured fluxes in urban terrain, and these results were compared with similar measurements made above a temperate beech forest in Denmark. The correlation...... between the two fluxes was good (R2 = 0.93) at the urban site, but during the measurement period the open-path net surface exchange (NSE) was 17% smaller than the closed-path NSE, indicating apparent additional uptake of CO2 by open-path measurements. At both sites, sensor heating corrections evidently...... improved the performance of the open-path analyzer by reducing discrepancies in NSE at the urban site to 2% and decreasing the difference in NSE from 67% to 7% at the forest site. Overall, the site-specific approach gave the best results at both sites and, if possible, it should be preferred in the sensor...

  2. Effects of xylazine on acid-base balance and arterial blood-gas tensions in goats under different environmental temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.M. Mogoa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to 3 different temperature and humidity conditions on arterial blood-gas and acid-base balance in goats were investigated after intravenous bolus administration of xylazine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the variables occurred under all 3 environmental conditions. Decreases in pH, partial pressure of oxygen and oxyhaemoglobin saturation were observed, and the minimum values for oxygen tension and oxyhaemoglobin saturation were observed within 5 min of xylazine administration. The pH decreased to its minimum values between 5 and 15 min. Thereafter, the variables started to return towards baseline, but did not reach baseline values at the end of the 60 min observation period. Increases in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide content, bicarbonate ion concentration, and the actual base excess were observed. The maximum increase in the carbon dioxide tension occurred within 5 min of xylazine administration. The increase in the actual base excess only became significant after 30 min in all 3 environments, and maximal increases were observed at 60 min. There were no significant differences between the variables in the 3 different environments. It was concluded that intravenous xylazine administration in goats resulted in significant changes in arterial blood-gas and acid-base balance that were associated with hypoxaemia and respiratory acidosis, followed by metabolic alkalosis that continued for the duration of the observation period. Acute exposure to different environmental temperature and humidity conditions after xylazine administration did not influence the changes in arterial blood-gas and acid-base balance.

  3. cGAS-mediated control of blood-stage malaria promotes Plasmodium-specific germinal center responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, William O; Butler, Noah S; Lindner, Scott E; Akilesh, Holly M; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan Hi; Hamerman, Jessica A; Gale, Michael; Liles, W Conrad; Pepper, Marion

    2018-01-25

    Sensing of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors is essential for activating the immune response during infection. We used a nonlethal murine model of malaria (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) to assess the contribution of the pattern recognition receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to the development of humoral immunity. Despite previous reports suggesting a critical, intrinsic role for cGAS in early B cell responses, cGAS-deficient (cGAS-/-) mice had no defect in the early expansion or differentiation of Plasmodium-specific B cells. As the infection proceeded, however, cGAS-/- mice exhibited higher parasite burdens and aberrant germinal center and memory B cell formation when compared with littermate controls. Antimalarial drugs were used to further demonstrate that the disrupted humoral response was not B cell intrinsic but instead was a secondary effect of a loss of parasite control. These findings therefore demonstrate that cGAS-mediated innate-sensing contributes to parasite control but is not intrinsically required for the development of humoral immunity. Our findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of pathogen burden in investigations examining how the innate immune system affects the adaptive immune response.

  4. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method.

  5. Involvement of placental/umbilical cord blood acid-base status and gas values on the radiosensitivity of human fetal/neonatal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Ebina, Satoko; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Arterial cord blood (CB) acid-base status and gas values, such as pH, PCO 2 , PO 2 , HCO 3 - and base excess, provide useful information on the fetal and neonatal condition. However, it remains unknown whether these values affect the radiosensitivity of fetal/neonatal hematopoiesis. The present study evaluated the relationship between arterial CB acid-base status, gas values, and the radiosensitivity of CB hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). A total of 25 CB units were collected. The arterial CB acid-base status and gas values were measured within 30 min of delivery. The CD34 + HSPCs obtained from CB were exposed to 2 Gy X-irradiation, and then assayed for colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage, burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E), and colony-forming unit-granulocyte erythroid, macrophage and megakaryocyte cells. Acid-base status and gas values for PCO 2 and HCO 3 - showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the surviving fraction of BFU-E. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between gestational age and PCO 2 . Moreover, the surviving fraction of BFU-E showed a significant negative correlation with gestational age. Thus, HSPCs obtained from CB with high PCO 2 /HCO 3 - levels were sensitive to X-irradiation, which suggests that the status of arterial PCO 2 /HCO 3 - influences the radiosensitivity of fetal/neonatal hematopoiesis, especially erythropoiesis. (author)

  6. [Application of continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring system "Paratrend 7" for pulmonary lavage of a patient with alveolar proteinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, M; Hirose, Y; Gamo, M; Hirose, M; Fujiwara, C; Matsuo, K

    1999-03-01

    We applied a continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring system (Paratrend 7) to a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis during pulmonary lavage. Lavage was performed under general anesthesia with one lung ventilation. We inserted the sensor of Patatrend 7 through a 20 G catheter into the radial artery, and monitored pH, PaCO2 and PaO2 continuously throughout the procedure. SpO2 and EtCO2 were also monitored. Saline 1000-1500 ml was instilled and drained repeatedly by volume limited methods. PaO2 values by Paratrend 7 increased during instillation and decreased during drainage of the irrigating fluid. In contrast, PaCO2 value by Paratrend 7 decreased slightly during instillation and increased during drainage. The change of SpO2 was almost the same as that by Paratrend 7, but the response time of pulse oxymetry was a little quicker than Paratrend 7. During the lavage procedure, respiratory and circulatory condition changed very rapidly, and it is necessary to monitor blood gas change intensively. Paratrend 7 is useful as a perioperative monitoring system, but pulse oxymetry might be sufficient during pulmonary lavage considering its cost.

  7. Effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Methods: Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who were treated in Meizhou Maternal and Child Heath Hospital between May 2014 and March 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the group A who received subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump and the group B who received intravenous small-dose insulin injection by micropump. The indexes of ketone body, blood gas and stress were measured before and after treatment. Results: 12 h and 24 h after treatment, serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those before treatment, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of group A were significantly lower than those of group B while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those of group B. Conclusion: Subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump can improve ketone body metabolism, acidosis status and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  8. Endogenous gas formation--an in vitro study with relevance to gas microemboli during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Lena; Engström, Karl Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    Gas embolism is an identified problem during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Our aim was to analyze the potential influence from gas solubility based on simple physical laws, here called endogenous gas embolism. Gas solubility decreases at higher temperature and gas bubbles are presumably formed at CPB warming. An experimental model to measure gas release was designed. Medium (water or blood retrieved from mediastinal drains, 14.6 mL) was incubated and equilibrated with gas (air, 100% oxygen, or 5% carbon dioxide in air) at low temperature (10 degrees C or 23 degrees C). At warming to 37 degrees C, gas release was digitally measured. Also, the effect of fluid motion was evaluated. At warming, the medium became oversaturated with dissolved gas. When fluid motion was applied, gas was released to form bubbles. This was exemplified by a gas release of .45% (.31/.54, medians and quartile range, volume percent, p = .007) and 1.26% (1.14/ 1.33, p = .003) when blood was warmed from 23 degrees C or 10 degrees C to 37 degrees C, respectively (carbon dioxide 5% in air). Consistent findings were seen for water and with the other types of gas exposure. The theory of endogenous gas embolization was confirmed with gas being released at warming. The endogenous gas formation demonstrated a dynamic pattern with oversaturation and with rapid gas released at fluid motion. The gas release at warming was substantial, in particular when the results were extrapolated to full-scale CPB conditions. The interference from endogenous gas formation should be considered in parallel to external sources of gas microemboli. cardiopulmonary bypass, gas embolization, microemboli, gas solubility, temperature.

  9. Clinical, blood gas and biochemical profile of diarrheic dairy calves fed starter concentrate containing citrus pulp as a replacement for corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cezar Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, gas analysis, and metabolic effects of diarrhea in milk-fed calves consuming starter feed containing citrus pulp (CP as a replacement for corn. Twenty-four newborn Holstein male calves were distributed into treatments according to starter composition: (1 0% CP, (2 32% CP, (3 64% CP, on dry matter basis. The calves were housed in individual hutches, with free access to water and concentrate, and received 4 L/d of milk replacer. After diarrhea diagnosis, evaluations of fecal score, score of clinical signs and measurement of physiological parameters were performed three times a day during 3-d. Blood samples were collected for electrolytes, blood gases, and plasma biochemical analysis. Starter feed composition had no negative effect (P>0.05 on fecal score, characteristics of diarrheic stools and on the aggravation of diarrhea clinical signs. Biochemical, blood gases and electrolytes changes, as a function of starter composition, did not resulted (P>0.05 in dehydration, acidosis, or other metabolic disturbance animals. Total lactate and D-lactate plasma concentrations were higher for calves on control and 64% CP, and L-lactate was highest for the 64% CP; however, calves showed no signs of metabolic acidosis. Thermal comfort indexes influenced clinical and physiological parameters (P<0.05. Citrus pulp may replace corn in starter composition without prejudice to intestinal health or metabolism of young diarrheic calves.

