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Sample records for blood forming organ

  1. Proton tissue dose for the blood forming organ in human geometry: Isotropic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is described which calculates doses averaged within five major segments of the blood forming organ in the human body taking into account selfshielding of the detailed body geometry and nuclear star effects for proton radiation of arbitrary energy spectrum (energy less than 1 GeV) and isotropic angular distribution. The dose calculation includes the first term of an asymptotic series expansion of transport theory which is known to converge rapidly for most points in the human body. The result is always a conservative estimate of dose and is given as physical dose (rad) and dose equivalent (rem).

  2. Electron arc therapy: Influence of heterogeneities on dose to blood-forming organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, D.D.; Gibbs, F.A.; Moeller, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Electron arc therapy has been used successfully to treat extended chest wall surfaces after mastectomy. Treatment is frequently given simultaneously with chemotherapy. Although the primary electron arc treatment volume consists only of the chest wall and mediastinum, dose is accumulated at the isocenter of rotation due to the photon contamination of the arcing electron beam. Additionally, higher energy electron fields which are occasionally used over segments of the arc may contribute to the dose at isocenter if the electron range has been extended due to passage through a low-density heterogeneity such as lung. In some patient setups, the isocenter may intersect blood-forming organs, such as the vertebral bodies. Thermoluminescent dosimetry has been used to measure the dose at isocenter for the following setups: polystyrene phantom, polystyrene phantom covered by 1-cm-thick lead cast, polystyrene phantom with cork insert to simulate lung, and phantom plus cork insert plus lead cast. For the 9-MeV treatment mode, dose at isocenter per 90 0 of arc (as a percentage of maximum tumor dose) is as follows: phantom, 6.5%; phantom plus lead, 5%; phantom plus cork, 8%; and phantom plus cork plus lead, 6%. These values must be scaled by the size of the arc to estimate dose at isocenter in actual treatments. Computer calculation showed good agreement with these measured values, indicating that the computerized treatment plans can be used as a predictor of electron arc dose to blood-forming organs

  3. Regeneration of blood-forming organs after autologous leukocyte transfusion in lethally irradiated dogs. II. Distribution and cellularity of the marrow in irradiated and transfused animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.; Huegl, E.; Bruch, C.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs were given transfusions of cryopreserved autologous mononuclear blood leukocytes after 1200 roentgens (R) (midline dose) whole-body x-irradiation. Bone marrow repopulation was studied by means of histomorphological methods at days 9 and 10 after transfusion of an average of 3 x 10 9 , 7 x 10 9 , 13 x 10 9 , and 31 x 10 9 cells. The return of marrow cellularity to normal values was related to the number of cells transfused. With low cell doses (3 x 10 9 and 7 x 10 9 ), the marrow regeneration at 10 days was focal. There were groups of cells (colonies) showing either erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, or megakaryocytopoiesis in the osteal niches of the trabecular bones. Frequently such niches were seen showing complete cellular recovery next to niches with complete aplasia. With higher cell doses, all niches showed hemopoietic regeneration, and the cellularity approached normal values. No hemopoietic regeneration was observed in those skeletal parts that do not show hemopoiesis, even under normal circumstances

  4. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and suppresses the patient’s immune system to prevent rejection of the transplant. Unlike traditional BMT or PBSCT, ... be given an injection of the donor’s white blood cells. This procedure is called a “ donor ... “tandem transplant” is a type of autologous transplant. This method is being studied ...

  5. Blood as integral system of an organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майя Розметовна Верголяс

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of use of hematological blood parameters for monitoring as markers of various physiological and pathological processes is substantiated. It is shown that the blood is an important system of the body, has all the reactive characteristics of tissues, its sensitivity to pathological stimuli is very high. The reaction of the organism to the irritation of toxic or infectious nature manifests itself in the change of quantitative composition of peripheral blood cells

  6. [Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.

  7. The ongoing charity of organ donation. Contemporary English Sunni fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2011-03-01

    Empirical studies in Muslim communities on organ donation and blood transfusion show that Muslim counsellors play an important role in the decision process. Despite the emerging importance of online English Sunni fatwas, these fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion have hardly been studied, thus creating a gap in our knowledge of contemporary Islamic views on the subject. We analysed 70 English Sunni e-fatwas and subjected them to an in-depth text analysis in order to reveal the key concepts in the Islamic ethical framework regarding organ donation and blood transfusion. All 70 fatwas allow for organ donation and blood transfusion. Autotransplantation is no problem at all if done for medical reasons. Allotransplantation, both from a living and a dead donor, appears to be possible though only in quite restricted ways. Xenotransplantation is less often mentioned but can be allowed in case of necessity. Transplantation in general is seen as an ongoing form of charity. Nearly half of the fatwas allowing blood transfusion do so without mentioning any restriction or problem whatsoever. The other half of the fatwas on transfusion contain the same conditional approval as found in the arguments pro organ transplantation. Our findings are very much in line with the international literature on the subject. We found two new elements: debates on the definition of the moment of death are hardly mentioned in the English Sunni fatwas and organ donation and blood transfusion are presented as an ongoing form of charity. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  9. Glass-Forming Organic Semiconductors for Optoelectronics

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    Aušra TOMKEVIČIENĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic electronics and optoelectronics are newly emerging fields of science and technology that cover chemistry, physics, and materials science. Electronic and optoelectronic devices using organic materials are attractive because of the materials characteristics, potentially low cost, and capability of large-area, flexible device fabrication. Such devices as OLEDs, OPVs, and OFETs involve charge transport as a main process in their operation processes, and therefore, require high-performance charge-transporting materials. This review article focuses on charge-transporting materials for use in OLEDs, OPVs, and OFETs. We have tried to arrange the charge-transporting materials in order by classifying them on the basis of their molecular structures. Molecular design concepts for charge-transporting materials and their charge-transport properties are discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.767

  10. Taxation and forms of organizing business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes sample tax regimes and tendencies from the developed countries in the EU-15 and the USA, and uses them to analyse the influence of taxation on the choice of organizational form of profit-oriented entities in Serbia. In order to understand how the procedure of taxation affects the sphere of business decision-making it is necessary to focus on the tax status of business losses and valorization and the effects of the double taxation of dividends. The rule of successive deduction of losses ensures the fiscally transparent entity receives a tax saving in the form of a reduction of the present value of the total paid tax. Meanwhile the corporation is handicapped because it postpones loss deductions, that is, it postpones tax saving, which directly influences the level of the present value of saved tax. The global trend of gradually moving from the classical system towards shareholder relief provision, above all in the form of a reduced withholding tax rate on dividends, has two opposing features: it simplifies the tax procedure while neglecting the distributional aims (consequences of taxation. The analysis of a particular practical example from the Serbian tax context enables us to draw a conclusion in relation to the relative taxes paid by entrepreneurs versus enterprises. The developed countries favour fiscally transparent entities, whereas Serbia allocates tax privileges to enterprises.

  11. Form, shape and function: segmented blood flow in the choriocapillaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouache, M. A.; Eames, I.; Klettner, C. A.; Luthert, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited. The shape of each functional segment is determined by the distribution of arterioles and venules and their respective relative flow rates. We also show that, remarkably, the mass exchange with the outer retina is a function of the shape of each functional segment. In addition to introducing a novel framework in which the structure and function of the metabolite delivery system to the outer retina may be investigated in health and disease, the present work provides a general characterisation of the flow and transfers in multipole Hele-Shaw configurations.

  12. Whole organism blood stage vaccines against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; Good, Michael F

    2015-12-22

    Despite a century of research focused on the development and implementation of effective control strategies, infection with the malaria parasite continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. An effective malaria vaccine is considered by many to be the definitive solution. Yet, after decades of research, we are still without a vaccine that is capable of inducing robust, long lasting protection in naturally exposed individuals. Extensive sub-unit vaccine development focused on the blood stage of the malaria parasite has thus far yielded disappointing results. There is now a renewed focus on whole parasite vaccine strategies, particularly as they may overcome some of the inherent weaknesses deemed to be associated with the sub-unit approach. This review discusses the whole parasite vaccine strategy focusing on the blood stage of the malaria parasite, with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges in the development of killed and live attenuated vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems influence the digestive form of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória Silveira; Ronchi, Luís Sérgio; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Micromethods for determining organic solvents in blood by headspace analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewski, P

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation in industrial exposure to volatile organic compounds based on assessing concentrations of unchanged substances in blood of exposed workers seems to gain increasing interest. The main obstacle to a wide application of this method is the difficulty in collecting venous blood samples. Many authors suggest determining volatiles in capillary blood samples because they display the same concentrations as the arterial blood samples. The collection of capillary blood samples is much more convenient in occupational setting than the collection of venous blood samples. The aim of this study was to develop micromethod for determining organic solvents in small blood samples (100 mm3) by gas chromatography with headspace technique. 1.8 cm3 glass vessels (Sapelco) with screw caps, silicone rubber membranes and aluminium foil pads were used. After addition of 0.1 cm3 of blood and 2.0 cm3 of aqueous solution of internal standard, the vessels were closed tightly and shaken for 30 min. at 70 degrees C in water bath. Then about 1 cm3 of the gas phase was sampled with a gastight syringe (Hamilton) injected into the gas chromatograph. The parameters of the recently developed methods for determining organic solvents in blood samples, including linearity, precision, reproducibility, stability and sensitivity, are fully compatible with the principles of biological monitoring.

  15. Could Communication Form Impact Organizations' Experience with Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Diane Susan; Richard, Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that cultural diversity can be advantageous or detrimental for organizations depending on organization members' communication. Introduces three forms of communication (ethnocentric, modernistic and cosmopolitan) explored by W. Barnett Pearce, each of which differs in deeply held assumptions. Overviews the implications of cosmopolitan…

  16. Considerations about the present forms of work organization in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso João Ferretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationships between the present forms of work organization in schools and the changes that took place in the work organization on contemporary capitalism since those changes played a strong influence on the Brazilian educationalreform of the 90’s. The school administration was very much affected by it on the basis of a functional articulation involving centralization/decentralization strategies and the adoption of a managerial model of work organization. The result is the intensification and the relative loss of control of teachers over their own work and, at the same time, being made responsible for the success or the failure of the reform implementation. This also causes resistances, dissimulations, and the deliberate or the conformist adhesions, which can motivate conflicts. For this reason it is discussed the Ball’s propositions regarding the micro-politics of the school.

  17. Performance effect of multiple control forms in a Lean organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Lean has developed into a prominent management philosophy reaching beyond shop floor tools. However, substantial support of performance effects from Lean is still scarce and at best with mixed results. Recently, research has turned its focus towards perceiving Lean...... as a control package. In this paper we present statistical support for enhanced performance coming from Lean. Furthermore, our results strongly support the perception of Lean as a set of multiple control forms (output, behavioral, and social controls) that complement each other. Therefore, performance...... is increased if the average level of control forms is increased, and performance is further increased if the control forms are balanced at the same level representing a complementary effect between them. Our data are archival data spanning multiple years in a strong Lean organization. The dependent performance...

  18. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

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    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  19. Secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics

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    N. Sareen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that methylglyoxal forms light-absorbing secondary organic material in aqueous ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosol particles. The kinetics were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results suggest that the bimolecular reaction of methylglyoxal with an ammonium or hydronium ion is the rate-limiting step for the formation of light-absorbing species, with kNH4+II=5×10−6 M−1 min−1 and kH3O+II≤10−3 M−1 min−1. Evidence of aldol condensation products and oligomeric species up to 759 amu was found using chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a volatilization flow tube inlet (Aerosol-CIMS. Tentative identifications of carbon-nitrogen species and a sulfur-containing compound were also made using Aerosol-CIMS. Aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal, with and without inorganic salts, exhibit significant surface tension depression. These observations add to the growing body of evidence that dicarbonyl compounds may form secondary organic material in the aerosol aqueous phase, and that secondary organic aerosol formation via heterogeneous processes may affect seed aerosol properties.

  20. Forms of treaties for organization of innovative goods marketing

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    Veronika A. Per’kova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify various ways of innovative products marketing as well as the contract forms most demanded by innovative business that are used in innovative products marketing. Methods the methodological basis of the study was both general scientific methods systemic structural dialectical formal logical analysis synthesis deduction induction etc. methods the method of a philosophical nature and specific methods the method of dogmatic analysis interpretation of legal norms and legal structures formallegal structuralfunctional. Results it was stated that marketing is the final stage of innovation process which is commercializing the innovation i.e. obtains profit through its sales therefore it is important to allocate the contractual structures that mediate sales and distribution of innovative products. It is shown that using contractual forms of organization of innovative products sales the parties determine the marketing scheme for the produced goods and thereby create modify and stop the property relations of the parties thus the contracts whose ultimate goal of signing and execution is marketing of innovations can be identified as organizational by their legal nature. The contractual forms that mediate marketing of innovative products include the contracts of sale agency agreements presented in the Russian civil legislation by the contract of agency contract of commission and agency agreements as well as franchising agreements. Besides in the practice of civil turnover there are mixed contracts contracts based on the freedom principle and the connecting elements of several contractual structures. Mixed contracts include distributor contracts. Scientific novelty for the first time the article comprehensively defines contractual forms of organization of innovative products marketing depending on the means of its distribution and describes the legal nature of emerging relationships for innovations marketing. Practical significance the main

  1. Translocation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles from blood to urine: a new mechanism for the formation of kidney stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Young, John D

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mineralo-organic nanoparticles form in various human body fluids, including blood and urine. These nanoparticles may form within renal tubules and increase in size in supersaturated urine, eventually leading to the formation of kidney stones. Here, we present observations suggesting that mineralo-organic nanoparticles found in blood may induce kidney stone formation via an alternative mechanism in which the particles translocate through endothelial and renal epithelial cells to reach urine. We propose that this alternative mechanism of kidney stone formation and the study of mineralo-organic nanoparticles in general may provide novel strategies for the early detection and treatment of ectopic calcifications and kidney stones.

  2. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  3. Postmodern organization and new forms of organizational control

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    Lončar Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article displays post bureaucratic organisational concept as an adequate representative of all emerging organizational forms which are natural result of persistent initiatives to flexibly and intensify working process. Under this term we assume all budding ‘sub-representatives' such as Total Quality Management (TQM, Just-in-time concept (JIT, network systems and joint ventures, virtual organizations, teamwork and other related structures. The author concludes that main virtues of new organizational paradigm are flexibility, decentralization, higher employee empowerment, knowledge and information sharing, responsibility for the system as a whole and permanent learning. On the other hand, some downsides become obvious. Those are danger from anarchy, responsibility and stress, greater employees' insecurity and resistance to new practices. Furthermore, the paper shed light on power and identity dynamics through the lens of improved and still intentional methods of organizational control. The main argument is that compulsive desire to control never fades away, only the methods of control takes different, more advanced forms through organizational culture, vocabulary and discourses monitoring at a distance, peer evaluation inside teams, employee selection and many others.

  4. Interaction of different forms of graphene with chicken embryo red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, S.; Hinzmann, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    , while others have indicated that graphene might become health hazards. In this study, we explore the biocompatibility of graphene-related materials with chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC). The hemolysis assay was employed to evaluate the in vitro blood compatibility of reduced graphene, graphene oxide......, and reduced graphene oxide, because these materials have recently been used for biomedical applications, including injectable graphene-related particles. This study investigated structural damage, ROS production and hemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells. Different forms of graphene, when incubated...... with chicken embryo RBC, were harmful to cell structure and induced hemolysis....

  5. Organ transplant education: the way to form altruistic behaviors among secondary school students toward organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, I; Przybylowski, P; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J

    2010-01-01

    Organ shortage for transplantation is a crucial problem all over the world. Educational intervention may appeal to young people's altruism, increasing organ donation and decreasing the opposition. This study assessed the influence of an educational program, including organ donation and transplantation, to forming students' altruistic behaviors. A total 680 students of 25 secondary schools were asked about their attitudes, intentions, and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation from September 2008 to June 2009 during a 45-minute lesson. In this study, altruistic attitudes were measured through questions about the expression of will to give organs away after death; to give one kidney to relatives; to use the bone marrow from a foreign person; and to sign a donor card. Attitudes were assessed by questions about conversations with relatives, an evaluation of the educational project. More than 1500 donor card were distributed and more than 90% of students wanted to sign them; 73.6% agreed to sign a donor card with the ID card. Before the project, only 8% of students had a signed donor card. Almost everybody is ready to agree to give their organs after death (80.6% male; 92.2% female), or to relatives (100% male; 90.38% female), or bone marrow (80% male; 55.7% female). The students talked to their family, informing them about their decision (36.9% male; 45.9% female). The proposed educational project successfully encouraged teenagers to make well-considered choices with regard to organ donation and created altruistic behaviors.

  6. Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial respiratome: Composition and organization in procyclic form

    KAUST Repository

    Acestor, Nathalie

    2011-05-24

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is comprised of four different protein complexes (I-IV), which are responsible for electron transport and generation of proton gradient in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. This proton gradient is then used by F oF 1-ATP synthase (complex V) to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, the respiratory complexes I, II, and III were affinity purified from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic form cells and their composition was determined by mass spectrometry. The results along with those that we previously reported for complexes IV and V showed that the respiratome of Trypanosoma is divergent because many of its proteins are unique to this group of organisms. The studies also identified two mitochondrial subunit proteins of respiratory complex IV that are encoded by edited RNAs. Proteomics data from analyses of complexes purified using numerous tagged component proteins in each of the five complexes were used to generate the first predicted protein-protein interaction network of the Trypanosoma brucei respiratory chain. These results provide the first comprehensive insight into the unique composition of the respiratory complexes in Trypanosoma brucei, an early diverged eukaryotic pathogen. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The effect of manganese supplementation on its concentrations in blood, hair, and organs of goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Pitropovska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with an organic form of manganese on its concentration in blood, hair, and organs of goat kids. A total of 27 kids were divided into control and experimental groups on the day of their birth (Day 1. The kids were on mother’s milk only diet until the day of weaning (Day 70. After weaning the kids received pellets at doses 0.3 kg/head/day for next 70 days. The control group received pellets (manganese content 36.7 mg/kg and the experimental group received pellets with extra manganese addition in the form of manganese proteinate at the amount of 220 mg/kg. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 70, 105, and 140; hair samples on days 1, 70, and 140. At the end of experiment, 7 kids from each group were slaughtered and samples of heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, muscle, and brain were taken. Manganese concentration was determined from fresh tissues after microwave digestion by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Kids of the experimental group had a significantly higher manganese concentration in the liver (4.90 vs. 3.06 mg/kg, heart (0.47 vs 0.28 mg/kg, kidney (1.29 vs. 0.87 mg/kg, brain (0.33 vs 0.26 mg/kg, and hair (4.25 vs. 3.14 mg/kg compared to the control group. The manganese concentration in blood was not affected by supplementation. Results of this study indicate that using the mentioned organs and hair for evaluation of the manganese status in an organism is more suitable than the determination of manganese concentration in blood.

  8. DECREASED LEVEL OF CORD BLOOD CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIAL COLONY-FORMING CELLS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L.; Stiefel, Pablo; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Dominguez-Simeon, Maria J.; Villar, Jose; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risk for the offspring. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that participate in the formation of vasculature during development. However, the effect of preeclampsia on fetal levels of ECFCs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether cord blood ECFC abundance and function are altered in preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included women with normal (n=35) and preeclamptic (n=15) pregnancies. We measured ECFC levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates and characterized ECFC phenotype, cloning-forming ability, proliferation and migration towards VEGF-A and FGF-2, in vitro formation of capillary-like structures, and in vivo vasculogenic ability in immunodeficient mice. We found that the level of cord blood ECFCs was statistically lower in preeclampsia than in control pregnancies (P = .04), a reduction that was independent of other obstetric factors. In addition, cord blood ECFCs from preeclamptic pregnancies required more time to emerge in culture than control ECFCs. However, once derived in culture, ECFC function was deemed normal and highly similar between preeclampsia and control, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. This study demonstrates that preeclampsia affects ECFC abundance in neonates. A reduced level of ECFCs during preeclamptic pregnancies may contribute to an increased risk of developing future cardiovascular events. PMID:24752434

  9. 29 CFR 452.14 - Newly formed or merged labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newly formed or merged labor organizations. 452.14 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Coverage of Election Provisions § 452.14 Newly formed or merged labor organizations. The initial selection of officers by newly formed or merged labor organizations is not subject to...

  10. Microfluidic organ-on-chip technology for blood-brain barrier research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Marinke W; van der Meer, Andries D; Eijkel, Jan C T; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes I

    2016-01-01

    Organs-on-chips are a new class of microengineered laboratory models that combine several of the advantages of current in vivo and in vitro models. In this review, we summarize the advances that have been made in the development of organ-on-chip models of the blood-brain barrier (BBBs-on-chips) and the challenges that are still ahead. The BBB is formed by specialized endothelial cells and separates blood from brain tissue. It protects the brain from harmful compounds from the blood and provides homeostasis for optimal neuronal function [corrected]. Studying BBB function and dysfunction is important for drug development and biomedical research. Microfluidic BBBs-on-chips enable real-time study of (human) cells in an engineered physiological microenvironment, for example incorporating small geometries and fluid flow as well as sensors. Examples of BBBs-on-chips in literature already show the potential of more realistic microenvironments and the study of organ-level functions. A key challenge in the field of BBB-on-chip development is the current lack of standardized quantification of parameters such as barrier permeability and shear stress. This limits the potential for direct comparison of the performance of different BBB-on-chip models to each other and existing models. We give recommendations for further standardization in model characterization and conclude that the rapidly emerging field of BBB-on-chip models holds great promise for further studies in BBB biology and drug development.

  11. Form, function and evolution of the mouthparts of blood-feeding Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Harald W; Aspöck, Horst

    2012-03-01

    This review compares the mouthparts and their modes of operation in blood-feeding Arthropoda which have medical relevance to humans. All possess piercing blood-sucking proboscides which exhibit thin stylet-shaped structures to puncture the host's skin. The tips of the piercing structures are serrated to provide anchorage. Usually, the piercing organs are enveloped by a soft sheath-like part which is not inserted. The piercing process includes either back and forth movements of the piercing structures, or sideways cutting motions, or the apex of the proboscis bears teeth-like structures which execute drilling movements. Most piercing-proboscides have a food-canal which is separate from a salivary canal. The food-canal is functionally connected to a suction pump in the head that transports blood into the alimentary tract. The salivary canal conducts saliva to the tip of the proboscis, from where it is discharged into the host. Piercing blood-sucking proboscides evolved either from (1) generalized biting-chewing mouthparts, (2) from piercing mouthparts of predators, or plant sap or seed feeders, (3) from lapping or sponging mouthparts. Representatives of one taxon of Acari liquefy skin tissue by enzymatic action. During feeding, many blood-feeding arthropods inadvertently transmit pathogens, which mostly are transported through the discharged saliva into the host. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Algae form brominated organic compounds in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetteroth, A.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of organic halogen compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) revealed seasonal high concentrations of organic bromine compounds in a surface water (Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany). Usually, in late summer, concentrations are up to five times higher than during the rest of the year. The AOBr of the lake inflows (throughout the year less then 6 {mu}g/L) were always lower then those in the lake, which indicates a production of AOBr in the lake. A correlation of the AOBr and chlorophyll-a concentration (1) in the lake provides first evidence for the influence of phototrophic organisms. The knowledge of the natural production of organohalogens is relatively recent. Up to now there are more then 3800 identified natural organohalogen compounds that have been detected in marine plants, animals, and bacteria and also in terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and humans. Halogenated organic compounds are commonly considered to be of anthropogenic origin; derived from e.g. pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, flame retardants, intermediates in organic synthesis and solvents. Additionally they are also produced as by-products during industrial processes and by waste water and drinking water disinfection. Organohalogen compounds may be toxic, persistent and/or carcinogenic. In order to understand the source and environmental relevance of naturally produced organobromine compounds in surface waters, the mechanism of the formation was investigated using batch tests with lake water and algae cultures.

  13. UV irradiation of the blood in the therapy of torpid forms of gonorrheal uretritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.M.; Zorin, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of the IR-irradiation proper blood reinfusion (IRIPBR) method in therapy of torpid forms of gonorrheal uretritis, dynamics of such factors of the oxygen-dependent bactericidal system of polymorphonuclear neutrophils leukocytes (PMNL) as myeloperoxidases (MPO) and test of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT-test) reduction as well as general quantity of PMNL in the course of immunotherapy by gonovaccine and pyrogenal and by the IRIPBR method have been studied in two groups of patients with gonorrheal uretritis (54 men). The patients of the first group (32) received peniciline, pyrogenal and gonovaccine injections, as well as local treatment according to the instruction, the patients of the second group (22) were prescribed instead of pyrogenal injections 3 procedures of IRIPBR on 2 ml autoblood basis per 1 kg of body mass (in average 130-150 ml) with further treatment by antibiotics. LK-5E has been used to carry out IRIPBR for blood UV irradiation. Blood has been irradiated by MD-73 M ''Izol'lda'' device. It is shown that IRIPBR causes statistically reliable increase of the number of circulating blood leucocytes including PMNL with simultaneous increase of MPO PMNL activity and the capability to generate pro-stimulations of O 2 - determined by the NBT-test

  14. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  15. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  16. Measurement of organ blood flow using tritiated water. II. Uterine blood flow in conscious pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Oddy, V.H.; Jones, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Total uterine blood flow was measured with a tritiated water (TOH) diffusion method and with radioactive microspheres in six, conscious, pregnant ewes. With continuous infusion of TOH, equilibrium between the TOH concentration in utero-ovarian venous blood and arterial blood was attained within 50 min of the start of the infusion. The concentration of TOH in uterine and foetal tissue and in foetal blood water was the same as that in uterine venous water by 40 min; at this time, the concentration of TOH in the water of amniotic and allantoic fluids was 96% of that in uterine venous blood water. Estimates of total uterine blood flow obtained using TOH were highly correlated with those obtained with microspheres and the corresponding mean flow values obtained with the two techniques did not significantly differ. The percentage of the total uterine blood flow passing through arteriovenous anastomoses ranged from 1.4 to 3.3%

  17. Water absorbed by polyaniline emeraldine tends to organize, forming nanodrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, Jordi; Canales, Manel; Fabregat, Georgina; Meneguzzi, Alvaro; Alemán, Carlos

    2012-06-21

    Interactions, in terms of both binding energies and microscopic organization, of water molecules absorbed by hydrophilic polyaniline emeraldine base have been investigated using quantum mechanical calculations, molecular dynamics simulation, FTIR spectroscopy, and (1)H NMR. From an enthalpic point of view, water molecules interact more favorably with imine nitrogen atoms than with amine ones, even though the latter are entropically favored with respect to the former because of their two binding sites. Quantum mechanical results show that interaction energies of water molecules reversibly absorbed but organized individually around a binding site range from 3.0 to 6.3 kcal/mol, which is in good agreement with activation energies of 3-5 kcal/mol previously determined by thermodynamic measurements. The irreversible absorption of water to produce C-OH groups in rings of diimine units has been examined considering a three steps process in which water molecules act as both acidic and nucleophilic reagent. Although calculations predict that the whole process is disfavored by 5-8 kcal/mol only, FTIR and (1)H NMR detected the existence of reversibly absorbed water but not of C-OH groups. Both the binding energies and the structural information provided by molecular dynamics simulations have been used to interpret the existence of two types of physisorbed water molecules: (i) those that interact individually with polymer chains and (ii) those immersed in nanodrops that are contained within the polymeric matrix. The binding energies calculated for these two types of water molecules are fully consistent with the thermodynamic activation energies previously reported.

  18. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter.

  19. Maternal Body-Mass Index and Cord Blood Circulating Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Miranda, Maria L.; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Stiefel, Pablo; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Bernal-Bermejo, Jose; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis M.; Villar, Jose; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that are particularly abundant in umbilical cord blood. We sought to determine whether ECFC abundance in cord blood is associated with maternal body-mass index (BMI) in non-pathological pregnancies. Study design We measured the level of ECFCs in the cord blood of neonates (n=27) born from non-obese healthy mothers with non-pathological pregnancies and examined whether ECFC abundance correlated with maternal BMI. We also examined the effect of maternal BMI on ECFC phenotype and function using angiogenic and vasculogenic assays. Results We observed variation in ECFC abundance among subjects and found a positive correlation between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and ECFC content (r=0.51, P=0.007), which was independent of other obstetric factors. Despite this variation, ECFC phenotype and functionality were deemed normal and highly similar between subjects with maternal BMI <25 kg/m2 and BMI between 25–30 kg/m2, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. Conclusions This study underlines the need to consider maternal BMI as a potential confounding factor for cord blood levels of ECFCs in future comparative studies between healthy and pathological pregnancies. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of progenitor cells that circulate in peripheral blood and can give rise to endothelial cells (1,2), contributing to the formation of new vasculature and the maintenance of vascular integrity (3–5). The mechanisms that regulate the abundance of these cells in vivo remain poorly understood. ECFCs are rare in adult peripheral blood (1,2,10). In contrast, there is an elevated number of these cells in fetal blood during the third trimester of pregnancy (11–13). Emerging evidence indicates that deleterious conditions during fetal life can impair ECFC content and function. For instance, offspring of diabetic mothers have been shown to have

  20. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Петрович Костиленко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the preparations were extracted from the non-polymerized epoxy and placed on the polyethylene film that was covered with the other film of the same size. Further this stratified block was placed amid the two glasses of the equal size that shrunk together by placing the small load on it. After the complete polymerization the received epoxy plates with the corpus callosum tissue contained in it underwent the gentle grinding and the accurate polish and as the result was obtained the surface denudation of its tissue structures that were colored with the 1 % solution of blue methylene for 1% borax solution.Results of research: at the study of the corpus callosum plastinated cuts in saggital plane was revealed that the transverse platen-form elevations of its higher surface are the cord-form tenias standing out from within and going through the corpus callosum. At its studying in the transverse cut was established that in adults can be separated two types of corpus callosum by its density: the dense one and disperse one.At the large increases of the binocular loupe (microscope MBS-9 can be seen the gaps between the adjacent commissural cords. Within it can be detected the blood vessels. On the transverse cut of commissural cords in its depth are revealed the thinnest streaks which totality consists of the two alternate dark and light lines that form the layered striation. Among the series of the light lines are visible the interlayer that separate the whole depth of

  1. Performance and internal organ quality of broiler chickens fed blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to establish the suitability of blood meal (BM) as substitute for synthetic lysine (SL) in broiler diets. There were five dietary groups, each containing 30 unsexed day old chicks of Anak strain, replicated three times with ten birds per replicate in completely randomized design (CRD). Diet 1, which served ...

  2. Organ donation registration among current blood donors in The Netherlands. Personal, cultural and network determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; van den Hurk, Katja; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ

  3. Organ Donation Registration and Decision-Making Among Current Blood Donors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ

  4. Oligomeric adiponectin forms and their complexes in the blood of healthy donors and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Alexander E; Filatov, Vladimir L; Kolosova, Olga V; Katrukha, Ivan A; Mironova, Ekaterina V; Zhuravleva, Natalya S; Nagibin, Oleg A; Kara, Andrei N; Bereznikova, Anastasiya V; Katrukha, Alexey G

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin (Adn) is a protein that circulates in the blood in several oligomeric forms, namely low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight forms. Adn may serve as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aims of this work were (1) to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to different Adn oligomeric forms, (2) to design immunoassays suitable for measuring the Adn forms present in human blood, and (3) to investigate the changes in Adn forms that occur in patients with T2DM. Gel filtration, fluoroimmunoassays, and Western blotting were utilized as major techniques in this study. MAbs recognizing various oligomeric forms of Adn were obtained. Complexes between Adn and complement component C1q and between the low molecular weight form of Adn and albumin were described in human blood. A decrease in the total Adn and Adn-albumin complex levels in the blood of patients with T2DM and no difference in the levels of the Adn-C1q complex in comparison with healthy volunteers were demonstrated. An Adn94-Adn63 fluoroimmunoassay was selected as the technique that most accurately measured the mass ratio of Adn oligomers in blood samples, and an Adn214-Adn27 assay that measured the low-molecular-weight form of Adn only.

  5. Organ Donation Registration and Decision-Making Among Current Blood Donors in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L A M

    2017-09-01

    In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ donations provided similar results. The current study investigated demographic, cultural, and personal determinants of organ donation registration among current Dutch blood donors. We used data from Donor InSight (2012; N = 20 063), a cohort study among Dutch blood donors, to test whether age, gender, religious and political preferences, donor attitude, and altruism predicted organ donor registration among current blood donors. Organ donors were more often represented in the blood donor population compared to the general Dutch population. Women showed a higher propensity to be registered as organ donor. Higher education as well as higher prosocial value orientation, prosocial behavior, that is, doing volunteer work, and awareness of need significantly associated with being registered as organ donor. Religious denomination negatively predicted organ donation registration across all faiths. Results are discussed in light of cultural context, and possible implications for improving information provision and recruitment are mentioned.

  6. Alterations of Liver Histomorphology in Relation to Copper Supplementation in Inorganic and Organic Form in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the effects of diet containing the same mineral content of mineral salt or amino acid chelate, and diet containing various levels of Cu amino acid chelate on liver histomorphometry in growing rats. Male Wistar rats were used in the 12th week experiment. The control group (n = 12 was fed standard diet, which provided Cu in an inorganic form at the level required for rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (each n = 12 depending on different levels (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% covered daily demand of Cu supplementation in chelated form. Cu content was determined in the liver tissue and blood plasma. Immunohistochemical staining with caspase-3 antibody was performed. Microscopic assessment of the liver structure indicated that Cu supplementation did not change the liver architecture. However, histomorphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of nuclei, total cell number, and multinucleated hepatocytes in rats supplemented with the organic form of Cu at the level of 25% compared with the control group. There was a considerable increase in the number of apoptotic cells and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, especially in groups supplemented with organic form of Cu covering the daily demand in 100% and 75%, in comparison to control group. Moreover, there was no Cu deposition in the liver and changes in Cu content in blood. Cu provided in the diet in organic form covering an amount of its minimum daily demand in 25% appears to be the least harmful with regard to the liver. It indicates that there is a need to establish the level of diet supplementation with Cu amino acid chelates.

  7. [The distribution of amlodipine in the organism of the warm-blooded animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, V K; Kvachakhiya, L L

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of amlodipine distribution in the organism of the warm-blooded animals (rats) following a single intragastric administration of the poisonous substance at a dose of 686 mg/kg b/w/ (LD50). Amlodipine was isolated from the blood and various organs of the animals by means of acetone extraction and purified on the silica gel column (100/160 mcm) with the elution by an ethanol-hexane (7:3) mixture. The identification and the quantitative measurement of amlodipine were performed with the use of the TLC, GC-M, and UV-spectrophotometry. The study has shown that unmetabolized amlodipine was present in large amounts in the internal organs and blood of the poisoned animals. The principal organs of its accumulation were the stomach, kidneys, and blood.

  8. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Background To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5...

  9. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Contaminants (Blubber, serum, and whole blood persistent organic pollutants) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information on persistent organic pollutant analysis of Hawaiian monk seal whole blood and blubber samples from the northwestern Hawaiian...

  10. Organ hierarchy during low blood flow on-pump: a randomized experimental positron emission tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Frøkiær, Jørgen

    ].The purpose of this animal study is to investigate the organ hierarchy of brain, liver, kidney and muscle at normal and low blood flows by using dynamic positron tomography (PET-CT) during CPB. Methods CPB at different blood flows will be investigated in an experimental model of six 70 kg pigs...

  11. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    , smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood...

  12. Blood and plasma viscosity in diabetes: possible contribution to late organ complications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, N. H.; van Arkel, E. C.; Hardeman, M. R.; Bilo, H. J.; Michels, R. P.; Vreeken, J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been postulated that an increased whole blood and plasma viscosity contribute to diabetic organ complications. Blood viscosity was measured in 30 controls and four groups of insulin-dependent diabetic patients at three shear rates: 70 sec-1, 0.5 sec-1 and 0.05 sec-1. Results were compared

  13. Standardized quality assurance forms for organ transplantations with multilingual support, open access and UMLS coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Julian; Sünninghausen, Sarah Schulze; Dugas, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is a key factor to evaluate success of organ transplantations. In Germany QA documentation is progressively developed and enforced by law. Our objective is to share QA models from Germany in a standardized format within a form repository for world-wide reuse and exchange. Original QA forms were converted into standardized study forms according to the Operational Data Model (ODM) and shared for open access in an international forms repository. Form elements were translated into English and semantically enriched with Concept Unique Identifiers from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) based on medical expert decision. All forms are available on the web as multilingual ODM documents. UMLS concept coverage analysis indicates 92% coverage with few but critically important definition gaps. New content and infrastructure for harmonized documentation forms is provided in the domain of organ transplantations enabling world-wide reuse and exchange.