  10. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  11. Effects of dystocia on blood gas parameters, acid-base balance and serum lactate concentration in heavy draft newborn foals

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIMURA, Yuki; AOKI, Takahiro; CHIBA, Akiko; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dystocia is often lethal for neonatal foals; however, its clinicopathological features remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of dystocia on the foal blood profile. Venous blood samples were collected from 35 foals (5 Percheron and 30 crossbreds between Percheron, Belgian, and Breton heavy draft horses) at 0 hr, 1 hr, 12 hr and 1 day after birth. Dystocia was defined as prolonged labor >30 min with strong fetal traction with or without fetal displacement. The dystocia group (n=13) showed lower mean values for pH (P90 mmHg) were observed in three foals in the dystocia group but in none of the foals in the normal birth group immediately after birth. These results suggest that dystocia results in lactic acidosis and may be related to respiratory distress. PMID:28400704

  12. Effect of body weight loss on cardiopulmonary function assessed by 6-minute walk test and arterial blood gas analysis in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manens, J; Ricci, R; Damoiseaux, C; Gault, S; Contiero, B; Diez, M; Clercx, C

    2014-01-01

    Few studies show the detrimental effect of canine obesity on cardiopulmonary function (CPF). The 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is a noninvasive exercise test easy to perform in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity and body weight loss (BWL) on CPF assessed by the 6MWT and arterial blood gas analysis. Six experimental Beagles and 9 privately owned obese dogs were enrolled in a diet-induced BWL program. Arterial blood gas analysis and 6MWT were repeated in obese subjects (BCS 8-9/9), in the middle of BWL (overweight, BCS 6-7/9), and in lean dogs (BCS 5/9). Heart rate (HRp) and oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) were measured by pulse oximetry before the 6MWT, at midtest, and during a 5-minute recovery period. Twelve dogs completed the BWL program (initial BW, 27.3 ± 2.9 kg; final BW, 20.85 ± 2.9, lsmeans ± SE, P ≤ .001). BWL caused a significant increase in 6MWT walked distance (WD; obese: 509 ± 35 m; overweight: 575 ± 36 m; lean: 589 ± 36 m; P ≤ .05). Resting arterial blood gas results were not influenced by BWL. Including all time points, obese dogs showed higher HRp and lower SpO2 compared to overweight and lean dogs. SpO2 at the end of the walk was significantly lower in obese dogs. Obesity negatively affects 6MWT performances in dogs. The 6MWT may be used to demonstrate the efficacy of BWL to improve CPF and quality of life in obese dogs. Although BWL induced significant improvement of cardiopulmonary parameters before ideal BW, WD improved until the end of the BWL program. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Effect of pectin, lecithin, and antacid feed supplements (Egusin®) on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH and blood gas values in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two commercial feed supplements, Egusin 250® [E-250] and Egusin SLH® [E-SLH], on gastric ulcer scores, gastric fluid pH, and blood gas values in stall-confined horses undergoing feed-deprivation. Methods Nine Thoroughbred horses were used in a three-period crossover study. For the three treatment groups, sweet feed was mixed with E-250, E-SLH, or nothing (control group) and fed twice daily. Horses were treated for 21 days, then an additional 7 days while on an alternating feed-deprivation model to induce or worsen ulcers (period one). In periods two and three, horses (n=6) were treated for an additional 7 days after feed-deprivation. Gastroscopies were performed on day -1 (n=9), day 21 (n=9), day 28 (n=9) and day 35 (n=6). Gastric juice pH was measured and gastric ulcer scores were assigned. Venous blood gas values were also measured. Results Gastric ulcers in control horses significantly decreased after 21 days, but there was no difference in ulcer scores when compared to the Egusin® treated horses. NG gastric ulcer scores significantly increased in E-250 and control horses on day 28 compared to day 21 as a result of intermittent feed-deprivation, but no treatment effect was observed. NG ulcer scores remained high in the control group but significantly decreased in the E-SLH- and E-250-treated horses by day 35. Gastric juice pH values were low and variable and no treatment effect was observed. Mean blood pCO2 values were significantly increased two hours after feeding in treated horses compared to controls, whereas mean blood TCO2 values increased in the 24 hour sample, but did not exceed 38 mmol/l. Conclusions The feed-deprivation model increased NG gastric ulcer severity in the horses. However, by day 35, Egusin® treated horses had less severe NG gastric ulcers compared to untreated control horses. After 35 days, Egusin® products tested here ameliorate the severity of gastric ulcers in

  14. Liquid phase separation of proteins based on electrophoretic effects in an electrospray setup during sample introduction into a gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (CE–GEMMA/CE–ES–DMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Victor U.; Kerul, Lukas; Kallinger, Peter; Szymanski, Wladyslaw W.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle characterization is gaining importance in food technology, biotechnology, medicine, and pharmaceutical industry. An instrument to determine particle electrophoretic mobility (EM) diameters in the single-digit to double-digit nanometer range receiving increased attention is the gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (GEMMA) separating electrophoretically single charged analytes in the gas-phase at ambient pressure. A fused-silica capillary is used for analyte transfer to the gas-phase by means of a nano electrospray (ES) unit. The potential of this capillary to separate analytes electrophoretically in the liquid phase due to different mobilities is, at measurement conditions recommended by the manufacturer, eliminated due to elevated pressure applied for sample introduction. Measurements are carried out upon constant feeding of analytes to the system. Under these conditions, aggregate formation is observed for samples including high amounts of non-volatile components or complex samples. This makes the EM determination of individual species sometimes difficult, if not impossible. With the current study we demonstrate that liquid phase electrophoretic separation of proteins (as exemplary analytes) occurs in the capillary (capillary zone electrophoresis, CE) of the nano ES unit of the GEMMA. This finding was consecutively applied for on-line desalting allowing EM diameter determination of analytes despite a high salt concentration within samples. The present study is to our knowledge the first report on the use of the GEMMA to determine EM diameters of analytes solubilized in the ES incompatible electrolyte solutions by the intended use of electrophoresis (in the liquid phase) during sample delivery. Results demonstrate the proof of concept of such an approach and additionally illustrate the high potential of a future on-line coupling of a capillary electrophoresis to a GEMMA instrument. PMID:25109866

  15. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H. K.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m2, were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P hens. PMID:27578881

  16. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Tran, Hoainam; Kim, Inho

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics can serve as alternatives to antibiotics to increase the performance of weaning pigs, and the intake of probiotics is affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a probiotic complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. From day 22 to day 42, both high-nutrient-density and probiotic complex supplementation diets increased (P probiotic complex supplementation diets had higher (P probiotic complex supplementation diets. Interactive effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed from day 22 to day 42 and overall, where probiotic complex improved ADFI more dramatically in low-nutrient-density diets. The beneficial effects of probiotic complex (Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium butyricum) supplementation on ADFI is more dramatic with low-nutrient-density diets. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  18. Linking Ventilator Injury-Induced Leak across the Blood-Gas Barrier to Derangements in Murine Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford J. Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is vital to the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, but it frequently leads to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in the development of VILI is an essential prerequisite for improving lung-protective ventilation strategies. The goal of this study was to relate the amount and nature of material accumulated in the airspaces to biomarkers of injury and the derecruitment behavior of the lung in VILI. Forty-nine BALB/c mice were mechanically ventilated with combinations of tidal volume and end-expiratory pressures to produce varying degrees of overdistension and atelectasis while lung function was periodically assessed. Total protein, serum protein, and E-Cadherin levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Tissue injury was assessed by histological scoring. We found that both high tidal volume and zero positive end-expiratory pressure were necessary to produce significant VILI. Increased BALF protein content was correlated with increased lung derecruitability, elevated peak pressures, and histological evidence of tissue injury. Blood derived molecules were present in the BALF in proportion to histological injury scores and epithelial injury, reflected by E-Cadherin levels in BALF. We conclude that repetitive recruitment is an important factor in the pathogenesis of VILI that exacerbates injury associated with tidal overdistension. Furthermore, the dynamic mechanical behavior of the injured lung provides a means to assess both the degree of tissue injury and the nature and amount of blood-derived fluid and proteins that accumulate in the airspaces.

  19. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luís Nina Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following treatments: NaCl (0.9% sodium chloride solution; EES (enteral electrolyte solution, EES+LR (EES plus lactated Ringer's solution; PEG (balanced solution with PEG 3350 and PEG+LR (PEG plus lactated Ringer's solution. Treatments PEG or PEG + LR did not change or promoted minimal changes, while the EES caused a slight decrease in pH, but its association with lactated Ringer's solution induced increase in AG and SID values, as well as caused hypernatremia. In turn, the treatment NaCl generated metabolic acidosis. PEG 3350 did not alter the acid-base balance. Despite it's slight acidifying effect, the enteral electrolyte solution (EES did not cause clinically relevant changes.

  20. Role of central and peripheral opiate receptors in the effects of fentanyl on analgesia, ventilation and arterial blood-gas chemistry in conscious rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Fraser; May, Walter J.; Gruber, Ryan B.; Discala, Joseph F.; Puscovic, Veljko; Young, Alex P.; Baby, Santhosh M.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of the peripherally restricted µ-opiate receptor (µ-OR) antagonist, naloxone methiodide (NLXmi) on fentanyl (25 µg/kg, i.v.)-induced changes in (1) analgesia, (2) arterial blood gas chemistry (ABG) and alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient), and (3) ventilatory parameters, in conscious rats. The fentanyl-induced increase in analgesia was minimally affected by a 1.5 mg/kg of NLXmi but was attenuated by a 5.0 mg/kg dose. Fentanyl decreased arterial blood pH, pO2 and sO2 and increased pCO2 and A-a gradient. These responses were markedly diminished in NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg)-pretreated rats. Fentanyl caused ventilatory depression (e.g., decreases in tidal volume and peak inspiratory flow). Pretreatment with NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg, i.v.) antagonized the fentanyl decrease in tidal volume but minimally affected the other responses. These findings suggest that (1) the analgesia and ventilatory depression caused by fentanyl involve peripheral µ-ORs and (2) NLXmi prevents the fentanyl effects on ABG by blocking the negative actions of the opioid on tidal volume and A-a gradient. PMID:24284037

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with ischemic stroke studied with high resolution pet and the O-15 labelled gas steady-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, K.; Shishido, F.; Inugami, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Ogawa, T.; Murakami, M.; Kanno, I.; Tagawa, K.; Yasui, N.

    1986-01-01

    Although regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies have considerably increased pathophysiological knowledge in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, sometimes the results of such studies do not correlate with neurological abnormalities observed in the subjects being examined. Because regional neuronal activities always couple to the regional energy metabolism of brain tissue, simultaneous observation of rCBF and regional energy metabolism, such as regional oxygen consumption (rCMRO/sub 2/) and regional glucose consumption (rCMRG1), will provide greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease than rCBF study alone. Positron emission tomography (PET) using the 0-15 labelled gas steady-state method offers simultaneous measurement of rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in vivo, and demonstrates imbalance between rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in an ischemic lesion in a human brain. However, clinical PET studies in ischemic cerebrovascular disease reported previously, have been carried out using low resolution (more than 15 mm in the full width at half maximum; FWHM) PET. This report presents preliminary results using a high resolution tomograph; Headtome III and 0-15 labelled gas steady state method to investigate ischemic cerebrovascular disease

  2. Measuring arterial oxygenation in a high altitude field environment: comparing portable pulse oximetry with blood gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliot M; Matteucci, Michael J; Shepherd, Matthew; Barker, Matthew; Orr, Lance