  14. Why New Hybrid Organizations Are Formed: Historical Perspectives on Epistemic and Academic Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    By comparing three types of hybrid organizations--18th-century scientific academies, 19th-century institutions of higher vocational education, and 20th-century industrial research institutes--it is the purpose here to answer the question of why new hybrid organizations are continuously formed. Traditionally, and often implicitly, it is often…

  15. Effect of vasopressors on organ blood flow during endotoxin shock in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslow, M.J.; Miller, C.F.; Parker, S.D.; Walman, A.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A volume-resuscitated porcine endotoxin shock model was used to evaluate the effect on organ blood flow of increasing systemic arterial blood pressure with vasopressors. Administration of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg of Escherichia coli endotoxin (E) reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to 50 mmHg, decreased systemic vascular resistance to 50% of control, and did not change cardiac output or heart rate. Blood flow measured with radiolabeled microspheres to brain, kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle was reduced during endotoxin shock, but blood flow to left ventricle, small and large intestine, and stomach remained at pre-endotoxin levels throughout the study period. Four groups of animals were used to evaluate the effect of vasopressor therapy. Vasopressors were administered starting 60 min after E exposure, and the dose of each was titrated to increase MAP to 75 mmHg. Despite the increase in MAP, brain blood flow did not increase in any group. Norepinephrine alone increased blood flow to the left ventricle. The dose of norepinephrine required to increase MAP by 20-25 mmHg during E shock was 30 times the does required for a similar increase in MAP in animals not receiving E. The authors conclude 1) that hypotension in the fluid resuscitated porcine E shock model is primarily the result of peripheral vasodilatation, 2) that the vascular response to vasoconstrictors in this model is markedly attenuated following E administration, 3) that blood pressure elevation with norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine neither decreases blood flow to any organs nor increases blood flow to organs with reduced flow, and 4) that norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylephrine affect regional blood flow similarly in this model

  16. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  17. Partnerships for organizing blood donation camp: An experience from rural North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Malhotra, Sumit; Ahamed, Farhad; Archana, S; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2016-01-01

    Rural areas pose challenges for motivating villagers to donate blood. We organized a blood donation camp in a rural setting by engaging multiple stakeholders. We examined the factors that influenced blood donation. Local level stakeholders were involved in planning of the camp. Mobilization of donors was attempted through intensive awareness generation activities utilizing multiple channels. A list of willing blood donors was prepared. Out of 152 willing donors, 88 reported to donation camp, and after screening, 67 donated the blood. Most of the willing donors were males (89.8%), and the mean standard deviation age was 31.9 (9.4) years. Deferral rate was 23.8%. Involvement of local stakeholders can result in creating a pool of donors in rural area which can mitigate the existing gap between demand and supply of blood in India.

  18. GLYCOSIDASES IN HUMAN BLOOD PLASMA AND URINE. MOLECULAR FORMS AND ACTIVITY LEVELS

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    Reza Seyed Yazdani

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The isoe lect r i c f ocusing p a t terns and pH activity cur ves of f i ve glycosidas e e nzymes i n blood plasma and ur i ne were s t ud i e d . This s tudy demons trated the presence o f a sing le molecular f onn in a -glucosidase and of two mole cul a r fonns of the enzymes H-a ce t yl-B-D-gluco sarni nidase, Na c e t y l -•p-D-g a l a c t o s amin i ua s e and S-glucuronidase i n both plasma and urine . B-Galactosidase existed as a s i ng le major molecular f orm i n p l asma and a t l e a st t wo molecular forms in urine. Spe cific activity of each~ le n zyme was determined in p lasma and urine The validity o f taking the ratio between two e n zvrne activities as an index for scr een .l.ng of fr ene t ic di s e a s e is discussed.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ORGANIZATION FORMS OF WHOLESALE TRADE ENTERPRISES IN RUSSIA

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    Andrey N. Vashchekin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new conditions of wholesale business in Russia, formed by the economicreforms, led the formation and development of qualitatively different tradingactivity forms, new organization types,which involves reconsideration of traditional wholesale enterprises modelingconcepts. In the near future market willbe dominated with wholesale and retail associations. Competing with each other, they will gradually grow by the additionof small commercial enterprises. Thereis also the emergence of not previouslyencountered universal dual-use forms of trade organization resulting from thepenetration of network technologies in management.

  20. The effect of mineral radon water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in patients with hypertension

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    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to patients’ safety, increased blood pressure often restricts wider use of mineral water for therapeutic purposes in rehabilitation practice. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radon mineral water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in people with hypertension.Methods: A total of 27 patients, average age 58.10 years with hypertension were included in the study. Balneotherapy was applied in the form of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after twenty minutes therapy on the first and fifth day of treatment.Results: On the first day of treatment there was no significant change in blood pressure after the application of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 0.697, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 0.505, not significant. On the fi fth day of treatment there was no significant changes in blood pressure after the application of medical baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant.Conclusion: The significant increase of blood pressure in patients with mild and moderate hypertension is not expected when Fojnica water (radioactive mineral water is being used in the form of full baths of neutral temperature, which allows a broader application of this balneo procedure in rehabilitation practice.

  1. Effect of physical forms of soil organic matter on phenanthrene sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Lin, Xiumei; Xiao, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Zhang, Xianming; Zhang, Yanxv; Yuan, Huishi

    2007-07-01

    The sorption coefficient, K(OC), of phenanthrene (PHE) has been reported to vary with different types of organic matter, leading to uncertainties in predicting the environmental behavior of PHE. Among the studies that relate organic matter properties to their sorption characteristics, physical conformation of organic matter is often neglected. In this work, organic matter samples of different physical forms were examined for their sorption characteristics. Dissolved humic acids (DHA) showed significantly higher K(OC) than the corresponding solid humic acids (SHA) from which the DHAs were made. The K(OC) of DHAs was found to be related to polarity, whereas K(OC) of SHAs increased with aliphatic carbon content. Soil particles were treated with H(2)O(2) to remove organic matter, and humic acid was coated on H(2)O(2)-treated soil particles to make organo-mineral complexes at pH 4, 7 and 10. Although the nonlinear sorption was apparent for SHAs and H(2)O(2)-treated soil particles, the organo-mineral complexes formed using these two components at pH 4, 7 and 10 exhibited relatively linear sorption at organic carbon content, f(OC)>0.5%. These results indicate that organic matter of the same composition may have different sorption properties due to different physical forms (or conformations). Nonlinear sorption for the complexes formed at pH 4 with lower f(OC) (<0.5%) was also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of some organic compounds on bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    João S. Silva

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental transmission of Chagas' disease to man by blood transfusion is a serious problem in Latin-America. This paper describes the testing of several synthetic, semi-synthetic, and natural compounds for their activity against blood trypomastigotes in vitro at 4-C. The compounds embody several types of chemical structures: benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, anthracenequinone, phenanthrenequinone, imidazole, piperazine, quinoline, xanthene, and simple benzenic and naphthalenic derivates. Some of them are for the first time tested against Trypanosoma cruzi. The toxic effect these compounds on this parasite was done by two quite distinct sets of experiments. In one set, the compounds were added to infected blood as ethanolic solution. In this situation the most active one was a furan-1, 2-naphthoquinone, in the same range as gentian violet, a new fact to be considered in the assessment of structure-activity relationships in this class of compounds. In other set, we tentatively evaluated the biological activity of water insoluble compounds by adding them in a pure form without solvent into infected blood. In this way some appear to be very active and it was postulated that the effectiveness of such compounds must result from interactions between them and specific blood components.

  3. The patient safety climate in healthcare organizations (PSCHO) survey: Short-form development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Justin K; Meterko, Mark; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    Measures of safety climate are increasingly used to guide safety improvement initiatives. However, cost and respondent burden may limit the use of safety climate surveys. The purpose of this study was to develop a 15- to 20-item safety climate survey based on the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations survey, a well-validated 38-item measure of safety climate. The Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations was administered to all senior managers, all physicians, and a 10% random sample of all other hospital personnel in 69 private sector hospitals and 30 Veterans Health Administration hospitals. Both samples were randomly divided into a derivation sample to identify a short-form subset and a confirmation sample to assess the psychometric properties of the proposed short form. The short form consists of 15 items represented 3 overarching domains in the long-form scale-organization, work unit, and interpersonal. The proposed short form efficiently captures 3 important sources of variance in safety climate: organizational, work-unit, and interpersonal. The short-form development process was a practical method that can be applied to other safety climate surveys. This safety climate short form may increase response rates in studies that involve busy clinicians or repeated measures. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Predictors of blood volatile organic compound levels in Gulf coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werder, Emily J; Gam, Kaitlyn B; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Ekenga, Christine C; Curry, Matthew D; Chambers, David M; Blair, Aaron; Miller, Aubrey K; Birnbaum, Linda S; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-12-29

    To address concerns among Gulf Coast residents about ongoing exposures to volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene/p-xylene (BTEX), we characterized current blood levels and identified predictors of BTEX among Gulf state residents. We collected questionnaire data on recent exposures and measured blood BTEX levels in a convenience sample of 718 Gulf residents. Because BTEX is rapidly cleared from the body, blood levels represent recent exposures in the past 24 h. We compared participants' levels of blood BTEX to a nationally representative sample. Among nonsmokers we assessed predictors of blood BTEX levels using linear regression, and predicted the risk of elevated BTEX levels using modified Poisson regression. Blood BTEX levels in Gulf residents were similar to national levels. Among nonsmokers, sex and reporting recent smoky/chemical odors predicted blood BTEX. The change in log benzene was -0.26 (95% CI: -0.47, -0.04) and 0.72 (0.02, 1.42) for women and those who reported odors, respectively. Season, time spent away from home, and self-reported residential proximity to Superfund sites (within a half mile) were statistically associated with benzene only, however mean concentration was nearly an order of magnitude below that of cigarette smokers. Among these Gulf residents, smoking was the primary contributor to blood BTEX levels, but other factors were also relevant.

  5. In situ electrochemical studies of forming-induced defects of organic coatings on galvanised steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueppel, Ingo [Dortmunder Oberflaechencentrum GmbH, Eberhardstrasse 12, 44145 Dortmund (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Department for Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Schinkinger, Bernhard [Dortmunder Oberflaechencentrum GmbH, Eberhardstrasse 12, 44145 Dortmund (Germany); Grundmeier, Guido [University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)], E-mail: g.grundmeier@tc.uni-paderborn.de

    2009-05-01

    A new electrochemical setup is presented for in situ measurements during uniaxial forming of thin film coated metal substrates. This approach allows the formability analysis of a zinc pigmented organic coating on a galvanised steel substrate. The aim is to monitor the formation of defects during the forming process. The setup comprises an electrochemical microcapillary cell in a three-electrode arrangement and a miniaturised linear stretching device. The development of forming-induced defects is monitored in situ by applying electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and also microscopically analysed by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The studies were supported by GOM grid measurements and finite element simulations of model sample forming degrees. The established technique enables the evaluation of the correlation between forming degree and degradation of the barrier properties of organic coatings. Finally a phosphating process on the unformed and formed specimen is electrochemically and microscopically analysed to correlate the respective defect size with its local reactivity. The results show that stretching-induced defects occur at the interface between spherical Zn particles and the epoxy binder matrix. The defect size increases with increasing strain values. The phosphating process leads to the nucleation of phosphate crystals especially in the forming-induced defects and thereby reduces the free zinc in the defect area. The kinetic of the phosphating is accelerated with increasing size of the defect.

  6. Intestinal epithelial organoids fuse to form self-organizing tubes in floating collagen gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, Norman; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Kujala, Pekka; Peters, Peter J.; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Multiple recent examples highlight how stem cells can self-organize in vitro to establish organoids that closely resemble their in vivo counterparts. Single Lgr5+ mouse intestinal stem cells can be cultured under defined conditions forming ever-expanding epithelial organoids that retain cell

  7. Blood chemistry and relative organ weights of rabbits fed neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) based diets on blood and relative organ weight characteristics of rabbits. In the first experiment, 36 rabbit bucks aged 7 to 8 months were distributed into four dietary groups, T1 , T2 T3 and T4 of 9 rabbits using completely randomized design.

  8. Mycolactone diffuses from Mycobacterium ulcerans-infected tissues and targets mononuclear cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid organs.

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    Hui Hong

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a progressive disease of subcutaneous tissues caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The pathology of BU lesions is associated with the local production of a diffusible substance, mycolactone, with cytocidal and immunosuppressive properties. The defective inflammatory responses in BU lesions reflect these biological properties of the toxin. However, whether mycolactone diffuses from infected tissues and suppresses IFN-gamma responses in BU patients remains unclear.Here we have investigated the pharmacodistribution of mycolactone following injection in animal models by tracing a radiolabeled form of the toxin, and by directly quantifying mycolactone in lipid extracts from internal organs and cell subpopulations. We show that subcutaneously delivered mycolactone diffused into mouse peripheral blood and accumulated in internal organs with a particular tropism for the spleen. When mice were infected subcutaneously with M. ulcerans, this led to a comparable pattern of distribution of mycolactone. No evidence that mycolactone circulated in blood serum during infection could be demonstrated. However, structurally intact toxin was identified in the mononuclear cells of blood, lymph nodes and spleen several weeks before ulcerative lesions appear. Importantly, diffusion of mycolactone into the blood of M. ulcerans-infected mice coincided with alterations in the functions of circulating lymphocytes.In addition to providing the first evidence that mycolactone diffuses beyond the site of M. ulcerans infection, our results support the hypothesis that the toxin exerts immunosuppressive effects at the systemic level. Furthermore, they suggest that assays based on mycolactone detection in circulating blood cells may be considered for diagnostic tests of early disease.

  9. Ralstonia syzygii, the Blood Disease Bacterium and some Asian R. solanacearum strains form a single genomic species despite divergent lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenant, Benoît; de Cambiaire, Jean-Charles; Cellier, Gilles; Jacobs, Jonathan M; Mangenot, Sophie; Barbe, Valérie; Lajus, Aurélie; Vallenet, David; Medigue, Claudine; Fegan, Mark; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes R. solanacearum, R. syzygii, and the Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB). All colonize plant xylem vessels and cause wilt diseases, but with significant biological differences. R. solanacearum is a soilborne bacterium that infects the roots of a broad range of plants. R. syzygii causes Sumatra disease of clove trees and is actively transmitted by cercopoid insects. BDB is also pathogenic to a single host, banana, and is transmitted by pollinating insects. Sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that despite their phenotypic differences, these three plant pathogens are actually very closely related, falling into the Phylotype IV subgroup of the R. solanacearum species complex. To better understand the relationships among these bacteria, we sequenced and annotated the genomes of R. syzygii strain R24 and BDB strain R229. These genomes were compared to strain PSI07, a closely related Phylotype IV tomato isolate of R. solanacearum, and to five additional R. solanacearum genomes. Whole-genome comparisons confirmed previous phylogenetic results: the three phylotype IV strains share more and larger syntenic regions with each other than with other R. solanacearum strains. Furthermore, the genetic distances between strains, assessed by an in-silico equivalent of DNA-DNA hybridization, unambiguously showed that phylotype IV strains of BDB, R. syzygii and R. solanacearum form one genomic species. Based on these comprehensive data we propose a revision of the taxonomy of the R. solanacearum species complex. The BDB and R. syzygii genomes encoded no obvious unique metabolic capacities and contained no evidence of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria occupying similar niches. Genes specific to R. syzygii and BDB were almost all of unknown function or extrachromosomal origin. Thus, the pathogenic life-styles of these organisms are more probably due to ecological adaptation and genomic convergence during vertical

  10. Ralstonia syzygii, the Blood Disease Bacterium and some Asian R. solanacearum strains form a single genomic species despite divergent lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Remenant

    Full Text Available The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes R. solanacearum, R. syzygii, and the Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB. All colonize plant xylem vessels and cause wilt diseases, but with significant biological differences. R. solanacearum is a soilborne bacterium that infects the roots of a broad range of plants. R. syzygii causes Sumatra disease of clove trees and is actively transmitted by cercopoid insects. BDB is also pathogenic to a single host, banana, and is transmitted by pollinating insects. Sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that despite their phenotypic differences, these three plant pathogens are actually very closely related, falling into the Phylotype IV subgroup of the R. solanacearum species complex. To better understand the relationships among these bacteria, we sequenced and annotated the genomes of R. syzygii strain R24 and BDB strain R229. These genomes were compared to strain PSI07, a closely related Phylotype IV tomato isolate of R. solanacearum, and to five additional R. solanacearum genomes. Whole-genome comparisons confirmed previous phylogenetic results: the three phylotype IV strains share more and larger syntenic regions with each other than with other R. solanacearum strains. Furthermore, the genetic distances between strains, assessed by an in-silico equivalent of DNA-DNA hybridization, unambiguously showed that phylotype IV strains of BDB, R. syzygii and R. solanacearum form one genomic species. Based on these comprehensive data we propose a revision of the taxonomy of the R. solanacearum species complex. The BDB and R. syzygii genomes encoded no obvious unique metabolic capacities and contained no evidence of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria occupying similar niches. Genes specific to R. syzygii and BDB were almost all of unknown function or extrachromosomal origin. Thus, the pathogenic life-styles of these organisms are more probably due to ecological adaptation and genomic convergence

  11. Adropin levels and target organ damage secondary to high blood pressure in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Bedia; Eken, Cenker; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Serinken, Mustafa; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Kılıc, Elif; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    High blood pressure is still a challenge for emergency physicians to discern the patients that require further analysis to establish the existence of acute hypertensive target organ damage (TOD). The present study aimed to reveal that adropin levels are useful for detecting TOD in patients presenting with high blood pressure. Patients presenting with a blood pressure of more than 180/110 mm Hg were enrolled into the study. After a resting period of 15 minutes, patients' blood pressures were measured thrice at 5-minute intervals while the patients were sitting on a chair, and the average of these measurements was accepted as the baseline value. Blood samples were obtained for either adropin levels or possible TOD during the emergency department admission. A total of 119 patients were included in the study. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of study patients were 204.8±23.2 and 108.3 ± 10.3, respectively, and 42% (n = 50) of the patients had TOD. Although the adropin levels were similar between the patients with or without TOD (TOD group = 195 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 178-201; no-TOD group = 196 pg/mL, IQR: 176-204 [P = .982]), it is significantly higher in normotensive patients (normotensive group = 289 pg/mL, IQR: 193-403) compared with the hypertensive ones (P high blood pressure to the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of system of corporate management organs by forming shadow board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Holiver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article determines that the current existing system of corporate management organs of ajoint-stock company needs improvement in the direction of preparation of labour reserve. The expediency of forming labour reserve by board of directors in the joint-stock company is considered by the improvement of the system of corporate management organs and forming in its composition an alternative organ called a shadow board. The article determines that the activity of board of directors is carried out on the basis of conservative strategy, which consists of a careful conduct at the acceptance of administrative decisions. It is set that the activity of bord of directors is conservative from dependence on shareholders who appoint them. The paper proves the efficiency of combination of conservative strategy of making decision suggested by the board of directors with the aggressive strategy of the alternative organ, which must be the prototype of board of directors, but it must operate within the limits of aggressive strategy. It is proved that the synergy of conservative and aggressive strategy of forming suggestions by the board of directors of the joint-stock company with the use of additional working organ (shadow board will bring an effect. The effect from such synergy is the upgrading of making decisions by the board of directors. The place of shadow board in the system of corporate management organs is outlined. The analogy of shadow board’s activity similar to the activity of board of directors of the joint-stock company is shown. The features of co-operation of board of directors and shadow board are marked. The features of forming committees as a part of a shadow board and a general committee with a board of directors are outlined. The article deals with the key role of the shadow board in the preparation of skilled reserve of board of directors of the joint-stock company and in providing more aggressive strategy for making decisions. The

  13. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  14. Proteolytic receptor cleavage in the pathogenesis of blood rheology and co-morbidities in metabolic syndrome. Early forms of autodigestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Rafi; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal blood rheological properties seldom occur in isolation and instead are accompanied by other complications, often designated as co-morbidities. In the metabolic syndrome with complications like hypertension, diabetes and lack of normal microvascular blood flow, the underlying molecular mechanisms that simultaneously lead to elevated blood pressure and diabetes as well as abnormal microvascular rheology and other cell dysfunctions have remained largely unknown. In this review, we propose a new hypothesis for the origin of abnormal cell functions as well as multiple co-morbidities. Utilizing experimental models for the metabolic disease with diverse co-morbidities we summarize evidence for the presence of an uncontrolled extracellular proteolytic activity that causes ectodomain receptor cleavage and loss of their associated cell function. We summarize evidence for unchecked degrading proteinase activity, e.g. due to matrix metalloproteases, in patients with hypertension, Type II diabetes and obesity, in addition to evidence for receptor cleavage in the form of receptor fragments and decreased extracellular membrane expression levels. The evidence suggest that a shift in blood rheological properties and other co-morbidities may in fact be derived from a common mechanism that is due to uncontrolled proteolytic activity, i.e. an early form of autodigestion. Identification of the particular proteases involved and the mechanisms of their activation may open the door to treatment that simultaneously targets multiple co-morbidities in the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Polymorphisms of blood forms and in vitro metacyclogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi I, II, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegg, Camila Piva; Abreu, Ana Paula de; Silva, Juliane Lopes da; Araújo, Silvana Marques de; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas

    2017-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis has broad biological and genetic diversity. Remaining to be studied are polymorphisms of the blood forms and metacyclogenesis of different T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs). Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between T. cruzi DTUs, the morphology of blood trypomastigotes, and in vitro metacyclogenesis. T. cruzi strains that pertained to DTUs TcI, TcII, and TcIV from different Brazilian states were used. Parameters that were related to the morphology of eight strains were assessed in thin blood smears that were obtained from mice that were inoculated with blood or culture forms, depending on strain. The metacyclogenesis of 12 strains was measured using smears with Liver Infusion Tryptose culture medium and M16 culture medium (which is poor in nutrients and has a low pH) at the exponential phase of growth, both stained with Giemsa. The morphological pattern of TcII strains was consistent with broad forms of the parasite. In TcIV strains, slender forms predominated. The Y strain (TcII) was morphologically more similar to TcIV. Significant differences in polymorphisms were observed between DTUs. Metacyclogenesis parameters, although displaying large standard deviations, differed between the DTUs, with the following descending rank order: TcII > TcI > TcIV. The mean numbers of metacyclic trypomastigotes for TcII were significantly higher than the other DTUs. Although the DTUs presented overlapping characteristics, the general pattern was that different DTUs exhibited significantly different morphologies and metacyclogenesis, suggesting that the genetic diversity of T. cruzi could be related to parameters that are associated with the evolution of infection in mammalian hosts and its ability to disperse in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  17. Changes in cerebral blood flow and psychometric indicators in veterans with early forms of chronic brain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko Т.М.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to study the cerebral blood flow and psychometric characteristics in veterans of Afghanistan with early forms of chronic brain ischemia. Material and Methods. The study included 74 veterans of the Afghan war aged from 45 to 55 years: group 1, 28 people with NPNKM; Group 2-28 patients with circulatory encephalopathy stage 1; group 3-18 healthy persons. Doppler examination of cerebral vessels was carried out on the unit «Smart-lite». Reactive and personal anxiety of patients was assessed using the scale of Spielberger, evaluation of the quality of life through the test SAN. Determining the level of neuroticism and psychoticism was conducted by the scale of neuroticism and psy-choticism. Results: The study of cerebral blood flow in the Afghan war veterans showed signs of insolvency of carotid and carotid-basilar anastomoses, hypoperfusion phenomenon with the depletion of autoregulation, violation of the outflow of venous blood at the level of the microvasculature, accompanied by cerebral arteries spasm. More than 40% of patients with early forms of chronic brain ischemia had high personal anxiety, low levels of well-being and activity, with maximum expression of dyscirculatory hypoxia. Conclusion. Readaptation of veterans of Afghanistan is accompanied by the changes in psychometric performance and the formation of the earliest forms of brain chronic ischemia associated with inadequate hemodynamics providing increased functional activity of the brain and the inefficiency of compensatory-adaptive reactions.

  18. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo [Ehime Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environment Conservation

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  19. The modern forms of organization of recreational health-building work with a population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern forms of organization are studied recreational health-building employments. Organization of employments in the clubs of fitness, visit of complex sporting buildings is presented. The analysis of publications in which authors examine the features of development of industry of fitness in market conditions is resulted. A questionnaire in which 1500 habitants of city took part in age 18-75 years is conducted. It is set that among polled most popular are clubs of fitness of middle level, where the cost of subscription is made by 20-50 dollars of the USA on a month. It is set that clubs of fitness visit mainly people of middle ages with the purpose of the complex making healthy, maintainance of beautiful physical form and attractive exterior. It is marked that to date clubs of fitness must be oriented mainly on health direction and to satisfy the psychological and social necessities of clients.

  20. Club form of organizing classes in the development of student sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Pavlenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the place and importance of the club form of organizing classes in the development of student sports. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of scientific literature and the Internet using a combination of methods of historical knowledge. Result: prerequisites for the emergence and development of student sport are revealed and have a certain sequence of events: association of people, the emergence of clubs, the creation of sports clubs, the formation of student sports clubs, the competition between educational institutions of the country clubs, association clubs in the national university sports associations, holding international meetings between the teams of sports students clubs, the emergence of international sports associations of students, holding complex international competitions. Conclusion: the introduction of the club form of organization of sports activities of youth has made student sport a global social phenomenon. It becomes relevant dissemination activities of the higher educational institutions sports club outside the student sports.

  1. Organization of Experience: Examining Inaba Minoru’s Budo as a Form of Art

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    Campbell C. Edinborough

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Japanese budo (martial arts, specifically the approach developed by Inaba Minoru (former headmaster of the Shiseikan Budojo, Tokyo, can be functionally understood as a form of art. Through referring to the aesthetic theories of Dennis Dutton, Ellen Dissanayake, and Joseph Carroll, the article examines budo as a means of organizing experience, recognizable alongside painting, dance, theater, and literature.

  2. New Organization Forms: An Examination of Alienation and Ideology in the Postindustrial Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsby, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Bureaucracy is being seriously challenged today by other organizational designs because its rigidity is being viewed as a detriment to organizational survival in the hypercompetitive marketplace of global business. Standardization, homogeneity, and hierarchy are not conducive to meeting the changing demands of a turbulent business environment. As a result, new organization forms based on flexibility and adaptibility are gaining prominence in the business literature and in managerial practic...

  3. ROLE OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF FORMING YOUTH SOCIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Stupak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth as a socially active stratum of the society always uses means of self-expression, so studying platform for young people’s self-expression is a relevant part of the research of youth social activity. Features of public organization activity towards the social impact on society are investigated by O. Bolotska, S. Ternytska, A. Kapska, H. Laktionova, O. Lisovets, V. Kosovets, N. Klimkina, L. Mischyk, Yu. Polishchuk etc. The aim of the paper is to determine the impact of public organization activities on forming youth social activity. The importance of social and educational role of public organizations is caused by the creating foundation for developing young people’s communicative and organizational skills, the first social institution of gaining experience of public and social activity. At the same time, there are different forms of public organizations, which always act as a benchmark in forming youth value orientations. Taking into account the current unstable economic, social and political conditions, objectives and activities of civic organizations have changed and become more focused on charity and volunteer help. Statistics of the number of young people in Donetsk region shows how powerful youth potential is represented in the region, but the number of existing active public organizations is insufficient, even though they have different scope. However, tendency of developing youth centres and associations is quite positive that promotes developing public civic and social activity. Analysis of public organizations and international foundations, that support them, makes it possible to identify several areas of their activity such as: anti-corruption; volunteer help to victims in ATO area, to military and internally displaced persons; development of communication between the different public regions in Ukraine, which provides cultural and educational exchange between the youth of eastern and western regions; urban development, aimed

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND CHANGE. THE EVOLUTION OF TRADE UNIONS ORGANIZATION FORMS IN ROMANIA AFTER 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA CRISTINA CIOCAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study: „Management and organizational change. Evolution of union organization forms in Romania after 1989” propose as subject of analyze a type of organization which, through its affiliation to the civil society and through its role conferred by low, becomes the key for the proper functioning of the labor market. Along with the change of political regime from December 1989, the trade union organizations were put in a position to cope with a triple: reorganization, learning a new social role and public image reconfiguration, including cancellation of the association (inevitable with the “ancient” trade union. The study proposes three major subjects: defining the term union organization accompanied by possible interpretations of the role of this type of organization at the society level – „collective voice”, counter pole , political actor, collective negotiator, transnational and promoter of the class struggle, the last role not being characteristic to a democratic society; the description of the syndicate organizations evolution in Romania, after 1990; the argue of the necessity of an organizational change felt by the unions, under the impact of some factors depending on socio-economic and politic changes.

  5. Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Won Hoe; Jeong, Soon Moon; Araoka, Fumito; Ishikawa, Ken; Nishimura, Suzushi; Toyooka, Takehiro; Takezoe, Hideo

    2010-04-01

    Most of the light in conventional organic light-emitting diodes is confined to high-refractive-index layers (such as an organic medium, indium tin oxide and glass substrate) resulting in a low light extraction efficiency of ~20% (refs 1,2). Many studies have used wavelength-scale periodic gratings to increase the external efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes. However, the efficiency is only enhanced at particular wavelengths satisfying the Bragg condition. Here, we demonstrate that a quasi-periodic buckling structure with broad distribution and directional randomness can enhance the light extraction efficiency without introducing spectral changes and directionality. Organic light-emitting diodes corrugated by buckles showed improved current and power efficiencies and an electroluminescence spectrum enhanced by at least a factor of two across the entire visible wavelength regime. These buckling patterns are formed spontaneously on elastic materials with a thin metallic film. The buckled organic light-emitting diode devices are practical and attractive for use in fabricating full colour and white organic light-emitting diodes.

  6. Bernard Organ Failure Score in estimation of most severe forms of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glišić Tijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite intensive research, efforts and clinical investigations on pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP and system morbidity during the illness onset, mortality is still very high in the group of severe forms. A significantly high number of patients show moderate, self-limited forms of illness, with a minimal degree of systemic or local complications, with full recovery. However, some of them have a severe form, followed by a high percent of morbidity and mortality, and system organ failure. The distinction between mild and severe forms of AP within 24-48 hours of hospital admission is very important for the treatment of these patients. The usage of multifactorial scoring systems holds a lot of promise, reaching reliability in the disease severity estimation of approximately 70-80%. Objective. The main purpose of this prospective study was to assess the correlation of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II and the Bernard Organ Failure Score (BOFS scoring systems in estimation of disease severity and outcome prediction. Methods. Sixty patients with AP participated in the study, all of them scored with the APACHE II and BOFS scores. The results were used for integration of laboratory and clinical parameters. Results. In our study, we had a highly significant correlation between the APACHE II and BOFS scores from the disease onset until the end of treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between these two scores and the serum C-reactive protein concentration level. Conclusion. The concept of the BOFS score has more advantages than the APACHE II score in the patients with severe forms of AP with organ dysfunction.

  7. Metal-Organic Nanosheets Formed via Defect-Mediated Transformation of a Hafnium Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Matthew J; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Wu, Yue; Lee, Jeongjae; Forse, Alexander C; Firth, Francesca C N; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Gaultois, Michael W; Hill, Joshua A; Magdysyuk, Oxana V; Slater, Ben; Goodwin, Andrew L; Grey, Clare P

    2017-04-19

    We report a hafnium-containing MOF, hcp UiO-67(Hf), which is a ligand-deficient layered analogue of the face-centered cubic fcu UiO-67(Hf). hcp UiO-67 accommodates its lower ligand:metal ratio compared to fcu UiO-67 through a new structural mechanism: the formation of a condensed "double cluster" (Hf 12 O 8 (OH) 14 ), analogous to the condensation of coordination polyhedra in oxide frameworks. In oxide frameworks, variable stoichiometry can lead to more complex defect structures, e.g., crystallographic shear planes or modules with differing compositions, which can be the source of further chemical reactivity; likewise, the layered hcp UiO-67 can react further to reversibly form a two-dimensional metal-organic framework, hxl UiO-67. Both three-dimensional hcp UiO-67 and two-dimensional hxl UiO-67 can be delaminated to form metal-organic nanosheets. Delamination of hcp UiO-67 occurs through the cleavage of strong hafnium-carboxylate bonds and is effected under mild conditions, suggesting that defect-ordered MOFs could be a productive route to porous two-dimensional materials.

  8. Metal–Organic Nanosheets Formed via Defect-Mediated Transformation of a Hafnium Metal–Organic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We report a hafnium-containing MOF, hcp UiO-67(Hf), which is a ligand-deficient layered analogue of the face-centered cubic fcu UiO-67(Hf). hcp UiO-67 accommodates its lower ligand:metal ratio compared to fcu UiO-67 through a new structural mechanism: the formation of a condensed “double cluster” (Hf12O8(OH)14), analogous to the condensation of coordination polyhedra in oxide frameworks. In oxide frameworks, variable stoichiometry can lead to more complex defect structures, e.g., crystallographic shear planes or modules with differing compositions, which can be the source of further chemical reactivity; likewise, the layered hcp UiO-67 can react further to reversibly form a two-dimensional metal–organic framework, hxl UiO-67. Both three-dimensional hcp UiO-67 and two-dimensional hxl UiO-67 can be delaminated to form metal–organic nanosheets. Delamination of hcp UiO-67 occurs through the cleavage of strong hafnium-carboxylate bonds and is effected under mild conditions, suggesting that defect-ordered MOFs could be a productive route to porous two-dimensional materials. PMID:28343394

  9. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  10. HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO CHANGQUAN AND DAOSHU FORMS OF MODERN WUSHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Luiz Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate (HR and lactate (La responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4 from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 ± 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 ± 3 and 176 ± 2 bpm and La was 4.38 ± 1.3 and 5.15 ± 1.07 mmol·l-1 for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 ± 1.1 and 89.1 ± 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol·l-1 point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms

  11. Effects of Sevoflurane and Propofol on Organ Blood Flow in Left Ventricular Assist Devices in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas-Sendín, Paloma; Delgado-Baeza, Emilio; Delgado-Martos, María Jesús; Barranco, Mónica; del Cañizo, Juan Francisco; Ruíz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sevoflurane and propofol on organ blood flow in a porcine model with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Ten healthy minipigs were divided into 2 groups (5 per group) according to the anesthetic received (sevoflurane or propofol). A Biomedicus centrifugal pump was implanted. Organ blood flow (measured using colored microspheres), markers of tissue injury, and hemodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline (pump off) and after 30 minutes of partial support. Blood flow was significantly higher in the brain (both frontal lobes), heart (both ventricles), and liver after 30 minutes in the sevoflurane group, although no significant differences were recorded for the lung, kidney, or ileum. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were significantly higher after 30 minutes in the propofol group, although no significant differences were detected between the groups for other parameters of liver function, kidney function, or lactic acid levels. The hemodynamic parameters were similar in both groups. We demonstrated that, compared with propofol, sevoflurane increases blood flow in the brain, liver, and heart after implantation of an LVAD under conditions of partial support. PMID:26583144

  12. Pseudocolor display of regional organ blood flow determined by means of the radioactive microsphere technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, W.; Zeller, P.; Kreimeier, U.; Messmer, K.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of regional blood flow (RBF) by means of the radioactive microsphere method yields large sets of raw data. In order to display this large volume of data, we have developed a program which provides the user with a graphical illustration of RBF in different organs (e.g., heart, kidney, brain) using various projections and sections. RBF is visualized by a pseudocolor representation. This set-up enables the user to perform a semiquantitative analysis of RBF and provides a tool for the compact representation of the spatial distribution of RBF values in different parts and layers of the organs being studied. The program runs on a standard microcomputer

  13. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) to the United States and Europe has raised concerns about the transmission via blood transfusion and organ transplants in these countries. Infection by these pathways occurs through blood trypomastigotes (BT), and these forms of T. cruzi are completely distinct of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT), released by triatomine vector, in relation to parasite-host interaction. Thus, research comparing infection with these different infective forms is important for explaining the potential impacts on the disease course. Here, we investigated tissue parasitism and relative mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the heart during acute infection by MT or BT forms in dogs. BT-infected dogs presented a higher cardiac parasitism, increased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and of the chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and the chemokine receptor CCR5 during the acute phase of infection, as compared to MT-infected dogs. These results suggest that infection with BT forms may lead to an increased immune response, as revealed by the cytokines ratio, but this kind of immune response was not able to control the cardiac parasitism. Infection with the MT form presented an increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-12p40 as compared to that of IL-10 or TGF-β1. Correlation analysis showed increased relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ as well as IL-10, which may be an immunomodulatory response, as well as an increase in the correlation of CCL5/RANTES and its CCR5 receptor. Our findings revealed a difference between inoculum sources of T. cruzi, as vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase, which may influence immunopathological aspects of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sorted bed forms as self-organized patterns: 2. complex forcing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Murray, A. Brad; Green, Malcom O.; Thieler, E. Robert; Hume, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We employ a numerical model to study the development of sorted bed forms under a variety of hydrodynamic and sedimentary conditions. Results indicate that increased variability in wave height decreases the growth rate of the features and can potentially give rise to complicated, a priori unpredictable, behavior. This happens because the system responds to a change in wave characteristics by attempting to self-organize into a patterned seabed of different geometry and spacing. The new wavelength might not have enough time to emerge before a new change in wave characteristics occurs, leading to less regular seabed configurations. The new seabed configuration is also highly dependent on the preexisting morphology, which further limits the possibility of predicting future behavior. For the same reasons, variability in the mean current magnitude and direction slows down the growth of features and causes patterns to develop that differ from classical sorted bed forms. Spatial variability in grain size distribution and different types of net sediment aggradation/degradation can also result in the development of sorted bed forms characterized by a less regular shape. Numerical simulations qualitatively agree with observed geometry (spacing and height) of sorted bed forms. Also in agreement with observations is that at shallower depths, sorted bed forms are more likely to be affected by changes in the forcing conditions, which might also explain why, in shallow waters, sorted bed forms are described as ephemeral features. Finally, simulations indicate that the different sorted bed form shapes and patterns observed in the field might not necessarily be related to diverse physical mechanisms. Instead, variations in sorted bed form characteristics may result from variations in local hydrodynamic and/or sedimentary conditions.