    2013-06-01

    High altitude environments present unique medical treatment challenges. Medical providers often use small portable pulse oximetry devices to help guide their clinical decision making. A significant body of high altitude research is based on the use of these devices to monitor hypoxia, yet there is a paucity of evidence that these devices are accurate in these environments. We studied whether these devices perform accurately and reliably under true mountain conditions. Healthy unacclimatized active-duty military volunteers participating in mountain warfare training at 2100 m (6900 feet) above sea level were evaluated with several different pulse oximetry devices while in a cold weather, high altitude field environment and then had arterial blood gases (ABG) drawn using an i-STAT for comparison. The pulse oximeter readings were compared with the gold standard ABG readings. A total of 49 individuals completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference between any of the devices and the gold standard of ABG. The best performing device was the PalmSAT (PS) 8000SM finger probe with a mean difference of 2.17% and SD of 2.56 (95% CI, 1.42% to 2.92%). In decreasing order of performance were the PS 8000AA finger probe (mean ± SD, 2.54% ± 2.68%; 95% CI, 1.76% to 3.32%), the PS 8000Q ear probe (2.47% ± 4.36%; 95% CI, 1.21% to 3.75%), the Nonin Onyx 9500 (3.29% ± 3.12%; 95% CI, 2.39% to 4.20%), and finally the PS 8000R forehead reflectance sensor (5.15% ± 2.97%; 95% CI, 4.28% to 6.01%). Based on the results of this study, results of the newer portable pulse oximeters appear to be closely correlated to that of the ABG measurements when tested in true mountain conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  4. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Methods: A total of 76 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/ kg.d, continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg.d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg.d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, i.e. Ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. PaO2, PaCO2, P(A-aO2, and SaO2 before and after treatment were detected. FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO before and after treatment were determined. Results: PaO2, PaCO2, and SaO2 after treatment were significantly elevated, while P(A-aO2 was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment. The comparison of PaO2 and P(A-aO2 between the two groups was statistically significant, while the comparison of PaCO2 and SaO2 between the two groups was not statistically significant. After treatment, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. Conclusions: EGb in combined with prednisone in the treatment of IPF can effectively improve the arterial blood gas indicators and pulmonary function, and enhance the patients’ living qualities; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  5. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Separation and preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in blood samples by inclusion emulsion membranes and its determination by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra

    2012-10-15

    The nano-mediated preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from blood samples was reported by inclusion-facilitated emulsion liquid membrane process. The novelty of this study was application of nano-baskets of calixarene and emulsion liquid membranes in selective and efficient preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. For this aim, four derivatives of p-tert-calix[4]arene bearing different sulfonamide moieties were synthesized and their inclusion-extraction parameters were optimized including calixarenes' scaffold and concentration (3, 4 wt%), diluent type in membrane, phase and treat ratios (0.8 and 0.3), mixing speed (300 rpm), and initial solute concentrations (0.1-10 pg g(-1)). The extraction efficiency was determined by dioxin's concentration using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector and the results revealed that in optimized operating conditions, the preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was improved and the limit of detection decreased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysing persistent organic pollutants in eggs, blood and tissue of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwe, Jason Paul van de; Lee, Shing Yip [Griffith University, Griffith School of Environment and Australian Rivers Institute, Gold Coast, QLD (Australia); Hodge, Mary [Queensland Health Scientific Services, Queensland Government, Coopers Plains, QLD (Australia); Whittier, Joan Margaret [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biomedical Sciences

    2009-03-15

    Investigation into persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea turtles is an important area of conservation research due to the harmful effects of these chemicals. However, the analysis of POPs in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been limited by methods with relatively high limits of detection and high costs associated with multiple sample injections into complex arrangements of analytical equipment. The present study aimed to develop a method that could detect a large number of POPs in the blood, eggs and tissue of C. mydas at trace concentrations. A gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was developed that could report 125 POP compounds to a limit of detection of <35 pg g{sup -1} using a single sample injection. The recoveries of internal standards ranged from 30% to 96%, and the standard reference materials were reported to within 70% of the certified values. The coefficient of variation of ten replicates of pooled egg sample was <20% for all compounds, indicating low within-run variation. This GC-MS/MS method is an improvement of previous methods for analysing POPs in C. mydas in that more compounds can be reported at lower concentrations and the accuracy and precision of the method are sound. This is particularly important for C. mydas as they occupy a low trophic level and have lower concentrations of POPs. This method is also simple to set up, and there are minimal differences in sample preparation for the different tissue types. (orig.)

  8. Clinicopathologic analysis of Passeriform venous blood reflects transitions in elevation and habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heatley JJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Jennifer Cary,2 Karen E Russell,3 Gary Voelker2 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences and Texas A&M Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Jugular blood samples from 110 Passeriformes collected at several Texas locations were analyzed for multiple clinicopathologic parameters between April 2010 and August 2011. Electrolyte, blood gas, and select erythrocyte parameters were analyzed on site with a point of care analyzer, and gender, age, body condition score, location, and species were recorded. Many analytes exhibited a Gaussian distribution across species and are reported as a single range. Taxon affected electrolyte and red blood cell parameters, but not most blood gas or acid base variables. Migratory status affected select electrolytes but few blood gas variables. Red blood cell parameters were affected the most by variables of age, taxonomic group, and gender, but not migratory life history. We found significant changes in glucose and numerous acid base analytes in birds sampled from habitats with evolutionarily recent ecologic degradation. We advocate the use of these analytes, particularly venous blood gas values, as determined by a point of care analyzer, as reasonable biomarkers for determination of Passeriform population health, but also recommend that red blood cell parameters and electrolyte concentrations be controlled for age, species, and gender in future studies. Further, based on our investigation, venous blood gas values and acid base balance in Passeriformes can assess the health of an ecosystem. Keywords: avian, biochemistry, blood gas, electrolyte, hematology, Passerine

  9. Alarming levels of carboxyhemoglobin in banked blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Melissa; Labaze, Georges; Hanakova, Marcela; McCloskey, David; Wilner, George

    2009-06-01

    To determine the level of carboxyhemoglobin found in banked blood in the Albany, NY region. A retrospective descriptive analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in a series of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units. The blood bank of a university tertiary care hospital in Albany, NY. All PRBC units considered for possible use in pediatric cardiac surgery were first analyzed for levels of COHb. Only those units with COHb levels of <1.5% were deemed acceptable for use during pediatric cardiac surgery. A sample of blood drawn from the sample side arm of each PRBC unit was analyzed on a Chiron 855 Blood Gas Analyzer (Chiron Inc, Emeryville, CA, now Siemens/Bayer RapidLab 865) to determine the level of COHb. The average COHb level was 0.78% (standard deviation +/- 1.48%), and out of the 468 units tested, 48 (10.3%) had COHb levels of 1.5% or greater. The highest recorded COHb level was 12%. The transfusion of PRBC units may artificially elevate readings of COHb and cause confusion over possible causes. Certain high-risk populations (eg, cyanotic neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass) may be especially at risk. Although levels of COHb in the US blood supply are dropping, institutions may want to consider analyzing COHb levels in their PRBC units before transfusion in these high-risk populations.

  10. Effect of pregnancy on regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Mori, Norimasa

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) of 10 pregnant women were quantified by 133 Xe SPECT study with inhalation method before and after artificial abortion. During pregnancy, value of r-CBF in each region except occipital lobe was significantly higher than that of the post abortion. Arterial blood gas was analyzed after SPECT procedure. P co2 concentration increased significantly after artificial abortion. Although its mechanism is unknown, our preliminary work demonstrates that r-CBF increased by pregnancy. (author)

  11. Validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analyzing LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD, and O-H-LSD in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Angela; Hudson, John; McKay, Gordon

    2009-06-01

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Forensic Science and Identification Services was looking for a confirmatory method for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). As a result, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was validated for the confirmation and quantitation of LSD, iso-LSD, N-demethyl-LSD (nor-LSD), and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD). Relative retention time and ion ratios were used as identification parameters. Limits of detection (LOD) in blood were 5 pg/mL for LSD and iso-LSD and 10 pg/mL for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD. In urine, the LOD was 10 pg/mL for all analytes. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) in blood and urine were 20 pg/mL for LSD and iso-LSD and 50 pg/mL for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD. The method was linear, accurate, and precise from 10 to 2000 pg/mL in blood and 20 to 2000 pg/mL in urine for LSD and iso-LSD and from 20 to 2000 pg/mL in blood and 50 to 2000 pg/mL in urine for nor-LSD and O-H-LSD with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) > or = 0.99. The method was applied to blinded biological control samples and biological samples taken from a suspected LSD user. This is the first reported detection of O-H-LSD in blood from a suspected LSD user.

  12. 40 CFR 91.326 - Pre- and post-test analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... zero and span set points. (4) If the response of the zero gas or span gas differs more than one percent... calibration using a zero gas and a span gas whose nominal value is between 80 percent and 100 percent of full...) Calibrate analyzer(s) as follows: (1) Zero the analyzer using the appropriate zero gas. Adjust analyzer zero...

  13. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  14. Program ispitivanja i metodologija analize spektra vibracija brodske gasne turbine Proteus 52M/558 / The test programme and the methodology of analyzing the vibrations spectrum of a Proteus 52M/558 ship gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag S. Dobratić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a programme for testing vibrations on a ship gas turbine, based on an analogy of testing and analysis of vibrations on aircraft and/or helicopter gas turbines. A particular attention is given to a choice of vibration parameters and to the analysis of the vibration spectrum as well as to the methods of estimation of criteria of vibration acceptability. The results of the measurement of the vibrations on a Proteus 52M/558 gas turbine installed on a RTOP-405 ship are shown. / U radu je prikazan program ispitivanja vibracija brodske gasne turbine, zasnovan na analogiji ispitivanja i analizi vibracija na avionskim i/ili helikopterskim gasnim turbinama. Posebna pažnja posvećena je izboru parametara vibracija, analizi spektra vibracija, kao i metodama procene kriterijuma prihvatljivosti vibracija. Na kraju rada prikazani su rezultati merenja vibracija na gasnoj turbini Proteus 52M/558 ugrađenoj na brodu RTOP-405.

  15. Optofluidic Sensor for Inline Hemolysis Detection on Whole Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chen; Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Zhu, Xiaolong

    2018-01-01

    -plasma separation, which is complex, time-consuming, and not easy to integrate into point-of-care (PoC) systems. Here, we demonstrate an optofluidic sensor composed of nanofilters on an optical waveguide, which enables evanescent-wave absorption measurement of hemoglobin in plasma with the capability of real......-time inline detection on whole blood without extra sample preparation like centrifugation. Long-term testing with inline integration in a modified, commercial blood gas analyzer shows high reliability and repeatability of the measurements even with the presence of interference from bilirubin. We envision...... that the present work has large potential in improving diagnosis quality by enabling PoC hemolysis detection in blood gas analyzers and can also lend unique sensing capabilities to other applications dealing with complex turbid media....

  16. Accuracy of Transcutaneous CO2 Values Compared With Arterial and Capillary Blood Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Laura L; Baldwin, Melissa B; Gonzalez, Cruz Velasco; Lowe, Gary R; Willis, J Randy

    2018-05-08

    Transcutaneous monitors are utilized to monitor a patient's respiratory status. Some patients have similar values when comparing transcutaneous carbon dioxide ( P tcCO 2 ) values with blood gas analysis, whereas others show extreme variability. A retrospective review of data was performed to determine how accurately P tcCO 2 correlated with CO 2 values obtained by arterial blood gas (ABG) or capillary blood gas. To determine whether P tcCO 2 values correlated with ABG or capillary blood gas values, subjects' records were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included the P tcCO 2 value at the time of blood gas procurement and the ABG or capillary blood gas P CO 2 value. Agreement of pairs of methods (ABG vs P tcCO 2 and capillary blood gas vs P tcCO 2 ) was assessed with the Bland-Altman approach with limits of agreement estimated with a mixed model to account for serial measurements per subject. A total of 912 pairs of ABG/ P tcCO 2 values on 54 subjects and 307 pairs of capillary blood gas/ P tcCO 2 values on 34 subjects were analyzed. The P CO 2 range for ABG was 24-106 mm Hg, and P tcCO 2 values were 27-133 mm Hg. The P CO 2 range for capillary blood gas was 29-108 mm Hg, and P tcCO 2 values were 30-103 mm Hg. For ABG/ P tcCO 2 comparisons, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.82, 95% CI was 0.80-0.84, and P was <.001. For capillary blood gas/ P tcCO 2 comparisons, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.77, 95% CI was 0.72-0.81, and P was <.001. For ABG/ P tcCO 2 , the estimated difference ± SD was -6.79 t± 7.62 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were -22.03 to 8.45. For capillary blood gas/ P tcCO 2 , the estimated difference ± SD was -1.61 ± 7.64 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were -16.88 to 13.66. The repeatability coefficient was about 30 mm Hg. Based on these data, capillary blood gas comparisons showed less variation and a slightly lower correlation with P tcCO 2 than did ABG comparisons. After accounting for serial measurements per patient

  17. 40 CFR 91.325 - Analyzer interference checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the measured gas, and in CLD instruments by the interfering gas quenching the radiation. The... concern for CLD (and HCLD) analyzers are CO2 and water vapor. Quench responses to these two gases are... gas approximately 50 percent with NO span gas and pass through the CO2 NDIR and CLD (or HCLD). Record...

  18. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Johannes B; Lehmann Monika; Hofer Stefan; Hüsing Johannes; Alles Catharina; Werner Jens; Stiller Jürgen; Künnecke Wolfgang; Luntz Steffen; Motsch Johann; Weigand Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (C...

  19. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  20. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  1. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  2. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  3. Handheld Capillary Blood Lactate Analyzer as an Accessible and Cost-Effective Prognostic Tool for the Assessment of Death and Heart Failure Occurrence during Long-Term Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz M. Kubiak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of tissue lactate accumulation on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI is biased. The study aimed to assess the prognostic role of lactate concentration (LC in patients with AMI during one year of follow-up. 145 consecutive patients admitted due to AMI were enrolled. The data on the frequency of endpoint occurrence (defined as I, death; II, heart failure (HF; and III, recurrent myocardial infarction (re-MI were collected. The patients were divided into group A (LC below the cut-off value and group B (LC above the cut-off value for the endpoints according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. The cumulative survival rate was 99% in group I-A and 85% in group I-B (p = 0.0004, log-rank test. The HF-free survival rate was 95% in group II-A and 82% in group II-B (p = 0.0095, log-rank test. The re-MI-free survival rate did not differ between groups. A multivariate Cox analysis showed a statistically significant influence of LC on death [Hazard Ratio (HR: 1.41, 95% Confidence Interval (CI (1.13–1.76, and p = 0.002] and HF [HR: 1.21, 95% CI (1.05–1.4, and p = 0.007] with no impact on re-MI occurrence. LC in capillary blood may be considered a useful prognostic marker of late-onset heart failure and death after AMI.

  4. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  5. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  6. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts of vari...

  7. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  8. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  9. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  10. Direct gas injection method: A simple modification to an elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometer for stable isotope analysis of N and C from N2O and CO2 gases in nanomolar concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple modification to the Elemental Analyzer coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) setup is described. This modification allows the users to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by injecting the gases directly into an online injector placed befor...

  11. Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Teerenstra, Steven; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2008-03-01

    Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in two critically ill adult patient populations. During a 3-month period, 48 blood samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 42 blood samples from non-cardiac patients who needed intensive care treatment were analyzed on both the i-STAT analyzer (CPB and non-CPB mode, respectively) and our laboratory analyzers (RapidLab 865/Sysmex XE-2100 instrument). The agreement analysis for quantitative data was used to compare i-STAT to RapidLab for blood gas/electrolytes and for hematocrit with the Sysmex instrument. Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gases had constant deviation, except for pH, pO2, and hematocrit. A clear linear trend in deviation of i-STAT from RapidLab was noticed for pH during CPB (r = 0.32, p = .03) and for pO2 > 10 kPa during CPB (r = -0.59, p pO2 pO2 pO2 range (10.6 pO2 range below 25% (n = 11) using the i-STAT. The i-STAT analyzer is suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes and blood gases in critically ill patients, except for high pO2. However, the discrepancy in hematocrit bias shows that accuracy established in one patient population cannot be automatically extrapolated to other patient populations, thus stressing the need for separate evaluation.

  12. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  13. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  14. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  15. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  16. Verification and quality control of routine hematology analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J Y; Huisman, A

    2016-01-01

    Verification of hematology analyzers (automated blood cell counters) is mandatory before new hematology analyzers may be used in routine clinical care. The verification process consists of several items which comprise among others: precision, accuracy, comparability, carryover, background and

  17. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  18. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  19. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  20. [On-site laboratory monitoring on the intensive care unit. Blood gas, electrolyte, glucose, hemoglobin and lactate determination with the CIBA Corning 865 Analysis System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödje, O; Fuchs, A; Dewald, O; Fischlein, T; Reichart, B

    1997-09-01

    For decision-making in the ICU, rapid and accurate analysis of vital laboratory parameters is essential. The industry provides devices which analyse these parameters on a decentralised setting and which are designed for use by non-laboratory personnel. We investigated whether accuracy and handling of a new analyser (Ciba-Corning 865, Chiron Diagnostics, Medfield, USA) are good enough for basing clinical decisions on the measured parameters. The Ciba-Corning 865 allows measurement of blood gases, electrolytes, haemoglobin, glucose and lactate by use of photometric, ion-selective, enzymatic and electrochemical sensors in less than 18 microliters of whole blood. In a cardiac surgical intensive-care unit the accuracy of the device was tested by comparison to 61 measurements of quality control reagents, 48 tonometered blood samples and 536 parallel measurements in the clinical laboratory. Besides a 10-minute instruction, the participating personnel had no formal training with the device. The differences between measurements in quality control reagents and tonometered blood and the expected value were lower than 5%. The comparison with clinical laboratory measurements showed correlation coefficients from 0.94 (sodium) to 0.99 (glucose, lactate). The biases in Bland-Altman analyses were below 5%, the limits of agreement were found to be in a clinically acceptable range for all parameters. During the test period no technical problems occurred with the analyser and good acceptance by the personnel was found. The measured parameters were accurate enough to be used for therapeutic decisions in acute care medicine. Although it should not be a complete alternative to the clinical laboratory, because of rapid analyses, small sample volumes and easy handling the use of the Ciba-Corning 865 is advantageous for patients and users.

  1. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility......Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at http://phosphosite.sourceforge.net ....

  2. Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjut, R.E.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO 2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined

  3. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABRINA; ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  4. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  5. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  6. Influence of the dexmedetomidine combined with parecoxib sodium on inflammatory factor, blood gas analysis and stress hormone levels in patients undergoing radical resection of esophageal carcinoma during one lung ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with parecoxib sodium on the levels of inflammatory factors, blood gas analysis and stress hormone in patients undergoing radical resection of esophageal carcinoma during one lung ventilation. Methods: According to the random data table, 81 cases of esophageal cancer patients were divided into the control group (n=41 and observation group (n=40, the patients in the two groups underwent left thoracotomy esophageal cancer radical resection, the control group patients were treated with parecoxib sodium, and patients in the observation group were treated with parecoxib sodium combined with dexmedetomidine medetomidine treatment, before induction of anesthesia (T 0 , 30 min of one lung ventilation (T 1 and 120 min after operation (T 2 at three time points, the levels of inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, C reactive protein (CRP], blood gas analysis[oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 , carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO 2 ] and stress hormone[epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE] of the two groups were compared. Results: Intra group level comparison, compared with the levels of two groups at the T 0 moment, the levels of TNF-α, CRPand NE of theT 1 and T 2 moment were significantly increased, the level of PaO 2 were significantly decreased, and T 2 moment levels were significantly higher than that of T 1 moment, the difference was statistical significance; There were no significant differences between the two groups of the levels of TNF-α, CRP, PaO 2 , E and NE of the T 0 moment, the levels of TNF-α, CRP, E and NE of the observation group at the T 1 and T 2 moment were significantly lower than the control group, at the same time the PaO 2 level was significantly higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant; There were no statistically significant differences in PaCO 2 levels between groups and at any time. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine

  7. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  8. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  9. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  10. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  11. Emergency medical technician-performed point-of-care blood analysis using the capillary blood obtained from skin puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsun; Kim, Hansol