  15. The inflammatory response in blood and in remote organs following acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Anne Craveiro; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Højberg-Holm, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    was that elevated levels of cytokines would be found in both blood and in organs distant to the kidneys. Forty mice were divided into five groups. The mice were subjected to the following operations: A: Sham only, no lipopolysaccharide (LPS); B: I/R of both kidneys + LPS; C: LPS only; D: Nephrectomy + LPS; E: I...... infiltration of distant organs measured by the levels of MPO in the lung and liver also showed a significantly higher level in renal I/R compared to hind leg I/R. Renal I/R is associated with a more pronounced inflammatory response in blood and distant organs. The high cytokine levels measured following....../R of both hind legs + LPS. In groups B and E, I/R times were identical. All mice were kept alive for 24 h and then sacrificed. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured in the blood. The activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lungs, kidneys, and liver was evaluated...

  16. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation regulates organ blood flow and apoptosis during controlled hypotension in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Zhang

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is commonly used in clinical practice for alleviating pains and physiological disorders. It has been reported that TENS could counteract the ischemic injury happened in some vital organs. To determine the protective effect of TENS on internal organs during CH in dogs, target hypotension was maintained for 60 min at 50% of the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP. The perfusion to the brain, liver, stomach, and kidney was recorded and apoptosis within these organs was observed. Results showed that when arriving at the target MAP, and during the maintaining stage for 10 min, perfusion to the stomach and liver in the CH+TENS group was much higher than in the CH group (P<0.05. Perfusion to the cerebral cortex greatly declined in both the controlled pressure groups when compared with the general anesthesia (GA group (P<0.05. After withdrawing CH, the hepatic blood flow in both the CH and CH+TENS groups, and the gastric and cerebral cortical blood flow in the CH+TENS group, were rapidly increased. By the end of MAP restoration, gastric blood flow in the CH group was still low. At 72 h after applying CH, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL-positive cells in stomach and kidney tissue from the CH group were significantly increased compared with those in the GA group (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in TUNEL-positive cells in the liver and hippocampus among the three groups. Our results demonstrated that CH with a 50% MAP level could cause lower perfusion to the liver, stomach, cerebral cortex, and kidney, with apoptosis subsequently occurring in the stomach and kidney. TENS combined GA is able to improve the blood flow to the liver, stomach, and reduce the apoptosis in the stomach and kidney.

  17. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  18. Supramolecular [60]fullerene liquid crystals formed by self-organized two-dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Ren, Xiangkui; Gu, Yan; Song, Bo; Sun, Hao-Jan; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Erqiang; Tu, Yingfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaoming; Li, Yaowen; Zhu, Xiulin

    2015-01-02

    Fullerene-based liquid crystalline materials have both the excellent optical and electrical properties of fullerene and the self-organization and external-field-responsive properties of liquid crystals (LCs). Herein, we demonstrate a new family of thermotropic [60]fullerene supramolecular LCs with hierarchical structures. The [60]fullerene dyads undergo self-organization driven by π-π interactions to form triple-layer two-dimensional (2D) fullerene crystals sandwiched between layers of alkyl chains. The lamellar packing of 2D crystals gives rise to the formation of supramolecular LCs. This design strategy should be applicable to other molecules and lead to an enlarged family of 2D crystals and supramolecular liquid crystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. REMOTE WORK AS A PROMISING FORM OF LABOUR ORGANIZATION FOR RUSSIAN ENTREPRENEURIAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gurova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote work (telecommuting is one of the modern technologies of the organization of the labor process, which is not yet widely used in domestic practice. However, in times of crisis, when entrepreneurial structures seek for the maximum reduction of expenses, it can be a tool to address many of the pressing issues related to the most effective use of production and labor resources.The article discusses the features of the remote work on a world level and in our country, detected its strengths and weaknesses for the participants of labour relations, as well as revealed the potential of this form of labor organization for achievement of optimum balance between expenses and efficiency of entrepreneurial structures.

  20. Forms, functions, and foibles of humor used in AIDS service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenko, Kami A; Rintamaki, Lance S

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that HIV service providers commonly use humor to cope with work-related stress; however, little is known about the forms and functions of humor used by these professionals. In this study, 25 HIV service providers from five AIDS service organizations were interviewed about their use of humor. Participants described five primary types of humor as prevalent within AIDS service organizations and noted that humor served a variety of functions, which were either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive functions included boosting morale and reducing tension, whereas maladaptive functions ranged from masking emotions to alienating certain groups. Results emphasized the importance of context in the study of humor use and the need for continued investigations of the stress and coping of HIV service providers.

  1. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium and dietary protein in mallard ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Heinz, G H; LeCaptain, L J; Eisemann, J D; Pendleton, G W

    1996-07-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic plants and insects associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Composition of diet for wild ducklings can vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Earlier studies have compared toxicities and oxidative stress of Se as selenite to those of seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms except for 30 ppm Se as W. After 2 weeks, blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L at 30 ppm in the diet was the most toxic form, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) in survivors and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH). Se as both L and DL decreased the concentrations of hepatic GSH and total thiols. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver (approximately 50% of other forms) and had less effect on GSH and total thiols. In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed (22% protein), survival was not affected by 30 ppm Se as DL, L, or Y and oxidative effects on GSH metabolism were less pronounced than with the wheat diet.

  2. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium and dietary protein in mallard ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic plants and insects associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Composition of diet for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Earlier studies have compared toxicities and oxidative stress of Se as selenite to those of seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms except for 30 ppm Se as W. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L at 30 ppm in the diet was the most toxic form, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) in survivors and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH). Se as both L and DL decreased the concentrations of hepatic GSH and total thiols. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver (approximately 50% of other forms) and had less effect on GSH and total thiols. In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed (22 % protein), survival was not affected by 30 ppm Se as DL, L, or Y and oxidative effects on GSH metabolism were less pronounced than with the wheat diet.

  3. Development and application of resistive pulse spectroscopy: studies on the size, form and deformability of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The following studies were conducted using the resistive pulse spectroscopy (RPS) technique: cumulative spectra and individual pulse forms for rigid latex polymer spheres; acquisition and analysis of RPS spectral data by means of special computer program; interaction of red blood cells with glutaraldehyde; membrane properties of erythrocytes undergoing abrupt osmotic hemolysis; reversible effects of the binding of chlorpromazine HCl at the red cell membrane surface; effects of high cholesterol diet on erythrocytes of guinea pigs; and multi-population analysis for a mixture of fetal and maternal red cells. (HLW)

  4. Blood borne hormones in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure, the role of circumventricular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation of ethylene glycol and other complex organic molecules in star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Fontani, F.; Codella, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The detection of complex organic molecules related with prebiotic chemistry in star-forming regions allows us to investigate how the basic building blocks of life are formed. Aims: Ethylene glycol (CH2OH)2 is the simplest sugar alcohol and the reduced alcohol of the simplest sugar glycoladehyde (CH2OHCHO). We study the molecular abundance and spatial distribution of (CH2OH)2, CH2OHCHO and other chemically related complex organic species (CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH) towards the chemically rich massive star-forming region G31.41+0.31. Methods: We analyzed multiple single-dish (Green Bank Telescope and IRAM 30 m) and interferometric (Submillimeter Array) spectra towards G31.41+0.31, covering a range of frequencies from 45 to 258 GHz. We fitted the observed spectra with a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectra, and obtained excitation temperatures and column densities. We compared our findings in G31.41+0.31 with the results found in other environments, including low- and high-mass star-forming regions, quiescent clouds and comets. Results: We report for the first time the presence of the aGg' conformer of (CH2OH)2 towards G31.41+0.31, detecting more than 30 unblended lines. We also detected multiple transitions of other complex organic molecules such as CH2OHCHO, CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH. The high angular resolution images show that the (CH2OH)2 emission is very compact, peaking towards the maximum of the 1.3 mm continuum. These observations suggest that low abundance complex organic molecules, like (CH2OH)2 or CH2OHCHO, are good probes of the gas located closer to the forming stars. Our analysis confirms that (CH2OH)2 is more abundant than CH2OHCHO in G31.41+0.31, as previously observed in other interstellar regions. Comparing different star-forming regions we find evidence of an increase of the (CH2OH)2/CH2OHCHO abundance ratio with the luminosity of the source. The CH3OCH3/CH3OCHO and (CH2OH)2/C2H5OH ratios are nearly constant with

  6. Dynamic spatial organization of the occipito-temporal word form area for second language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Sun, Yafeng; Lu, Chunming; Ding, Guosheng; Guo, Taomei; Malins, Jeffrey G; Booth, James R; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li

    2017-08-01

    Despite the left occipito-temporal region having shown consistent activation in visual word form processing across numerous studies in different languages, the mechanisms by which word forms of second languages are processed in this region remain unclear. To examine this more closely, 16 Chinese-English and 14 English-Chinese late bilinguals were recruited to perform lexical decision tasks to visually presented words in both their native and second languages (L1 and L2) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Here we demonstrate that visual word form processing for L1 versus L2 engaged different spatial areas of the left occipito-temporal region. Namely, the spatial organization of the visual word form processing in the left occipito-temporal region is more medial and posterior for L2 than L1 processing in Chinese-English bilinguals, whereas activation is more lateral and anterior for L2 in English-Chinese bilinguals. In addition, for Chinese-English bilinguals, more lateral recruitment of the occipito-temporal region was correlated with higher L2 proficiency, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L1-preferred mechanisms. For English-Chinese bilinguals, higher L2 proficiency was correlated with more lateral and anterior activation of the occipito-temporal region, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L2-preferred mechanisms. Taken together, our results indicate that L1 and L2 recruit spatially different areas of the occipito-temporal region in visual word processing when the two scripts belong to different writing systems, and that the spatial organization of this region for L2 visual word processing is dynamically modulated by L2 proficiency. Specifically, proficiency in L2 in Chinese-English is associated with assimilation to the native language mechanisms, whereas L2 in English-Chinese is associated with accommodation to second language mechanisms. Copyright © 2017

  7. Cordierite containing ceramic membranes from smectetic clay using natural organic wastes as pore-forming agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Misrar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordierite ceramic membranes were manufactured from natural clay, oxides and organic wastes as pore forming agents. Mixtures aforementioned materials with the pore-forming agents (up to 10 wt.% were investigated in the range 1000–1200 °C using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and filtration tests. Physical properties (density, water absorption and bending strength were correlated to the processing factors (pore-forming agent addition, firing temperature and soaking time. The results showed that cordierite together with spinel, diopside and clinoenstatite neoformed. SEM analysis revealed heterogeneous aspects. The results of the response surface methodology showed that the variations of physical properties versus processing parameters were well described by the used polynomial model. The addition of pore forming agent and temperature were the most influential factors. Filtration tests were performed on the best performing sample. The results allowed to testify that these membranes could be used in waste water treatment.

  8. 17 CFR 249.821 - Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this... Associations § 249.821 Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this chapter. This form shall be used by all self-regulatory...

  9. Phage FR38 Treatment on Sprague Dawley Rat Inferred from Blood Parameters and Organ Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI SARTIKA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of phage FR38 to lysis indigenous Salmonella P38 from feces of diarrheal patient has been studied. However, effects of phage FR38 on organ system were not revealed as yet. This study was conducted to observe the effect of phage FR38 on blood chemistry, kidney functions, and liver functions. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a model for this study that were divided into two groups; (i control and (ii treated group with phage FR38. For treated phage group, each rat was administered by 5 ml/kg bw of 1.59•107 pfu/ml of phage intragastric. The blood parameters were analysed on day 16. The results revealed that body and organs weight, erythrocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte, total protein, creatinine, SGOT, and SGPT of phage treatment rats were not significantly different with the control rats on day 16 (P > 0.05. Therefore, this study showed was no effect of phage FR38 on body weight, blood chemistry, kidney and liver functions of the rat (P > 0.05.

  10. Phage FR38 Treatment on Sprague Dawley Rat Inferred from Blood Parameters and Organ Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI SARTIKA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of phage FR38 to lysis indigenous Salmonella P38 from feces of diarrheal patient has been studied. However, effects of phage FR38 on organ system were not revealed as yet. This study was conducted to observe the effect of phage FR38 on blood chemistry, kidney functions, and liver functions. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a model for this study that were divided into two groups; (i control and (ii treated group with phage FR38. For treated phage group, each rat was administered by 5 ml/kg bw of 1.59-107 pfu/ml of phage intragastric. The blood parameters were analysed on day 16. The results revealed that body and organs weight, erythrocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte, total protein, creatinine, SGOT, and SGPT of phage treatment rats were not significantly different with the control rats on day 16 (P > 0.05. Therefore, this study showed was no effect of phage FR38 on body weight, blood chemistry, kidney and liver functions of the rat (P > 0.05.

  11. Organization and management of an accredited specialist in blood bank (SBB) technology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Karen M; Sheldon, Sherry L; Flegel, Willy A

    2010-07-01

    Specialists in blood bank (SBBs) technology play important roles in blood banks, transfusion services, regulatory agencies, educational institutions, and other facilities where expertise in blood banking, transfusion medicine, cellular therapy, and tissue transplantation is required. Review of pathways that qualify applicants for a national examination administered by the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASCP) to become a certified specialist and outcomes of accredited programs. Description of a face-to-face, accredited program including review of management topics included in curriculum. The first examination was administered in 1954. As of December 2009, the total number of certified SBBs was 5124. There are currently 16 accredited SBB programs in the United States. The programs vary in mode of delivery, length of program, number of students accepted, and organization of program officials and faculty, but all must follow specific standards and guidelines in order to be accredited. Students who successfully complete SBB programs have a higher passing rate than those who attempt the certification examination and have not participated in a program. Students can choose among a variety of programs that differ widely in the way they are managed. The role of management in an SBB program ranges from attracting and retaining individuals and maintaining an accredited program to finally graduating individuals who not only pass the certification examination but who also confidently contribute to the field. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N; Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian

    2009-01-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  13. Cardiolipin synthesizing enzymes form a complex that interacts with cardiolipin-dependent membrane organizing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serricchio, Mauro; Vissa, Adriano; Kim, Peter K; Yip, Christopher M; McQuibban, G Angus

    2018-04-01

    The mitochondrial glycerophospholipid cardiolipin plays important roles in mitochondrial biology. Most notably, cardiolipin directly binds to mitochondrial proteins and helps assemble and stabilize mitochondrial multi-protein complexes. Despite their importance for mitochondrial health, how the proteins involved in cardiolipin biosynthesis are organized and embedded in mitochondrial membranes has not been investigated in detail. Here we show that human PGS1 and CLS1 are constituents of large protein complexes. We show that PGS1 forms oligomers and associates with CLS1 and PTPMT1. Using super-resolution microscopy, we observed well-organized nanoscale structures formed by PGS1. Together with the observation that cardiolipin and CLS1 are not required for PGS1 to assemble in the complex we predict the presence of a PGS1-centered cardiolipin-synthesizing scaffold within the mitochondrial inner membrane. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we found that PGS1 and CLS1 interact with multiple cardiolipin-binding mitochondrial membrane proteins, including prohibitins, stomatin-like protein 2 and the MICOS components MIC60 and MIC19. We further mapped the protein-protein interaction sites between PGS1 and itself, CLS1, MIC60 and PHB. Overall, this study provides evidence for the presence of a cardiolipin synthesis structure that transiently interacts with cardiolipin-dependent protein complexes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  15. Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varutbangkul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been conducted in the Caltech indoor smog chamber facility to investigate the water uptake properties of aerosol formed by oxidation of various organic precursors. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA from simple and substituted cycloalkenes (C5-C8 is produced in dark ozonolysis experiments in a dry chamber (RH~5%. Biogenic SOA from monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes is formed by photooxidation in a humid chamber (~50% RH. Using the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA, we measure the diameter-based hygroscopic growth factor (GF of the SOA as a function of time and relative humidity. All SOA studied is found to be slightly hygroscopic, with smaller water uptake than that of typical inorganic aerosol substances. The aerosol water uptake increases with time early in the experiments for the cycloalkene SOA, but decreases with time for the sesquiterpene SOA. This behavior could indicate competing effects between the formation of more highly oxidized polar compounds (more hygroscopic, and formation of longer-chained oligomers (less hygroscopic. All SOA also exhibit a smooth water uptake with RH with no deliquescence or efflorescence. The water uptake curves are found to be fitted well with an empirical three-parameter functional form. The measured pure organic GF values at 85% RH are between 1.09–1.16 for SOA from ozonolysis of cycloalkenes, 1.01–1.04 for sesquiterpene photooxidation SOA, and 1.06–1.10 for the monoterpene and oxygenated terpene SOA. The GF of pure SOA (GForg in experiments in which inorganic seed aerosol is used is determined by assuming volume-weighted water uptake (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson or 'ZSR' approach and using the size-resolved organic mass fraction measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Knowing the water content associated with the inorganic fraction yields GForg values. However, for each precursor, the GForg values computed from different

  16. [Organization of safe cost-effective blood transfusion: experience APHM-EFSAM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera-Tourenc, V; Dettori, I; Chiaroni, J; Lassale, B

    2013-03-01

    Blood transfusion safety depends on strict compliance with each step of a process beginning with the order for labile blood products and related immunohematologic testing and ending with administration and follow-up of the receiver. This process is governed by stringent regulatory texts and guidelines. Despite precautions, processing errors are still reported. Analysis of incident reports shows that the most common cause involves patient identification and that most errors occur at two levels, i.e. the entry of patient information and management of multiple regulatory crosschecks and record-keeping using different systems. The purpose of this report is to describe the collaborative approach implemented by the Établissement français du Sang Alpes-Méditerranée (EFSAM) and the Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM) to secure the blood transfusion process and protect interfaces while simplifying and facilitating exchanges. Close cooperation has had a threefold impact with simplification of administration, improvement of experience feedback, and better management of test ordering. The organization implemented between the two institutions has minimized document redundancy and interfaces between immunohematologic testing and delivery. Collaboration based on experience feedback has improved the level of quality and cost control. In the domain of blood transfusion safety, the threshold of 10(-5) has been reached with regard to the risk of ABO errors in the distribution concentrated red cells (CRC). In addition, this collaborative organization has created further opportunity for improvement by deploying new methods to identify simplification measures and by controlling demand and usage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The modern enterprise – successor of business organization forms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pacala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role and influence of the forms of business organization on the economy and society. Interpretations of the role of companies in the modern period, ranging from enthusiastic support (as the most important invention of capitalism, an explanation of the Western civilization’s expansion to moderate and often critical positions, where the company is seen as a solution, not necessarily optimal, to market imperfections. On the other hand, we often ponder upon the explanation of political, administrative and infrastructural success of ancient Rome: the state or the enterprise (the private initiative? Closer to our time, we rediscover with amazement that the "dark" Middle Ages are not at all dark and lacking in progress, at least in terms of capitalist organization and logic. The development of trade in the two poles of medieval Europe (the Mediterranean and the BaltoScandinavian area, of industry and trade in the North-Western quadrant (Flanders and neighbouring regions, was concurrent with the improvement of organizational forms of business, with the diversity and flexibility of entrepreneurial or even corporate frameworks. Of course, the study of historical sources (ancient or medieval cannot provide direct answers or solutions to the questions of modern society, because the challenges of today are rather different to those of the past. On the other hand, understanding history can help companies to build a more complete and a wiser enterprise functionality and role in the modern society, to reformulate the questions and to find new solutions. Our paper, with a clear juridical perspective on economic history, focuses on the organization of firms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe, tries to provide examples, useful interpretations and diverse solutions to the problems of contemporary society and economy.

  18. [Bacterial biofilms as a natural form of existence of bacteria in the environment and host organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Iu M; Gintsburg, A L

    2011-01-01

    Advances in microscopic analysis and molecular genetics research methods promoted the acquisition of evidence that natural bacteria populations exist predominately as substrate attached biofilms. Bacteria in biofilms are able to exchange signals and display coordinated activity that is inherent to multicellular organisms. Formation of biofilm communities turned out to be one of the main survival strategies of bacteria in their ecological niche. Bacteria in attached condition in biofilm are protected from the environmental damaging factors and effects of antibacterial substances in the environment and host organism during infection. According to contemporary conception, biofilm is a continuous layer of bacterial cells that are attached to a surface and each other, and contained in a biopolymer matrix. Such bacterial communities may be composed of bacteria of one or several species, and composed of actively functioning cells as well as latent and uncultured forms. Particular attention has recently been paid to the role of biofilms in the environment and host organism. Microorganisms form biofilm on any biotic and abiotic surfaces which creates serious problems in medicine and various areas of economic activity. Currently, it is established that biofilms are one of the pathogenetic factors of chronic inflection process formation. The review presents data on ubiquity of bacteria existence as biofilms, contemporary methods of microbial community analysis, structural-functional features of bacterial biofilms. Particular attention is paid to the role of biofilm in chronic infection process formation, heightened resistance to antibiotics of bacteria in biofilms and possible mechanisms of resistance. Screening approaches for agents against biofilms in chronic infections are discussed.

  19. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  20. Reducing time to identification of aerobic bacteria and fastidious micro-organisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-12-01

    Rapid and early identification of micro-organisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 h of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with five drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification. Ninety-nine percentage of aerobic bacteria were correctly identified from 600 monomicrobial-positive blood cultures. This procedure allowed obtaining the correct identification of fastidious pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae that need complex nutritional and environmental requirements in order to grow. Compared to the traditional pathogen identification from blood cultures that takes over 24 h, the reliability of results, rapid performance and suitability of this protocol allowed a more rapid administration of optimal antimicrobial treatment in the patients. Bloodstream infections are serious conditions with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Rapid identification of pathogens and appropriate antimicrobial therapy have a key role for successful patient outcome. In this work, we developed a rapid, simplified, accurate, and efficient method, reaching 99 % identification of aerobic bacteria from monomicrobial-positive blood cultures by using early growth on enriched medium, direct transfer to target plate without additional procedures, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and SARAMIS database. The application of this protocol allows to anticipate appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  1. Chemical form matters: differential accumulation of mercury following inorganic and organic mercury exposures in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; Macdonald, Tracy C; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N; Krone, Patrick H

    2012-02-17

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versusl-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of l-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with l-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-l-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  2. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  3. Characterization and biotransformation in the plasma and red blood cells of V(IV)O(2+) complexes formed by ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Daniele; Fabbri, Davide; Serra, Maria; Buglyó, Péter; Bíró, Linda; Ugone, Valeria; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2015-06-01

    The coordination mode and geometry in aqueous solution of oxidovanadium(IV) complexes formed by a third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone (H3cef), were studied by spectroscopic (EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance), pH-potentiometric and computational (DFT, density functional theory) methods. The behavior of the model systems containing 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one (H2hmtdt) and 3-benzylthio-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one (Hbhmt) was examined for comparison. The stability of the tautomers of ceftriaxone and 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one in the neutral, mono- and bi-anionic form was calculated by DFT methods, both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution, and the electron density on the oxygen atoms of the hydroxytriazinone ring was related to the pKa of the ligands. The data demonstrate that ceftriaxone coordinates V(IV)O(2+) forming mono- and bis-chelated complexes with (Oket, O(-)) donor set and formation of five-membered chelate rings. The geometry of the bis-chelated complex, cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-), is cis-octahedral and this species can deprotonate, around physiological pH, to form the corresponding mono-hydroxido cis-[VO(Hcef)2(OH)](3-). The interaction of cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) with apo-transferrin (apo-hTf) was studied and the results suggest that V(IV)O(2+) distributes between (VO)apo-hTf/(VO)2apo-hTf and cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-), whereas mixed complexes are not formed for charge and steric effects. The interaction of cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) with red blood cells shows that ceftriaxone helps V(IV)O(2+) ion to cross the erythrocyte membrane. Inside the cell cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) decomposes and the same species formed by inorganic V(IV)O(2+) are observed. The relationship between the biotransformation in the plasma and red blood cells and the potential pharmacological activity of V(IV)O(2+) species of ceftriaxone is finally discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  4. Optimization of the culturing conditions of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells under xeno-free conditions applying a transcriptomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zoller, Stefan; Riegel, Mariluce; Chen, Shuhua; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Zisch, Andreas H.

    Establishment of fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell culture conditions is essential for transplantation therapies. Blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications. ECFCs were isolated from term umbilical cord blood units and

  5. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  6. Contrasted response of colloidal, organic and inorganic dissolved phosphorus forms during rewetting of dried riparian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sen; Gruau, Gérard; Malique, François; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Petitjean, Patrice; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetated buffer strip (RVBS) are currently used to protect surface waters from phosphorus (P) emissions because of their ability to retain P-enriched soil particles. However, this protection role may be counterbalanced by the development in these zones of conditions able to trigger the release of highly mobile dissolved or colloidal P forms. Rewetting after drying is one of these conditions. So far, the potential sources of P mobilized during rewetting after drying are not clearly identified, nor are clearly identified the chemical nature of the released dissolved P species, or the role of the soil P speciation on these forms. In this study, two riparian soils (G and K) showing contrasting soil P speciation (65% of inorganic P species in soil G, as against 70% of organic P) were submitted to three successive dry/wet cycles in the laboratory. Conventional colorimetric determination of P concentrations combined with ultrafiltration, and measurements of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents using ICP-MS and TOC analyzers, respectively, were used to study the response of the different P forms to rewetting after drying and also their release kinetics during soil leaching. For both soils, marked P release peaks were observed at the beginning of each wet cycles, with the organic-rich K soils giving, however, larger peaks than the inorganic one (G soil). For both soils also, concentrations in molybdate reactive P (MRP) remained quite constant throughout each leaching episode, contrary to the molybdate unreactive P (MUP) concentrations which were high immediately after rewetting and then decreased rapidly during leaching. A speciation change was observed from the beginning to the end of all leaching cycles. Colloidal P was found to be a major fraction of the total P immediately after rewetting (up to 50-70%) and then decreased to the end of each wet cycle where most of the eluted P was true dissolved inorganic P. Colloidal

  7. Electrostatic Selectivity of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Electrostatically Formed Nanowire Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Niharendu; Ben-Cohen, Avi; Vaknin, Yonathan; Henning, Alex; Hayon, Joseph; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Greenspan, Hayit; Rosenwaks, Yossi

    2018-03-23

    For the past several decades, there is growing demand for the development of low-power gas sensing technology for the selective detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), important for monitoring safety, pollution, and healthcare. Here we report the selective detection of homologous alcohols and different functional groups containing VOCs using the electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) sensor without any surface modification of the device. Selectivity toward specific VOC is achieved by training machine-learning based classifiers using the calculated changes in the threshold voltage and the drain-source on current, obtained from systematically controlled biasing of the surrounding gates (junction and back gates) of the field-effect transistors (FET). This work paves the way for a Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based FET device as an electrostatically selective sensor suitable for mass production and low-power sensing technology.

  8. Network communities as a new form of social organization in conditions of postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Burmaha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the approach to interpretation of essence of the network community concept in which we propose to consider it as a new form of social organization that is substantiated by the specificity of how our society is functioning in conditions of Postmodern. There were explored two main approaches to network communities studying: the first approach considers social networks in a classic, traditional interpretation of modernity as a special kind of social structure, and the second one represents social networks as a specific virtual formation, a social structure of virtual Internet reality. There were revealed some common features of a social organization and a network community: presence of permanent communication between members of the group, united by certain common interests and goals, as well as presence of the certain hierarchy among all members of the community, and the rules of conduct, implementation of communication. Distinctive features: network community is more informal, offers its members considerable leeway in the implementation of their own goals and satisfying the needs, full virtualization of communication absence of direct interaction during communication, under conditions where the main resource for the interchange in network communities is information. It was shown that in the process of emergence, development and distribution of network communities, the fundamental role is played by modern communications - namely, unification them in a stable set of interconnected networks and, in particular network communities.

  9. [Multimorbidity and primary care: Emergence of new forms of network organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lise; Sylvain, Chantal; Sit, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to analyse the adaptive strategies used by primary care professionals to provide more adapted and continuous services to patients with more than one chronic disease. A qualitative case study was conducted in a primary care structure (GMF in Québec). Data were derived from two sources: semi-structured interviews and documents. Based on our thematic analysis of data, we illustrate the adaptive processes at play. Our analysis identified the challenges raised by the increased prevalence of patients with more than one chronic disease and how they influence adaptive strategic initiatives from professionals at the following levels: (1) the patients themselves, (2) the professional-patient relationship, (3) the relationships between professionals of the GMF (4) the relationships between the GMF and other healthcare organizations. The description of these phenomena illustrates the dynamic emergence ofa network form of organization. This phenomenon leads to transformation of the core of the healthcare production system. A deeper understanding of its emergence, impacts and management is necessary.

  10. Advanced characterization of dissolved organic matter released by bloom-forming marine algae

    KAUST Repository

    Rehman, Zahid Ur

    2017-06-01

    Algal organic matter (AOM), produced by marine phytoplankton during bloom periods, may adversely affect the performance of membrane processes in seawater desalination. The polysaccharide fraction of AOM has been related to (bio)fouling in micro-filtration and ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. However, so far, the chemical structure of the polysaccharides released by bloom-forming algae is not well understood. In this study, dissolved fraction of AOM produced by three algal species (Chaetoceros affinis, Nitzschia epithemoides and Hymenomonas spp.) was characterized using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical structure of polysaccharides isolated from the AOM solutions at stationary phase was analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). The results showed that production and composition of dissolved AOM varied depending on algal species and their growth stage. AOM was mainly composed of biopolymers (BP; i.e., polysaccharides and proteins [PN]), but some refractory substances were also present.H-NMR spectra confirmed the predominance of carbohydrates in all samples. Furthermore, similar fingerprints were observed for polysaccharides of two diatom species, which differed considerably from that of coccolithophores. Based on the findings of this study,H-NMR could be used as a method for analyzing chemical profiles of algal polysaccharides to enhance the understanding of their impact on membrane fouling.

  11. Particle mass yield in secondary organic aerosol formed by the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Shilling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The yield of particle mass in secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed by dark ozonolysis was measured for 0.3–22.8 ppbv of reacted α-pinene. Most experiments were conducted using a continuous-flow chamber, allowing nearly constant SOA concentration and chemical composition for several days. For comparison, some experiments were also conducted in batch mode. Reaction conditions were 25°C, 40% RH, dry (NH4SO4 seed particles, and excess 1-butanol. The organic particle loading was independently measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer and a scanning mobility particle sizer, and the two measurements agreed well. The observations showed that SOA formation occurred for even the lowest reacted α-pinene concentration of 0.3 ppbv. The particle mass yield was 0.09 at 0.15 μg m−3, increasing to 0.27 at 40 μg m−3. Compared to some results reported in the literature, the yields were 80 to 100% larger for loadings above 2 μg m−3. At lower loadings, the yields had an offset of approximately +0.07 from those reported in the literature. To as low as 0.15 μm−3, the yield curve had no inflection point toward null yield, implying the formation of one or several products having vapor pressures below this value. These observations of increased yields, especially for low loadings, are potentially important for accurate prediction by chemical transport models of organic particle concentrations in the ambient atmosphere.

  12. Light-absorbing secondary organic material formed by glyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shapiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Light-absorbing and high-molecular-weight secondary organic products were observed to result from the reaction of glyoxal in mildly acidic (pH=4 aqueous inorganic salt solutions mimicking aqueous tropospheric aerosol particles. High-molecular-weight (500–600 amu products were observed when ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 or sodium chloride (NaCl was present in the aqueous phase. The products formed in (NH42SO4 or ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 solutions absorb light at UV and visible wavelengths. Substantial absorption at 300–400 nm develops within two hours, and absorption between 400–600 nm develops within days. Pendant drop tensiometry measurements show that the products are not surface-active. The experimental results along with ab initio predictions of the UV/Vis absorption of potential products suggest a mechanism involving the participation of the ammonium ion. If similar products are formed in atmospheric aerosol particles, they could change the optical properties of the seed aerosol over its lifetime.

  13. Exciplex-Forming Cohost for High Efficiency and High Stability Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Jen; Lee, Chih-Chien; Chen, Ying-Hao; Biring, Sajal; Kumar, Gautham; Yeh, Tzu-Hung; Sen, Somaditya; Liu, Shun-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2018-01-17

    An exciplex forming cohost system is employed to achieve a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with good electroluminescent lifetime. The exciplex is formed at the interfacial contact of a conventional star-shaped carbazole hole-transporting material, 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA), and a triazine electron-transporting material, 2,4,6-tris[3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine (3P-T2T). The excellent combination of TCTA and 3P-T2T is applied as the cohost of a common green phosphorescent emitter with almost zero energy loss. When Ir(ppy) 2 (acac) is dispersed in such exciplex cohost system, OLED device with maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.6%, the ultrahigh power efficiency of 147.3 lm/W, and current efficiency of 107 cd/A were successfully achieved. More importantly, the OLED device showed a low-efficiency roll-off and an operational lifetime (τ 80 ) of ∼1020 min with the initial brightness of 2000 cd/m 2 , which is 56 times longer than the reference device. The significant difference of device stability was attributed to the degradation of exciplex system for energy transfer process, which was investigated by the photoluminescence aging measurement at room temperature and 100 K, respectively.

  14. Hyperdynamic sepsis modifies a PEEP-mediated redistribution in organ blood flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersten, A.D.; Gnidec, A.A.; Rutledge, F.S.; Sibbald, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in organ blood flow (Q) produced by 20 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were measured before and after the induction of hyperdynamic sepsis in nine unanesthetized sheep. During the baseline nonseptic study, PEEP was associated with a 9% fall in thermodilution-measured systemic Q, although arterial perfusing pressures were unaffected. Concurrently, microsphere-derived Q was maintained to the brain and heart, but fell to liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, large intestine, and gastrocnemius. Twenty-four to 36 h after cecal ligation and perforation, a pre-PEEP septic study demonstrated an increase in all of the cardiac index (CI) and systemic O2 delivery when compared with the nonseptic study, whereas whole-body O2 extraction was depressed. Although PEEP depressed systemic Q during the septic study to a greater extent than during the nonseptic study (p less than 0.02), absolute organ Q fell only to pancreas, liver, and spleen. Relative to the simultaneous fall in the CI, Q to some splanchnic organs was not depressed by PEEP to the same magnitude in the septic as in the nonseptic study. When an infusion of Ringer's lactate subsequently restored systemic Q to pre-PEEP septic levels, individual flows that had been depressed by PEEP were not restored. Furthermore, Q-kidney continued to fall, such that the postfluid Q-kidney (-19%) was significantly less than was demonstrated in the pre-PEEP septic study. We postulate that differences noted in the distribution of organ Q between the nonseptic and hyperdynamic septic studies after the application of PEEP were secondary to the vasculopathy of sepsis and/or an alteration in the function of specific organ microcirculations. However, these data do not address whether the changes in organ Q distribution after a PEEP-mediated depression in systemic Q during sepsis significantly restricted tissue DO2

  15. Effects of different forms of hazelnuts on blood lipids and α-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, S L; Brown, R C; Chisholm, A W; Delahunty, C M; Gray, A R; Williams, S M

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in nuts reduce cholesterol, probably due to their favorable lipid profile and other bioactive substances. However, the physical form of the nut may be important as the cell wall of intact nuts may limit the hypocholesterolemic effect of nuts by reducing lipid bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects on blood lipids of incorporating three different forms of hazelnuts (ground, sliced and whole) into the usual diet. In a randomized crossover study with three phases, 48 mildly hypercholesterolemic participants were asked to consume 30 g of ground, sliced or whole hazelnuts for 4 weeks. Body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), apolipoprotein (apo) A1, apo B100 and α-tocopherol were measured at baseline and at the end of each dietary phase. There were no significant differences in any outcome variable between the different forms of nuts (all P ≥ 0.159). However, compared with baseline, mean values at the end of each hazelnut intervention were significantly higher for HDL-C (P = 0.023) and α-tocopherol (P = 0.005), and significantly lower for TC (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P < 0.001), TC:HDL-C ratio (P <0 .001), apo B100 (P = 0.002) and apo B100:apo A1 ratio (P < 0.001), with no significant difference in body weight (P = 0.813). The ingestion of three different forms of hazelnuts equally improved the lipoprotein profile and α-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. Hazelnuts can therefore be incorporated into the usual diet as a means of reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

  16. Study of clone forming cells (CFC) in blood and bone marrow of subjects with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, Rolande; Metral, Jacqueline; Hollard, Daniel.