    2017-12-09

    Comparing a point-of-care (POC) test using the capillary blood obtained from skin puncture with conventional laboratory tests. In this study, which was conducted at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in April-July 2017, 232 patients were enrolled, and three types of blood samples (capillary blood from skin puncture, arterial and venous blood from blood vessel puncture) were simultaneously collected. Each blood sample was analyzed using a POC analyzer (epoc® system, USA), an arterial blood gas analyzer (pHOx®Ultra, Nova biomedical, USA) and venous blood analyzers (AU5800, DxH2401, Beckman Coulter, USA). Twelve parameters were compared between the epoc and reference analyzers, with an equivalence test, Bland-Altman plot analysis and linear regression employed to show the agreement or correlation between the two methods. The pH, HCO 3 , Ca 2+ , Na + , K + , Cl - , glucose, Hb and Hct measured by the epoc were equivalent to the reference values (95% confidence interval of mean difference within the range of the agreement target) with clinically inconsequential mean differences and narrow limits of agreement. All of them, except pH, had clinically acceptable agreements between the two methods (results within target value ≥80%). Of the remaining three parameters (pCO 2, pO 2 and lactate), the epoc pCO 2 and lactate values were highly correlated with the reference device values, whereas pO 2 was not. (pCO 2 : R 2 =0.824, y=-1.411+0.877·x; lactate: R 2 =0.902, y=-0.544+0.966·x; pO 2 : R 2 =0.037, y=61.6+0.431·x). Most parameters, except only pO 2 , measured by the epoc were equivalent to or correlated with those from the reference method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Uso de sangue arterial e venoso no exame do equilíbrio ácido-básico de novilhos normais ou com acidose metabólica Arterial and venous blood in the assessment of blood gas and acid-base status in healthy steers or steers with metabolic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Araripe Sucupira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Doze novilhos foram utilizados para comparar os resultados hemogasométricos de sangue arterial e venoso. Esses animais foram divididos em três grupos idênticos, recebendo: 1- dieta balanceada, proporcionando ganho de peso de 600g/d; 2- dieta de mantença em proteína e energia e 3- dieta com teores 20% abaixo da mantença. Amostras de sangue arterial (artéria auricular caudal e venoso (veia jugular foram colhidas por 11 quinzenas consecutivas, num total de 132 amostras. Ao término do experimento, os animais dos grupos 2 e principalmente 3 apresentaram acidose metabólica moderada. Maiores valores de pH e de pO2 foram constatados no sangue arterial enquanto os teores de bicarbonato, TCO2, BE e pCO2 foram superiores no sangue venoso. Existiram altas correlações entre os valores do sangue arterial e venoso para o pH (r = 0,81, bicarbonato e TCO2 (r = 0,94, sendo esta correlação média, mas significativa, no caso da pCO2 (r = 0,56 e inexistente na pO2 (r= -0,06. Quanto maiores foram os valores de pCO2 maiores foram os teores de bicarbonato (r = 0,54 e TCO2 (r =0,56. Apesar das discrepâncias de pH, das concentrações de bicarbonato, TCO2, e mesmo de pCO2 obtidos no sangue venoso e arterial, é possível estimar, adequadamente, a partir do primeiro esses valores nas amostras arteriais em novilhos normais e com moderado grau de acidose metabólica. Nos casos de alterações respiratórias, amostras de sangue arterial devem ser colhidas para determinação de pO2. A colheita de sangue venoso foi mais facilmente realizada que do sangue arterial.Twelve steers were used to compare the blood gas and acid-base status. The animals were randomly divided in three equal groups according to the following diets: 1- adequate, for gaining 600g/head/d ; 2- protein and energy levels to meet the maintenence; 3- protein and energy 20% below the maintenance levels. One hundred thirty-two arterial blood (caudal auricular artery or venous blood (jugular vein

  13. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  14. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  15. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  16. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Make Blood? It's not made in a kitchen, but blood has ingredients, just like a recipe. ... these ingredients together and you have blood — an essential part of the circulatory system. Thanks to your ...

  17. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations. Alternative Names Cross matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ...

  18. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003665.htm Blood smear To use the sharing features on this ... view of cellular parasites Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ...

  19. Discrepancy in abo blood grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. (author)

  20. Reference Values for Umbilical Cord Blood Gases of Newborns Delivered by Elective Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomayangkul, Kattiya; Siriussawakul, Arunotai; Nimmannit, Akarin; Yuyen, Thassayu; Ngerncham, Sopapan; Reesukumal, Kanit

    2016-05-01

    Umbilical cord blood gas values are better indicators of perinatal asphyxia than Apgar scores. Many studies have reported normal ranges of umbilical cord blood gases, which vary greatly due to many factors. This study aimed to establish the reference values of umbilical cord blood gases of normal cesarean newborns in a university hospital setting. Blood samples from the umbilical artery and vein were collected from 160 newborns delivered by elective cesarean section. The indications for caesarean section were not due to fetal distress, intrauterine growth retardation, or non-reassuring fetal heart rate. The blood samples were collected immediately after birth in the operating room and then sent for blood-gas analysis. The blood-gas values were statistically analyzed and reported. The cord blood collected from 160 newborns was analyzed in this study. Seventy-eight percent (115) of the parturients were hypotensive before delivery. All Apgar scores at one and five minutes after delivery were at least 7. The calculated reference range of the umbilical arterial pH was 7.18-7.42, of pO₂was 6.43-29.43 mmHg, of pCO₂was 33.44-66.56 mmHg, and of HCO₃was 15.60-30.70 mEq/L. The reference range obtained for the umbilical venous pH was 7.28-7.44,for pO₂was 13.97-37.13 mmHg, for pCO₂was 30.70-57.0 mmHg, and for HCO₃was 18.50-29.90 mEq/L. The study determined normal reference values as a result of umbilical cord blood gas analyses.

  1. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Blood ...

  2. A neutron activation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Grass, F.; De Regge, P.P.; Burns, K.; Markowicz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dubbed 'Analyzer' because of its simplicity, a neutron activation analysis facility for short-lived isomeric transitions is based on a low-cost rabbit system and an adaptive digital filter which are controlled by a software performing irradiation control, loss-free gamma-spectrometry, spectra evaluation, nuclide identification and calculation of concentrations in a fully automatic flow of operations. Designed for TRIGA reactors and constructed from inexpensive plastic tubing and an aluminum in-core part, the rabbit system features samples of 5 ml and 10 ml with sample separation at 150 ms and 200 ms transport time or 25 ml samples without separation at a transport time of 300 ms. By automatically adapting shaping times to pulse intervals the preloaded digital filter gives best throughput at best resolution up to input counting rates of 10 6 cps. Loss-free counting enables quantitative correction of counting losses of up to 99%. As a test of system reproducibility in sample separation geometry, K, Cl, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sc, and V have been determined in various reference materials at excellent agreement with consensus values. (author)

  3. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  4. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  5. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  6. Analyzing microporosity with vapor thermogravimetry and gas pycnometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dral, A. Petra; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2018-01-01

    The complementary use of thermogravimetry and pycnometry is demonstrated to expand the toolbox for experimental micropore analysis <1 nm. Thermogravimetry is employed to assess the uptake of water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and cyclohexane vapors in microporous structures at room temperature and

  7. Feasibility study of white blood cell count in cerebrospinal fluid and hydrothorax and ascites with Sysmex ;XN-1000 hematology analyzer%SYSMEX XN-1000血球仪在脑脊液和胸腹水白细胞计数中的可行性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小英; 范春丽; 陆敏; 卞洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the feasibility of using body fluid module of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer for white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hydrothorax and ascites. Methods Microscope method and Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer were used to analyze 183 samples of CSF, hydrothorax and ascites at the same time. The measured results were divided into three groups:group A:0~1 000×106/L, B:1 001~5 000×106/L, C:>5 000×106/L. The results were statistically analyzed. Results Compared with the results of microscope, the results of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The correlation coeffi-cients of group A, B, C were 0.993, 0.984, 0.996, with the regression equation of y=1.007x-1.072, y=1.003+19.776x, y=1.241-1 419.365x, respectively. Conclusion The body fluid module of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer can be used for white blood cell count in clinical CSF and hydrothorax and ascites, with simple operation and reliable results. When the instrument is alarmed on the sample test, we should use manual microscopy review to improve the veracity and reliability of the results.%目的:探讨SYSMEX XN-1000血液分析仪(简称SYSMEX XN-1000)的体液模式在脑脊液和胸腹水白细胞计数中应用的可行性。方法分别采用手工显微镜镜检法和SYSMEX XN-1000对183例脑脊液和胸腹水标本进行白细胞计数,将所测结果按A:(0~1000)×106/L,B:(1001~5000)×106/L,C:>5000×106/L分为三组,分别进行统计学分析。结果与手工显微镜镜检法相比,SYSMEX XN-1000所测结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。A、B、C三组的相关系数分别为0.993、0.984、0.996,A组回归方程为y=1.007x-1.072,B组回归方程为y=1.003x+19.776,C组回归方程为y=1.241x-1419.365。结论 SYSMEX XN-1000血液分析仪可用于临床脑脊液和胸腹水中白细胞计数,其操作简单易行,结果稳定可靠,但如果仪器进行样品

  8. Measurements of pulmonary gas exchange efficiency using expired gas and oximetry: results in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B; Wang, Daniel L; Prisk, G Kim

    2018-04-01

    We are developing a novel, noninvasive method for measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in patients with lung disease. The patient wears an oximeter, and we measure the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inspired and expired gas using miniature analyzers. The arterial Po 2 is then calculated from the oximeter reading and the oxygen dissociation curve, using the end-tidal Pco 2 to allow for the Bohr effect. This calculation is only accurate when the oxygen saturation is ideal alveolar Po 2 minus the measured arterial Po 2 . That measurement requires an arterial blood sample. The present study suggests that this noninvasive procedure will be valuable in assessing the degree of impaired gas exchange in patients with lung disease.

  9. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  10. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  11. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  12. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  14. 40 CFR 90.325 - Analyzer interference checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... broadening the absorption band of the measured gas, and in CLD instruments by the interfering gas quenching... quench check. The two gases of concern for CLD (and HCLD) analyzers are CO2 and water vapor. Quench... the CO2 NDIR and CLD (or HCLD). Record the CO2 and NO values as “b” and “c” respectively. (iii) Shut...

  15. 40 CFR 89.318 - Analyzer interference checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... broadening the absorption band of the measured gas and in CLD instruments by the interfering gas quenching... gases of concern for CLD (and HCLD) analyzers are CO2 and water vapor. Quench responses to these two... CLD (or HCLD), with the CO2 and NO values recorded as b and c respectively. The CO2 shall then be shut...

  16. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  17. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  18. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  19. Evaluation of haematology analyzer CELL-DYN 3700 SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Suljević

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on the parameters of full blood count and differential white blood count is included in the program of all medical laboratories of primary, secondary and tertiary health care levels. Today, all haematological tests are exclusively performed on the haematology analyzers. Automation of haematology laboratories is a result of the huge requires for haematological test performing, timely issuing of the haematological findings, and possibility of the usage of modern techniques.This work is an evaluation of laser haematology analyzer Cell-Dyn 3700 SL. It investigates the reliability of test results throughout the following parameters: precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of determination methods. It also explores the influence of sample transferring and correlation with haematology analyzer MAXM Retti. Haematology parameters that have been investigated are: white blood cell (WBC, neutrophils (NEU, lymphocytes (LXM, monocytes (MONO, eosinophils (EOS, basophils (BASO, red blood cells (RBC, haemoglobin (HGB, haematocrit (HCT, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHC red cell distribution width (RDW, platelet (PLT, mean platelet volume (MPV, plateletocrit (PCT, and platelet distribution width (PDW.The results confirms that precision of analyzer fulfils the reproducibility of testing parameters: WBC, RBC, HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and PLT. Correlation coefficient values (r gained throughout the statistical analysis, that is linear regression results obtained throughout the comparison of two analyzers are adequate except for MCHC (r = 0.64, what is in accordance with literature data.Accuracy is tested by haematology analyzer method and microscopic differentiating method. Correlation coefficient results for granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes point the accuracy of methods. Sensitivity and specificity parameters fulfil the analytical criteria.It is confirmed that haematology analyzer Cell-Dyn 3700 SL is reliable for

  20. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  1. A pilot study on the stability of toluene in blood from workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Masanori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological monitoring is used to assess toluene exposure in medical examinations. The American Conference of Industrial Hygienists, Japanese Society for Occupational Health and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft have proposed various biological exposure determinants, such as toluene in blood and urine, and o-cresol in urine. Toluene in blood is a common biomarker among them. Toluene is a volatile organic solvent; therefore, sample preservation under appropriate conditions before measurement is necessary. However, little study has been done on the stability of toluene in workers’ blood samples under conditions simulating those of a medical examination. Finding We carried out a pilot study on the stability of toluene in blood from humans, according to different methods of sample preservation. Toluene in blood was analyzed by head space-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The sealing performance of the vial was examined by using toluene-added blood and the stability of toluene in blood according to the preservation period was examined by using blood from toluene-handling workers, which was collected with vacuum blood tubes. The sealing performance of the headspace vial used in this study was good for three days and toluene in blood in tubes from workers was stable at least within 8 hours up to blood packing at 4°C. Conclusion We could propose that the collected blood need only be transferred into headspace vials on the collection day and analyzed within a few days, if the samples are preserved at 4°C. Our data size is limited; however, it may be considered basic information for biological monitoring in medical examinations.