    1975-01-01

    Density of blood and bone marrow CFC of patients with CML (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia) is lower than density of normal CFC. The rate of bone marrow and blood light CFC of normal subjects and of subjects with LMC were determined. Bone marrow and blood samples from the same subject were also studied. Comparative study of blood and bone marrow has shown that the rate of bone marrow light CFC is lower than the rate of blood CFC [fr

  17. Disorders of oxidation homeostasis in the blood and organs of rats under the influence of external x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlenkova, N.Je.

    2009-01-01

    The study was performed in the blood and organs (lungs and skin) of male rats weighing 160-180 g. Single external x-ray exposure to minimal and medial lethal doses causes stable disorders in oxidation homeostasis resulting in peroxidation state and development of chronic oxidative stress in the organism of the exposed rats.

  18. Blood Meal Utilization as Organic Fe Source for Polka Dot Grouper Cromileptes altivelis Growth Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to examine the use of spray dried cell blood meal as organic Fe source in polka dot grouper (Cromileptes altivelis feed to substitute inorganic Ferosulphate (FeSO4.7H2O. Two treatments were applied, one with FeSO4.7H2O as Fe source and the other with 6% blood meal. Fish with initial length and weight of 6.48 ± 0.16 cm and 5.60±0.25 g was reared at a density of 10 fish/aquarium (40 x 60 x 50 cm3 in a recirculation system for 40 days. Feed was administrated 3 times a day at satiation. The use of organic Fe with 6% blood meal apparently resulted in a lower body Fe content, feed consumption and lipid retention but a higher protein retention and feed efficiency. There was however no significant difference between treatments in growth and survival (P>0.05.   Keywords : Spray dried cell, polka dot grouper, growth, Fe, blood meal   ABSTRAK Penelitian dirancang untuk melihat pemanfaatan tepung darah spray-dried cell (SBC sebagai sumber zat besi organik dalam pakan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis, menggantikan bahan anorganik Ferosulfat (FeSO4.7H2O. Penelitian menggunakan 2 jenis perlakuan yaitu pakan Fe-anorganik dengan sumber Fe dari FeSO4.7H2O dan sumber Fe-organik dari tepung darah 6 %. Panjang awal ikan 6,48±0,16 cm dan bobot awal 5,60±0,25 gr/ekor, kepadatan 10 ekor/akuarium (40x60x50cm3 dalam sistem resirkulasi. Pemeliharaan ikan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian pakan 3 kali sehari  sekenyangnya (at satiation. Parameter uji meliputi kinerja pertumbuhan dan komposisi tubuh ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan Fe-organik dengan 6 % tepung darah sebagai pengganti sumber Fe-anorganik pada kerapu bebek memberikan pengaruh terhadap penurunan kandungan Fe tubuh, konsumsi pakan dan retensi lemak, tetapi laju pertumbuhan harian, panjang relatif dan kelangsungan hidup sama (P>0,05. Penggunaan Fe-organik memberikan pengaruh terhadap peningkatan retensi protein dan efisiensi pakan. Kata kunci : spray-dried cell

  19. Interaction between the physical forms of starter and forage source on growth performance and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Kiani, A; Mirzaei, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS). Both starters had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their physical forms. Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained in the study until d 70. All calves had free access to drinking water and the starter feeding at all times. No interaction was detected between the physical forms of starter feeds and forage source concerning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain (ADG)/ME intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (FE). The preweaning and overall starter feed intake, dry matter intake, and ME intake were greater for calves fed TF starter diets than those fed CM starter diets. The ADG/ME intake was greater for calves fed TF starter diets than that fed CM starter. The FE was greater for calves fed TF starter diets compared with those fed CM starter during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The WS improved FE during the postweaning period compared with AH. The physical form of starter, forage source, and their interaction did not affect plasma glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein

  20. Blood, Monstrosity and Violent Imagery: Grand-Guignol, the French Theatre of Horror as a Form of Violent Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Jurković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the sixty-year period of its existence, Grand-Guignol, the French theatre of horror, gained a status of a legendary theatre which dealt with horrors and terrors of human mind, successfully connecting faits divers (common, everyday facts with the erotic and titillating scenes of violence on stage. The performance style, the writing, the special effects, and the directorship over the course of years, made this theatre a legendary place where blood flowed in streams and people fainted during performances, in this way making its indelible mark in horror genre today. In this paper, the author is trying to focus the attention on the theatre of Grand-Guignol as a form of violent entertainment and the way the representations of violence and horror enacted on its stage affected the audience, through Goldstein’s theory of the importance of visual imagery in different media today. Furthermore, through comparison of violent acts presented on the stage of the Grand-Guignol and the atmosphere they create in the viewer’s mind with some of the aspects of Artaud’s vision of his theatre of cruelty, the author attempts to show how this form of violent entertainment in the theatrical media influences the vision of that same violence within the audience, with the sense of security as the main idea in which the viewers feel safe to enjoy, envision and in a way become the participants in the performances enacted on the small stage of the Grand-Guignol.

  1. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated.

  2. Evaluating laboratory request forms submitted to haematology and blood transfusion departments at a hospital in Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyisayo Jegede

    2016-05-01

    Objective: We assessed routinely-submitted LRFs to determine the degree of correctness, completeness and consistency. Methods: LRFs submitted to the Department of Haematology (DH and Blood Transfusion Services (BTS of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital in Kano, Nigeria, between October 2014 and December 2014, were evaluated for completion of all items on the forms. Performance in four quality indicator domains, including patient identifiers, test request details, laboratory details and physician details, was derived as a composite percentage. Results: Of the 2084 LRFs evaluated, 999 were from DH and 1085 from BTS. Overall, LRF completeness was 89.5% for DH and 81.2% for BTS. Information on patient name, patient location and laboratory number were 100% complete for DH, whereas only patient name was 100% complete for BTS. Incomplete information was mostly encountered on BTS forms for physician’s signature (60.8% and signature of laboratory receiver (63.5%. None of the DH and only 9.4% of BTS LRFs met all quality indicator indices. Conclusion: The level of completion of LRFs from these two departments was suboptimal. This underscores the need to review and redesign the LRF, improve on training and communication between laboratory and clinical staff and review specimen rejection practices.

  3. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-04-01

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms.

  4. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorte, L O; Ekowati, Y; Neu, T R; Kleijn, J M; Winters, H; Amy, G; Schippers, J C; Kennedy, M D

    2015-04-15

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  6. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance...

  7. Organic forms dominate hydrologic nitrogen export from a lowland tropical watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Philip G; Wieder, William R; Weintraub, Samantha; Cohen, Sagy; Cleveland, Cory C; Townsend, Alan R

    2015-05-01

    Observations of high dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations in stream water have reinforced the notion that primary tropical rain forests cycle nitrogen (N) in relative excess compared to phosphorus. Here we test this notion by evaluating hydrologic N export from a small watershed on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, where prior research has shown multiple indicators of conservative N cycling throughout the ecosystem. We repeatedly measured a host of factors known to influence N export for one year, including stream water chemistry and upslope litterfall, soil N availability and net N processing rates, and soil solution chemistry at the surface, 15- and 50-cm depths. Contrary to prevailing assumptions about the lowland N cycle, we find that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) averaged 85% of dissolved N export for 48 of 52 consecutive weeks. For most of the year stream water nitrate (NO3-) export was very low, which reflected minimal net N processing and DIN leaching from upslope soils. Yet, for one month in the dry season, NO3- was the major component of N export due to a combination of low flows and upslope nitrification that concentrated NO3- in stream water. Particulate organic N (PON) export was much larger than dissolved forms at 14.6 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1), driven by soil erosion during storms. At this rate, PON export was slightly greater than estimated inputs from free-living N fixation and atmospheric N deposition, which suggests that erosion-driven PON export could constrain ecosystem level N stocks over longer timescales. This phenomenon is complimentary to the "DON leak" hypothesis, which postulates that the long-term accumulation of ecosystem N in unpolluted ecosystems is constrained by the export of organic N independently of biological N demand. Using an established global sediment generation model, we illustrate that PON erosion may be an important vector for N loss in tropical landscapes that are geomorphically active. This study supports an

  8. The tannosome is an organelle forming condensed tannins in the chlorophyllous organs of Tracheophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Romieu, Charles; Schoefs, Benoît; Solymosi, Katalin; Cheynier, Véronique; Fulcrand, Hélène; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Conéjéro, Geneviève

    2013-10-01

    Condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins) are widespread polymers of catechins and are essential for the defence mechanisms of vascular plants (Tracheophyta). A large body of evidence argues for the synthesis of monomeric epicatechin on the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum and its transport to the vacuole, although the site of its polymerization into tannins remains to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to re-examine the cellular frame of tannin polymerization in various representatives of the Tracheophyta. Light microscopy epifluorescence, confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), chemical analysis of tannins following cell fractionation, and immunocytochemistry were used as independent methods on tannin-rich samples from various organs from Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Equisetophyta, Pteridophyta, Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Tissues were fixed in a caffeine-glutaraldehyde mixture and examined by TEM. Other fresh samples were incubated with primary antibodies against proteins from both chloroplastic envelopes and a thylakoidal chlorophyll-carrying protein; they were also incubated with gelatin-Oregon Green, a fluorescent marker of condensed tannins. Coupled spectral analyses of chlorophyll and tannins were carried out by confocal microscopy on fresh tissues and tannin-rich accretions obtained through cell fractionation; chemical analyses of tannins and chlorophylls were also performed on the accretions. The presence of the three different chloroplast membranes inside vacuolar accretions that constitute the typical form of tannin storage in vascular plants was established in fresh tissues as well as in purified organelles, using several independent methods. Tannins are polymerized in a new chloroplast-derived organelle, the tannosome. These are formed by pearling of the thylakoids into 30 nm spheres, which are then encapsulated in a tannosome shuttle formed by budding from the chloroplast and bound by a membrane

  9. Status of blood transfusion in World Health Organization-Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO-EMR): Successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Arezoo; Mashati, Pargol; Yami, Amir; Gharehbaghian, Arshia; Namini, Mehdi Tabrizi; Gharehbaghian, Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    Blood products are used for patient treatment and survival in the cases of major surgery, hematological disorders or cancer therapy. Presently the main blood components are not yet replaceable by artificial products and all activities related to blood transfusion is highly dependent on the healthcare development of each country. The World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO-EMR) comprises of 21 member states with variable socio-economic status effective on blood transfusion activities. The fundamental motivation behind this research was to accumulate some data of blood practices in this region and to have an appropriate image of the WHO-EMR region. The data were collected through the published papers or data, blood transfusion services websites, and the other health official websites like WHO. Among WHO-EMR countries there are some with a nationally organized blood transfusion establishment such as Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, and Syria. In a few, blood transfusion administrations are hospital-based like Saudi Arabia. The others are run by Red Crescent such as Bahrain, Tunisia and UEA or by Red Cross like Lebanon. Only Iran and UAE succeed to have 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donors; however, most of them are still under the weight of family/replacement blood donation such as Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Sudan or even paid donors like Pakistan and Yemen. The haemovigilance and training programs have been implemented in some countries including Bahrain, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and UAE. Unfortunately, there are rare and inaccessible information about some EMR states like Djibouti, Palestine and Somalia so that little data can be independently discovered. In these countries different measures ought to be additionally designated to ensure blood products adequacy and safety such as the development of well-coordinated national blood transfusion centers with

  10. Effects of physical form of starter and forage provision to young calves on blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, H; Mahdavi, A H; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Oskoueian, E; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of physical form of starter feed and forage provision on the performance, blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 52; body weight = 41.5 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 13 per treatment) to one of the following four treatments: (i) ground starter feed (GS; mean particle size = 0.72 mm in diameter), (ii) textured starter feed (TS; mean particle size = 3.61 mm in diameter, including steam-flaked corn and barley), (iii) pelleted starter feed (PS; mean particle size = 4.53 mm in diameter) and (iv) ground starter feed with chopped alfalfa hay (GS + AH; mean particle size = 1.02 mm in diameter). The calves fed GS + AH diets had greater (p intake, final body weight and average daily gain compared with the other groups, while GS and TS groups both had greater (p intake than the PS group. Feed efficiency was found to be better (p calves fed GS + AH had the highest blood concentrations of total protein, globulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), T3 : T4 ratio (p calves fed GS + AH exhibited a greater muscle layer thickness (p calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Choice of an Infusion Agent for the Prevention of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Acute Massive Blood Loss (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Yakovlev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform an experimental study of the effect of sterofundin isotonic on the biochemical parameters characterizing the degree of organ injury after acute massive blood loss (AMBL. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out on 36 male Wistar rats weighing 230—250 g. Hemorrhagic stroke was simulated via AMBL in a volume of 2.5 ml/100 g at a rate of 2 ml/min. An hour after AMBL, there was hypovolemia compensation within 60 minutes in a volume of 200% of the blood loss: by Ringer’s solution in a control group and by sterofundin isotonic in an experimental group. Then blood reinfu-sion was made in a volume of 70% of blood loss. The biochemical parameters of multiple organ dysfunction (glucose, lactate, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, enzymemia (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, endotoxemia (low- and medium-molecular-weight substances in the plasma and erythrocytes, acid-base condition, electrolytes of venous blood, and animal survival were determined on days 1 and 3 following AMBL. Results. There was a reduction in the time and degree of posthemorrhagic metabolic, biochemical, and electrolyte disorders, enzymemia, and endotoxemia in the experimental animals. Conclusion. The experimental studies suggest that Ringer’s solution is inadequately effective in preventing multiple organ dysfunction due to AMBL. The malate-containing blood substitute sterofundin isotonic that is used during early therapy for AMBL exerts a marked preventive effect on the development of visceral organ injuries when multiple organ dysfunction occurs in the early and late posthemorrhagic period. The experimental findings make it possible to recommend that sterofundin isotonic should be used in intensive care of hypovolemic shock arising from AMBL. Key words: acute massive blood loss, malate, sterofun dinisotonic, lactate, endotoxemia, multiple organ

  12. Subfornical Organ Mediates Sympathetic and Hemodynamic Responses to Blood-borne Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G.; Yu, Yang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in regulating autonomic and cardiovascular function in hypertension and heart failure. Peripherally administered pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) act upon the brain to increase blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and sympathetic nerve activity. These molecules are too large to penetrate blood brain barrier (BBB), and so the mechanisms by which they elicit these responses remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ that lacks a BBB, plays a major role in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intracarotid artery (ICA) injection of TNF-α (200 ng) or IL-1β (200 ng) dramatically increased mean BP (MBP), HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with sham lesions of the SFO (SFO-s). These excitatory responses to ICA TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly attenuated in SFO-lesioned (SFO-x) rats. Similarly, the increases in MBP, HR and RSNA in response to intravenous (IV) injections of TNF-α (500 ng) or IL-1β (500 ng) in SFO-s rats were significantly reduced in the SFO-x rats. Immunofluorescent staining revealed a dense distribution of the p55 TNF-α receptor and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein, a subunit of the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO. These data suggest that SFO is a predominant site in the brain at which circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines act to elicit cardiovascular and sympathetic responses. PMID:23670302

  13. Organizing DNA Origami Tiles Into Larger Structures Using Pre-formed Scaffold Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA molecules as programmable information-coding polymers to create higher order structures at the nanometer scale. An important milestone in structural DNA nanotechnology was the development of scaffolded DNA origami in which a long single-stranded viral genome (scaffold strand) is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands). The achievable dimensions of the DNA origami tiles units are currently limited by the length of the scaffold strand. Here we demonstrate a strategy referred to as ‘super-origami’ or ‘origami of origami’ to scale up DNA origami technology. First, this method uses a collection of bridge strands to pre-fold a single stranded DNA scaffold into a loose framework. Subsequently, pre-formed individual DNA origami tiles are directed onto the loose framework so that each origami tile serves as a large staple. Using this strategy, we demonstrate the ability to organize DNA origami nanostructures into larger spatially addressable architectures. PMID:21682348

  14. Complex Forms of Soil Organic Phosphorus-A Major Component of Soil Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Timothy I; Smernik, Ronald J; McLaughlin, Mike J; McBeath, Therese M; Kirby, Jason K; Simpson, Richard J; Guppy, Christopher N; Doolette, Ashlea L; Richardson, Alan E

    2015-11-17

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, an innate constituent of soil organic matter, and a major anthropogenic input to terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of P to living organisms is strongly dependent on the dynamics of soil organic P. However, fluxes of P through soil organic matter remain unclear because only a minority (typically soil organic P has been identified as recognizable biomolecules of low molecular weight (e.g., inositol hexakisphosphates). Here, we use (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the speciation of organic P in soil extracts fractionated into two molecular weight ranges. Speciation of organic P in the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was markedly different to that of the low molecular weight fraction (soil organic P across the five diverse soils. These soil phosphomonoesters will need to be integrated within current models of the inorganic-organic P cycle of soil-plant terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Chasman, Daniel I

    2016-01-01

    To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66...... across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target organ damage in multiple tissues but with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings...... expand current knowledge of blood pressure-related pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classical renal system in blood pressure regulation....

  16. Blood Parameters, Digestive Organ Size and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks Fed Sorghum as Partial Substitute of Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Anca GHEORGHE; Mihaela HĂBEANU; Cristina TABUC; Mihaela DUMITRU; Nicoleta Aurelia LEFTER

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary white sorghum (WS), as partial substitute of corn on blood parameters, digestive organ size and intestinal microflora of broilers at 35 d. Cobb 500 broilers (n=400), assigned to 2 groups, were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal control diets (C) or corn-WS-soybean meal diets (WS), where corn was partially replaced (50%) with WS. At 35 d, sixteen broilers per group were selected for blood sampling, gastrointestinal ...

  17. One year B-vitamins increases serum and whole blood folate forms and lowers plasma homocysteine in older Germans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Kruse, Vera; Eckert, Rudolf; Gräber, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Obeid, Rima

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to study the effect of long-term supplementation of B-vitamins on folate forms in serum and whole blood (WB) in elderly German subjects. 59 participants (mean age 67 years) were randomized to daily receive either vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (500 μg), vitamin B12 (500 μg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) or vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate. Serum and WB folate forms were measured before and after 6 and 12 months. B-vitamins supplementation for 6 months led to higher concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) in serum (mean 49.1 vs. 19.6 nmol/L) and WB (1332 vs. 616 nmol/L). Also non-methyl-folate concentrations in serum and WB were higher after 6 months with B-vitamins supplementation. Unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) increased after supplementation. tHcy concentration was lowered after 1 year of B-vitamin supplementation (mean 13.1 vs. 9.6 μmol/L). A stronger reduction of tHcy after 1 year was found in participants who had baseline level >12.5 μmol/L (mean 17.0 vs. 11.9 μmol/L) compared to those with baseline tHcy lower than this limit (mean 9.1 vs. 7.4 μmol/L). In contrast, the increases in serum and WB 5-methylTHF were comparable between the two groups. One year B-vitamins supplementation increased the levels of 5-methylTHF and non-methyl-folate in serum and WB, normalized tHcy, but caused an increase in the number of cases with detectable UFA in serum. Lowering of tHcy was predicted by baseline tHcy, but not by baseline serum or WB 5-methylTHF.

  18. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli translocate Tir and form an intimin-Tir intimate attachment to red blood cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert K; Daniell, Sarah; Frankel, Gad; Knutton, Stuart

    2002-05-01

    Type III secretion allows bacteria to inject effector proteins into host cells. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) the type III secreted protein, Tir, is translocated to the host-cell plasma membrane where it functions as a receptor for the bacterial adhesin intimin, leading to intimate bacterial attachment and "attaching and effacing" (A/E) lesion formation. To study EPEC type III secretion the interaction of EPEC with monolayers of red blood cells (RBCs) has been exploited and in a recent study [Shaw, R. K., Daniell, S., Ebel, F., Frankel, G. & Knutton, S. (2001 ). Cell Microbiol 3, 213-222] it was shown that EPEC induced haemolysis of RBCs and translocation of EspD, a putative pore-forming type III secreted protein in the RBC membrane. Here it is demonstrated that EPEC are able to translocate and correctly insert Tir into the RBC membrane and produce an intimin-Tir intimate bacterial attachment, identical to that seen in A/E lesions. Following translocation Tir did not undergo any change in apparent molecular mass or become tyrosine-phosphorylated and there was no focusing of RBC cytoskeletal actin beneath intimately adherent bacteria, and no pedestal formation. This study, employing an RBC model of infection, has demonstrated that Tir translocation can be separated from host-cell-mediated Tir modifications; the data show that the EPEC type III protein translocation apparatus is sufficient to deliver and correctly insert Tir into host-cell membranes independent of eukaryotic cell functions.

  19. Integrating Flexible Sensor and Virtual Self-Organizing DC Grid Model With Cloud Computing for Blood Leakage Detection During Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Tzan; Jong, Tai-Lang; Li, Chien-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Blood leakage and blood loss are serious complications during hemodialysis. From the hemodialysis survey reports, these life-threatening events occur to attract nephrology nurses and patients themselves. When the venous needle and blood line are disconnected, it takes only a few minutes for an adult patient to lose over 40% of his / her blood, which is a sufficient amount of blood loss to cause the patient to die. Therefore, we propose integrating a flexible sensor and self-organizing algorithm to design a cloud computing-based warning device for blood leakage detection. The flexible sensor is fabricated via a screen-printing technique using metallic materials on a soft substrate in an array configuration. The self-organizing algorithm constructs a virtual direct current grid-based alarm unit in an embedded system. This warning device is employed to identify blood leakage levels via a wireless network and cloud computing. It has been validated experimentally, and the experimental results suggest specifications for its commercial designs. The proposed model can also be implemented in an embedded system.

  20. Proteome remodelling during development from blood to insect-form Trypanosoma brucei quantified by SILAC and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekera Kapila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and Nagana in cattle. In addition to being an important pathogen T. brucei has developed into a model system in cell biology. Results Using Stable Isotope Labelling of Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC in combination with mass spectrometry we determined the abundance of >1600 proteins in the long slender (LS, short stumpy (SS mammalian bloodstream form stages relative to the procyclic (PC insect-form stage. In total we identified 2645 proteins, corresponding to ~30% of the total proteome and for the first time present a comprehensive overview of relative protein levels in three life stages of the parasite. Conclusions We can show the extent of pre-adaptation in the SS cells, especially at the level of the mitochondrial proteome. The comparison to a previously published report on monomorphic in vitro grown bloodstream and procyclic T. brucei indicates a loss of stringent regulation particularly of mitochondrial proteins in these cells when compared to the pleomorphic in vivo situation. In order to better understand the different levels of gene expression regulation in this organism we compared mRNA steady state abundance with the relative protein abundance-changes and detected moderate but significant correlation indicating that trypanosomes possess a significant repertoire of translational and posttranslational mechanisms to regulate protein abundance.

  1. External quality assessment in blood group serology in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisangwan, Patravee

    2012-01-01

    The quality of blood transfusion services (BTS) is essential for the treatment of patients who need blood or blood products. BTS involve several steps, including the acquisition of the donor's blood, blood grouping, unexpected antibody screening, blood storage, transfusion, etc. There is a need to check the effectiveness of all elements in the BTS can be assessed and monitored by an external quality assessment. To assess and evaluate the performance of ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping and unexpected antibody screening of the selected World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region Member country laboratories. WHO Collaborating Centre on Strengthening Quality of Health Laboratories (Thailand) organized a regional external quality assessment scheme for blood group serology (REQAS-BGS) between 2002 and 2008 for laboratories in countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region. Test items for ABO and Rh(D) blood groupings and unexpected antibody screening and identification were distributed three cycles per year to BTS laboratories in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand. By the end of the project, a total of 20 BTS laboratories had participated for differing lengths of time. It was found that 87.5%, 93.3%, 81.3%, 92.3%, 100% and 87.5% of laboratories returned the test results in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Laboratories with excellent quality or a trend of quality improvement for ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping, unexpected antibody screening and identification during the six years were 60% (12/20), 50% (10/20), 52.9% (9/17) and 81.8% (9/11), respectively. At the initiation of the scheme, most laboratories were using substandard methods for ABO and Rh blood groupings, i.e. performing only direct blood grouping alone but subsequently adopted the standard methods, i.e. performing both direct and reverse blood groupings. REQAS-BGS in South-East Asia countries has been useful for assessing, monitoring and

  2. Lu-177 DOTA-TATE for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT): organ-, tumor- and blood kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmann, C.; Senftleben, S.; Baum, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with Lu-177 DOTA-TATE is used for the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of our study was to determine the organ and tumor kinetics for dosimetric calculations. Material and Methods: 130 patients (aged 60+/-11 years; 57m, 73f) with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors (somatostatin expression verified before by Ga-68 DOTA-NOC PET/CT) were treated with activities of 2.5- 7.4 GBq Lu-177 DOTA-TATE (1-5 cycles). On the basis of conjugated planar whole-body scintigraphies 0.5h, 3h, 24h, 48h and 72h p.i. the time-dependent whole-body, organ and tumor activities were determined and dosimetric calculations were performed according to the MIRD scheme using OLINDA software. Blood samples were drawn from 23 patients to estimate the absorbed dose to the red marrow. To describe the kinetics we used the following parameters: mean half-life and uptake (fraction of injected activity/dose, ID) which were calculated using the fit of the time-dependent activity curve to a mono- or bi-exponential function. Results: The renal uptake decreased for the first 3- 5 hours p.i. with a mean half-life of 1.0+/-0.5h, followed by a second phase with a longer half-life of 65+/-17h. The maximum kidney uptake was 4+/-1%. The uptake in the spleen was with 2+/-1.8% ID stable until 24 hours p.i. and then showed a decline with a half-life of 72+/-19h. The tumor uptake showed an increase until 24h p.i. to a maximum of 0.1+/-0.1% ID per unit mass and then slowly decreased with a half-life of 77+/-25h. Liver metastases showed a higher maximal uptake (0.1+/-0.1%) as compared to lymph node metastases (0.08+/-0.07%). The blood kinetics were fitted to a tri-exponential function with large variation: half-life 1: 0.2+/-0.2h; half-life 2: 2+/-1.8h and half-life 3: 21+/-10h. The following organ absorbed doses were calculated: kidneys: 5+/-2 Sv; spleen: 7+/-4 Sv; metastases: 47+/-66 Sv (44+/-38 Sv for lymph node, and 60+/-86 Sv for

  3. Spectroscopic quantification of soil phosphorus forms by 31P-NMR after nine years of organic or mineral fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Brunetto, Gustavo; Rheinheimer, Danilo dos Santos; Kaminski, Joao; Flores, Alex Fabiani Claro; Lima, Maria Angelica Silveira; Girotto, Eduardo; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz; Pandolfo, Carla Maria; Veiga, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing applications of mineral fertilizers or types of organic wastes such as manure can cause phosphorus (P) accumulation and changes in the accumulated P forms in the soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the forms of P accumulated in soils treated with mineral fertilizer or different types of manure in a long-term experiment. Soil was sampled from the 0-5 cm layer of plots fertilized with five different nutrient sources for nine years: 1) control without fertilizer; 2) mineral fertilizer at recommended rates for local conditions; 3) 5 t ha -1 year -1 of moist poultry litter; 4) 60 m 3 ha -1 year -1 of liquid cattle manure and 5) 40 m 3 ha -1 year -1 of liquid swine manure. The 31 P-NMR spectra of soil extracts detected the following P compounds: orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, inositol phosphate, glycerophosphate, and DNA. The use of organic or mineral fertilizer over nine years did not change the soil P forms but influenced their concentration. Fertilization with mineral or organic fertilizers stimulated P accumulation in inorganic forms. Highest inositol phosphate levels were observed after fertilization with any kind of manure and highest organic P concentration in glycerophosphate form in after mineral or no fertilization. (author)

  4. Spectroscopic quantification of soil phosphorus forms by {sup 31}P-NMR after nine years of organic or mineral fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo, E-mail: gatiboni@cav.udesc.br [Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Lages, SC (Brazil); Brunetto, Gustavo; Rheinheimer, Danilo dos Santos; Kaminski, Joao; Flores, Alex Fabiani Claro; Lima, Maria Angelica Silveira; Girotto, Eduardo; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz, E-mail: danilo.rheinheimer@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: joao.kaminski@gmail.com, E-mail: acflores@quimica.ufsm.br, E-mail: masl32003@gmail.com, E-mail: girottosolos@gmail.com, E-mail: andrecopetti@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil); Pandolfo, Carla Maria; Veiga, Milton, E-mail: pandolfo@epagri.sc.gov.br, E-mail: milveiga@epagri.sc.gov.br [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI), Campos Novos, SC (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    Long-standing applications of mineral fertilizers or types of organic wastes such as manure can cause phosphorus (P) accumulation and changes in the accumulated P forms in the soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the forms of P accumulated in soils treated with mineral fertilizer or different types of manure in a long-term experiment. Soil was sampled from the 0-5 cm layer of plots fertilized with five different nutrient sources for nine years: 1) control without fertilizer; 2) mineral fertilizer at recommended rates for local conditions; 3) 5 t ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} of moist poultry litter; 4) 60 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} of liquid cattle manure and 5) 40 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} of liquid swine manure. The {sup 31}P-NMR spectra of soil extracts detected the following P compounds: orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, inositol phosphate, glycerophosphate, and DNA. The use of organic or mineral fertilizer over nine years did not change the soil P forms but influenced their concentration. Fertilization with mineral or organic fertilizers stimulated P accumulation in inorganic forms. Highest inositol phosphate levels were observed after fertilization with any kind of manure and highest organic P concentration in glycerophosphate form in after mineral or no fertilization. (author)

  5. Distribution of various forms of organic nitrogen in a lignite macromolecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Ryl' tsova, S.V. [Lev Tolstoi State Pedalogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical composition of organic bases from tars of stepwise semicoking of lignite was studied. The features of distribution of organic nitrogen in a coal macromolecule and the most probable pathways of thermal degradation of the nitrogen-containing fragments were examined.

  6. Prevalence of Atherogenic Dyslipidemia in Spanish Hypertensive Patients and Its Relationship With Blood Pressure Control and Silent Organ Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Gorostidi, Manuel; Aranda, Pedro; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in hypertensive patients and its relationship with risk profile and blood pressure control. The study included 24 351 hypertensive patients from the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as the presence of hypertriglyceridemia (> 150mg/dL) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 40mg/dL in men and < 46mg/dL in women). Blood pressure control was assessed by office and ambulatory monitoring. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was present in 2705 patients (11.1%). Of these, 30% had hypertriglyceridemia and 21.7% had low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Compared with patients without these risk factors, the former group were more often male (60% vs 52%), younger (57 years vs 59 years), had other risk factors and organ damage (microalbuminuria, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, and left ventricular hypertrophy), worse office, diurnal, and nocturnal blood pressure values (odds ratio 1.09, 1.06, and 1.10, respectively), and the lowest nocturnal blood pressure reduction (odds ratio=1.07), despite the greater use of antihypertensive drugs. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is present in more than 10% of hypertensive patients and is associated with other risk factors, organ damage, and poorer blood pressure control. Greater therapeutic effort is needed to reduce overall risk in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Daniel I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Johnson, Toby; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Luan, Jian'an; Donnelly, Lousie A.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pihur, Vasyl; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Shungin, Dmitry; Hughes, Maria F.; Meirelles, Osorio; Kaakinen, Marika; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Kristiansson, Kati; Shah, Sonia; Kleber, Marcus E.; Guo, Xiuqing; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Fava, Cristiano; Eriksson, Niclas; Nolte, Ilja M.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Salfati, Elias L.; Rallidis, Loukianos S.; Theusch, Elizabeth; Smith, Andrew J.P.; Folkersen, Lasse; Witkowska, Kate; Pers, Tune H.; Joehanes, Roby; Kim, Stuart K.; Lataniotis, Lazaros; Jansen, Rick; Johnson, Andrew D.; Warren, Helen; Kim, Young Jin; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Ying; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Bochud, Murielle; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S.; Amin, Najaf; Arking, Dan E.; Axelsson, Tomas; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barnes, Michael R.; Barroso, Inês; Bevan, Stephen; Bis, Joshua C.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Chambers, John C.; Chang, I-Shou; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chines, Peter S.; Chung, Ren-Hua; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Döring, Angela; Dallongeville, Jean; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; Delgado, Graciela; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Doney, Alex S.F.; Drenos, Fotios; Edkins, Sarah; Eicher, John D.; Elosua, Roberto; Enroth, Stefan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Per; Esko, Tonu; Evangelou, Evangelos; Evans, Alun; Fall, Tove; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Janine F.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Forrester, Terrence; Franceschini, Nora; Duran, Oscar H. Franco; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Fraser, Ross M.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Gao, He; Gertow, Karl; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gigante, Bruna; Giulianini, Franco; Goel, Anuj; Goodall, Alison H.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gorski, Mathias; Gräßler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassinen, Maija; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Oddgeir Lingaas; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Howard, Phil; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hunt, Steven C.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jensen, Richard A.; Kähönen, Mika; Kang, Hyun; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keating, Brendan J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Kim, Eric; Kivimaki, Mika; Klopp, Norman; Kolovou, Genovefa; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kosova, Gulum; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Lakka, Timo A; Lee, Nanette R.; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Levy, Daniel; Li, Xiaohui; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Li; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Männistö, Satu; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mach, François; Markus, Hugh S.; Marouli, Eirini; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Mijatovic, Vladan; Moilanen, Leena; Montasser, May E.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Mulas, Antonella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nikus, Kjell; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Ong, Ken K.; Paccaud, Fred; Palmer, Cameron D.; Parsa, Afshin; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Poulter, Neil; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Rasheed, Asif; Rayner, N William N.W.R.; Renström, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Rice, Kenneth M.; Roberts, Robert; Rose, Lynda M.; Rossouw, Jacques; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schunkert, Heribert; Sebert, Sylvain; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Shin, Young-Ah; Sim, Xueling; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Albert V.; Sosa, Maria X.; Spector, Tim D.; Stančáková, Alena; Stanton, Alice; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Teumer, Alexander; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tobin, Martin D.; Tremoli, Elena; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Vaez, Ahmad; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Aline; Wain, Louise V.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weder, Alan B.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wilks, Rainford; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Tien Y.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Bovet, Pascal; Cooper, Richard S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Saleheen, Danish; Lee, Jong-Young; Elliott, Paul; Gierman, Hinco J.; Willer, Cristen J.; Franke, Lude; Hovingh, G Kees; Taylor, Kent D.; Dedoussis, George; Sever, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Njølstad, Inger; Schwarz, Peter EH.; Langenberg, Claudia; Snieder, Harold; Caulfield, Mark J.; Melander, Olle; Laakso, Markku; Saltevo, Juha; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hveem, Kristian; Palmas, Walter; März, Winfried; Kumari, Meena; Salomaa, Veikko; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Froguel, Philippe; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lakatta, Edward G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Franks, Paul W.; Hamsten, Anders; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Stefansson, Kari; Ridker, Paul M; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Deloukas, Panos; Morris, Andrew P.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2016-01-01

    To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target-organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure loci, of which 17 were novel and 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target-organ damage in multiple tissues, with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classic renal system in blood pressure regulation. PMID:27618452

  8. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); T. Ferreira (Teresa); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.U. Jackson (Anne); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); T. Johnson (Toby); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); J. Luan (Jian'An); L.A. Donnelly (Louise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); A.K. Petersen; V. Pihur (Vasyl); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); D. Shungin (Dmitry); Hughes, M.F. (Maria F.); O. Meirelles; M. Kaakinen (Marika); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); K. Kristiansson (Kati); S. Shah (Sonia); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); X. Guo (Xiuqing); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); C. Fava (Cristiano); N. Eriksson (Niclas); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); E. Salfati (Elias); L.S. Rallidis (Loukianos); Theusch, E. (Elizabeth); A.J.P. Smith; L. Folkersen (Lasse); H.E. Witkowska (Ewa); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Joehanes (Roby); Kim, S.K. (Stuart K.); L. Lataniotis (Lazaros); R. Jansen; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); H. Warren (Helen); Y.J. Kim; Zhao, W. (Wei); Y. Wu (Ying); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Bochud (Murielle); D. Absher (Devin); L.S. Adair (Linda); N. Amin (Najaf); D.E. Arking (Dan); T. Axelsson (Tomas); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); B. Balkau (Beverley); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); M.J. Barnes (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); Bevan, S. (Stephen); J.C. Bis (Joshua); Bjornsdottir, G. (Gyda); M. Boehnke (Michael); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); Cabrera, C.P. (Claudia P.); J.C. Chambers (John); Chang, I.-S. (I-Shou); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); P.S. Chines (Peter); Chung, R.-H. (Ren-Hua); F.S. Collins (Francis); Connell, J.M. (John M.); A. Döring (Angela); J. Dallongeville; J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); G. Delgado; A. Dominiczak (Anna); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); F. Drenos (Fotios); T. Edkins (Ted); Eicher, J.D. (John D.); R. Elosua (Roberto); S. Enroth (Stefan); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); P. Eriksson (Per); T. Esko (Tõnu); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); A. Evans (Alun); M. Fall (Magnus); M. Farrall (Martin); J.F. Felix (Janine); J. Ferrieres (Jean); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Forrester (Terrence); N. Franceschini (Nora); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); R.M. Fraser (Ross); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); Gao, H. (He); K. Gertow (Karl); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); B. Gigante (Bruna); F. Giulianini (Franco); A. Goel (Anuj); A.H. Goodall (Alison); M. Goodarzi (Mark); M. Gorski (Mathias); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); C.J. Groves (Christopher); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); G. Hallmans (Göran); A.L. Hartikainen; Hassinen, M. (Maija); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); C. Hayward (Caroline); S. Hercberg (Serge); K.H. Herzig; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); Hofman, A. (Albert); Holmen, J. (Jostein); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P. Howard (Philip); Hsiung, C.A. (Chao A.); S.C. Hunt (Steven); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); T. Illig (Thomas); C. Iribarren (Carlos); Jensen, R.A. (Richard A.); M. Kähönen (Mika); H.M. Kang (Hyun Min); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); J. Keating (John); K.T. Khaw; Y.K. Kim (Yun Kyoung); E. Kim (Eric); M. Kivimaki (Mika); N. Klopp (Norman); Kolovou, G. (Genovefa); P. Komulainen (Pirjo); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); Kosova, G. (Gulum); R.M. Krauss (Ronald); D. Kuh (Diana); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); K. Kvaløy (Kirsti); T.A. Lakka (Timo); N.R. Lee (Nanette); I.T. Lee; W.-J. Lee (Wen-Jane); D. Levy (Daniel); X. Li (Xiaohui); Liang, K.-W. (Kae-Woei); Lin, H. (Honghuang); Lin, L. (Li); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); S. Männistö (Satu); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); F. MacH (François); H.S. Markus (Hugh); E. Marouli (Eirini); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); P. Meneton (Pierre); C. Menni (Cristina); A. Metspalu (Andres); Mijatovic, V. (Vladan); L. Moilanen (Leena); M.E. Montasser (May E.); A.D. Morris (Andrew); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); Mulas, A. (Antonella); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); N. Narisu (Narisu); K. Nikus (Kjell); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); K.K. Ong (Ken); Paccaud, F. (Fred); C. Palmer (Cameron); A. Parsa (Afshin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Perola (Markus); A. Peters (Annette); N.R. Poulter (Neil); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T. Quertermous (Thomas); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); A. Rasheed (Asif); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); R. Rettig (Rainer); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); R. Roberts (Robert); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Rossouw, J. (Jacques); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); S. Sanna (Serena); J. Saramies (Jouko); H. Schunkert (Heribert); S. Sebert (Sylvain); Sheu, W.H.-H. (Wayne H.-H.); Shin, Y.-A. (Young-Ah); X. Sim (Xueling); G.D. Smith; A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.X. Sosa (Maria X.); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Stancáková (Alena); A. Stanton (Alice); K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Sundstrom, J. (Johan); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvänen; Tai, E.-S. (E-Shyong); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); K.V. Tarasov (Kirill); A. Teumer (Alexander); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M.D. Tobin (Martin); E. Tremoli (Elena); Uitterlinden, A.G. (Andre G.); M. Uusitupa (Matti); A. Vaez (Ahmad); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); Van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia M.); E.P.A. van Iperen (Erik); Vasan, R.S. (Ramachandran S.); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); J. Virtamo (Jarmo); Vitart, V. (Veronique); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Wagner, A. (Aline); Wain, L.V. (Louise V.); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); A.B. Weder (Alan); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); Wilks, R. (Rainford); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); J.F. Wilson (James F.); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); T.-P. Yang (Tsun-Po); J. Yao (Jiefen); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); X. Zhu (Xiaofeng); P. Bovet (Pascal); Cooper, R.S. (Richard S.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); Saleheen, D. (Danish); J.-Y. Lee (Jong-Young); P. Elliott (Paul); L.M. Gierman (Lobke); C.J. Willer (Cristen); L. Franke (Lude); G. Kees Hovingh; K.D. Taylor (Kent); G.V. Dedoussis (George); P. Sever (Peter); A. Wong (Andrew); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I. Njølstad (Inger); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Langenberg (Claudia); H. Snieder (Harold); M. Caulfield (Mark); O. Melander (Olle); M. Laakso (Markku); J. Saltevo (Juha); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Ingelsson, E. (Erik); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); K. Hveem (Kristian); W. Palmas (Walter); W. März (Winfried); M. Kumari (Meena); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Y.D. Chen (Y.); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); P. Froguel (Philippe); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Lakatta (Edward); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); P.W. Franks (Paul); A. Hamsten (Anders); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); Stefansson, K. (Kari); P.M. Ridker (Paul); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C. Newton-Cheh (C.); P. Munroe (Patricia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We

  9. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Chasman, Daniel I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Johnson, Toby; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Luan, Jian'an; Donnelly, Louise A.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Petersen, Ann -Kristin; Pihurl, Vasyl; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Shungin, Dmitry; Hughes, Maria F.; Meirelles, Osorio; Kaakinen, Marika; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Kristiansson, Kati; Shah, Sonia; Kleber, Marcus E.; Guo, Xiuqing; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Fava, Cristiano; Eriksson, Nidas; Nolte, Ilja M.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Salfati, Elias L.; Rallidis, Loukianos S.; Theusch, Elizabeth; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Folkersen, Lasse; Witkowska, Kate; Pers, Tune H.; Joehanes, Roby; Kim, Stuart K.; Lataniotis, Lazaros; Jansen, Rick; Johnson, Andrew D.; Warren, Helen; Kim, Young Jin; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Ying; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Bochud, Murielle; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S.; Amin, Najaf; Arkingl, Dan E.; Axelsson, Tomas; Baldassarre, Damian; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barnes, Michael R.; Barroso, Ines; Bevan, Stephen; Bis, Joshua C.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Chambers, John C.; Chang, I-Shou; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chines, Peter S.; Chung, Ren-Hua; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Doring, Angela; Dallongeville, Jean; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; Delgado, Graciela; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Drenos, Fotios; Edkins, Sarah; Eicher, John D.; Elosua, Roberto; Enroth, Stefan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Per; Esko, Tonu; Evangelou, Evangelos; Evans, Alun; Fai, Tove; Farra, Martin; Felixl, Janine F.; Ferrieres, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Forrester, Terrence; Franceschinil, Nora; Franco, Oscar H.; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Fraser, Ross M.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Gao, He; Gertow, Karl; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gigante, Bruna; Giulianini, Franco; Goe, Anuj; Goodall, Alison H.; Goodarzi, Mark; Gorski, Mathias; Grassler, Jurgen; Groves, Christopher J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hallmans, Goran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassinen, Maija; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofmanl, Albert; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Oddgeir Lingaas; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Howard, Phil; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hunt, Steven C.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jensen, Richard A.; Kahonen, Mika; Kang, Hyun Min; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keating, Brendan J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Kim, Eric; Kivimaki, Mika; Klopp, Norman; Kolovou, Genovefa; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kosova, Gulum; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Lakka, Timo A.; Lee, Nanette R.; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Levy, Daniel; Li, Xiaohui; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Honghuang; Lin, Li; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Mannisto, Satu; Muller, Gabriele; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mach, Francois; Markus, Hugh S.; Marouli, Eirini; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Mijatovic, Vladan; Moilanen, Leena; Montasser, May E.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Mulas, Antonella; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nikus, Kjell; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Ong, Ken K.; Paccaud, Fred; Palmer, Cameron D.; Parsa, Afshin; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Poulter, Neil; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Rasheed, Asif; Rayner, N. William; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Rice, Kenneth M.; Roberts, Robert; Rose, Lynda M.; Rossouw, Jacques; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schunkert, Heribert; Sebert, Sylvain; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shin, Young-Ah; Sim, Xueling; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Albert V.; Sosa, Maria X.; Spector, Tim D.; Stancakova, Alena; Stanton, Alice V.; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Teumer, Alexander; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tobin, Martin D.; Tremoli, Elena; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Vaez, Ahmad; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Aline; Wain, Louise V.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watldns, Hugh; Weder, Alan B.; Westra, Harm Jan; Wilks, Rainford; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Tien Y.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Bovet, Pascal; Cooper, Richard S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Saleheen, Danish; Lee, Jong-Young; Elliott, Paul; Gierman, Hinco J.; Willer, Cristen J.; Franke, Lude; Hovingh, G. Kees; Taylor, Kent D.; Dedoussis, George; Sever, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Njolstad, Inger; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Langenberg, Claudia; Snieder, Harold; Caulfield, Mark J.; Melander, E.; Laakso, Markku; Saltevo, Juha; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimaki, Terho; Hveem, Kristian; Palmas, Walter; Marz, Winfried; Kumar, Meena; Salomaa, Veikko; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Froguel, Philippe; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lakatta, Edward G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Franks, Paul W.; Hamsten, Anders; Wichmann, H-Erich; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Stefansson, Kari; Ridker, Paul M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Chalcravarti, Aravinda; Deloukas, Panos; Morris, Andrew P.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2016-01-01

    To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66

  10. Comparing Amide-Forming Reactions Using Green Chemistry Metrics in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennie, Michael W.; Roth, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, upper-division undergraduate chemistry and biochemistry majors investigate amide-bond-forming reactions from a green chemistry perspective. Using hydrocinnamic acid and benzylamine as reactants, students perform three types of amide-forming reactions: an acid chloride derivative route; a coupling reagent promoted…

  11. Ratio of organs to blood of mercury during its uptake by normal and acatalasemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, M.; Aikoh, H.

    1987-01-01

    The brain/blood, liver/blood, and heart/blood ratios of acatalasemic mice after intraperitoneal injection of labelled metallic mercury or after exposure to labelled metallic mercury vapor were significantly higher than those of normal mice. These ratios of normal or acatalasemic mice after injection with metallic mercury or exposure to metallic mercury vapor were significantly higher than those of normal and acatalasemic mice injected with mercuric ion. The amount of metallic mercury exhaled from acatalasemic mice injected with metallic mercury was greater than that from normal mice, indicating that the level of metallic mercury in blood of the former was higher than that of the latter. Actually, metallic mercury in the blood of acatalasemic mice injected with metallic mercury is higher than that in the blood of normal mice, suggesting that metallic mercury is easily transferred from blood to brain, liver, kidney, and heart

  12. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under the...

  13. Radioimmunoassay for determination of blood aldosterone and renin in the diagnosis of some forms of arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamidov, R.I.; Khalmuratova, R.A.; Sattarova, F.K.

    1987-01-01

    Aldosterone concentration and renin activity in the blood from the ulnar, inferior cava veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, the left and right renal veins were studied in 60 patients with arterial hypertension by means of a radioimmunoassay kits (France). The patients were divided into 4 groups: with primary and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, renal-parenchymatous and essential arterial hypertension. The diagnosis of primary and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was also confirmed by low blood renin activity. Renin activity in the peripheral venous blood was considerably elevated in renal-parenchymatous arterial hypertension and was normal in essential hypertension. Aldosterone concentration in the blood from the vena cava inferior and renal veins was 1.6-2-fold as high on the affected side as on the contralateral one

  14. The variation of organ doses with the particle size and chemical form of an inhaled radioactive aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.W.; Adams, N.; Reissland, J.A.

    1979-04-01

    In this report, radiation doses to organs are calculated as a function of the particle size of the inhaled radioactive material. Aerosols with an Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) from 0.1 μm to 20 μm are considered and doses accumulated by various organs in periods ranging from 1 day to 70 years are given for 65 radionuclides. A computer program is used which calculates the transformations taking place in each organ per curie of inhaled nuclide from the basic radioactivity and metabolic data. The program also calculates the resulting doses both for the organ in which the transformations occur and from penetrating radiation emitted as a result of transformations in other organs. The effects of particle size and chemical form of the nuclides on the doses received by organs are discussed. Tables of doses accumulated by 10 specific organs and other organs together with effective whole body doses are given for particle sizes 0.1 μm, 1 μm and 10 μm (AMAD). (author)

  15. Phenotypic and functional evaluations of peripheral blood monocytes from chronic-form paracoccidioidomycosis patients before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, James; Cavalcante, Ricardo Souza; Golim, Márjorie de Assis; Marchetti, Camila Martins; Azevedo, Priscila Zacarias de; Amorim, Bárbara Casella; Arruda, Maria Sueli Parreira de; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio

    2014-10-16

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is systemic mycosis caused by the thermal dimorphic fungus of genus Paracoccidioides, leading to either acute/subacute (AF) or chronic (CF) clinical forms. Numerous CF patients after treatment exhibit sequels, such as pulmonary and adrenal fibrosis. Monocytes are cells that are involved in the inflammatory response during active infection as well as in the fibrogenesis. These cells comprise a heterogeneous population with distinct phenotypic and functional activities. The scope of this study was to identify changes regarding functional and phenotypical aspects in monocytes comparing CF PCM patients on antifungal treatment versus non-treated patients (PMC-p). Twenty-three CF PCM composed of 11 non-treated patients (NTG) and 12 patients in apparent cure (ACG) were studied. Sixteen healthy individuals were used as control group (CG). Monocyte subsets were determined by immunophenotyping based on CD14 and CD16 expression. Cellular function was measured in vitro with and without stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and P. brasiliensis exoantigen (PbAg) for 24 hours. Independent samples were compared using unpaired t tests, dependent samples were analyzed by paired t-test. Groups of more than two independent samples were analyzed using an ANOVA, with Tukey's post-test. Significance was set up at p <0.05. Our results showed high counts of peripheral blood CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ monocytes in untreated PCM-p accompanied by intense production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and profibrotic growth factors (TGF-β1 and bFGF) by monocytes challenged with P. brasiliensis antigens. After the introduction of antifungal therapy, the counts of CD14+CD16+ cells returned to baseline while CD14+CD16++ counts remained high. Interestingly, counts of CD14+CD16++ monocytes remained elevated even 52 ± 7 months after successful antifungal treatment. Furthermore, the ACG-patients showed preserved pro-inflammatory activity in the

  16. Mathematical modeling of blood-gas kinetics for the volatile organic compounds isoprene and acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.

    2010-01-01

    Breath gas analysis is based on the compelling concept that the exhaled breath levels of endogenously produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide a direct, non-invasive window to the blood and hence, by inference, to the body. In this sense, breath VOCs are regarded as a comprehensive repository of valuable physiological and clinical information, that might be exploited in such diverse areas as diagnostics, therapeutic monitoring or general dynamic assessments of metabolic function, pharmacodynamics (e.g., in drug testing) and environmental exposure (e.g., in occupational health). Despite this enormous potential, the lack of standardized breath sampling regimes as well as the poor mechanistic understanding of VOC exhalation kinetics could cast a cloud over the widespread use of breath gas analysis in the biomedical sciences. In this context, a primary goal of the present thesis is to provide a better quantitative insight into the breath behavior of two prototypic VOCs, isoprene and acetone. A compartmental modeling framework is developed and validated by virtue of real-time breath measurements of these trace gases during distinct physiological states. In particular, the influence of various hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters on VOC concentrations in exhaled breath is investigated. This approach also complements previous steady state investigations in toxicology. From a phenomenological point of view, both acetone and isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath are demonstrated to exhibit a reproducible non-steady state behavior during moderate workload challenges on a stationary bicycle. However, these dynamics depart drastically from what is expected on the basis of classical pulmonary inert gas elimination theory. More specifically, the start of exercise is accompanied by an abrupt increase in breath isoprene levels, usually by a factor of 3 to 4 compared with the steady state value during rest. This phase is followed by a gradual decline and the

  17. ORGANIZING OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING IN THE FORMING OF INFORMATION BASE OF BUILDING ENTERPRISES PROVIDING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Pylypiv

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of organization of managerial accounting on formation of informational base on the local (level of the individual enterprise, regional, disciplinary and national levels in the context of providing stable economic development for building enterprises. Based on our findings, we built a cognitive map of such an influence, which shows itself through different spheres, such as: economic, ecological and social, and will enjoy informational requests of management for improving of effectiveness of management system of such kind of  enterprises. Keywords: managerial accounting, organization, provision, stable economic development, building enterprises

  18. Aqueous benzene-diols react with an organic triplet excited state and hydroxyl radical to form secondary organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy D; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2015-04-21

    Chemical processing in atmospheric aqueous phases, such as cloud and fog drops, can play a significant role in the production and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work we examine aqueous SOA production via the oxidation of benzene-diols (dihydroxy-benzenes) by the triplet excited state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, (3)DMB*, and by hydroxyl radical, ˙OH. Reactions of the three benzene-diols (catechol (CAT), resorcinol (RES) and hydroquinone (HQ)) with (3)DMB* or ˙OH proceed rapidly, with rate constants near diffusion-controlled values. The two oxidants exhibit different behaviors with pH, with rate constants for (3)DMB* increasing as pH decreases from pH 5 to 2, while rate constants with ˙OH decrease in more acidic solutions. Mass yields of SOA were near 100% for all three benzene-diols with both oxidants. We also examined the reactivity of atmospherically relevant mixtures of phenols and benzene-diols in the presence of (3)DMB*. We find that the kinetics of phenol and benzene-diol loss, and the production of SOA mass, in mixtures are generally consistent with rate constants determined in experiments containing a single phenol or benzene-diol. Combining our aqueous kinetic and SOA mass yield data with previously published gas-phase data, we estimate a total SOA production rate from benzene-diol oxidation in a foggy area with significant wood combustion to be nearly 0.6 μg mair(-3) h(-1), with approximately half from the aqueous oxidation of resorcinol and hydroquinone, and half from the gas-phase oxidation of catechol.

  19. THE INFLUINCE OF THE STAPHYLOCOCCUS INFECTION TO THE STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF WISTAR RATS BRAIN AND CEREBRAL BLOOD VESSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torianik I. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are a dates about the influence of thestaphylococcus infection to the structural organization of Wistar rats brain and cerebral blood vessels in experiment. The purpose of the experiment’s are achieving by the seding staphylococcus infection means of the characterical structures of the brain and cerebralblood damages, that similar with the such in a human in a case of the development of a traditional clinic pathology.The results are evaluated to character of the morphological changes (brain cortex and cerebral blood vessels destructive and degenerative alterations,inflammatory processes.

  20. Competencies in nursing students for organized forms of clinical moral deliberation and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Bart Cusveller; Jeanette den Uil-Westerlaken

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-prepared nurses are expected to be competent in moral deliberation and decision-making (MDD) in clinical practice. It is unclear, however, how this competence develops in nursing students. This study explores the development of nursing students’ competence for participating in organized

  1. Towards a spatial theory of organizations : Creating new organizational forms to improve business performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tissen, R.J.; Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Research in the field of management and organizational theory generally indicates the absense of space in organizations. Space has largely been a neglected phenomenon, left implicite to practice as something ‘limiting’ without actually ‘existing’. The aim of this research paper is to explore and

  2. THE ORGANIZATION OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF ROLL FORMING USING SCADA- SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Teslenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the use Scada-systems for the organization of various systems of automated processes is the most promising method of automation, that gives wide opportunities of control, analysis and management of compiex dynamic, real-time systems.

  3. Grid cell hexagonal patterns formed by fast self-organized learning within entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Himanshu; Gorchetchnikov, Anatoli; Grossberg, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Grid cells in the dorsal segment of the medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) show remarkable hexagonal activity patterns, at multiple spatial scales, during spatial navigation. It has previously been shown how a self-organizing map can convert firing patterns across entorhinal grid cells into hippocampal place cells that are capable of representing much larger spatial scales. Can grid cell firing fields also arise during navigation through learning within a self-organizing map? This article describes a simple and general mathematical property of the trigonometry of spatial navigation which favors hexagonal patterns. The article also develops a neural model that can learn to exploit this trigonometric relationship. This GRIDSmap self-organizing map model converts path integration signals into hexagonal grid cell patterns of multiple scales. GRIDSmap creates only grid cell firing patterns with the observed hexagonal structure, predicts how these hexagonal patterns can be learned from experience, and can process biologically plausible neural input and output signals during navigation. These results support an emerging unified computational framework based on a hierarchy of self-organizing maps for explaining how entorhinal-hippocampal interactions support spatial navigation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley and IRS Form 990 on Nonprofit Organizations in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisow, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, an attempt to reform publicly traded companies that suffered from a series of scandalous failures in the late 1990's, did not apply to nonprofit organizations. Several high-profile scandals which occurred in the nonprofit sector between 1996 and 2002 led lawmakers to make several unsuccessful attempts at mandating that the…

  5. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, M.; Laurensse, S.; Simon, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [nl

  6. Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorevits, An; De Jonghe, Valerie; Vandroemme, Joachim; Reekmans, Rieka; Heyrman, Jeroen; Messens, Winy; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of raw milk can originate from different sources: air, milking equipment, feed, soil, faeces and grass. It is hypothesized that differences in feeding and housing strategies of cows may influence the microbial quality of milk. This assumption was investigated through comparison of the aerobic spore-forming flora in milk from organic and conventional dairy farms. Laboratory pasteurized milk samples from five conventional and five organic dairy farms, sampled in late summer/autumn and in winter, were plated on a standard medium and two differential media, one screening for phospholipolytic and the other for proteolytic activity of bacteria. Almost 930 isolates were obtained of which 898 could be screened via fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Representative isolates were further analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)(5)-PCR. The majority of aerobic spore-formers in milk belonged to the genus Bacillus and showed at least 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus subtilis and with type strains of species belonging to the Bacillus cereus group. About 7% of all isolates may belong to possibly new spore-forming taxa. Although the overall diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in milk from organic vs. conventional dairy farms was highly similar, some differences between both were observed: (i) a relatively higher number of thermotolerant organisms in milk from conventional dairy farms compared to organic farms (41.2% vs. 25.9%), and (ii) a relatively higher number of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic (81.3%) and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus in milk from conventional (85.7%) dairy farms. One of these differences, the higher occurrence of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic dairy farms, may be linked to differences in housing strategy between the two types of dairy farming. However, no plausible clarification was found for

  7. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ...... life-form-dependent allometries that have similar scaling but different intercepts, such that the mass-specific rates converge on a rather narrow size-independent range. In contrast, ingestion and growth rates follow a near-universal taxa-independent ~3/4 mass scaling power law.We argue...

  8. Complex-forming organic ligands in cloud-point extraction of metal ions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlakowska, K; Kozik, V; Dabioch, M

    2013-06-15

    Cloud-point extraction (CPE), an easy, safe, environmentally friendly, rapid and inexpensive methodology for preconcentration and separation of trace metals from aqueous solutions has recently become an attractive area of research and an alternative to liquid-liquid extraction. Moreover, it provides results comparable to those obtained with other separation techniques and has a greater potential to be explored in improving detection limits and other analytical characteristics over other methods. A few reviews have been published covering different aspects of the CPE procedure and its relevant applications, such as the phenomenon of clouding, the application in the extraction of trace inorganic and organic materials, as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources, or incorporation of CPE into an FIA system. This review focuses on general properties of the most frequently used organic ligands in cloud-point extraction and on literature data (from 2000 to 2012) concerning the use of modern techniques in determination of metal ions' content in various materials. The article is divided according to the class of organic ligands to be used in CPE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does your organization use gender inclusive forms? Nurses' confusion about trans* terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabez, Rebecca; Pellegrini, Marion; Mankovitz, Andrea; Eliason, Mickey; Scott, Megan

    2015-11-01

    To describe nurses confusion around trans* terminology and to provide a lesson in Trans* 101 for readers. Of the estimated 9 million persons in the United States of America who are identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, about 950,000 (0.2-0.5% of adult population) are identified as trans* (a term that encompasses the spectrum, including transgender, transsexual, trans man, trans woman and other terms). The Institute of Medicine (2011, The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) identified transgender persons as an understudied population with significant need for health research, yet the nursing literature contains little guidance for educating nurses on trans* issues. This is a mixed methods structured interview design with nurse key informants. The scripted interview was based on the Health Care Equality Index, which evaluates patient-centred care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender patients and families. These data were part of a larger research study that explored the current state of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-sensitive nursing practice. Undergraduate nursing students recruited and interviewed 268 nurse key informants about gender inclusive forms (capable of identifying trans* patients) at their agencies. Only 5% reported use of gender inclusive forms, 44% did not know about inclusive forms, 37% did not understand what a gender inclusive form was and 14% confused gender with sexual orientation. The study demonstrated a critical need for education in gender identity and sexual orientation terminology. The lack of understanding of concepts and terminology may affect basic care of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender patients especially those who identify as transgender. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modern forms of organization of medical and preventive support of premature infants in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Keshishyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high frequency of injuries to immature internal organs and body systems of premature infants in the postnatal period contributes to the formation of chronic pathology and the violation of neurocognitive development, making a significant contribution to the global problem of the growth of non-infectious diseases and programming the future health of the population. The main goal of health care system modern reform in the Russian Federation and around the world is to find the most effective and economical way of providing medical care, to increase significance of outpatient service and to give attention to prophylaxis. The most functional and cost-effective structure of medical care for premature infants is specialized center with a three-level support system. It consists of ambulatory counselling, the oneday hospital for medical abilitation, and full-day hospital for treatment and complex diagnostic procedures, on the system of telemedicine. The organization of the center requires a clear definition of the structure, standards of staffing and methodology of approach to the organization of support for premature infants after discharge from the neonatal hospital, taking into account the specifics of the planned and regulatory and financial indicators of medical care and the complexity of setting a clinical diagnosis in the modern conditions in the Russian Federation. In accordance to stable tendency of increasing in the survial rate of premature infants, the uniform register would be created – in base of major medical scientific and practical centre as a logistic regression model, that will make possibilities for randomize clinical studies of evidence-based nature.

  11. Comparison of the Organic Composition of Cometary Samples with Residues Formed from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, S. N.; Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cody, G. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Stroud, R. M.; DeGregorio, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission successfully collected material from Comet 81P/Wild 2 [1], including authentic cometary grains [2]. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of these samples indicates the presence of oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich organic materials, which contain a broad variety of functional groups (carbonyls, C=C bonds, aliphatic chains, amines, arnides, etc.) [3]. One component of these organics appears to contain very little aromatic carbon and bears some similarity to the organic residues produced by the irradiation of ices of interstellar/cometary composition, Stardust samples were also recently shown to contain glycine, the smallest biological amino acid [4]. Organic residues produced froth the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs are already known to contain a large suite of organic molecules including amino acids [5-7], amphiphilic compounds (fatty acids) [8], and other complex species. This work presents a comparison between XANES spectra measured from organic residues formed in the laboratory with similar data of cometary samples collected by the Stardust mission

  12. Blood Parameters, Digestive Organ Size and Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks Fed Sorghum as Partial Substitute of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GHEORGHE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary white sorghum (WS, as partial substitute of corn on blood parameters, digestive organ size and intestinal microflora of broilers at 35 d. Cobb 500 broilers (n=400, assigned to 2 groups, were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal control diets (C or corn-WS-soybean meal diets (WS, where corn was partially replaced (50% with WS. At 35 d, sixteen broilers per group were selected for blood sampling, gastrointestinal (GIT measurements, digesta pH and ileum microflora analysis. There was no effect (P>0.05 of the dietary WS inclusion on blood biochemistry parameters, GIT development and digesta pH of broilers. In our study, dietary WS significantly reduced the ileal population of Enterobacteriaceae (-1.38%; P<0.0001 and E. coli (-1.16%; P=0.020, and increased the Lactobacillus spp. (+1.07%; P=0.014 compared with the C diet. In conclusion, feeding white sorghum, as partial substitute of corn in broiler diets, did not affect blood parameters, digestive organ size and digesta pH, that support the obtained performance. In addition, sorghum had a positive effect of the ileal microflora increasing the beneficial bacterial Lactobacillus spp.

  13. Associations between blood persistent organic pollutants and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Casas, Maribel; Ballester, Ferran; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Marina, Loreto Santa; Espada, Mercedes; Goñi, Fernando; Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are suggested to contribute to lower vitamin D levels; however, studies in humans are scarce and have never focused on pregnancy, a susceptibility period for vitamin D deficiency. We investigated whether serum levels of POPs were associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentration in pregnancy. Cross-sectional associations of serum concentrations of eight POPs with plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration were analyzed in 2031 pregnant women participating in the Spanish population-based cohort INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured by gas chromatography and plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in pregnancy (mean 13.3±1.5weeks of gestation). Multivariable regression models were performed to assess the relationship between blood concentrations of POPs and 25(OH)D3. An inverse linear relationship was found between serum concentration of PCB180 and circulating 25(OH)D3. Multivariate linear regression models showed higher PCB180 levels to be associated with lower 25(OH)D3 concentration: quartile Q4 vs. quartile Q1, coefficient=-1.59, 95% CI -3.27, 0.08, p trend=0.060. A non-monotonic inverse relationship was found between the sum of predominant PCB congeners (PCB 180, 153 and 138) and 25(OH)D3 concentration: coefficient (95% CI) for quartile Q2 vs. Q1 [-0.50 (-1.94, 0.94)], quartile Q3 vs. Q1 [-1.56 (-3.11, -0.02)] and quartile Q4 vs. Q1 [-1.21 (-2.80, 0.38)], p trend=0.081. No significant associations were found between circulating 25(OH)D3 and serum levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCB, and ß-HCH. Our results suggest that the background exposure to PCBs may result in lower 25(OH)D3 concentration in pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hierarchical inorganic-organic multi-shell nanospheres for intervention and treatment of lead-contaminated blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohamed; El-Safty, Sherif A; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Elshehy, Emad A

    2013-09-07

    The highly toxic properties, bioavailability, and adverse effects of Pb(2+) species on the environment and living organisms necessitate periodic monitoring and removal whenever possible of Pb(2+) concentrations in the environment. In this study, we designed a novel optical multi-shell nanosphere sensor that enables selective recognition, unrestrained accessibility, continuous monitoring, and efficient removal (on the order of minutes) of Pb(2+) ions from water and human blood, i.e., red blood cells (RBCs). The consequent decoration of the mesoporous core/double-shell silica nanospheres through a chemically responsive azo-chromophore with a long hydrophobic tail enabled us to create a unique hierarchical multi-shell sensor. We examined the efficiency of the multi-shell sensor in removing lead ions from the blood to ascertain the potential use of the sensor in medical applications. The lead-induced hemolysis of RBCs in the sensing/capture assay was inhibited by the ability of the hierarchical sensor to remove lead ions from blood. The results suggest the higher flux and diffusion of Pb(2+) ions into the mesopores of the core/multi-shell sensor than into the RBC membranes. These findings indicate that the sensor could be used in the prevention of health risks associated with elevated blood lead levels such as anemia.

  15. Characterization of in vitro gutlike organ formed from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tadao; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Horiguchi, Kazuhide; Misawa, Hiromi; Kadowaki, Makoto; Nakao, Akimasa; Inoue, Soichiro; Komuro, Terumasa; Takaki, Miyako

    2004-06-01

    Using an embryoid body (EB) culture system, we have made a functional organlike cluster: the "gut" from embryonic stem (ES) cells (ES gut). There are many types of ES clusters, because ES cells have a pluripotent ability to develop into a wide range of cell types. Before inducing specific differentiation by exogenously added factors, we characterized comprehensive physiological and morphological properties of ES guts. Each ES gut has a hemispherical (or cystic) structure and exhibits spontaneous contractions [mean frequency: 13.5 +/- 8.8 cycles per min (cpm)]. A dense distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) was identified by c-Kit immunoreactivity, and specific subcellular structures of ICC and smooth muscle cells were identified with electron microscopy. ICC frequently formed close contacts with the neighboring smooth muscle cells and occasionally formed gap junctions with other ICC. Widely propagating intracellular Ca(2+) concentration oscillations were generated in the ES gut from the aggregates of c-Kit immunopositive cells. Plateau potentials, possibly pacemaker potentials in ICC, and electrical slow waves were recorded for the first time. These events were nifedipine insensitive, as in the mouse gut. Our present results indicate that the rhythmic pacemaker activity generated in ICC efficiently spreads to smooth muscle cells and drives spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the ES gut. The present characterization of physiological and morphological properties of ES gut paves the way for making appropriate models to investigate the origin of rhythmicity in the gut.

  16. The role of terrestrial bromeliads in determining the spatial organization of plant life forms in a tropical coastal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio M. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interplay between plant-plant interactions and light heterogeneity in the understory of tropical forests has rarely been examined. We aimed to identify the relative importance of the understory light environment and terrestrial bromeliads in explaining the abundance and spatial organization of different plant life forms along a coastal forest gradient from seashore inland in southeastern Brazil. We estimated the abundance of various life forms (herbs, woody plants, bromeliads, climbers, and palms and the degree of light availability using hemispherical photographs in 165 plots (1 m2 within a 1.75 ha site. We used ordination methods, partial redundancy analysis (pRDA, spatial filtering using Moran’s eigenvector mapping, and Moran’s I splines. Forest cover was highly heterogeneous, but did not explain variation in abundance of life forms. Spatially, bromeliads were negatively associated with woody saplings, herbs and climbing plants at scales between 5-20 m, while the distance to seashore was found to be unrelated to these patterns. Our findings revealed that terrestrial bromeliads play an important role in the spatial organization of various life forms near the forest floor. Overall, the presence of terrestrial bromeliads and the plant area index better explained the understory vegetation than forest cover and distance to seashore.

  17. Chemical modelling of complex organic molecules with peptide-like bonds in star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénard, David; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Viti, Serena; Holdship, Jonathan; Coutens, Audrey

    2018-02-01

    Peptide bonds (N-C = O) play a key role in metabolic processes since they link amino acids into peptide chains or proteins. Recently, several molecules containing peptide-like bonds have been detected across multiple environments in the interstellar medium, growing the need to fully understand their chemistry and their role in forming larger pre-biotic molecules. We present a comprehensive study of the chemistry of three molecules containing peptide-like bonds: HNCO, NH2CHO, and CH3NCO. We also included other CHNO isomers (HCNO, HOCN) and C2H3NO isomers (CH3OCN, CH3CNO) to the study. We have used the UCLCHEM gas-grain chemical code and included in our chemical network all possible formation/destruction pathways of these peptide-like molecules recently investigated either by theoretical calculations or in laboratory experiments. Our predictions are compared to observations obtained towards the proto-star IRAS 16293-2422 and the L1544 pre-stellar core. Our results show that some key reactions involving the CHNO and C2H3NO isomers need to be modified to match the observations. Consistently with recent laboratory findings, hydrogenation is unlikely to produce NH2CHO on grain surfaces, while a combination of radical-radical surface reactions and gas-phase reactions is a better alternative. In addition, better results are obtained for NH2CHO when a slightly higher activation energy of 25 K is considered for the gas-phase reaction NH2 + H2CO → NH2CHO + H. Finally, our modelling shows that the observed correlation between NH2CHO and HNCO in star-forming regions may come from the fact that HNCO and NH2CHO react to temperature in the same manner rather than from a direct chemical link between the two species.

  18. The Potential of Amorphous Solid Secondary Organic Aerosol to Form Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, D. A.; Wang, B.; Lambe, A. T.; Massoli, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation by heterogeneous nucleation, which results in cirrus and mixed-phase cloud formation, is one of the least understood processes affecting the global radiation budget, the hydrological cycle, and water vapor distribution. It is commonly assumed that inorganic particles such as mineral dust and solid ammonium sulfate represent important atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). However, a growing body of evidence suggests that secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, exist in a solid (glassy) state. This implies that SOA may also play a role in ice cloud formation by acting as IN, but has not previously been experimentally verified. Here, we report observations of water uptake and ice nucleation via condensation, immersion, and deposition modes initiated by amorphous SOA particles at temperatures from T = 200 - 250 K and relative humidity (RH) from subsaturation conditions up to water saturation. SOA particles with oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 are generated from gas-phase OH oxidation of naphthalene in a flow reactor. At T > 230 K, water uptake at subsaturation conditions is correlated with SOA oxidation level (O/C ratio). This initial water uptake is followed by a moisture-induced phase transition and subsequent immersion freezing. At T measurements of particle density, hygroscopicity, and bounced fraction, the latter indicating particle phase state. Above Tg, water uptake and immersion freezing is observed when the particles are liquid or semi-solid. Below Tg, deposition ice nucleation is observed when the particles are solid. The data show that particle phase and viscosity govern the particles' response to temperature and RH and provide a straightforward interpretation for the observed different heterogeneous ice nucleation pathways and water uptake by the laboratory-generated SOA and previously investigated fulvic acid surrogate particles and organic dominated field-collected particles. These

  19. Effect of expeller extracted canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Schuh, K; Woyengo, T A; Sands, J S; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of increasing levels of expeller extracted canola meal (EECM) in diets for growing pigs on performance, gastrointestinal tract weight, thyroid gland weights, blood plasma concentration of triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content in blood, and hematocrit. Four diets were fed to 48 pigs (19.9 ± 1.60 kg initial BW) in 24 pens (6 pens per diet) for 4 wk in a completely randomized design. The diets were a control corn-soybean meal basal diet and 3 additional diets produced by replacing 33, 66, or 100% of soybean meal with EECM to achieve inclusion levels of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Diets were formulated to be similar in NE and nutrient composition and to meet nutrient requirements for pigs. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water for the duration of the study. Feed intake and BW of pigs were determined on a weekly basis, whereas organ weights and blood parameters were determined at the end of the study. Average daily feed intake linearly decreased ( = 0.001) whereas ADG tended to linearly decline ( = 0.084) with increasing levels of EECM in the diet. The G:F was not affected ( > 0.10) by the dietary level of EECM. Thyroid weight and serum triiodothyronine linearly increased ( = 0.031) whereas serum tetraiodothyronine was linearly reduced ( = 0.001) with increasing inclusion of EECM. Other blood parameters and organ weights were not affected by increasing inclusion of EECM. The analyzed concentration of glucosinolates in the EECM used in this study was 9.27 μmol/g, with values in the diets ranging from 1.02 to 2.75 μmol/g for the lowest to highest inclusion levels, respectively. The increased thyroid weight and changes in thyroid hormones indicate that glucosinolates present in EECM adversely affected performance of growing pigs.