  2. 40 CFR 91.314 - Analyzer accuracy and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (3) Zero drift. The analyzer zero-response drift during a one-hour period must be less than two percent of full-scale chart deflection on the lowest range used. The zero-response is defined as the mean... calibration or span gas. (2) Noise. The analyzer peak-to-peak response to zero and calibration or span gases...

  3. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  6. Blood gas profile of copper-poisoned in sheep treated with ammonium tetrathiomolybdatePerfil de gases sanguíneos de ovinos intoxicados por cobre e tratados com tetratiomolibidato de amônio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Araripe Sucupira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood gas profile of experimentally copper-poisoned sheep (in the pre-hemolytic, hemolytic and post-hemolytic phases that have been treated or not treated with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Ten lambs of the Santa Ines breed were divided into two groups: control and ATTM (treated (ammonium tetrathiomolibydate. The animals were submitted to increasing doses of copper sulfate until macroscopic hemoglobinuria was detected.All of the control animals from died within four days of hemolytic crisis, and one sheep from ATTM died during the treatment. There was no difference in blood gas parameters between experimental groups. Higher values of pCO2 were observed during the hemolytic crisis (HC in both groups. The control group had higher mean values of hCO3 in the times HC and 2 days after hemolytic crisis (dA when compared with the time 15 before hemolytic crises (dB. The sheep that were treated with ATTM presented lower values of hCO3 at 7dB and higher levels at the HC. The control and ATTM groups exhibited higher values of BE during the HC. Poisoning resulted in disorder in the acid-base equilibrium, characterized by metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis. Treatment with ATTM was able to reverse the changes in acid-base balance in copper poisoning sheep. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o perfil de gases sanguineos em ovinos experimentalmente intoxicados com cobre (fases: pré-hemoltica, hemolitica e pós-hemolitica tratados ou não com tetratiomolibidato de amônio (ATTM. Dez cordeiros da raça Santa Inês foram divididos em dois grupos:controle (tratados com solução fisiologica a 0,9% e ATTM (tratados com 3,4 mg/kg de tetratiomolibidato de amonio. Os animais foram submetidos a doses crescentes de sulfato de cobre até a observação de hemoglobinúria macroscópica. Todos os animais do grupo controle morreram dentro de quatro dias após observação da hemoglobinúria, e um cordeiro do grupo ATTM

  7. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  8. The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery. Methods: : In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Results: No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO 2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: Patients′ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.

  9. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  10. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  11. Verification and quality control of routine hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J Y; Huisman, A

    2016-05-01

    Verification of hematology analyzers (automated blood cell counters) is mandatory before new hematology analyzers may be used in routine clinical care. The verification process consists of several items which comprise among others: precision, accuracy, comparability, carryover, background and linearity throughout the expected range of results. Yet, which standard should be met or which verification limit be used is at the discretion of the laboratory specialist. This paper offers practical guidance on verification and quality control of automated hematology analyzers and provides an expert opinion on the performance standard that should be met by the contemporary generation of hematology analyzers. Therefore (i) the state-of-the-art performance of hematology analyzers for complete blood count parameters is summarized, (ii) considerations, challenges, and pitfalls concerning the development of a verification plan are discussed, (iii) guidance is given regarding the establishment of reference intervals, and (iv) different methods on quality control of hematology analyzers are reviewed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tulathromycin disturbs blood oxidative and coagulation status | Er ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (white and red blood cells) and arterial blood gas parameters (packed cell volume, ... excess in vitro, oxygen saturation, sodium and potassium) were also determined. Tulathromycin increased (P < 0.05) the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric ...

  13. Blood analysis in newborn donkeys: hematology, biochemistry, and blood gases analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Gloria, A; Panzani, S; Sfirro, M P; Carluccio, A; Contri, A

    2014-07-15

    The knowledge of reference ranges for hematologic, biochemical, and blood gas parameters in the different species and the influence of breed and age on them is a fundamental tool for the clinician. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the age-related changes of hematologic and biochemical parameters in Martina Franca donkey foals during the first 3 weeks of life and of blood gases during the first 24 hours of age. Fifteen healthy donkey foals were enrolled; blood samples were collected from each foal at 10 minutes after birth, 1 hour after the first and second suckles, 12 and 24 hours after birth, daily from Day 2 to 7, and at Days 10, 14, and 21 of life. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets counts were assessed; also metabolic (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinphospokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total proteins, albumins, cholesterol, and total bilirubin) and electrolytic parameters (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, and Cl) were evaluated. Finally, blood gases and metabolic parameters (pH, pCO2, pO2, sO2, TCO2, HCO3, lactate, and base excess) on venous blood were assessed with a portable analyzer. A statistical analysis to evaluate the influence of age and sex was performed. Several differences were found between sampling times, demonstrating that age influences these parameters. Moreover differences were found compared with data reported in literature for donkey foals of another species, horse foals, and adult donkeys. Although a great interindividual variation for some parameters exists, this study demonstrated that interval references should be addressed not only to different species, but also to specific breeds and to the neonatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Systematic umbilical cord blood analysis at birth: feasibility and reliability in a French labour ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D; Clerc, J; Decullier, E; Gavanier, G; Dupuis, O

    2012-10-01

    At birth, evaluation of neonatal well-being is crucial. It is though important to perform umbilical cord blood gas analysis, and then to analyze the samples. We wanted to establish the feasibility and reliability of systematic umbilical cord blood sampling in a French labour ward. Study of systematic umbilical cord blood gas analysis was realized retrospectively from 1000 consecutive deliveries. We first established the feasibility of the samples. Feasibility was defined by the ratio of complete cord acid-base data on the number of deliveries from alive newborns. Afterwards, we established the reliability on the remaining cord samples. Reliability was the ratio of samples that fulfilled quality criteria defined by Westgate et al. and revised by Kro et al., on the number of complete samples from alive newborns. At last, we looked for factors that would influence these results. The systematic umbilical cord blood sample feasibility reached 91.6%, and the reliability reached 80.7%. About the delivery mode, 38.6% of emergency caesarians (IC 95% [30.8-46.3]; Panalysis were significantly less validated during emergency caesarians. Realization of systematic cord blood gas analysis was followed by 8.4% of incomplete samples, and by 19.3% that were uninterpretable. Training sessions should be organized to improve the feasibility and reliability, especially during emergency caesarians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  16. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  17. Stomach gas analyses in canine acute gastric dilatation with volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, H J; Gargamelli, C; Havier, J; Frueh, S; Jin, L; Suib, S

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the gas in the stomachs of dogs with acute gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation with volvulus (GDV) often is disputed. We tested the hypothesis that gaseous distention resulted from aerophagia. Ten cases of GDV that were submitted to an emergency clinic were sampled intraoperatively. With the abdomen open, the needle of a vacutainer blood collection set was inserted into the distended stomach, and gas was collected into 10 mL glass vacutainer vials with rubber stoppers. These were stored at room temperature for 1-7 days and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. CO2 composition ranged from 13 to 20%. One dog had an H2 concentration of 29%. Because the CO2 content of atmospheric air is less than 1%, these findings suggest that the gaseous gastric distention in GDV is not the result of aerophagia. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. A novel pump-driven veno-venous gas exchange system during extracorporeal CO2-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Alexander; Riss, Katharina; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Wohlfarth, Philipp; Robak, Oliver; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staudinger, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal CO2-removal (ECCO2-R) increasingly takes root in hypercapnic lung failure to minimize ventilation invasiveness or to avoid intubation. A recently developed device (iLA activve(®), Novalung, Germany) allows effective decarboxylation via a 22 French double lumen cannula. To assess determinants of gas exchange, we prospectively evaluated the performance of ECCO2-R in ten patients receiving iLA activve(®) due to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sweep gas flow was increased in steps from 1 to 14 L/min at constant blood flow (phase 1). Similarly, blood flow was gradually increased at constant sweep gas flow (phase 2). At each step gas transfer via the membrane as well as arterial blood gas samples were analyzed. During phase 1, we observed a significant increase in CO2 transfer together with a decrease in PaCO2 levels from a median of 66 mmHg (range 46-85) to 49 (31-65) mmHg from 1 to 14 L/min sweep gas flow (p gas flow rates. During phase 2, oxygen transfer significantly increased leading to an increase in PaO2 from 67 (49-87) at 0.5 L/min to 117 (66-305) mmHg at 2.0 L/min (p gas flow results in effective CO2-removal, which can be further reinforced by raising blood flow. The clinically relevant oxygenation effect in this setting could broaden the range of indications of the system and help to set up an individually tailored configuration.

  19. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  20. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  1. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  2. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water loss Poisoning from harmful substances such as ethanol , methanol , or ethylene glycol Problems producing urine In ... may be due to: Diabetes insipidus High blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia ) High level of nitrogen waste products ...

  3. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature on donor screening in transfusion medicine tends to distinguish between social concerns about discrimination and medical concerns about safety. In this article, we argue that the bifurcation into social and medical concerns is problematic. We build our case on a qualitative...... study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...

  4. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sitting for long periods. If you travel by airplane, walk the aisle periodically. For long car trips, ... Your-Risk-for-Excessive-Blood-Clotting_UCM_448771_Article.jsp. Accessed April 18, 2016. What causes excessive ...

  5. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Immobility (including prolonged inactivity, long trips by plane or car ) Smoking Oral contraceptives Certain cancers Trauma Certain surgeries Age (increased risk for people over age 60) A family history of blood clots Chronic inflammatory diseases Diabetes High ...