  20. Social Movements and New Forms of Political Organization: Podemos as a Hybrid Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chironi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the restructuring of the party systems in several European countries was accompanied or preceded by massive waves of anti-austerity protests. Although the causal relation between these mobilizations and the rise of new parties has already been assessed, the organizational features remain understudied. To fill this gap, here we analyse the impact of the cycle of anti-austerity and pro-real democracy protests which emerged in 2011 with the birth and organizational development of the Spanish party Podemos. Bridging two subfields of social and political sciences—movement studies and party studies—we pay particular attention to the dichotomy between horizontality and verticality within Podemos' organization. In particular, we address the issues of social movement effects as well as party foundation and organizational development. Our main findings suggest that movement mobilization played a large role in shaping Podemos' foundational choices, particularly with reference to the fundamental principles of the party and its strategic positioning. Podemos is also experimenting new democratic methods internally. Nonetheless, empirical analysis shows that, overall, the influence of movements' organizational models on the organizational structure of the party has been limited. Yet, the result is a “hybrid” party that finds a balance between the horizontalism of social movements and the efficiency of parties.

  1. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (Pblood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  2. Influence of liposome forms of the rhenium compounds and cis-platin on thiol-disulfide coefficient in the rats’ blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Klenina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-disulfide coefficient (TDC and its different modifications in model in vivo were studied. Introduction of the liposome forms of cluster rhenium compounds with organic ligands (CROL leads to both TDC increasing and to the constancy of the TDC. Thus, CROLs aren’t toxic agents and some compounds could mobilize organisms’ thiol defence system. Liposome form of cis-platin leads to the TDC decreasing. Important CROL capacities for its future medical treatment practice were shown.

  3. Differentiation analysis of boron isotopic fractionation in different forms within plant organ samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aide; Xu, Qingcai; Wei, Gangjian; Zhu, Huayu; Chen, Xuefei

    2018-03-01

    As a critical micronutrient, boron (B) plays an important role in plant growth and embryonic development. To further understand the effects of B uptake, transportation and isotopic fractionation, the contents and isotopic compositions of hydro-soluble B in the sap and structural B fixed in the cell within individual plant tissues were investigated. The B isotope ratio was determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The δ 11 B values in hydro-soluble and structural B in the investigated plant samples ranged from -1.57‰ to +11.30‰ and from +6.57‰ to +16.64‰, respectively. Different fractionation factors of the B isotopes, in the range of 0.9954-1.0150, were observed in these samples, indicating that in most plant tissues, the heavy isotope ( 11 B) was preferentially enriched in structural B, which was fixed into the cell. However, there was a reversal in the fractionation of B isotopic compositions in the fruit samples compared with the other plant tissue samples. It is more powerful to examine the molecular mechanisms of B transport, uptake and utilization than the use of limited plant organ samples containing a mixture of hydro-soluble and structural B within different intra-plant compartments and in inter-plant interactions. These isotopic shifts, which may be used as important isotopic indicators, contribute to the surface processes interactions in the plant-soil system and the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of B in the uptake and absorption by different plant species in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of functional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for storing hydrogen in para form

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of SMPM 2017 doi: 10.1016/j.promfg.2016.12.012 Procedia...������� �� ��� ����� �� ������� � ),������ ���� ���)�#),������ �� � #),������3 ) � +��� 7���� �� ),������� �� �)������ ��� ����� $� ,� �� A!B� *� �)��� �� < 2����� ������ ��)��� (���D E�% �� &F��$�%@ � CD E�% �� &F���!"� +,� ��� �� ���* G���H��������0 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open...

  5. Independent practice associations: Advantages and disadvantages of an alternative form of physician practice organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Lawrence P; Chenven, Norman

    2017-03-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) favors provider organizations large enough to accept financial risk and develop care management infrastructure. Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) are a potential alternative for physicians to becoming employed by a hospital or large medical group. But little is known about IPAs. We selected four IPAs that vary in location, structure, and strategy, and conducted interviews with their president and medical director, as well as with a hospital executive and health plan executive familiar with that IPA. The IPAs studied vary in size and sophistication, but overall are performing well and are highly regarded by hospital and health plan executives. IPAs can grow rapidly without the cost of purchasing and operating physician practices and make it possible for physicians to remain independent in their own practices while providing the scale and care management infrastructure to make it possible to succeed in VBP. However, it can be difficult for IPAs to gain cooperation from hundreds to thousands of independent physicians, and the need for capital for growth and care management infrastructure is increasing as VBP becomes more prevalent and more demanding. Some IPAs are succeeding at VBP. As VBP raises the performance bar, IPAs will have to demonstrate that they can achieve results equal to more highly capitalized and tightly structured large medical groups and hospital-owned practices. Physicians should be aware of IPAs as a potential option for participating in VBP. Payers are aware of IPAs; the Medicare ACO program and health insurer ACO programs include many IPAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organ distribution and molecular forms of human xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnesto, A; Linder, N; Raivio, K O

    1996-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) is a major cytoplasmic source of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, and it is considered important in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion damage. Because little is known about the enzyme in human tissues, the aims of this study were to purify human XDH/XO and to produce Ab for detection of the protein in Western blots and for quantification by ELISA. We purified human milk XDH/XO, produced Ab for Western blotting and ELISA of the protein, and evaluated the molecular forms and activity-protein relationships in human tissues. The molecular size of the purified protein under nondenaturing conditions was approximately 300 kd. On SDS-PAGE, it was fragmented into four main bands of 143, 125, 87, and 59 kd. Ab recognized bands of similar size in Western blots of the purified preparation and human milk. In fresh liver homogenates treated with anti-proteases, the three largest bands were observed; in the intestine, only the two largest were observed. Serum, brain, heart, and skeletal muscle were negative, whereas some lung and kidney samples showed one faint band of 143 kd. Trypsin treatment of the enzyme converted the large molecular-weight bands into smaller bands, as did incubation of a liver homogenate without anti-proteases. XDH/XO protein concentrations (ng/mg total protein) were 146 +/- 70 in liver and 556 +/- 320 in intestine and less than 5 ng/ml in serum. The relationship of activity to protein (2.7-3.0 mumol/min/mg XDH/XO protein) was constant in liver and intestine during development. We conclude that 1) human XDH/XO has molecular size and subunit structure similar to other mammalian enzymes; 2) the polypeptide chain is unstable, also in the intact cell, despite retained activity; and 3) the amount of inactive XDH/XO in human liver and intestine is apparently small.

  7. EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN SOLUTION AND LIPOSOMAL FORM ON SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN FEMALE RABBITS DURING FERTILIZATION AND EARLY EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Syrvatka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are the most rapidly growing classes of nanoproducts. In this study, we investigated the influence of subcutaneous injections of silver nanoparticles in solution and in liposomal form on hematological and biochemical parameters of blood of New Zealand White rabbits during hormonal treatment, fertilization and early embryonic development. The females treated by free silver nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles in liposomal form received silver at a dose of 10 µg/kg/day in 5 % glucose solution during 28 days. Blood sampling was done four times: the day before the compounds administration; on day 7 after the compounds administration; in the period after hormonal induction and fertilization and on the 14th day of pregnancy. Our results showed changes in some biochemical (lactate dehydrogenase activities, progesterone and estradiol concentration, malondialdehyde level, etc. and hematological (hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, etc. parameters under the influence of hormonal treatment and pregnancy. The concentration of progesterone showed significantly higher values (P˂0.05 on GDs 1 in S group than in C group. The percentage of neutrophils was significantly higher in SG rabbits after 7 days of silver nanoparticles administration than that in the CG. There were no significant changes in red blood cells parameters, platelets, and activity of some ferments (ALP, AST, ALT, LDH, GGT between control and silver groups during the entire period of experiment. In conclusion, the hematological and biochemical values of blood obtained in the given study showed that free silver nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles in liposomal form in the investigated concentrations had no toxic effect on hormonal treatment, fertilization and early embryonic development in New Zealand White rabbits.

  8. Identification of very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells (VSELs) circulating in peripheral blood during organ/tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Liu, Rui; Marlicz, Wojciech; Blogowski, Wojciech; Starzynska, Teresa; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Zuba-Surma, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    We have identified in adult tissues a population of pluripotent very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells (VSELs) that we hypothesize are deposited at onset of gastrulation in developing tissues and play an important role as backup population of tissue-specific/committed stem cells. We envision that during steady-state conditions these cells may be involved in tissue rejuvenation and in processes of regeneration/repair after organ injuries. VSELs similarly as epiblast-derived migrating primordial germ cells change the epigenetic signature of some of the imprinted genes and therefore remain quiescent in adult tissues. These epigenetic changes in methylation status of imprinted genes prevent them also from teratoma formation. Mounting evidence indicates that VSELs are mobilized into peripheral blood during tissue/organ injuries and enumeration of these cells may be of prognostic value (e.g., in stroke or heart infarct). In this chapter, we will present FACS-based strategies to detect and enumerate these cells in human peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BLOOD AND IMMUNE ORGANS OF BROILER CHICKEN FED DIETARY BLACK CUMIN POWDER (Nigella sativa DURING DRY SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the physiological response of blood and immune organs ofbroiler chickens fed on various concentration of dietary black cumin powder (BCP during the dryseason. A total number of 100 unsexed one-day old Cobb broiler chicks were used and distributed to 5treatments (control, antibiotics and without BCP, 20 g/kg BCP, 40 g/kg BCP and 60 g/kg BCP and 4replications (5 birds for each. Physiological responses of blood and immune organs were measured at30 day of age. Addition of BCP to broiler ration did not significantly effects on physical properties ofblood (leukocytes count, erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, hematocrit, monocytes, and eosinophils andrelative weights of thymus and bursa of fabricius, but significantly (P<0.05 increased relative weightsof spleen when compared to control. It was concluded that the black cumin grinds (Nigella sativa as afeed additive could not change the physical properties of blood, relative weights of thymus and bursa offabricius, but it increased the relative weight of spleen at the level of 60 g/kg BCP, which could reduceadverse effects of infectious diseases in broiler chicken.

  10. Blood profile and organ2.O-somatic indices of albino rats exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects Used Engine Oil (UEO) otherwise known as mineral-based crankcase oil on blood profile and organo-somatic indices of albino rats were studied. Twenty four male albino rats divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 rats each were used. Rats in three groups (A, B and C) received graded dose levels of UEO ...

  11. The microvasculature of python pit organs: morphology and blood flow microkinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, Richard C; Atobe, Yoshitoshi; Nakano, Masato; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Funakoshi, Kengo; Kadota, Tetsuo

    2003-05-01

    Boid snakes have infrared sensing pits that resemble crotaline pits in electrophysiological function and ultrastructure, but differ in gross morphology, number, and location: boids have three or more simple pits in the labial scales vs a single facial pair with more complex morphology in the crotalines. We studied the morphology of the capillary bed and the microkinetics of blood flow in a boid snake, the ball python, Python regius, and compared them with the already known condition in crotalines. We used a Doppler blood flow recorder in conjunction with an electrocardiograph to measure blood flow and heartbeat, and resin casts, transmission electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy to study capillary morphology. Blood flow in response to infrared stimulus was virtually identical in the two taxa, but the morphology of the capillary bed differed drastically. In the ball python pits, the capillary bed consisted of a forest of vertically oriented loops with a characteristic dome at the top in contact with the receptor layer of the fundus. Immunohistochemical staining showed pericytes constricting the capillaries and domes with smooth muscle alpha-actin-labeled processes. Since latency of response was as short as 1 ms, the capillaries were apparently responding under local control to provide both nutrition and cooling to the heat-sensitive receptors. We concluded that mitochondria-filled receptors provided with a swiftly responding cooling system were nature's most efficient way of attaining infrared imaging.

  12. [Automated serial diagnosis of donor blood samples. Ergonomic and economic organization structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, T; Fischer-Fröhlich, C L; Mayer, G; Hanfland, P

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive computer-aided administration-system for blood-donors is presented. Ciphered informations of barcode-labels allow the automatic and nevertheless selective pipetting of samples by pipetting-robots. Self-acting analysis-results are transferred to a host-computer in order to actualize a donor data-base.

  13. Blood pressure variability predicts cardiovascular events independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Dahlöf, Björn; Devereux, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of antihypertensive treatment is normally based on the mean value of a number of blood pressure (BP) measurements. However, it is uncertain whether high in-treatment visit-to-visit BP variability may be harmful in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH...

  14. The possible effect of diets containing Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris on blood parameters and some organs structure in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; El-Atrsh, Efaf

    2011-03-01

    Because of the increasing cost of animal feed ingredients as well as the high demand, especially for the protein supplements, several efforts were carried out to use untraditional feed protein ingredients to participate in facing feed shortage problem and at the same time to decrease feeding costs. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Thymus vulgaris are the most famous medical plants that have attracted the attention of many investigators for long time. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of a partial replacement of soybean meal in control diet by Nigella sativa and/or Thymus vulgaris on the possible harmful changes in histological structure of some organs and blood parameters in growing New Zealand White rabbits. Blood constituents showed that the percentages of hemoglobin, hematocrate, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and white blood cells (WBCs) count were significantly increased with the presence of black cumin seeds in the diets while WBCs count and the mean corpuscular volume in rabbit blood tends to decrease in Thymus vulgaris diets. Feeding diet supplemented with Nigella sativa increased the plasma total proteins, albumin, globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides. The use of Nigella sativa alone or either mixture with Thymus vulgaris are good supplements for growing rabbits without any adverse effect on histological structure of liver, kidney and testis in rabbits.

  15. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  16. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  17. Clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure compared to other forms of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougol, Amir; Dugum, Mohannad; Dudekula, Anwar; Greer, Phil; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2017-08-07

    To assess differences in clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure (RF) compared to other forms of organ failure (OF) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Using a prospectively maintained database of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to a tertiary medical center between 2003 and 2016, those with evidence of persistent OF were classified to renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, or multi-organ (2 or more organs). Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, etiology of acute pancreatitis, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded. Differences in clinical outcomes after development of isolated RF in comparison to other forms of OF were determined using independent t and Mann-Whitney U tests for continues variables, and χ 2 test for discrete variables. Among 500 patients with acute pancreatitis, 111 patients developed persistent OF: mean age was 54 years, and 75 (67.6%) were male. Forty-three patients had isolated OF: 17 (15.3%) renal, 25 (21.6%) respiratory, and 1 (0.9%) patient with cardiovascular failure. No differences in demographics, etiology of acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores, or development of pancreatic necrosis were seen between patients with isolated RF vs isolated respiratory failure. Patients with isolated RF were less likely to require nutritional support (76.5% vs 96%, P = 0.001), ICU admission (58.8% vs 100%, P = 0.001), and had shorter mean ICU stay (2.4 d vs 15.7 d, P failure. None of the patients with isolated RF or isolated respiratory failure died. Among patients with SAP per the Revised Atlanta Classification, approximately 15% develop isolated RF. This subgroup seems to have a less protracted clinical course compared to other forms of OF. Isolated RF might be weighed less than isolated respiratory failure in risk predictive modeling of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Hyperoxia and local organ blood flow in the developing chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, J.M.C.G. van; Mulder, T.A.L.M.; Scheve, E.; Prinzen, F.W.; Blanco, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    1. Hyperoxia can cause local vasoconstriction in adult animal organs as a protective mechanism against hyperoxia-induced toxicity. It is not known at what time during development this vasoconstrictor capacity is present. Therefore, we measured the cardiac output (GO) distribution in different organs

  19. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood among mayak facility workers who inhaled insoluble forms of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N. D.; Scott, B. R.; Tokarskaya, Z. B.; Zhuntova, G. V.; Khokhryakov, V. F.; Syrchikov, V. A.; Grigoryeva, E. S.

    2005-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was performed on 79 plutonium (Pu) workers chronically exposed to alpha radiation from inhaled, low-transportable (insoluble) compounds of airborne 239 Pu and to external gamma rays. Body burden estimates for 239 Pu ranged from 0 to 15.5 kBq. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) (stable and unstable among peripheral blood lymphocytes and cumulative alpha radiation doses were evaluated ∼25 y after first contact with 239 Pu. For the cytogenetic analyses, a standard two-day peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique was applied. While alpha radiation doses continually increase up to the time of cytogenetic measurements, significant gamma ray exposures essentially ceased long before the time of measurement, so that alpha and gamma doses were not correlated. For the exposed workers, the mean 239 Pu body burden (estimate), evaluated at the time of the cytogenetic measurement, was 1.23 ± 0.26 kBq and the corresponding mean absorbed external gamma ray dose (estimate) to the total body was 0.076 ± 0.009 Gy. Single and multivariate regression analyses were performed on the CA data. Stable, unstable and total aberrations increased as the 239 Pu body burden increased over the range 0-4.5 kBq. However, above this range little additional increase was observed. CAs were weakly correlated with time since the first intake of 239 Pu. No relationship between chromatid aberrations and 239 Pu incorporation was found. Unstable (but not stable) aberrations were correlated with gamma radiation dose. No significant relationship of CA and smoking was found. (authors)

  20. Oatp58Dc contributes to blood-brain barrier function by excluding organic anions from the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrooke, Sara; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) physiologically isolates the brain from the blood and, thus, plays a vital role in brain homeostasis. Ion transporters play a critical role in this process by effectively regulating access of chemicals to the brain. Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) transport a wide range of amphipathic substrates and are involved in efflux of chemicals across the vertebrate BBB. The anatomic complexity of the vascularized vertebrate BBB, however, creates challenges for experimental analysis of these processes. The less complex structure of the Drosophila BBB facilitates measurement of solute transport. Here we investigate a physiological function for Oatp58Dc in transporting small organic anions across the BBB. We used genetic manipulation, immunocytochemistry, and molecular techniques to supplement a whole animal approach to study the BBB. For this whole animal approach, the traceable small organic anion fluorescein was injected into the hemolymph. This research shows that Oatp58Dc is involved in maintaining a chemical barrier against fluorescein permeation into the brain. Oatp58Dc expression was found in the perineurial and subperineurial glia, as well as in postmitotic neurons. We specifically targeted knockdown of Oatp58Dc expression in the perineurial and subperineurial glia to reveal that Oatp58Dc expression in the perineurial glia is necessary to maintain the barrier against fluorescein influx into the brain. Our results show that Oatp58Dc contributes to maintenance of a functional barrier against fluorescein influx past the BBB into the brain.

  1. Chronic hypercapnic incubation increases relative organ growth and reduces blood pressure of embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, John; Crossley, Dane A

    2015-04-01

    Reptilian nests can experience natural hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. We incubated alligator eggs at a female-only producing temperature (30°C) in three conditions: 21% O2/0.04% CO2, 21% O2/3.5% CO2 and 21% O2/7% CO2. Alligator embryos chronically incubated in high CO2 were markedly hypotensive (blood pressure reduced by 46%) and had relatively (mass-specific) enlarged hearts (dry mass increased by 20%), lungs (dry mass increased by 17%), and kidneys (dry mass increased by 14%). This study is the first to chronically incubate reptilian eggs in hypercapnia and suggests that high CO2 alters the cardiovascular phenotype of alligator embryos (low blood pressure, relatively enlarged hearts), as well as the relative size of the organs primarily responsible for acid base balance, lungs and kidneys. The lungs and kidneys are largely non-functional during embryonic development, and the embryonic phenotype of increased relative mass may be a predictive-adaptation to metabolic or respiratory acidosis, such as during exercise or high respiratory CO2. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity of alligator embryos incubated in high CO2 may result in either preferential organ growth, or maintenance of organ growth with reduced somatic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S V Rama; Prakash, B; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Kumari, R K; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of supplementing organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) on performance, anti-oxidant activities and immune responses in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age, which were reared in cyclic heat-stressed condition under tropical summer in open-sided poultry house. A total of 200 (experiment I) and 450-day-old (experiment II) broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly distributed in stainless steel battery brooders (610 mm × 762 mm × 475 mm) at the rate of five birds per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet (CD) containing recommended (Vencobb 400, Broiler Management Guide) concentrations of inorganic trace minerals and other nutrients was prepared. The CD was supplemented individually with organic form of selenium (Se, 0.30 mg/kg), chromium (Cr, 2 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn, 40 mg/kg) in experiment I. In experiment II, two concentrations of each Zn (20 and 40 mg/kg), Se (0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg) and Cr (1 and 2 mg/kg) were supplemented to the basal diet in 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. A group without supplementing inorganic trace minerals was maintained as control group in both experiments. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates in both experiments and fed ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. At 19th day of age, blood samples were collected for estimation of anti-oxidant and immune responses. Supplementation of Se, Cr and Zn increased (P  0.05) by the interaction between levels of Zn, Se and Cr in broiler diet. The FE improved (P  0.05) the immune responses (Newcastle disease titre and cell-mediated immune response to phytohaemagglutinin-P) in both the experiments. Based on the results, it is concluded that supplementation of organic form of Se, Cr and Zn (0.30, 2 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) either alone or in combination significantly improved performance and anti-oxidant responses (reduced LP and increased superoxide dismutase) in commercial

  3. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium (Se) and dietary protein in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1994-01-01

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.

  4. The impact of blood transfusions in deceased organ donors on the outcomes of 1,884 renal grafts from United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, J Salvador; Sally, Mitchell B; Zatarain, John R; Crutchfield, Megan; Ramsey, Katrina; Nielsen, Jamison; Patel, Madhukar; Lapidus, Jodi; Orloff, Susan; Malinoski, Darren J

    2015-10-01

    Historically, strategies to reduce acute rejection and improve graft survival in kidney transplant recipients included blood transfusions (BTs) before transplantation. While advents in recipient immunosuppression strategies have replaced this practice, the impact of BTs in the organ donor on recipient graft outcomes has not been evaluated. We hypothesize that BTs in organ donors after neurologic determination of death (DNDDs) translate into improved recipient renal graft outcomes, as measured by a decrease in delayed graft function (DGF). Donor demographics, critical care end points, the use of BTs, and graft outcome data were prospectively collected on DNDDs from March 2012 to October 2013 in the United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 Donor Management Database. Propensity analysis determined each DNDD's probability of receiving packed red blood cells based on demographic and critical care data as well as provider bias. The primary outcome measure was the rate of DGF (dialysis in the first week after transplantation) in different donor BT groups as follows: no BT, any BT, 1 to 5, 6 to 10, or greater than 10 packed red blood cell units. Regression models determined the relationship between donor BTs and recipient DGF after accounting for known predictors of DGF as well as the propensity to receive a BT. Data were complete for 1,884 renal grafts from 1,006 DNDDs; 52% received any BT, 32% received 1 to 5 U, 11% received 6 to 10, and 9% received greater than 10 U of blood. Grafts from transfused donors had a lower rate of DGF compared with those of the nontransfused donors (26% vs. 34%, p donors with any BT had a lower odds of DGF (odds ratio, 0.76; p = 0.030), and this effect was greatest in those with greater than 10 U transfused. Any BT in a DNDD was associated with a 23% decrease in the odds of recipients developing DGF, and this effect was more pronounced as the number of BTs increased. Therapeutic study, level III; epidemiologic/prognostic study, level II.

  5. To what extent is water responsible for the maintenance of the life for warm-blooded organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I; Malomuzh, Nikolay P

    2009-05-22

    In this work, attention is mainly focused on those properties of water which are essentially changed in the physiological temperature range of warm-blooded organisms. Studying in detail the half-width of the diffusion peak in the quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering, the behavior of the entropy and the kinematic shear viscosity, it is shown that the character of the translational and rotational thermal motions in water radically change near T(H) ~ 315 K, which can be interpreted as the temperature of the smeared dynamic phase transition. These results for bulk pure water are completed by the analysis of the isothermic compressibility and the NMR-spectra for water-glycerol solutions. It was noted that the non-monotone temperature dependence of the isothermic compressibility (beta(T)) takes also place for the water-glycerol solutions until the concentration of glycerol does not exceed 30 mol%. At that, the minimum of beta(T) shifts at left when the concentration increases. All these facts give us some reasons to assume that the properties of the intracellular and extracellular fluids are close to ones for pure water. Namely therefore, we suppose that the upper temperature limit for the life of warm-blooded organisms [T(D) = (315 +/- 3) K] is tightly connected with the temperature of the dynamic phase transition in water. This supposition is equivalent to the assertion that the denaturation of proteins at T > or = T(H) is mainly provoked by the rebuilding of the H-bond network in the intracellular and extracellular fluids, which takes place at T > or = T(H). A question why the heavy water cannot be a matrix for the intracellular and extracellular fluids is considered. The lower physiological pH limit for the life of warm-blooded organisms is discussed.

  6. To What Extent Is Water Responsible for the Maintenance of the Life for Warm-Blooded Organisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy I. Fisenko

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, attention is mainly focused on those properties of water which are essentially changed in the physiological temperature range of warm-blooded organisms. Studying in detail the half-width of the diffusion peak in the quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering, the behavior of the entropy and the kinematic shear viscosity, it is shown that the character of the translational and rotational thermal motions in water radically change near TH ~ 315 K, which can be interpreted as the temperature of the smeared dynamic phase transition. These results for bulk pure water are completed by the analysis of the isothermic compressibility and the NMR-spectra for water-glycerol solutions. It was noted that the non-monotone temperature dependence of the isothermic compressibility (βT takes also place for the water-glycerol solutions until the concentration of glycerol does not exceed 30 mol%. At that, the minimum of βT shifts at left when the concentration increases. All these facts give us some reasons to assume that the properties of the intracellular and extracellularfluidsare close to ones for pure water. Namely therefore, we suppose that the upper temperature limit for the life of warm-blooded organisms [TD = (315 ± 3 K] is tightly connected with the temperature of the dynamic phase transition in water. This supposition is equivalent to the assertion that the denaturation of proteins at T ≥ TH is mainly provoked by the rebuilding of the H-bond network in the intracellular and extracellular fluids, which takes place at T ≥ TH. A question why the heavy water cannot be a matrix for the intracellular and extracellular fluids is considered. The lower physiological pH limit for the life of warm-blooded organisms is discussed.

  7. Quantitative studies of lymphoid organs, blood and lymph in inbred athymic and euthymic LEW rats under germfree and specified-pathogen-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1987-01-01

    , haematological values and differential counts of bone marrow, peripheral blood and lymph. Athymic rats had a lower body weight, less densely populated lymphoid organs, and fewer lymphocytes in the blood and lymph compared with euthymic animals. No difference was seen between athymic rats under germfree and SPF...

  8. Influence of a productive solution of uranium on some biochemical parameters of blood of an organism at experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svambaev, Z.A.; Svambaev, E.A.; Sultanbekov, G.A; Tusupbekova, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    In the work authors inform results on studying influence of a productive solution of uranium on some biochemical parameters of blood of an organism at experimental animals. It is established that all samples of a productive solution of uranium possesses high toxicity and causes destruction of experimental animals with infringement of a picture of blood. Experiments on influence on biochemical and hematology defined parameters of blood on chickens - broilers and on which female quails from daily age raised on cellular batteries in communities on 50 heads in conditions adequate to the requirement. Fed in plenty with the dry forages prepared according to 'Recommendations on the normalized feeding an agricultural bird' (1996), recipes 5-2; 6-1. To chickens in plenty allowed water from auto drinking bowls. Conditions of a micro climate corresponded to hygienic requirements. At carrying out of experiences studied the following parameters: preservation of a livestock, the reason of a withdrawal, weight of a body - weekly up to the end of experience, consumption of a forage, an expense of a forage for 1 kg of a gain have established weight of a body the methods standard in poultry farming. After application of a productive solution took blood from under wings of a vein and in blood have established maintenance of hemoglobin, quantity of red cells, leukocytes and a leukocyte of the formula, the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus. An application of a productive solution for experimental birds for the fifth day has caused clinical symptoms of a poisoning and destruction in groups. At the survived birds in blood it has been established changes biochemical and hematology. Week age chickens of skilled group lagged behind in growth development in comparison with control group on 30 % and at the end of the skilled period skilled have lagged behind in growth and development on 62 %. Among a livestock of chickens of skilled group of a case was more on 53 % on comparisons with the

  9. Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) alters blood chemistry and the cytoarchitecture of some organs in Sprague Dawley rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abey, Nosarieme Omoregie

    2018-04-19

    There is evidence that Cannabis whose active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most commonly abused neuroactive substance, among young adults. This work investigated the effects of Cannabis sativa on the cytoarchitecture of some key organs and the blood chemistry of rat models. Twenty-one (21) male Sprague Dawley rats were fed different percentage of cannabis chow (0%, 5% and 10%) for a period of seven (7) weeks. Rats were subjected to intermittent cognitive function test and sacrificed after the seventh week, collecting the blood, brain and other important tissues for analysis which include; brain total protein and nitric oxide concentration, blood chemistry and histopathology. Results revealed a dose-dependent decline in the cognitive function, statistically significant decrease in the brain total protein and nitric oxide. Histopathology revealed significant hypertrophy in the heart, hypercellularity in neuronal cells, prominent sinusoids cytoarchitecture of the hepatocytes and vascular congestion in the seminiferous tubules of testes. There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma ALP, ALT, AST level between controls and the cannabis test groups. Cannabis use caused cellular damage through mediation of imbalance and altered cytoarchitecture which may affects the overall health of dependent user. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of continuous blood purification on inflammation and target organ damage in patients with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by MODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of continuous blood purification on inflammation and target organ damage in patients with severe acute pancreatitis accompanied by MODS. Methods: A total of 78 patients with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by MODS who were treated in our hospital between June 2012 and March 2016 were selected and divided into control group (n=39 and observation group (n=39 according to random number table. Control group were treated with routine treatment, observation group were treated with conventional treatment plus continuous blood purification, and serum inflammatory factors, liver function indexes and renal function indexes were compared between two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, differences in serum levels of inflammatory factors, liver function indexes and renal function indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients. After treatment, serum inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and HMGB1 levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, liver function indexes ALT, AST, TBIL and ALP levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, and renal function indexes Scr and BUN levels of observation group were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Continuous blood purification can reduce the systemic inflammatory response as well as liver and kidney injury in patients with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by MODS.

  11. Determination of Iron and Zinc Absorption by Local Isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Iron and Zinc in Organic Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Munawar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn play important role in health both of live stock and human. Fe and Zn in organic form were claimed increasing their viabilities. They bind to certain amino acid formed as a product of microbial metabolism. The Amount Fe and Zn absorbed may indicated the Fe and Zn organic produced. The aim of the study is to determine the absorption of microelement of Fe and Zn by local isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce Fe and Zn in organic forms. S. cerevisae BCC F0205, BCC F0206, and BCC F0214 were treated with Fe or Zn 10 ppm to obtain S. cerevisae which has the highest of total concentration of Fe and Zn. Selected isolate was then treated with Fe or Zn respectively 2.5, 5, 10 ppm and their combination. Fe and Zn absorbed by isolates were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The results show that  S. cerevisae BCC F0205, BCC F0206, and BCC F0214 treated with 10 ppm Fe or Zn contained total concentration of Fe respectively 1.57, 3.07, 2.24 ppm  and total concentration of Zn respectively 2.34, 3.20, 3.13 ppm. Then, S. cerevisae BCC F0206 treated with 2.5, 5, 10 ppm Fe or Zn, absorbed Fe 1.45, 0.50, 0.94 ppm and Zn 0.73, 0.38, 0.53 ppm respectively. Furthermore, combination of Fe and Zn (2.5:2.5, 5:5, 10:10 ppm produce absorption of Fe 3.10, 2.13, 3.67 ppm and Zn 0.11, 0.10, 0.28 ppm per gram S. cerevisae BCC F0206. Percentages of absorption by S. cerevisae are up to 100% for Fe and up to 47.20% for Zn. In conclusion, this study indicated that S. cerevisae BCC F0206 absorb Fe and Zn higher than BCC F0205 and BCC F0214 and there are antagonistic interactions found between Fe and Zn in this research.

  12. Alterations of morphology of lymphoid organs and peripheral blood indicators under the influence of gold nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Bucharskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, gold nanoparticles (GNPs are widely used in biomedical applications such as cancer diagnostics and therapy. Accordingly, the potential toxicity hazards of these nanomaterials and human safety concerns are gaining significant attention. Here, we report the effects of prolonged peroral administration of GNPs with different sizes (2, 15 and 50nm on morphological changes in lymphoid organs and indicators of peripheral blood of laboratory animals. The experiment was conducted on 24 white mongrel male rats weighing 180–220g, gold nanospheres sizes 2, 15 and 50nm were administered orally for 15 days at a dosage of 190μg/kg of animal body weight. The GNPs were conjugated with polyethylene glycol to increase their biocompatibility and bioavailability. The size-dependent decrease of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in the study of peripheral blood, especially pronounced after administration of GNPs with size of 50nm. The stimulation of myelocytic germ of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The signs of strengthening of the processes of differentiation and maturation of cellular elements were found in lymph nodes, which were showed as the increasing number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes. The quantitative changes of cellular component morphology of lymphoid organs due to activation of migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells indicate the presence of immunostimulation effect of GNPs.

  13. A new fibre optic pulse oximeter probe for monitoring splanchnic organ arterial blood oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M; Samuels, N; Randive, N; Langford, R; Kyriacou, P A

    2012-12-01

    A new, continuous method of monitoring splanchnic organ oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) would make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischaemia, and, ultimately, death. In an attempt to provide such a device, a new fibre optic based reflectance pulse oximeter probe and processing system were developed followed by an in vivo evaluation of the technology on seventeen patients undergoing elective laparotomy. Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals of good quality and high signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from the small bowel, large bowel, liver and stomach. Simultaneous peripheral PPG signals from the finger were also obtained for comparison purposes. Analysis of the amplitudes of all acquired PPG signals indicated much larger amplitudes for those signals obtained from splanchnic organs than those obtained from the finger. Estimated SpO(2) values for splanchnic organs showed good agreement with those obtained from the finger fibre optic probe and those obtained from a commercial device. These preliminary results suggest that a miniaturized 'indwelling' fibre optic sensor may be a suitable method for pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of splanchnic organ SpO(2) and their health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Results of studies on long-term exposition of dormant forms of various organisms in outer space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Nataliya; Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Deshevaya, Elena; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Orlov, Oleg; Alekseev, Victor; Poddubko, Svetlana; Polikarpov, Nikolay

    The planetary quarantine is one of the key problems of deep space exploration. Risks of the possible transfer of biological objects across interplanetary space should be necessarily assessed during space exploration. The risks associated with a possible transfer of biological objects and primarily microorganisms in interplanetary space is a priority for space studies We can assume, that on the exterior side of both unmanned and manned space stations there can be millions of microbial cells, many of which are in spore forms, the stability of which towards the unfavorable factors is extremely high. However, direct evidence to support this assumption, obtained only in recent years. “Biorisk” is an apparatus designed for conduction of space experiments focused on long-term exposition of latent stages of different forms of organism on the outer side of Russian Segment of International Space Station was developed and used in SSC RF - Institute for Biomedical Problems RAS. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the principle capability of preservation of life capacity in test-cultures of microorganisms during long-term exposure (comparable with the term of interplanetary flight) in space. The first experiment was performed using spores of bacteria (Bacillus) and fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) housed in 3 boxes that were exposed to outer space for 7, 12 or 18 months. It was for the first time demonstrated that bacterial and fungal spores could survive an exposure to outer space during the time period comparable with the duration of a return mission to Mars. Moreover, the microbial strains proved viable and highly active. The second experiment was expanded by flying, in addition to the above spores, dormant forms of higher plants, insects, lower crustaceans and vertebrates. The 31-month experiment showed that, in spite of harsher than in the first study temperatures, some specimens remained viable and capable of further multiplication. In

  15. Nanobubbles Form at Active Hydrophobic Spots on the Luminal Aspect of Blood Vessels: Consequences for Decompression Illness in Diving and Possible Implications for Autoimmune Disease—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Arieli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Decompression illness (DCI occurs following a reduction in ambient pressure. Decompression bubbles can expand and develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. The different hypotheses hitherto proposed regarding the nucleation and stabilization of gas micronuclei have never been validated. It is known that nanobubbles form spontaneously when a smooth hydrophobic surface is submerged in water containing dissolved gas. These nanobubbles may be the long sought-after gas micronuclei underlying decompression bubbles and DCI. We exposed hydrophobic and hydrophilic silicon wafers under water to hyperbaric pressure. After decompression, bubbles appeared on the hydrophobic but not the hydrophilic wafers. In a further series of experiments, we placed large ovine blood vessels in a cooled high pressure chamber at 1,000 kPa for about 20 h. Bubbles evolved at definite spots in all the types of blood vessels. These bubble-producing spots stained positive for lipids, and were henceforth termed “active hydrophobic spots” (AHS. The lung surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, was found both in the plasma of the sheep and at the AHS. Bubbles detached from the blood vessel in pulsatile flow after reaching a mean diameter of ~1.0 mm. Bubble expansion was bi-phasic—a slow initiation phase which peaked 45 min after decompression, followed by fast diffusion-controlled growth. Many features of decompression from diving correlate with this finding of AHS on the blood vessels. (1 Variability between bubblers and non-bubblers. (2 An age-related effect and adaptation. (3 The increased risk of DCI on a second dive. (4 Symptoms of neurologic decompression sickness. (5 Preconditioning before a dive. (6 A bi-phasic mechanism of bubble expansion. (7 Increased bubble formation with depth. (8 Endothelial injury. (9 The presence of endothelial microparticles. Finally, constant contact between nanobubbles and plasma may result in distortion of proteins and their

  16. The observation of blood-brain barrier of organic mercury poisoned rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Takeo; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Hidaka, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Hironaka; Kaneko, Kiyotoshi; Miyatake, Tadashi

    1989-01-01

    Permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of methymercury chrolide (MMC) intoxicated rat brain was studied in vivo by gadlinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), measuring the longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) and the transverse relaxation time (T 2 ). MMC intoxicated rat brain showed the prolonged T 1 in the cerebral white matter and prolonged T 2 in the cerebellar cortex. After Gd-DTPA administration, T 1 of cerebral and cerebellar white matter shortened from 1.647 to 1.344 sec., and 1.290 to 1.223 sec. respectively. On the contrary, T 2 showed no change after Gd-DTPA injection. It was concluded that, although the shortening of T 1 after Gd-DTPA enhancement was rather little when compared with experimental brain ischemia, the shortening of the relaxation time of the MMC intoxicated rat brain was caused by the increased permeability of BBB. (author)

  17. Training at sport circle as priority form of organization of students’ physical education (on example of shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Malenyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to give foundation for effectiveness of training at sport circle as form of trainings’ organization on the base of analysis of shaping influence on morphological functional indicators of girl students of higher educational establishments’ non special faculties. Material: in research 60 girl students of 17-19 yrs age participated. Duration of pedagogic experiment was 8 months. In both groups trainings were conducted twice a week; duration of every training was 60 minutes. Results: we have worked out methodic of shaping training. It was determined that under influence of shaping harmonious physical development takes place, saving character and mobility of cardio vascular system of girl students is realized. Conclusions: author’s methodic of shaping training in sport circles has been developed, which includes aerobic and power exercises, elements of health related gymnastic, stretching and relaxation. This methodic envisages individual control of loading, considering constitution and girls students’ preferences; it includes recommendations concerning eating.

  18. Organic Semiconducting Materials in Film and Powder Forms from a Co-polymeric Elastomer-Styrene Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhamma, G.; Predeep, P.

    2008-04-01

    Semiconducting materials in both film and powder forms are prepared by Antimony Pentachloride (SBCl5) doping in Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR). SBR is a synthetic co-polymeric elastomer, insulating in undoped state, is mainly used for manufacturing tires, tubes etc. Synthesized conducting materials are proposed to have tremendous application potentials in optoelectronic, electronic and electrical industries. For example conducting films can be used as active elements for fabrication of organic light emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells etc. Electrical and optical properties of prepared samples are studied by measuring electrical conductivity and analyzing spectroscopic data. Electrical conductivity of samples lies in the range of that of semi-conducting materials. Presence of conjugated sequences in the back bone of prepared conducting materials, which is regarded as pre-requisite condition for a polymer to conductive, is confirmed by studying UV/Vis spectra.

  19. Biological species is the only possible form of existence for higher organisms: the evolutionary meaning of sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P

    2010-03-22

    Consistent holistic view of sexual species as the highest form of biological existence is presented. The Weismann's idea that sex and recombination provide the variation for the natural selection to act upon is dominated in most discussions of the biological meaning of the sexual reproduction. Here, the idea is substantiated that the main advantage of sex is the opposite: the ability to counteract not only extinction but further evolution as well. Living systems live long owing to their ability to reproduce themselves with a high fidelity. Simple organisms (like bacteria) reach the continued existence due to the high fidelity of individual genome replication. In organisms with a large genome and complex development, the achievable fidelity of DNA replication is not enough for the precise reproduction of the genome. Such species must be capable of surviving and must remain unchanged in spite of the continuous changes of their genes. This problem has no solution in the frame of asexual ("homeogenomic") lineages. They would rapidly degrade and become extinct or blurred out in the course of the reckless evolution. The core outcome of the transition to sexual reproduction was the creation of multiorganismic entity - biological species. Individual organisms forfeited their ability to reproduce autonomously. It implies that individual organisms forfeited their ability to substantive evolution. They evolve as a part of the biological species. In case of obligatory sexuality, there is no such a thing as synchronic multi-level selection. Natural selection cannot select anything that is not a unit of reproduction. Hierarchy in biology implies the functional predestination of the parts for the sake of the whole. A crucial feature of the sexual reproduction is the formation of genomes of individual organisms by random picking them over from the continuously shuffled gene pool instead of the direct replication of the ancestor's genome. A clear anti-evolutionary consequence of

  20. Biological species is the only possible form of existence for higher organisms: the evolutionary meaning of sexual reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Victor P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consistent holistic view of sexual species as the highest form of biological existence is presented. The Weismann's idea that sex and recombination provide the variation for the natural selection to act upon is dominated in most discussions of the biological meaning of the sexual reproduction. Here, the idea is substantiated that the main advantage of sex is the opposite: the ability to counteract not only extinction but further evolution as well. Living systems live long owing to their ability to reproduce themselves with a high fidelity. Simple organisms (like bacteria reach the continued existence due to the high fidelity of individual genome replication. In organisms with a large genome and complex development, the achievable fidelity of DNA replication is not enough for the precise reproduction of the genome. Such species must be capable of surviving and must remain unchanged in spite of the continuous changes of their genes. This problem has no solution in the frame of asexual ("homeogenomic" lineages. They would rapidly degrade and become extinct or blurred out in the course of the reckless evolution. The core outcome of the transition to sexual reproduction was the creation of multiorganismic entity - biological species. Individual organisms forfeited their ability to reproduce autonomously. It implies that individual organisms forfeited their ability to substantive evolution. They evolve as a part of the biological species. In case of obligatory sexuality, there is no such a thing as synchronic multi-level selection. Natural selection cannot select anything that is not a unit of reproduction. Hierarchy in biology implies the functional predestination of the parts for the sake of the whole. A crucial feature of the sexual reproduction is the formation of genomes of individual organisms by random picking them over from the continuously shuffled gene pool instead of the direct replication of the ancestor's genome. A clear anti

  1. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Surface enhanced Raman scattering by organic and inorganic semiconductors formed on laterally ordered arrays of Au nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, Alexander G., E-mail: milekhin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Yeryukov, Nikolay A., E-mail: yeryukov@isp.nsc.ru [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sveshnikova, Larisa L.; Duda, Tatyana A.; Rodyakina, Ekaterina E. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sheremet, Evgeniya S.; Ludemann, Michael; Gordan, Ovidiu D. [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107, Chemnitz (Germany); Latyshev, Alexander V. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-09-30

    This work is devoted to the investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering by vibrational modes of cobalt phthalocyanine ultrathin films and CuS nanocrystals prepared using by organic molecular beam vapor deposition and the Langmuir–Blodgett technique, respectively, on laterally ordered arrays of Au nanoclusters formed by electron beam lithography on Si and GaAs substrates. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of cobalt phthalocyanine films demonstrates the strong dependence of Raman intensity of vibrational modes in cobalt phthalocyanine on the laser excitation wavelength as well as on the size and period of Au nanoclusters. By tuning the optical resonance conditions a maximal enhancement factor of 2 × 10{sup 4} is achieved. The investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering by cobalt phthalocyanine deposited on laterally ordered arrays of paired Au nanoclusters (dimers) reveals anisotropic enhancement with respect to polarization of the scattered light parallel or perpendicular to the dimer axis. - Highlights: • Controllable and reproducible Au nanocluster and dimer arrays were fabricated. • Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by CuS nanocrystals was observed. • SERS by ultrathin cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films was observed. • Dependence of SERS enhancement factor on the size of Au nanoclusters is resonant. • SERS by ultrathin CoPc films formed on Au dimer arrays is polarization dependent.

  3. Blood residue effect on organs and its repercussion in dose estimation; Efeito do residuo de sangue nos orgaos e sua repercussao na estimativa de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.F.; Araujo, E.B.; Mesquita, C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper the authors use the Theory of Compartment analysis to show the effect of residual blood in the organs, which would imply overestimated doses. Based on the results obtained, it is observed the utility of Compartment Analysis whenever studies are conducted 'post-mortis' for better estimation of absorbed doses in organs and tissues.

  4. Highly water-soluble ruthenium(II terpyridine coordination compounds form stable adducts with blood-borne metal transporting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Nišavić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three coordination compounds of ruthenium(II, belonging to a recently synthesised series of water-soluble compounds of general formula mer-[Ru(L3(N-NCl]Cl, where L3 = 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (Cl-tpy, N-N = ethylenediamine (en, 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (dach or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, have shown strong binding to calf thymus DNA and moderate in vitro cytotoxicity towards cancer cell lines. Knowing that serum proteins play a crucial role in the transport and deactivation of ruthenium drugs, we have conducted a detailed study of their interactions with two major metal-transporting serum proteins, albumin and transferrin, and it is presented herein. Ruthenated protein adducts were formed with various concentrations of the three compounds and then separated from the unbound portions by ultrafiltration through 10 kDa cut-off centrifugal filter units. The stoichiometry of binding was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. One mol of albumin bound up to 7, 8.5 and 1.5 mol of compound 1 ([Ru(Cl-tpy(enCl][Cl], 2 ([Ru(Cl-tpy(dachCl][Cl] and 3 ([Ru(Cl-tpy(bpyCl][Cl], respectively. One mol of transferrin bound up to 3, 3.5 and 0.4 mol of 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The affinity of albumin and transferrin for the three ruthenium compounds was evaluated using fluorescence quenching. The binding constants for 1 and 2 lay within the range 104–105 M−1, suggesting moderate-to-strong attachment to albumin. Both compounds showed much lower affinity for transferrin (102–103 M−1. Compound 3 bound weakly to each studied protein. High resolution ESI qTOF mass spectra of albumin before and after binding of 1 revealed the high stoichiometry of binding. Although the binding of the compounds 1–3 to albumin and transferrin did not affect proteins’ secondary structure much, their tertiary structures underwent some alterations, as deduced from the circular dichroism study. Changes in the stability of albumin, after

  5. Effect of chemical modification on behavior of various organic vanadium forms during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of various organic V forms dissolved in xylene during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was compared. The investigated analyte forms included compounds with vanadium at the oxidation state III, IV or V, as well as N, O or S atoms in molecules. Another group consisted of petroleum products containing naturally-occurring V species. Although the characteristic mass determined under different analytical conditions was in the very wide range from 11 up to 55 pg, some rules of V behavior were found. In the case of porphyrins and petroleum products, the application of Pd as a chemical modifier (xylene solution of Pd(II) acetylacetonate) seemed to be crucial. It was shown that Pd must be introduced to a furnace together with a sample. Pd injected and thermally pretreated before the sample injection was less effective for porphyrins and the petroleum products, but it increased signals of V compounds containing O as donor atom. The iodine pretreatment followed by the methyltrioctylammonium chloride (MTOACl) pretreatment was advantageous for these V forms. The air ashing in a graphite tube appeared to be important to improve decomposition of the petroleum products. No significant influence of the V oxidation state on the analytical signal was observed. The behavior of V contained in two Conostan oil standards, the single-element and the S21 multielement standard, was different in many situations. Probably, the joint action of other elements is responsible for this effect. In general, chemical modification was applied in the work for two reasons: to reduce the V volatility (in some cases losses at about 300 deg. C were observed) and to enhance the atomization efficiency. For routine analysis air ashing, modification by Pd introduced into the furnace together with the sample solution and petroleum products with known V content as standard is recommended. Using this procedure the characteristic mass varied from 16 to 19 pg for

  6. Properties and reactivity of Fe-organic matter associations formed by coprecipitation versus adsorption: Clues from arsenate batch adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Robert; Lorenz, Dennis; Guggenberger, Georg; Haumaier, Ludwig; Freund, Anja

    2014-11-01

    Ferric oxyhydroxides play an important role in controlling the bioavailability of oxyanions such as arsenate and phosphate in soil. Despite this, little is known about the properties and reactivity of Fe(III)-organic matter phases derived from adsorption (reaction of organic matter (OM) to post-synthesis Fe oxide) versus coprecipitation (formation of Fe oxides in presence of OM). Coprecipitates and adsorption complexes were synthesized at pH 4 using two natural organic matter (NOM) types extracted from forest floor layers (Oi and Oa horizon) of a Haplic Podzol. Iron(III) coprecipitates were formed at initial molar metal-to-carbon (M/C) ratios of 1.0 and 0.1 and an aluminum (Al)-to-Fe(III) ratio of 0.2. Sample properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 gas adsorption, dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Arsenic [As(V)] adsorption to Fe-OM phases was studied in batch experiments (168 h, pH 4, 100 μM As). The organic carbon (OC) contents of the coprecipitates (82-339 mg g-1) were higher than those of adsorption complexes (31 and 36 mg g-1), leading to pronounced variations in specific surface area (9-300 m2 g-1), average pore radii (1-9 nm), and total pore volumes (11-374 mm3 g-1) but being independent of the NOM type or the presence of Al. The occlusion of Fe solids by OM (XPS surface concentrations: 60-82 atom% C) caused comparable pHPZC (1.5-2) of adsorption complexes and coprecipitates. The synthesis conditions resulted in different Fe-OM association modes: Fe oxide particles in 'M/C 0.1' coprecipitates covered to a larger extent the outermost aggregate surfaces, for some 'M/C 1.0' coprecipitates OM effectively enveloped the Fe oxides, while OM in the adsorption complexes primarily covered the outer aggregate surfaces. Despite of their larger OC contents, adsorption of As(V) was fastest to coprecipitates formed at low Fe availability (M/C 0.1) and facilitated by desorption of weakly

  7. Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants as measured in cord blood and meconium from three localities of Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Gaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Xu Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China)]. E-mail: xuying@ihb.ac.cn; Li Wen [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Han Guanggen [Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, 310009 (China); Ling Bo [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants were assessed using the levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) measured in cord blood and meconium samples from Luqiao and two other localities of the Zhejiang province in China. Luqiao is a town with the largest site for disassembly of PCB-containing obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. The other two localities Pingqiao (100 km NW of Luqiao) and Lin'an (500 km NW of Luqiao) are towns without known electronic or electrical waste sites. A total of 23 PCB congeners (including 12 dioxin-like) and 6 OCPs were measured using the traditional GC-{mu}ECD technique. Micro-EROD bioassay was additionally used to measure TCDD-based TEQ levels of the 12 dioxin-like PCBs. Significant correlations were found between the TEQs measured by the two methods, supporting the application of micro-EROD as a practical tool for complementing the chemical analysis. The data showed that {beta}-HCH, p,p'-DDE, and 6 PCB congeners (101, 138, 153, 180, 183, and 187) were the predominant pollutants, with PCB138 being the best indicator (predictor) for total PCB levels. Cord blood and meconium from Luqiao have higher levels of PCBs than those from the other two localities, suggesting that a disassembly site for electronic and electric waste would provide an environment for greater exposure to these chemicals. The cord blood or meconium levels of {beta}-HCH, though likewise considerably high, were comparable in the three localities. Similar findings were observed for p,p'-DDE. Pollution by these OCPs might have come from past use of agricultural pesticides in the three localities.

  8. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  9. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, Meredith S.; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  10. Quantification of 31 volatile organic compounds in whole blood using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin C; Kobelski, Robert J; McElprang, David O; Ashley, David L; Morrow, John C; Chambers, David M; Cardinali, Frederick L

    2006-03-07

    The prevalence of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has raised concern about possible health effects resulting from chronic human exposure. To support studies exploring the relation between VOC exposure and health effects, we developed an automated analytical method using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), capillary gas chromatography (GC), and quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS). This method quantifies trace levels (low parts per trillion) of 14 halogenated alkanes, 5 halogenated alkenes, 10 aromatic compounds, and 2 other VOCs in human blood. Detection limits for the SPME-GC-MS method range from 0.005 to 0.12 microg/L, with linear calibration curves spanning three orders of magnitude. The improved throughput of this method will enable us to expand biomonitoring efforts to assess nonoccupational VOC exposure in large epidemiological studies.

  11. Determination of physiological levels of volatile organic compounds in blood using static headspace capillary gas chromatography with serial triple detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, H J; Jermann, E; Begerow, J; Hajimiragha, H; Chiarotti-Omar, A M; Dunemann, L

    1998-04-01

    A static capillary gas chromatographic method using three different detectors [photoionization detector (PID), electron capture detector (ECD) and flame ionization detector (FID)] switched in series is presented for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in sub microgram l-1 levels. The method was applied for the analysis of selected environmentally and occupationally relevant non-halogenated and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, xylenes, dichlorobenzenes) as well as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene) in blood samples. Detailed investigations, in respect to the figures of merit were carried out. For most of the selected VOCs detection limits (calculated as the three-fold standard deviation of low level calibration standards) in the range from 26 (benzene) to 67 ng l-1 (m/p-xylene) were achieved which are comparable with those reported for dynamic headspace techniques in combination with mass spectrometric detection. For the individual VOCs the within-series precision varied from 4 to 19% and the day-to-day precision from 11 to 28%. Regarding PID as well as FID the calibration graphs for all substances were linear up to at least 10 micrograms l-1 while the ECD response was linear up to concentrations of about 0.6 microgram l-1 for the halogenated compounds. Our method is applicable for the quantitative determination of VOCs in blood in the occupationally as well as in the physiologically relevant (normal) concentration range.

  12. Association of morning and evening blood pressure at home with asymptomatic organ damage in the J-HOP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Yano, Yuichiro; Haimoto, Hajime; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Uchiba, Kiyoshi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Matsui, Yoshio; Nakamura, Akira; Fukutomi, Motoki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Joji

    2014-07-01

    Several guidelines recommend that home blood pressure (HBP) be measured both in the morning and in the evening. However, there have been fewer reports about the clinical significance of morning HBP than about the clinical significance of evening HBP. Our study included 4,310 patients recruited for the Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure Study who had one or more cardiovascular risk factors. We measured morning and evening HBP, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), maximum carotid intima media thickness (IMT), N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (Hs-cTnT). The correlation coefficients for the associations between morning systolic BP (SBP) and log-transformed baPWV, NT-proBNP, or Hs-cTnT were significantly greater than the corresponding relationships for evening SBP (all P morning home SBP and UACR (P morning home SBP to the SBP measurement. Morning BP and evening BP provide equally useful information for subclinical target organ damage, yet multivariate modeling highlighted the stand-alone predictive ability of morning BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Novel feed including bioactive compounds from winery wastes improved broilers' redox status in blood and tissues of vital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makri, Sotiria; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Stagos, Dimitrios; Chamokeridou, Theodora; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Mpesios, Anastasios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Goulas, Panagiotis; Komiotis, Dimitrios; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there is a great interest in the production of animal feed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to examine the potential antioxidant effects of a feed supplemented with grape pomace (GP), a winery by-product with high environmental load, in chickens. Broilers of 15 days post birth were separated into two groups fed either with standard diet or with diet supplemented with GP for 35 days. Blood and tissues collections were performed after feeding for 15 and 35 days with the experimental diet (i.e. at 30 and 50 days post birth). Free radical toxicity markers, namely thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and rate of H 2 O 2 decomposition were determined in blood and tissues of vital organs. The results indicated that feed supplemented with GP decreased oxidative stress-induced toxic effects and improved chickens' redox status, and so it may also improve their wellness and productivity. On the other hand, this exploitation of GP may solve problems of environmental pollution in areas with wineries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Integrated analysis of halogenated organic pollutants in sub-millilitre volumes of venous and umbilical cord blood sera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Carrizo, Daniel; Otero, Raquel; Vizcaino, Esther [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC), Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Howsam, Mike [Universite de Lille 2, Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Lille (France); Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa [Institute of Chemistry UNESP, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A rapid, robust and economical method for the analysis of persistent halogenated organic compounds in small volumes of human serum and umbilical cord blood is described. The pollutants studied cover a broad range of molecules of contemporary epidemiological and legislative concern, including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (CBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, polychlorostyrenes (PCSs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Extraction and clean-up with n-hexane and concentrated sulphuric acid was followed with analysis by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (GC-ECD) and GC coupled to negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). The advantages of this method rest in the broad range of analytes and its simplicity and robustness, while the use of concentrated sulphuric acid extraction/clean-up destroys viruses that may be present in the samples. Small volumes of reference serum between 50 and 1000{mu}L were extracted and the limits of detection/quantification and repeatability were determined. Recoveries of spiked compounds for the extraction of small volumes ({>=}300 {mu}L) of the spiked reference serum were between 90% and 120%. The coefficients of variation of repeatability ranged from 0.1-14%, depending on the compound. Samples of 4-year-old serum and umbilical cord blood (n=73 and 40, respectively) from a population inhabiting a village near a chloro-alkali plant were screened for the above-mentioned halogenated pollutants using this method and the results are briefly described. (orig.)

  15. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. IV. The influence of splenectomy on the bone marrow plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.; Oudenaren, A. van

    1975-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity during the primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). However, during the secondary response, it becomes the major center of activity containing IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC. In the present paper the influence of splenectomy was studied on primary and secondary PFC activity in the bone marrow. Differences in primary and secondary bone marrow PFC responses are probably related to the presence of B and T memory cells in situ. Therefore the effect of splenectomy on the appearance of B and T memory cells in the bone marrow was also investigated. iv.plenectomy before intravenous (iv) immunization with 4 x 10 8 SRBC prevented any primary PFC activity in the bone marrow. The influence of splenectomy before priming on secondary PFC activity in the bone marrow depended on the priming dose of SRBC. Splenectomy before priming with 10 7 SRBC iv completely prevented IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-PFC activity in the bone marrow upon subsequent boosting with 4 x 10 8 SRBC iv. By means of cell transfer experiments it was shown that after splenectomy no B or T memory cells appeared in the bone marrow after priming with 10 7 SRBC iv. Cell transfer experiments showed that splenectomy before priming with 10 7 SRBC iv not only interfered with the appearance of B and T memory cells in the bone marrow, but also with the appearance of B memory cells in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and blood. Immunization of spenectomized mice with 4 x 10 8 SRBC iv induced the appearance of B memory cells in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and blood

  16. The Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M Francesca; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Boot, Claudia M; Denef, Karolien; Paul, Eldor

    2013-04-01

    The decomposition and transformation of above- and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been largely uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. We present the current understanding of the importance of microbial substrate use efficiency and C and N allocation in controlling the proportion of plant-derived C and N that is incorporated into SOM, and of soil matrix interactions in controlling SOM stabilization. We synthesize this understanding into the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework. This framework leads to the hypothesis that labile plant constituents are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates, because they are utilized more efficiently by microbes. These microbial products of decomposition would thus become the main precursors of stable SOM by promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to the mineral soil matrix. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Differential inhibitory action of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of forming thrombi: Studies with circulating blood and in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis Pujadas-Mestres

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions.We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL on: 1 platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2 viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3 thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets.In studies with flowing blood, only the highest concentration of apixaban, equivalent to the therapeutic Cmax, was capable to significantly reduce thrombus formation, fibrin association and platelet-aggregate formation. Apixaban significantly prolonged thromboelastometry parameters, but did not affect clot firmness. Interestingly, results in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation under more static conditions, revealed a dose dependent persistent inhibitory action by apixaban, with concentrations 4 to 16 times below the therapeutic Cmax significantly prolonging kinetic parameters and reducing the total amount of thrombin generated.Our studies demonstrate the critical impact of rheological conditions on the antithrombotic effects of apixaban. Studies under flow conditions combined with modified thrombin generation assays could help discriminating concentrations of apixaban that prevent excessive platelet accumulation, from those that deeply impair fibrin formation and may unnecessarily compromise hemostasis.

  18. “Pushing the Envelope” a modeling-based approach to the development of organic, responsive architectural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yearley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests design procedures for the development of complex, organic architectural forms. It illustrates a postgraduate student design process, implementing a development sequence based on the intelligent manipulation of architectural envelopes using a variety of existing modeling tools and emerging digital techniques. These stages of development respond to imposed spatial and environmental constraints. The tests began with full-scale modeling of small segments. The major constraints at this stage were spatial requirements and the physical characteristics of materials. The forms derived from the bending properties of prestressed green timber and the dimensions of shingle cladding. This was followed by digital 3D modeling using common commercial applications. At this stage initial models were derived from a traditional space requirement brief. The envelopes for these activities were then manipulated to respond to the spatial limitations imposed by surrounding buildings. This digital modeling process metaphorically “pushed the limits” as vertices of the envelope model were stretched and shifted to achieve a perceived “fit” between the two sets of spatial dimensions. The spatially manipulated geometry was then imported into Ecotect, an environmental analysis package. As an example, the envelope’s morphology and cladding material options on the acoustic qualities of the surrounding space were tested. The improved geometry was then imported into a Virtual Reality room, in which the spatial experience was simulated in presentations to the design team and potential occupants. This room utilized six projectors to create an immersive experience to users wearing stereoscopic goggles, and moving in a space surrounded by three large screens, creating a CAVE-like presentation space. Finally there was an attempt to complete the circle by returning from the simulated world to the physical worlds, by creating full-scale models from the digital

  19. Thyroxine (T4 Transfer from Blood to Cerebrospinal Fluid in Sheep Isolated Perfused Choroid Plexus: Role of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Zibara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroxine (T4 enters the brain either directly across the blood–brain barrier (BBB or indirectly via the choroid plexus (CP, which forms the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B. In this study, using isolated perfused CP of the sheep by single-circulation paired tracer and steady-state techniques, T4 transport mechanisms from blood into lateral ventricle CP has been characterized as the first step in the transfer across the B-CSF-B. After removal of sheep brain, the CPs were perfused with 125I-T4 and 14C-mannitol. Unlabeled T4 was applied during single tracer technique to assess the mode of maximum uptake (Umax and the net uptake (Unet on the blood side of the CP. On the other hand, in order to characterize T4 protein transporters, steady-state extraction of 125I-T4 was measured in presence of different inhibitors such as probenecid, verapamil, BCH, or indomethacin. Increasing the concentration of unlabeled-T4 resulted in a significant reduction in Umax%, which was reflected by a complete inhibition of T4 uptake into CP. In fact, the obtained Unet% decreased as the concentration of unlabeled-T4 increased. The addition of probenecid caused a significant inhibition of T4 transport, in comparison to control, reflecting the presence of a carrier mediated process at the basolateral side of the CP and the involvement of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs: MRP1 and MRP4 and organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatp1, Oatp2, and Oatp14. Moreover, verapamil, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp substrate, resulted in ~34% decrease in the net extraction of T4, indicating that MDR1 contributes to T4 entry into CSF. Finally, inhibition in the net extraction of T4 caused by BCH or indomethacin suggests, respectively, a role for amino acid “L” system and MRP1/Oatp1 in mediating T4 transfer. The presence of a carrier-mediated transport mechanism for cellular uptake on the basolateral membrane of the CP, mainly P-gp and Oatp2, would account

  20. DNA damage in healthy individuals and respiratory patients after treating whole blood in vitro with the bulk and nano forms of NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumour effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n=17 and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n=36. White blood cells (WBC were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e. bulk (B or nano-suspension (N of aspirin (ASP or ibuprofen (IBU up to 500 µg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 µg/ml in the micronucleus assay. In this study results were compared against untreated lymphocytes and their corresponding treated groups. The results showed, thgat NSAIDs in their nano form significantly reduced the DNA damage in WBCs from lung cancer patients in bulk and nano compared to untreated lymphocytes. Also, there was a decrease in the level of DNA damage in the comet assay after treating WBCs from healthy individuals, asthma and COPD groups with aspirin N (ASP N but not with IBU N. In addition, the number of micronuclei decreased after treatment with NSAIDs in their nano form (ASP N and IBU N in the healthy as well as in the lung cancer group. However, this was not the case for micronucleus frequency in asthma and COPD patients. These data show that lymphocytes from different groups respond differently to treatment with ASP and IBU as measured by comet assay and micronucleus assay, and that the size of the suspended particles of the drugs affects responses.

  1. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Youn, Chang-Ho; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to uncover the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous systems and on cancer, few focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. Here, we attempt to determine the relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Medical Center for health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Based on our results, abdominal discomfort showed an inverse relationship with several PCBs and an inverted U-shaped relationship with several other OCPs including pp-DDD and pp-DDT. The effects of pp-DDD and pp-DDT on abdominal discomfort were similar to those of OCPs on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear causes could be related to POP levels.

  2. The effect of dietary supplementation with different forms and levels of organic chromium on broilers meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keleman Svetlana P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effect of supplementation with the three different preparations of organic chromium complexes: the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex with chromium; chromium (III­lysine and chromium picolinate, on broilers meat quality. In every preparation supplementing broilers diet chromium was present at the three different levels: 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg. The meat quality was monitored with respect to the following parameters: the contents of fat, protein, minerals and water. It was observed that the fat content in broilers white meat was significantly lower if their diet was supplemented with 0.4 mg/kg chromium in the form of chromium(III­lysine. In addition, different kinds of preparations influenced the protein, fat and water content in the white meat. Water content in white and red meat was lower in all experimental groups if compared to the control. However, the protein content in white and red meat was higher in experimental groups than in the control one.

  3. Spontaneously formed high-performance charge-transport layers of organic single-crystal semiconductors on precisely synthesized insulating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Tatsuyuki; Sasaki, Masayuki; Annaka, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Mari; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Kumagai, Shohei; Watanabe, Shun; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Takeya, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Charge-transporting semiconductor layers with high carrier mobility and low trap-density, desired for high-performance organic transistors, are spontaneously formed as a result of thermodynamic phase separation from a blend of π-conjugated small molecules and precisely synthesized insulating polymers dissolved in an aromatic solvent. A crystal film grows continuously to the size of centimeters, with the critical conditions of temperature, concentrations, and atmosphere. It turns out that the molecular weight of the insulating polymers plays an essential role in stable film growth and interfacial homogeneity at the phase separation boundary. Fabricating the transistor devices directly at the semiconductor-insulator boundaries, we demonstrate that the mixture of 3,11-didecyldinaphtho[2,3-d:2',3'-d']benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with the optimized weight-average molecular weight shows excellent device performances. The spontaneous phase separation with a one-step fabrication process leads to a high mobility up to 10 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a low subthreshold swing of 0.25 V dec-1 even without any surface treatment such as self-assembled monolayer modifications on oxide gate insulators.

  4. A Real Time PCR Platform for the Simultaneous Quantification of Total and Extrachromosomal HIV DNA Forms in Blood of HIV-1 Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovari, Benedetta; Scotti, Maddalena; Acetoso, Marcello; Valentini, Massimo; Petrelli, Enzo; Magnani, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background The quantitative measurement of various HIV-1 DNA forms including total, unintegrated and integrated provirus play an increasingly important role in HIV-1 infection monitoring and treatment-related research. We report the development and validation of a SYBR Green real time PCR (TotUFsys platform) for the simultaneous quantification of total and extrachromosomal HIV-1 DNA forms in patients. This innovative technique makes it possible to obtain both measurements in a single PCR run starting from frozen blood employing the same primers and standard curve. Moreover, due to identical amplification efficiency, it allows indirect estimation of integrated level. To specifically detect 2-LTR a qPCR method was also developed. Methodology/Findings Primers used for total HIV-1 DNA quantification spanning a highly conserved region were selected and found to detect all HIV-1 clades of group M and the unintegrated forms of the same. A total of 195 samples from HIV-1 patients in a wide range of clinical conditions were analyzed with a 100% success rate, even in patients with suppressed plasma viremia, regardless of CD4+ or therapy. No significant correlation was observed between the two current prognostic markers, CD4+ and plasma viremia, while a moderate or high inverse correlation was found between CD4+ and total HIV DNA, with strong values for unintegrated HIV DNA. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, the results support the use of HIV DNA as another tool, in addition to traditional assays, which can be used to estimate the state of viral infection, the risk of disease progression and to monitor the effects of ART. The TotUFsys platform allowed us to obtain a final result, expressed as the total and unintegrated HIV DNA copy number per microgram of DNA or 104 CD4+, for 12 patients within two working days. PMID:25364909

  5. Organic Chemistry of Low-Mass Star-Forming Cores. I. 7 mm Spectroscopy of Chamaeleon MMSl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martn A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Wirtstroem, Eva S.; Smith, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Observations are presented of emission lines from organic molecules at frequencies 32-50 GHz in the vicinity of Chamaeleon MMS1. This chemically rich dense cloud core harbors an extremely young, very low luminosity protostellar object and is a candidate first hydrostatic core. Column densities are derived and emission maps are presented for species including polyynes, cyanopolyynes, sulphuretted carbon chains, and methanol. The polyyne emission peak lies about 5000 AU from the protostar, whereas methanol peaks about 15,000 AU away. Averaged over the telescope beam, the molecular hydrogen number density is calculated to be 10(exp 6) / cubic cm and the gas kinetic temperature is in the range 5-7 K. The abundances of long carbon chains are very large and are indicative of a nonequilibrium carbon chemistry; C6H and HC7N column densities are 5.9(sup +2.9) (sub -1.3) x 10(exp 11) /cubic cm and 3.3 (sup +8.0)(sub -1.5) x 10(exp 12)/sq cm, respectively, which are similar to the values found in the most carbon-chain-rich protostars and prestellar cores known, and are unusually large for star-forming gas. Column density upper limits were obtained for the carbon chain anions C4H(-) and C6H(-), with anion-to-neutral ratios [C4H(-)]/[C4H] < 0.02% and [C6H(-l)]/[C6H] < 10%, consistent with previous observations in interstellar clouds and low-mass protostars. Deuterated HC,3 and c-C3H2 were detected. The [DC3N]/[HC,N] ratio of approximately 4% is consistent with the value typically found in cold interstellar gas.

  6. The TRPC2 channel forms protein-protein interactions with Homer and RTP in the rat vomeronasal organ

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    Brann Jessica H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal transduction cascade operational in the vomeronasal organ (VNO of the olfactory system detects odorants important for prey localization, mating, and social recognition. While the protein machinery transducing these external cues has been individually well characterized, little attention has been paid to the role of protein-protein interactions among these molecules. Development of an in vitro expression system for the transient receptor potential 2 channel (TRPC2, which establishes the first electrical signal in the pheromone transduction pathway, led to the discovery of two protein partners that couple with the channel in the native VNO. Results Homer family proteins were expressed in both male and female adult VNO, particularly Homer 1b/c and Homer 3. In addition to this family of scaffolding proteins, the chaperones receptor transporting protein 1 (RTP1 and receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1 were also expressed. RTP1 was localized broadly across the VNO sensory epithelium, goblet cells, and the soft palate. Both Homer and RTP1 formed protein-protein interactions with TRPC2 in native reciprocal pull-down assays and RTP1 increased surface expression of TRPC2 in in vitro assays. The RTP1-dependent TRPC2 surface expression was paralleled with an increase in ATP-stimulated whole-cell current in an in vitro patch-clamp electrophysiological assay. Conclusions TRPC2 expression and channel activity is regulated by chaperone- and scaffolding-associated proteins, which could modulate the transduction of chemosignals. The developed in vitro expression system, as described here, will be advantageous for detailed investigations into TRPC2 channel activity and cell signalling, for a channel protein that was traditionally difficult to physiologically assess.

  7. Stratum Corneum Hydration and Skin Surface pH Variation Indicate that Organ Blood Flow Is Regulated by Meridian Activity at Certain Hours

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    Li-Fan Chuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Day and night are regular occurrences in nature, and the organs and tissues in living bodies follow this cycle. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS at various time points regulates organ excitation to maintain healthy functions in the living body. The energy required from basal metabolism can be used to explain living organisms according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM concept of relationships between meridian directions and organs at various times (organs “at rest” and organs “in operation”. By monitoring skin reactions after applying a cream, we speculated regular blood flow changes, and established an animated hourglass-shaped trajectory diagram to visualize these changes. A combination of TCM and physiological perspectives were considered to explain how the cardiovascular system produces energy. These two perspectives were applied to interpret the correlation between the SNS and organ metabolism.