  6. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  7. Gas manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J W

    1915-05-03

    Retorts for the distillation of shale or coal for the production of oil or illuminating-gas are heated by gas from a generator or a gas-holder, and a portion of the gas from the flue leading to the heating-flues is forced by a steam jet through a by-pass and is injected into the bottom of the retorts. If the gas to be admitted to the retort is cold, it is first heated.

  8. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  9. Blood perfusion and pH monitoring in organs by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Stavridi, Marigo; Snyder, Wendy J.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Duffy, J. T.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Thomas, Reem; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in detecting a change in tissue pH, and blood perfusion was determined. Rabbits were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The arterial and venous blood supplies of the kidney were isolated and ligated to alter the perfusion. The femoral artery was cannulated to extract samples for blood gas analysis. A 308-nm XeCl was used as an excitation source. A 600 micrometers core diameter fiber was used for fluorescence acquisition, and the spectra analyzed by an optical multichannel analyzer (EG & G, OMA III). the corresponding intensity ratio R equals INADH / ICOLL was used as an index for respiratory acidosis. Blood perfusion was assessed using the following algorithm: (IELAS minus ICOLL) divided by (INADH minus ICOLL). The intensity ratio linearly decreased with the reduction of blood perfusion. When we totally occluded the artery the ratio decreased tenfold when compared to the ratio of a fully perfused kidney. Results of monitoring blood acidosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy shows a significant trend between pH and intensity ratio. Since all the slopes were negative, there is an obvious significant correlation between the pH and NADH.COLLAGEN RATIO. Blue-light-induced fluorescence measurements and ratio fluorometry is a sensitive method for monitoring blood perfusion and acidity or alkalinity of an organ.

  10. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  11. TEMPO DE VIABILIDADE DE AMOSTRAS DE SANGUE VENOSO BOVINO DESTINADAS AO EXAME HEMOGASOMÉTRICO, QUANDO MANTIDAS SOB CONSERVAÇÃO EM ÁGUA GELADA VIABILITY TIME OF BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS IN BOVINE VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLES STORED IN ICE WATER BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2001-04-01

    adequadamente conservadas em banho de água gelada, mantendo, assim, o seu valor diagnóstico.In order to verify the viability of blood gas analysis in bovine venous blood stored on ice water bath, two samples (10ml each were taken from the jugular vein of 14 healthy animals (7 males and 7 females, 1- to 5-year-old, using plastic syringes and attached needles filled with sodium heparin (1,000IU. The blood samples were obtained anaerobically, the air bubbles observed were immediately removed, and the needle was maintened capped with a rubber stopper. Each syringe of the pair was distinctally stored at room temperature (23-30ºC or in ice water bath (0-4ºC during the experimental period. Values of pH, carbon dioxide (PvCO2 and oxigen (PvO2 tensions, bicarbonate (HCO3-, total carbon dioxide (TCO2, base excess (BE, standard bicarbonate (StB, oxigen saturation (SatO2, and oxigen content (O2 were determined soon after sampling and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. According to the type of storage temperature, the results were analysed through repeated measurements ANOVA, considering the contrast between the mean value of each time and the initial one. On the storage at room temperature, the in vitro changes were characterized from continuous decreases in pH, PvO2, BE, StB, SatO2, and O2 values, and gradual increase in PvCO2, starting at 2- or 3-hour after the collection. In the samples stored at 0-4ºC, on the other hand, the changes in pH occurred only at the 4th hour, and the stability of the PvCO2, BE, and StB values were maintened for up to the 6th hour. These results indicated that the diagnostic utility of blood gas analysis is conserved in bovine venous blood samples adequately stored up to 6 hours in ice water bath, at 0-4ºC.

  12. Efeitos do pneumoperitônio com ar e CO2 na gasometria de suínos Effects of CO2 and air pneumoperitoneum on blood gas changes in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luis da Silveira Lemos

    2003-10-01

    surgeries, as well as the laparoscopic surgeries with mechanical lifting devices are performed in the presence of environmental air; and the shortage of studies investigating the air insufflation as an alternative to CO2 cavity insufflation, were the reasons for carrying out the present work. METHODS: Twenty pigs under anesthesia were submitted to pneumoperitoneum in an hour procedure. The animals were divided in 4 groups of 5 animals: A1 Group - Air Pneumoperitoneum at 10 mmHg; A2 Group - Air Pneumoperitoneum at 16 mmHg; B1 Group - CO2 Pneumoperitoneum at 10 mmHg; B2 Group - CO2 Pneumoperitoneum at 16 mmHg. The pneumoperitoneum was performed by open technique using Hasson trocar. Through a central venous blood catheter, venous blood was collected three times to gas analysis. RESULTS: The blood gas analysis didn't show significant changes related to PaO2 and O2 saturation among the groups. In the Groups A1, A2 and B1, changes related to the acid-basic balance were not observed. In the Group B2 there was a clear tendency to hypercapnia and acidosis after an hour of pneumoperitoneum procedure. CONCLUSION: The air was a safe option for cavity insufflation during diagnostic laparoscopic procedures in swine.

  13. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  16. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  17. A Categorization of Dynamic Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1997-01-01

    Program analysis techniques and tools are essential to the development process because of the support they provide in detecting errors and deficiencies at different phases of development. The types of information rendered through analysis includes the following: statistical measurements of code, type checks, dataflow analysis, consistency checks, test data,verification of code, and debugging information. Analyzers can be broken into two major categories: dynamic and static. Static analyzers examine programs with respect to syntax errors and structural properties., This includes gathering statistical information on program content, such as the number of lines of executable code, source lines. and cyclomatic complexity. In addition, static analyzers provide the ability to check for the consistency of programs with respect to variables. Dynamic analyzers in contrast are dependent on input and the execution of a program providing the ability to find errors that cannot be detected through the use of static analysis alone. Dynamic analysis provides information on the behavior of a program rather than on the syntax. Both types of analysis detect errors in a program, but dynamic analyzers accomplish this through run-time behavior. This paper focuses on the following broad classification of dynamic analyzers: 1) Metrics; 2) Models; and 3) Monitors. Metrics are those analyzers that provide measurement. The next category, models, captures those analyzers that present the state of the program to the user at specified points in time. The last category, monitors, checks specified code based on some criteria. The paper discusses each classification and the techniques that are included under them. In addition, the role of each technique in the software life cycle is discussed. Familiarization with the tools that measure, model and monitor programs provides a framework for understanding the program's dynamic behavior from different, perspectives through analysis of the input

  18. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  19. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  20. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  1. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  2. Device for analyzing a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Joseph.

    1978-01-01

    The device enables a solution containing an antigen to be analyzed by the radio-immunology technique without coming up against the problems of antigen-antibody complex and free antigen separation. This device, for analyzing a solution containing a biological compound capable of reacting with an antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound, features a tube closed at its bottom end and a component set and immobilized in the bottom of the tube so as to leave a capacity between the bottom of the tube and its lower end. The component has a large developed surface and is so shaped that it allows the solution to be analyzed to have access to the bottom of the tube; it is made of a material having some elastic deformation and able to take up a given quantity of the biological compound or of the antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound [fr

  3. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  4. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  5. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  6. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  7. Method and apparatus for analyzing ionizable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, B.J.; Hall, R.C.; Thiede, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing a solution of ionizable compounds in a liquid. The solution is irradiated with electromagnetic radiation to ionize the compounds and the electrical conductivity of the solution is measured. The radiation may be X-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red or microwaves. The solution may be split into two streams, only one of which is irradiated, the other being used as a reference by comparing conductivities of the two streams. The liquid must be nonionizable and is preferably a polar solvent. The invention provides an analysis technique useful in liquid chromatography and in gas chromatography after dissolving the eluted gases in a suitable solvent. Electrical conductivity measurements performed on the irradiated eluent provide a quantitative indication of the ionizable materials existing within the eluent stream and a qualitative indication of the purity of the eluent stream. (author)

  8. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  9. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  10. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  11. Analyzing the complexity of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Schummer, J.; Baird, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a highly complex technological development due to many uncertainties in our knowledge about it. The Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd has developed a conceptual framework that can be used (1) to analyze the complexity of technological developments and (2) to see how priorities

  12. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  13. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels may be a sign ... fall outside the normal range for many reasons. Abnormal results might be a sign of a disorder or disease. Other factors—such as diet, menstrual ...

  14. Impact of Detoxification Techniques on Pulmonary Gas Exchange Function in Patients with Generalized Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mlinnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of different detoxification techniques on pulmonary gas exchange function in patients with generalized peritonitis complicated by multiple organ failure. Subjects and methods. One hundred and thirty patients with generalized peritonitis were examined. According to the used detoxification techniques, the patients were divided into 5 groups. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination, the key element of which was the evaluation of gas exchange parameters. Results. Membrane plasmapheresis and plasmapheresis with sodium hypochlorite infusion to the plasma filter in patients with peritonitis are shown to improve pulmonary blood oxygenation.

  15. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  16. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  17. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  18. Analyzing the Facebook Friendship Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSN) during last years acquired a huge and increasing popularity as one of the most important emerging Web phenomena, deeply modifying the behavior of users and contributing to build a solid substrate of connections and relationships among people using the Web. In this preliminary work paper, our purpose is to analyze Facebook, considering a significant sample of data reflecting relationships among subscribed users. Our goal is to extract, from this platform, relevant ...

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  20. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  1. A new uranium automatic analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyuan; Zhang Lan

    1993-01-01

    A new uranium automatic analyzer based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) principle has been developed. It consists of a multichannel peristaltic pump, an injection valve, a photometric detector, a single-chip microprocessor system and electronic circuit. The new designed multifunctional auto-injection valve can automatically change the injection volume of the sample and the channels so that the determination ranges and items can easily be changed. It also can make the instrument vary the FIA operation modes that it has functions of a universal instrument. A chromatographic column with extractant-containing resin was installed in the manifold of the analyzer for the concentration and separation of trace uranium. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) was used as colour reagent. Uranium was determined in the aqueous solution by adding cetyl-pyridium bromide (CPB). The uranium in the solution in the range 0.02-500 mg · L -1 can be directly determined without any pretreatment. A sample throughput rate of 30-90 h -1 and reproducibility of 1-2% were obtained. The analyzer has been satisfactorily applied to the laboratory and the plant

  2. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  4. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  7. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  8. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  9. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  10. Thromboelastography platelet mapping in healthy dogs using 1 analyzer versus 2 analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Banerjee, Amrita; Wood, R Darren; Park, Fiona M

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the results of thromboelastography platelet mapping (TEG-PM) carried out using 2 techniques in 20 healthy dogs. Maximum amplitudes (MA) generated by thrombin (MAthrombin), fibrin (MAfibrin), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor activity (MAADP), and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptor activity (stimulated by arachidonic acid, MAAA) were recorded. Thromboelastography platelet mapping was carried out according to the manufacturer's guidelines (2-analyzer technique) and using a variation of this method employing only 1 analyzer (1-analyzer technique) on 2 separate blood samples obtained from each dog. Mean [± standard deviation (SD)] MA values for the 1-analyzer/2-analyzer techniques were: MAthrombin = 51.9 mm (± 7.1)/52.5 mm (± 8.0); MAfibrin = 20.7 mm (± 21.8)/23.0 mm (± 26.1); MAADP = 44.5 mm (± 15.6)/45.6 mm (± 17.0); and MAAA = 45.7 mm (± 11.6)/45.0 mm (± 15.4). Mean (± SD) percentage aggregation due to ADP receptor activity was 70.4% (± 32.8)/67.6% (± 33.7). Mean percentage aggregation due to TxA2 receptor activity was 77.3% (± 31.6)/78.1% (± 50.2). Results of TEG-PM were not significantly different for the 1-analyzer and 2-analyzer methods. High correlation was found between the 2 methods for MAfibrin [concordance correlation coefficient (r) = 0.930]; moderate correlation was found for MAthrombin (r = 0.70) and MAADP (r = 0.57); correlation between the 2 methods for MAAA was lower (r = 0.32). Thromboelastography platelet mapping (TEG-PM) should be further investigated to determine if it is a suitable method for measuring platelet dysfunction in dogs with thrombopathy.

  11. The security analyzer, a security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.; Carlson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to characterize a nuclear facility and measure the strengths and weaknesses of the physical protection system. It utilizes the artificial intelligence capabilities available in the prolog programming language to probe a facility's defenses and find potential attack paths that meet designated search criteria. As sensors or barriers become inactive due to maintenance, failure, or inclement weather conditions, the protection system can rapidly be reanalyzed to discover weaknesses that would need to be strengthened by alternative means. Conversely, proposed upgrades and enhancements can be easily entered into the database and their effect measured against a variety of potential adversary attacks. Thus the security analyzer is a tool that aids the protection planner as well as the protection operations staff

  12. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  13. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  14. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  15. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  16. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  17. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  18. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  19. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  20. Peripheral blood collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franken, Carmen; Remy, Sylvie; Lambrechts, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of mRNA in the prese......A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of m......RNA in the presence of different stabilization buffers (TempusTM Blood RNA tube and RNAlater® Stabilization Reagent). Microarray analyzes showed significant changes over short periods of time in expression of a considerate part of the transcriptome (2356 genes) with a prominent role for NFкB-, cancer......- and glucocorticoid-mediated networks, and specifically interleukin-8 (IL-8). These findings suggest that even short bench times affect gene expression, requiring to carry out blood collection in a strictly standardized way. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  1. Measurement of hydroxylated PCB metabolites for Slovakia maternal blood serums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S.; Athanasiadou, M; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Charles, J.; Zhao, G.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Petrik, J.; Kocan, A; Trnovec, T. [Bratislava Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Although it is known that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have adverse impacts on human health, it is not clear if human health impacts are caused by the PCBs or their related hydroxylated (OH) PCB metabolite compounds. This study measured OH-PCB metabolites in the maternal blood serum specimens from the Svidnik and Michalovce areas in eastern Slovakia where PCBs were intensively produced and inadequately disposed. The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify levels of specific OH-PCB metabolites in Slovakian maternal serums exposed to high environmental PCB levels. All specimens were analyzed for PCBs, and a subset of the samples was analyzed for OH-PCB metabolites. The Wallenburg blood extraction method was adopted to separate the OH-PCBs from the blood serums. Final eluates and calibration standards were spiked with PCB209 as an injection standard before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. OH-PCBs in the samples range from 75{+-}9 per cent to 101{+-}11 per cent. Median concentrations of OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce samples were approximately twice as high as for the Svidnik samples. Concentrations of OH-PCBs of Michalovce blood samples were comparable to samples obtained from northern Canadian female Inuit and Faroe Island females, and were considered to be among the highest OH-PCB concentrations obtained in human blood. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the placental transfer of OH-PCBs to the fetus, as well as epidemiological approaches to determine the relationship between the exposure of OH-PCB metabolites and child development. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin H; Bassett, Erik K; Penson, Elliot J N; Hoganson, David M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m(2) of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m(2) of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions.

  3. Charge Analyzer Responsive Local Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Thornton, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The first transatlantic radio transmission, demonstrated by Marconi in December of 1901, revealed the essential role of the ionosphere for radio communications. This ionized layer of the upper atmosphere controls the amount of radio power transmitted through, reflected off of, and absorbed by the atmospheric medium. Low-frequency radio signals can propagate long distances around the globe via repeated reflections off of the ionosphere and the Earth's surface. Higher frequency radio signals can punch through the ionosphere to be received at orbiting satellites. However, any turbulence in the ionosphere can distort these signals, compromising the performance or even availability of space-based communication and navigations systems. The physics associated with this distortion effect is analogous to the situation when underwater images are distorted by convecting air bubbles. In fact, these ionospheric features are often called 'plasma bubbles' since they exhibit some of the similar behavior as underwater air bubbles. These events, instigated by solar and geomagnetic storms, can cause communication and navigation outages that last for hours. To help understand and predict these outages, a world-wide community of space scientists and technologists are devoted to researching this topic. One aspect of this research is to develop instruments capable of measuring the ionospheric plasma bubbles. Figure 1 shows a photo of the Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), a new instrument under development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It is a frequency-domain ion spectrum analyzer designed to measure the distributions of ionospheric turbulence from 1 Hz to 10 kHz (i.e., spatial scales from a few kilometers down to a few centimeters). This frequency range is important since it focuses on turbulence scales that affect VHF/UHF satellite communications, GPS systems, and over-the-horizon radar systems. CARLO is based on the flight-proven Plasma Local

  4. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Blood Transfusion (Indications and Problems in Tranfusion of Blood Components as of 1986)

    OpenAIRE

    金沢, 宏; 大関, 一; 矢沢, 正知; 江口, 昭治; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Oozeki, Hajime; Yazawa, Masatomo; Eguchi, Shoji

    1987-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), functioning as the pumping system and the gas exchange functions, is one of the important instruments in cardiovascular operations. But it has many unfavourable problems such as massive blood transfusion, hemodilution, abnormality of coagulation, etc. In fact, 5 or 6 units of blood are necessary to prime CPB in infant, child, and adult. After CPB, massive blood transfusion is necessary to keep good circulation, and to recover from hemodilution and abnormal coagul...

  5. Radiation energy detector and analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done

  6. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  7. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1947-05-01

    A short description of the process is given, with gas yields from various feedstocks, and the composition of the gas. Short descriptions of several batch digester designs are given: Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofta, and Somagaz. The utilization and the economics of the process are discussed. Two diagrams of Ducellier and Isman designs are included.

  8. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  9. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  10. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  13. Retained gas inventory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available

  14. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  15. Comparative evaluation of Plateletworks, Multiplate analyzer and Platelet function analyzer-200 in cardiology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeeyong; Cho, Chi Hyun; Jung, Bo Kyeung; Nam, Jeonghun; Seo, Hong Seog; Shin, Sehyun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2018-04-14

    The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate three commercial whole-blood platelet function analyzer systems: Platelet Function Analyzer-200 (PFA; Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PLW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX, USA). Venipuncture was performed on 160 patients who visited a department of cardiology. Pairwise agreement among the three platelet function assays was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient and percent agreement within the reference limit. Kappa values with the same agonists were poor between PFA-collagen (COL; agonist)/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and MP-ADP (-0.147), PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-ADP (0.089), MP-ADP and PLW-ADP (0.039), PFA-COL/ADP and MP-COL (-0.039), and between PFA-COL/ADP and PLW-COL (-0.067). Nonetheless, kappa values for the same assay principle with a different agonist were slightly higher between PFA-COL/ADP and PFA-COL/EPI (0.352), MP-ADP and MP-COL (0.235), and between PLW-ADP and PLW-COL (0.247). The range of percent agreement values was 38.7% to 73.8%. Therefore, various measurements of platelet function by more than one method were needed to obtain a reliable interpretation of platelet function considering low kappa coefficient and modest percent agreement rates among 3 different platelet function tests.

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  17. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  18. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  20. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  1. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission of ASH and help move hematology ...

  4. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a blood cell that carries oxygen.

  5. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  6. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  8. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Email Updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  11. Plasma diagnostics with a retarding potential analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma rocket is located at NASA Johnson Space Center. To produce a thrust in space, an inert gas is ionized into a plasma and heated in the linear section of a tokamak fusion device. The magnetic field used to contain the plasma has a magnitude of 2--10 kGauss. The plasma plume has a variable thrust and specific impulse. A high temperature retarding potential analyzer (RPA) is being developed to characterize the plasma in the plume and at the edge of the magnetically contained plasma. The RPA measures the energy and density of ions or electrons entering into its solid angle of collection. An oscilloscope displays the ion flux versus the collected current. All measurements are made relative to the facility ground. Testing of this device involves the determination of its output parameters, sensitivity, and responses to a wide range of energies and densities. Each grid will be tested individually by changing only its voltage and observing the output from the RPA. To verify that the RPA is providing proper output, it is compared to the output from a Langmuir or Faraday probe

  12. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  13. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  14. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  15. Gas dusulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.E.; Bakhshi, V.S.; Randolph, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for adsorbing sulfur dioxide from a gas comprising contacting a gas containing SO 2 , such as a flue gas, with about stoichiometric amounts of a specially prepared calcium oxide so that substantially all of the sulfur dioxide content is reacted throughout the calcium oxide particle to form a calcium sulfate reaction product. The useful calcium oxide particles comprise a highly voided skeletal structure of very large surface area and large pore volume with numerous macro pores. Such particles are obtained by flash calcining sand-size grains of calcium carbonate, such as aragonite, calcite or dolomite

  16. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ...

  18. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection according to ABO blood group among blood donors in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bukurije Zhubi; Zana Baruti-Gafurri; Ymer Mekaj; Mimoza Zhubi; Idriz Merovci; Iliriane Bunjaku; Valdete Topciu; Emine Devoli-Disha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among healthy and non-healthy persons in different places. The Aim of the study is to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Kosovo’s Blood donor associated with ABO/Rhesus blood group.Methods: 671 blood donors are tested for H. pylori antibodies and results are classifi ed by way of donation, age, gender, blood groups and education level. Serum antibodies are analyzed by Enzym...

  20. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)