  8. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  9. Carrier-Mediated Transport of Nicotine Across the Inner Blood-Retinal Barrier: Involvement of a Novel Organic Cation Transporter Driven by an Outward H(+) Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tega, Yuma; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the blood-to-retina transport of nicotine across the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Using the in vivo vascular injection method, the blood-to-retina influx clearance of nicotine across the BRB was determined as 131 μL/(min?g retina), which is much higher than that of a nonpermeable paracellular marker, and blood-to-retina transport of nicotine was inhibited by organic cations such as pyrilamine and verapamil. The nicotine uptake by a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2 cells), an in vitro model of the inner BRB, exhibited time, temperature, and concentration dependence with a Km of 492 μM. These results suggest the involvement of a carrier-mediated transport process in nicotine transport in the inner BRB. The nicotine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells was stimulated by an outwardly directed H(+) gradient, and the uptake was significantly inhibited by bulky and hydrophobic cationic drugs, whereas inhibitors of organic cation transporters did not show inhibitory effect. These results suggest that the novel organic cation transport system driven by an outwardly directed H(+) gradient is involved in the blood-to-retina transport of nicotine across the inner BRB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Effect of continuous blood purification in treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

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    ZHANG Yong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the effect of continuous blood purification (CBP on serum inflammatory mediators in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. MethodsSixty-five SAP patients with MODS who were treated in General Hospital of Chengdu Command Area of Chinese PLA from April 2008 to December 2013 were enrolled and divided into two groups. The 33 patients in the control group received comprehensive internal medicine treatment, and the 32 patients in the treatment group received comprehensive internal medicine treatment and CBP. Changes in APACHE II score, MODS score, and the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-18, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and nitric oxide (NO after treatment were observed. Independent-samples t test was applied for comparison of continuous data between the two groups, and paired t test was applied for before-after comparison within the same group; chi-squared test was applied for comparison of categorical data between the two groups. ResultsIn both groups, APACHE II score, MODS score, and the serum levels of TNFα, CRP, IL-6, IL-18, PAF, and NO decreased significantly after treatment (all P<0.05, and the treatment group had significantly greater decreases in these values than the control group (all P<0.001; the survival rates in the treatment group and the control group were 90.6% (29/32 and 78.8% (26/33, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (χ2=1.749, P=0.186. ConclusionIn SAP patients with MODS, CBP can effectively clear the serum inflammatory mediators to block systemic inflammatory response and improve organ function, and, therefore, it is an effective method to treat SAP.

  11. Effects of dietary level of tannic acid and protein on internal organ weights and biochemical blood parameters of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Skomiał, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenolic compound with a health-promoting potential for humans. It is hypothesised that TA effects on the relative weight of internal organs and biochemical blood indices are modified by dietary protein level in rats. The study involved 72 rats divided into 12 groups fed diets with 10 or 18% of crude protein (CP) and supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2% of TA. After 3 weeks of feeding, the relative weight of the caecum was greater in rats fed TA diets, while feeding diets with 10% of CP increased the relative weight of the stomach, small intestine and caecum, but decreased that of kidneys and spleen. Albumin concentration was higher in rats fed 0.25% and 0.5% TA diets than in rats given the 2% TA diets. The 2% TA diets reduced creatine kinase (CK) activity compared to non-supplemented diets and those with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of TA. Rats fed the 10% CP diets had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and γ-glutamyltransferase as well as the concentration of iron and cholesterol, but lower that of urea and uric acid. The interaction affected only cholinesterase activity. In conclusion, TA induced caecal hypertrophy and could act as a cardioprotective agent, as demonstrated by reduced CK activity, but these effects were not modified by dietary protein level.

  12. Effects of dietary level of tannic acid and protein on internal organ weights and biochemical blood parameters of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Barszcz

    Full Text Available Tannic acid (TA is a polyphenolic compound with a health-promoting potential for humans. It is hypothesised that TA effects on the relative weight of internal organs and biochemical blood indices are modified by dietary protein level in rats. The study involved 72 rats divided into 12 groups fed diets with 10 or 18% of crude protein (CP and supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2% of TA. After 3 weeks of feeding, the relative weight of the caecum was greater in rats fed TA diets, while feeding diets with 10% of CP increased the relative weight of the stomach, small intestine and caecum, but decreased that of kidneys and spleen. Albumin concentration was higher in rats fed 0.25% and 0.5% TA diets than in rats given the 2% TA diets. The 2% TA diets reduced creatine kinase (CK activity compared to non-supplemented diets and those with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of TA. Rats fed the 10% CP diets had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and γ-glutamyltransferase as well as the concentration of iron and cholesterol, but lower that of urea and uric acid. The interaction affected only cholinesterase activity. In conclusion, TA induced caecal hypertrophy and could act as a cardioprotective agent, as demonstrated by reduced CK activity, but these effects were not modified by dietary protein level.

  13. Safety evaluation of phytosterols in laying hens: effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, S R; Shen, Y R; Chang, L L; Zhou, C J; Bo, Z; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

    2014-03-01

    Phytosterols are intended for use as a novel food ingredient with plasma cholesterol-lowering activity. Although phytosterols are naturally present in the normal diet, daily consumption is insufficient to ensure plasma cholesterol-lowering levels. Therefore, phytosterols may be added to the diets to achieve the desired cholesterol-lowering activity. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if high-dose phytosterols could affect the safety of hens. Three hundred sixty 21-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds each; after 3 wk, birds were fed diets supplemented with 0, 20, 80, 400, and 800 mg/kg of phytosterols for 12 wk. Throughout the study, clinical observations and laying performance were measured. At the end of the study, birds were subjected to a full postmortem examination: blood samples were taken for clinical pathology, selected organs were weighed, and specified tissues were taken for subsequent histological examination. No treatment-related changes that were considered to be of toxicological significance were observed. Therefore, a nominal phytosterol concentration of 800 mg/kg was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level.

  14. [The peculiar features of the distribution of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl- (1-hydroxycyclopentyl) (phenyl) acetate in the organism of warm-blooded animals after its intravenous administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, V K; Pravdyuk, M F

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the dynamics of the distribution of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl) acetate in the organism of warm-blooded animals (rats) after its intravenous administration to the animals. The identification and the quantitative determination of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl) acetate present in the organs and blood of the warm-blooded animals were carried out with the use of chromatography in a thin layer of silica gel, chromogenic reaction for the synthesis of the acinitro salt, UV spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GCh-MS). The quantitation was performed on days 5, 20, 150, and 360 minutes after the intravenous administration of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl) acetate to the rats. The maximum amounts of cyclopentolate were found in the spleen, brain, lungs, and heart of the experimental animals.

  15. Impact of cigarette smoking on volatile organic compound (VOC) blood levels in the U.S. population: NHANES 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David M; Ocariz, Jessica M; McGuirk, Maureen F; Blount, Benjamin C

    2011-11-01

    The impact of cigarette smoking on volatile organic compound (VOC) blood levels is studied using 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Cigarette smoke exposure is shown to be a predominant source of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene (BTEXS) measured in blood as determined by (1) differences in central tendency and interquartile VOC blood levels between daily smokers [≥1 cigarette per day (CPD)] and less-than-daily smokers, (2) correlation among BTEXS and the 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF) smoking biomarker in the blood of daily smokers, and (3) regression modeling of BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD. Smoking status was determined by 2,5-DMF blood level using a cutpoint of 0.014 ng/ml estimated by regression modeling of the weighted data and confirmed with receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. The BTEXS blood levels among daily smokers were moderately-to-strongly correlated with 2,5-DMF blood levels (correlation coefficient, r, ranging from 0.46 to 0.92). Linear regression of the geometric mean BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD showed clear dose-response relationship (correlation of determination, R(2), ranging from 0.81 to 0.98). Furthermore, the pattern of VOCs in blood of smokers is similar to that reported in mainstream cigarette smoke. These results show that cigarette smoking is a primary source of benzene, toluene and styrene and an important source of ethylbenzene and xylene exposure for the U.S. population, as well as the necessity of determining smoking status and factors affecting dose (e.g., CPD, time since last cigarette) in assessments involving BTEXS exposure. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Available content, surface runoff and leaching of phosphorus forms in a typic hapludalf treated with organic and mineral nutrient sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of animal manure to soil can increase phosphorus availability to plants and enhance transfer of the nutrient solution drained from the soil surface or leached into the soil profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of successive applications of organic and mineral nutrient sources on the available content, surface runoff and leaching of P forms in a Typic Hapludalf in no-tillage systems. Experiment 1 was set up in 2004 in the experimental area of UFSM, in Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: control (without nutrient application and application of pig slurry (PS, pig deep-litter (PL, cattle slurry (CS, and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The rates were determined to meet the N crop requirements of no-tillage black oat and maize, grown in the 2010/2011 growing season. The soil solution was collected after each event (rain + runoff or leaching and the soluble, particulate and total P contents were measured. In November 2008, soil was collected in 2 cm intervals to a depth of 20 cm, in 5 cm intervals to a depth of 40 cm, and in 10 cm intervals to a depth of 70 cm. The soil was dried and ground, and P determined after extraction by anion exchange resin (AER. In experiment 2, samples collected from the Typic Hapludalf near experiment 1 were incubated for 20, 35, 58, 73 and 123 days after applying the following treatments: soil, soil + PS, soil + PL, soil + CS and soil + NPK. Thereafter, the soil was sampled and P was analyzed by AER. The applications of nutrient sources over the years led to an increase in available P and its migration in the soil profile. This led to P transfer via surface runoff and leaching, with the largest transfer being observed in PS and PL treatments, in which most P was applied. The soil available P and P transfer via surface runoff were correlated with the amounts applied, regardless of the P source. However, P transfer by leaching was not correlated with the applied nutrient

  17. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a doctor immediately. There have been many research advances that have improved the prevention and treatment of blood clots. Some current treatments include: Anticoagulants - medicine that prevents clots from forming Thrombolytics - medicine that ...

  18. Effect of continuous gamma-ray exposure on performance of learned tasks and effect of subsequent fractionated exposures on blood-forming tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, J. F.; Holland, L. M.; Prine, J. R.; Farrer, D. N.; Braun, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Sixteen monkeys trained to perform continuous and discrete-avoidance and fixed-ratio tasks with visual and auditory cues were performance-tested before, during, and after 10-day gamma-ray exposures totaling 0, 500, 750, and 1000 rads. Approximately 14 months after the performance-test exposures, surviving animals were exposed to 100-rad gamma-ray fractions at 56-day intervals to observe injury and recovery patterns of blood-forming tissues. The fixed-ratio, food-reward task performance showed a transient decline in all dose groups within 24 hours of the start of gamma-ray exposure, followed by recovery to normal food-consumption levels within 48 to 72 hours. Avoidance tasks were performed successfully by all groups during the 10-day exposure, but reaction times of the two higher dose-rate groups in which animals received 3 and 4 rads per hour or total doses of 750 and 1000 rads, respectively, were somewhat slower.

  19. A Novel Automated Slide-Based Technology for Visualization, Counting, and Characterization of the Formed Elements of Blood: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, James W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Zahniser, David J

    2017-08-01

    - A novel automated slide-based approach to the complete blood count and white blood cell differential count is introduced. - To present proof of concept for an image-based approach to complete blood count, based on a new slide preparation technique. A preliminary data comparison with the current flow-based technology is shown. - A prototype instrument uses a proprietary method and technology to deposit a precise volume of undiluted peripheral whole blood in a monolayer onto a glass microscope slide so that every cell can be distinguished, counted, and imaged. The slide is stained, and then multispectral image analysis is used to measure the complete blood count parameters. Images from a 600-cell white blood cell differential count, as well as 5000 red blood cells and a variable number of platelets, that are present in 600 high-power fields are made available for a technologist to view on a computer screen. An initial comparison of the basic complete blood count parameters was performed, comparing 1857 specimens on both the new instrument and a flow-based hematology analyzer. - Excellent correlations were obtained between the prototype instrument and a flow-based system. The primary parameters of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts resulted in correlation coefficients (r) of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Other indices included hemoglobin (r = 0.99), hematocrit (r = 0.99), mean cellular volume (r = 0.90), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r = 0.97), and mean platelet volume (r = 0.87). For the automated white blood cell differential counts, r values were calculated for neutrophils (r = 0.98), lymphocytes (r = 0.97), monocytes (r = 0.76), eosinophils (r = 0.96), and basophils (r = 0.63). - Quantitative results for components of the complete blood count and automated white blood cell differential count can be developed by image analysis of a monolayer preparation of a known volume of peripheral blood.

  20. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  1. NO ORDINARY RULES. MORE ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: A DISCUSSION ON FORMS AND HIBRYDISMS OF POST-BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfranco Malizia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The topics discussed in this contribution are founded on two basic assumptions; the first considers a complex organization as a social subsystem in which all the specific characteristics of the “macrosystem” may be found.  The second (consequential to the first favours the interpretation of “organization-as-culture” (or as a sociocultural system. Assuming what has been said above, then, it follows (and this is the sense of this essay that complex organizations, in as much as they are sociocultural (subsystems, cannot be considered, perhaps today more than in the past, systems impervious to the sociocultural world of which they are a part, or in other words, it is not possible to speak of a culture of organizations as if it were a unique, coherent system of models and values: the plurality of cultural influences present in the highly differentiated contemporary societies is reflected also on the situations inside these organizations.

  2. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Forms of Manganese, Zinc, Copper, and Chromium on Bioavailability of These Minerals and Calcium in Late-Phase Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Engin; Mızrak, Cengizhan; Gültekin, Meltem; Atik, Zafer; Tunca, Muhammet

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the effects of dietary supplementation of organic and inorganic Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cr mixtures using two different levels (80, 60, 5, and 0.15 mg/kg and 40, 30, 2.5, and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively) on the bioavailability of these trace minerals and Ca in late-phase laying hens were evaluated. Three hundred and sixty laying hens (Barred Rock) at 50 weeks of age were used, and the duration of study was 16 weeks. Each of the four dietary regimes was randomly assigned to six replicates, which included 15 hens each. Organic trace minerals were provided as methionine chelates; inorganic Mn, Zn, and Cr were provided as oxides; and Cu was provided as sulfate. The organic form significantly increased the concentrations of serum Mn, Zn, Cu, and Ca; egg Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cr; and eggshell Zn and Cr compared with the inorganic form. However, the form of trace minerals did not affect the concentrations of serum Cr and eggshell Mn, Cu, and Ca. High-level addition of trace minerals significantly increased serum Mn and Zn; egg Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cr; and eggshell Mn, Zn, and Cu concentrations compared with low-level addition but did not affect serum Cu, Cr, and Ca or eggshell Cr and Ca concentrations. While the organic form reduced the excretion of Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ca, the high-level supplement increased Mn, Zn, and Cu excretion. The addition level did not affect Cr and Ca excretion. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation of an organic Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cr mixture increases the bioavailability of Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ca compared with inorganic sources and that a lower level of trace mineral supplementation results in lower mineral excretion, particularly in an organic form.

  3. Global Activism and Social Transformation vis-à-vis Dominant Forms of Economic Organization: Critical Education within Afro-Brazilian and Transnational Pedagogical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossatto, César

    2015-01-01

    Masses of colonial workers are situating their free-for-all labor efforts in a global context due to dominant forms of organization based on a neoliberalist and corporate market economy. New social movements that show concern for democracy and human rights are challenging capitalist priorities of "efficiency" and exploitation. In some…

  4. POLITICAL VIEW AND ORIENTATION OF THE ROHIS MEMBERS TOWARD THE FORM OF THE STATE AS A TRANSMITTING RELIGIOUS VALUE THROUGH ROHIS ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdul mukti aamwibowo

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing the model of religious value transmission coomunication that occurs in Rohis organization as a form of Islamic proselytizing, at viewing the students’ view toward the form of the state government, and at viewing the political orientation of the Rohis members. By using the qualitative approach, this study has successfully gathered the following findings. First, the model of religious value transmission through the Rohis organization is the one way traffic communication. This transmission process involves communicators namely the mentor, the Rohis coaching teachers, da’i/mubaligh from values mass organization background (political parties and non-government organizations, and alumni. The internalization of such religious attitude has been conducted both verbally and non-verbally using the social media (WhatsApp, Instagram, Twitter, and Line. Second, the Rohis members had peculiar political view and orientation in relation to the leader and the form of the state. In relation to the leader, the Rohis members will vote for the male and Islamic leader. Then, in relation to the form of the state there are two groups among the Rohis members. One group demands the Unified State of Indonesian Republic (NKRI, Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia, while the other group demands the Islamic state. However, the supporters of the unified republic are quite bigger than those of Islamic state

  5. Changes in the organic matter forms in chernozems of the Kamennaya Steppe under different land uses, locations, and hydromorphism degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Cheverdin, Yu. I.; Titova, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    The soils of the Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast) were studied. The rate of changes in the contents of Corg and the particular forms of organic matter (labile, microbial, and stable) were revealed in the quasi-natural soils of the fallows and shelterbelt and in the arable soils (rainfed farming for 12, 55, 85, and 115 yrs and irrigated farming for 40 yrs) of different positions on the watersheds and slopes. The effect of the increased soil moistening in the recent decades was also studied. In the upper 50 cm of the fallow soils that were not plowed since 1882, the relative Corg accumulation in the recent 30 yrs has amounted to 5%. The soils of the shelterbelt planted in 1903 were similar to the fallow soils. As compared to the soil of the unmown fallow, the Corg loss from the 1-m soil layer under the shelterbelt and the 12-year-old cropland were less than 9%; the losses from the plowed soils (used for 55-115 yrs) were 21-27% on the watersheds and 37-46% on the slopes. In the first decade, the rate of the Corg losses in the 0- to 20-cm layer of the cultivated chernozem was 120 g C/m2. With the increasing duration of the soil plowing (from 55 to 115 yrs), the Corg losses decreased from 45 to 28 g C/m2 per yr in the watershed soils and from 51 to 35 g C/m2 per yr in the soils on the slopes. The maximum loss of Corg was found for the soils on slopes, waterlogged soils, and irrigated soils. In the slope soils, the Corg loss due to erosion was 9-18% of the total. In the upper horizons of the old agrogenic soils, compared to the soil of the unmown fallow, the Cha/Cfa increased, since the content of fulvic acids (FA) faster decreased than that of the humic acids (HA); the C content of the nonhydrolyzable residue was reduced. The slope and waterlogged soils differed from the watershed soils in the smaller amounts of HA and FA and in the greater content of humin carbon. In the 0- to 20-cm layer of the soils studied, the rate of the basal respiration (BR) was 0.2-0.5 μg C

  6. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  7. The association between hypertension-specific care management processes and blood pressure outcomes in US-based physician organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ken; Smalarz, Amy; Wu, Ning; Boulanger, Luke; Wogen, Jenifer

    2011-01-01

    Care management processes (CMP) may be implemented in health systems to improve chronic disease quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the presence of hypertension-specific CMP and blood pressure (BP) control among hypertensive patients within selected physician organizations in the USA-modified version of the Physician Practice Connection Readiness Survey (PPC-RS), developed by The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), was administered to chief medical officers at 28 US-based physician organizations in 2010. Hypertension-specific survey items were added to the PPC-RS and focused on medication fill compliance, chronic disease management, and patient self-management. Demographic and clinical cross-sectional data from a random sample of 300 hypertensive patients age 18 years or older were collected at each site. Physician site and patient characteristics were reported. Regression models were used to assess the relationship between hypertension-specific physician practices and patient BP control. Eligible patients had at least a 1-year history of care with the physician organization and had an encounter within the past year of data collection. Of the 28 participating sites, most had electronic medical records that handle total functionality (71.4%) and had more than 50 staff members (78.6%). Across all sites, approximately 61% of patients had controlled BP. Regression analyses found that practices that used physician education as an effort to improve medication fill compliance demonstrated improvement in BP control (changes in systolic BP: beta coefficient = -1.366, P = .034; changes in diastolic BP: beta coefficient = -0.859, P = .056). The use of a systematic process to screen or assess patients for hypertension as a risk factor was also found to be associated with improvements in BP control (changes in diastolic BP: beta coefficient = -0.860, P = .006). In addition, physician practices that maintained a list

  8. ORAL LONG-ACTING PHARMACEUTICAL FORM OF INSULIN ON THE BASIS OF SELF-ORGANIZING KVASI-LIVING SYSTEM OF COMBINATORIAL PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosalskaya T.N.,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of studies on physical and chemical properties of kvasi-living self-organizing insulin-based system, and on the effectiveness of its oral administration. The purpose of the studies was to modify positively charged amino acid residues into negatively charged residues of dicarboxylic acids. The process of bioorganic combinatorial synthesis produced more than 100 thousand fragments capable of self-organization in the insulin receptor. Self-organization is due to the fact that peptides were previously a part of the whole – namely, insulin molecule. These peptides had small size, and could be easily absorbed by intestines. They also had a long duration of circulation in blood and reacted with insulin receptor in a fashion similar to injected insulin. It is shown that a single oral application of such system leads to statistically significant and sustained reduction in blood glucose levels within 24 hours of application. The effect is observed in both cases: while taking the drug on an empty stomach, and with glucose and food load up to 7.11 mmol / L. A single dose of the drug led to a plateau of stable glucose levels and prevented hypoglycemia and glucose level jumps when applied to rats (control group. The kvasi-living system was obtained by partial proteolysis of recombinant insulin with pepsin, followed by partial modification of peptides with succinic anhydride

  9. Deceased Organ Donors With a History of Increased Risk Behavior for the Transmission of Blood-Borne Viral Infection: The UK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.

  10. Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of Airborne Fungi in the Ambient Air of Milad Hospital, Blood Transfusion Organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently contact with bioaerosols has been presented as an important problem which endangers human being’s health. The aim of this investigation is to compare potential of separation of fungal aerosols in the air around Tehran’s Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and waste water treatment plant of Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods. methods: this cross-sectional investigation was done in Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods waste water treatment plant within for 4 months. The sampling was done passively for 1 hour and once in 6 days. The culture medium was Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: comparing selected sampling stations the most fungal density was for 100 meters after the last unit of waste water treatment plant (67 CFU and the least density was for Milad hospital (30 CFU. Dominant genera of fungal in waste water treatment plant and blood transfusion organization was related to Cladosporium (in order of 49% and 84% and in air around Milad hospital was related to Alternaria (47%. Conclusion: according to the results processing and operating sections in waste water treatment plant can be effective in fungal density and separation of bioaerosols. Therefore it seems to be vital that the responsible organizations should do necessary actions to develop guidelines and standards related to bioaerosols. Also appropriate administration of environmental health in waste water treatment plant can be an important factor in reduction of aerosol separation.

  11. Exchange of organic radicals with organo-cobalt complexes formed in the living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; de Bruin, B.; Peng, C.-H.; Fryd, M.; Wayland, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of organic radicals between solution and organo-cobalt complexes is experimentally observed and the reaction pathway is probed through DFT calculations. Cyanoisopropyl radicals from AIBN (2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile) enter solutions of cobalt(II) tetramesityl porphyrin ((TMP)Co-II center

  12. A tetrapyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core forms metal-organic frameworks with PtS type architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Christopher B; Vukotic, V Nicholas; Sirizzotti, Natalie M; Loeb, Stephen J

    2011-08-14

    A new tetradentate, pyridine ligand with a rigid tetrahedral core can be prepared in good yield by a cross-coupling methodology. Two metal organic framework structures of Cu(II) with PtS-type topology having a carbon atom as the tetrahedral node have been characterized utilising this ligand. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  13. Investigating Science Student Teachers' Ideas about Function and Anatomical Form of Two Human Sensory Organs, the Eye and the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunt, Halil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine science student teachers' level of knowledge about the anatomical structure of two sensory organs, the eye and the ear, in addition to vision and hearing processes. Conducted with 86 science student teachers, research utilized drawing methods and open-ended questions as data collection instruments. The…

  14. 75 FR 74935 - Rescission of Form T-1, Trust Annual Report; Requiring Subsidiary Organization Reporting on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... labor organization, direct or indirect loans (in excess of $250 aggregate) to any officer, employee, or... controlling the allocation of labor costs between wages and benefits, the commenter concurred with the... Part IV Department of Labor Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Part 403 Rescission of...

  15. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  16. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, C K; Liu, Y; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of 2 high-protein canola meals (canola meal A [CMA]: 45.69% CP and canola meal B [CMB]: 46.97% CP) and a conventional canola meal (CM-CV: 35.10% CP) on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood parameters of weanling pigs. Inclusion rates of canola meal (CM) in the diets were 10, 20, 30, or 40% for CMA and CM-CV, whereas inclusions were 10, 20, or 30% for CMB. A control diet containing no CM was also formulated. Therefore, 12 diets were used in this experiment. A total of 420 pigs (initial BW: 9.8 ± 1.1 kg) were divided into 3 blocks and randomly allotted to 1 of the 12 diets with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 4 or 5 pigs per pen. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and at the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig in each pen was euthanized to allow measurements of organ weights, collection of blood, and collection of the third and fourth metacarpals from the left foot. Results indicate that ADFI was linearly (P ash percentage in the metacarpals. Inclusion of CMA or CM-CV linearly (P < 0.05) decreased concentrations of serum triiodothyronine, and the inclusion of CMA also linearly (P < 0.05) decreased serum thyroxine concentrations. No differences were observed for complete blood counts or blood urea nitrogen if CM was added to the diets. In conclusion, up to 20% high-protein CM or CM-CV may be included in diets for weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning without reducing growth performance or negatively affecting organ, bone, or blood parameters. In some instances, it may also be possible to use greater inclusion rates.

  17. Tetra- and hexavalent uranium forms bidentate-mononuclear complexes with particulate organic matter in a naturally uranium-enriched peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikutta, Christian; Langner, Peggy; Bargar, John R.

    2016-01-01

    % organic C, 4.1-58.6 g/kg Fe, and up to 335 mg/kg geogenic U. Uranium was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the micrometer scale and enriched as both U(IV) and U(VI) on fibrous and woody plant debris (48 ± 10% U(IV), x̅ ± σ, n = 22). Bulk U X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy...

  18. Nighttime Systolic Blood-Pressure Load Is Correlated with Target-Organ Damage Independent of Ambulatory Blood-Pressure Level in Patients with Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available The impacts of blood pressure (BP load on target-organ damage in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are largely unclear. We examined whether BP load is correlated with target-organ damage (TOD in Chinese CKD patients independent of BP level.We recruited 1219 CKD patients admitted to our hospital division in this cross-sectional study. The TOD were measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, proteinuria, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in this study. Univariate and multivariate linear analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP load, diastolic blood pressure (DBP load and these renal, cardiovascular parameters.In multivariable-adjusted models, BP load and ambulatory BP levels both independently correlated with LVMI, eGFR and proteinuria in all groups of CKD patients (p0.008, P<0.05 in multivariable-adjusted model which already including the 24-h BP. BP load did not refine this correlation based on the 24-h BP level in diabetic CKD patients.Night-time SBP load was correlated with TOD in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease independent of BP level.

  19. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in sea water. Part 3. Practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Majchrowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to a close our cycle of articles on modelling the light absorption properties of particulate organic matter (POM in the sea. In the first two parts of this cycle (Woźniaket al. 2005a,b we discussed these properties with reference to various model chemical classes and physical types of POM. We have put these results into practice in the present third part. As a result of the appropriate theoretical speculations, logically underpinned by empirical knowledge, we selected 25 morphological variants of marine organic detritus, to which we ascribed definite chemical compositions and physical types. On this basis and using known spectra of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by various naturally occurring organic substances (systematised in Parts 1 and 2, we determined the absorption properties of these 25 morphological groups of particles, that is, the spectra of the imaginary part of the refractive index n'p(λ (in the 200-700 nm range of the particulate matter. They can be applied, with the aid of Mie's or some other similar theory, to calculate the bulk optical properties (absorbing and scattering of such sets of particles in the sea.

  20. Study of the Thermal Properties and the Fire Performance of Flame Retardant-Organic PCM in Bulk Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Anabel; De Gracia, Alvaro; Haurie, Laia; Cabeza, Luisa F; Fernández, A Inés; Barreneche, Camila

    2018-01-12

    The implementation of organic phase change materials (PCMs) in several applications such as heating and cooling or building comfort is an important target in thermal energy storage (TES). However, one of the major drawbacks of organic PCMs implementation is flammability. The addition of flame retardants to PCMs or shape-stabilized PCMs is one of the approaches to address this problem and improve their final deployment in the building material sector. In this study, the most common organic PCM, Paraffin RT-21, and fatty acids mixtures of capric acid (CA), myristic acid (MA), and palmitic acid (PA) in bulk, were tested to improve their fire reaction. Several flame retardants, such as ammonium phosphate, melamine phosphate, hydromagnesite, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide, were tested. The properties of the improved PCM with flame retardants were characterized by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), the dripping test, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results for the dripping test show that fire retardancy was considerably enhanced by the addition of hydromagnesite (50 wt %) and magnesium hydroxide (50 wt %) in fatty acids mixtures. This will help the final implementation of these enhanced PCMs in building sector. The influence of the addition of flame retardants on the melting enthalpy and temperatures of PCMs has been evaluated.

  1. Study of the Thermal Properties and the Fire Performance of Flame Retardant-Organic PCM in Bulk Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Palacios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of organic phase change materials (PCMs in several applications such as heating and cooling or building comfort is an important target in thermal energy storage (TES. However, one of the major drawbacks of organic PCMs implementation is flammability. The addition of flame retardants to PCMs or shape-stabilized PCMs is one of the approaches to address this problem and improve their final deployment in the building material sector. In this study, the most common organic PCM, Paraffin RT-21, and fatty acids mixtures of capric acid (CA, myristic acid (MA, and palmitic acid (PA in bulk, were tested to improve their fire reaction. Several flame retardants, such as ammonium phosphate, melamine phosphate, hydromagnesite, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide, were tested. The properties of the improved PCM with flame retardants were characterized by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, the dripping test, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results for the dripping test show that fire retardancy was considerably enhanced by the addition of hydromagnesite (50 wt % and magnesium hydroxide (50 wt % in fatty acids mixtures. This will help the final implementation of these enhanced PCMs in building sector. The influence of the addition of flame retardants on the melting enthalpy and temperatures of PCMs has been evaluated.

  2. DNA Damage in Healthy Individuals and Respiratory Patients after Treating Whole Blood In vitro with the Bulk and Nano Forms of NSAIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Normington, Charmaine; Jacob, Badie K.; Isreb, Mohammad; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Anderson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e....

  3. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  4. Effect of collagen and elastin content on the burst pressure of human blood vessel seals formed with a bipolar tissue sealing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Cassandra A; Nelson, Meghan; Moore, Camille M; Martin, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar devices are routinely used to seal blood vessels instead of sutures and clips. Recent work examining the impact of vascular proteins on bipolar seal performance found that collagen and elastin (CE) content within porcine arteries was a significant predictor of a vessel's burst pressure (VBPr). This study examined seal performance across a range of human blood vessels to investigate whether a similar relationship existed. In addition, we compared VBPr and CE content between porcine and human blood vessels. Our primary hypothesis is that higher collagen-to-elastin ratio will predict higher VBPr in human vasculature. In six cadavers, 185 blood vessels from nine anatomic locations were sealed using a bipolar electrosurgical system. A linear mixed model framework was used to evaluate the impact of vessel diameter and CE content on VBPr. The effect of CE ratio on VBPr is modified by vessel size, with CE ratio having larger influence on VBPr in smaller diameter vessels. Seal burst pressure of vessels 2-5 mm in diameter was significantly associated with their CE content. Comparison of average VBPr between species revealed porcine carotid and iliac arteries (440-670 mmHg) to be the best vessel types for predicting the seal strength of most human blood vessels (420-570 mmHg) examined. CE content significantly modified the seal strength of small to medium sized blood vessels but had limited impact on vessels >5 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.665, P = 0.866, P = 0.747, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.724), Zn (P = 0.256), Mn (P = 0.888), Co (P = 0.71), or Se (P = 0.588) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were statistically higher at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.021) and CTRL (P 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.001) and CTRL (P = 0.021). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses consuming CTRL (P = 0.01) but not for ADD (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate no effect on nutrient digestibility due to the inclusion of chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract for horses at maintenance.

  6. Determination of cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin and associated metabolites in rat blood and organs by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestremau, F; Willemin, M-E; Chatellier, C; Desmots, S; Brochot, C

    2014-05-01

    An analytical method was developed to measure cis-permethrin and trans-permethrin in different biological rat matrices and fluids (whole blood, red blood cells, plasma, brain, liver, muscle, testes, kidneys, fat and faeces). The method was also suitable for the simultaneous quantification of their associated metabolites [cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA)] in blood (whole blood, red blood cells, plasma) and liver. The target analytes were derivatised in samples using a methanolic/hydrochloric acid solution and then extracted with toluene. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography, and detection using ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The selectivity obtained for complex matrices such as rat organs allowed the use of a purification step to be avoided for most of the matrices investigated. In the case of fat, where permethrin is suspected to accumulate, a dedicated purification step was developed. In fluids, the limits of quantification were at the 50 ng/mL level for the parent compounds and 3-PBA and at 25 ng/mL for cis-DCCA and trans-DCCA. For solid matrices excluding fat, the limits of quantification ranged from 50 ng/g for muscle to 100 ng/g for brain and testes for both cis-permethrin and trans-permethrin. The extraction recoveries ranged primarily between 80 and 120% for the matrix tested. The stability of blood samples was tested through the addition of 1% v/v formic acid. The methods developed were applied in a toxicokinetic study in adult rats. cis-Permethrin and the metabolites were detected in all corresponding matrices, whereas trans-permethrin was detected only in blood, plasma and faeces.

  7. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Fuentes, Cristóbal A; Castillo, Andrés E; González-Gómez, Luis Martín; Vecchiola, Andrea; Fardella, Carlos E; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-06-23

    Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage.

  8. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Muñoz-Durango

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage.

  9. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  10. Bridging Zirconia Nodes within a Metal–Organic Framework via Catalytic Ni-Hydroxo Clusters to Form Heterobimetallic Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platero-Prats, Ana E.; League, Aaron; Bernales Candia, Sandra Varinia; Ye, Jingyun; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Schweitzer, Neil; Li, Zhanyong; Zheng, Jian; Mehdi, Beata L.; Stevens, Andrew J.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Farha, Omar; Hupp, Joseph; Browning, Nigel D.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher; Chapman, Karena W.

    2017-07-24

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with their well-ordered pore networks and tunable surface chemistries, offer a versatile platform for preparing well-defined nanostructures wherein functionality such as catalysis can be incorporated. We resolved the atomic structure of Ni-oxo species deposited in the MOF NU-1000 through atomic layer deposition using local and long-range structure probes, including X-ray absorption spectroscopy, pair distribution function analysis and difference envelope density analysis, with electron microscopy imaging and computational modeling.

  11. Development of a Short Form of the Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex Model to Aid with the Organization of Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Meredith A; Samuel, Douglas B

    2018-02-01

    Although there has been widespread consensus on the use of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality functioning in personality research, there are various, diverse models of the lower order traits of the FFM domains. Given the usefulness of these finer grained traits, it is imperative to integrate facets proposed across a variety of models and eventually reach consensus on the lower level traits of the FFM. Due to its depth and coverage, the Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex (AB5C) model potentially provides a useful framework for organizing various faceted models due to its conceptual organization and inclusiveness. The only measure of this model-the IPIP-AB5C-has shown promise, but is limited by its length (i.e., 485 items). This study developed an abbreviated version of the IPIP-AB5C using an iterative process including item response theory methods. The shorter version maintained key features of the long form including a factor structure that matched the full form as well as facets that correlated in expected ways with other FFM measures. Building on this support, the short form was used to contextualize and organize the facets from 2 commonly used measures.

  12. Liquid biphase systems formed in ternary mixtures of two organic solvents and ethylene oxide oligomers or polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase equilibrium data were determined for ternary systems containing ethylene oxide oligomers or polymers, heptane and one of three organic solvents (methanol, dichloromethane or chloroform. The effects of temperature, of polymer molecular weight and of the chemical nature of the organic solvent on phase equilibrium were investigated. For all the studied systems, the miscibility region was reduced as temperature decreased, indicating an exothermic phase separation process. For both binary and ternary mixtures, the miscibility also decreased as the macromolecule size increased, although this effect was less significant for the ternary mixtures. These features suggest that phase separation is more influenced by enthalpic than entropic contributions. Regarding the different polar solvents investigated, methanol presented a much smaller miscibility region, in accordance with its inferior solvation ability for PEO. The largest miscibility region was observed with chloroform, not much different from the behaviour observed with dichloromethane. Tie lines were determined for some systems, confirming the strong segregation between polymer and the hydrocarbon solvent.

  13. Plant and microbial uptake and allocation of organic and inorganic nitrogen related to plant growth forms and soil conditions at two subarctic tundra sites in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In order to follow the uptake and allocation of N in different plant functional types and microbes in two tundra ecosystems differing in nutrient availability, we performed a 15Nlabeling experiment with three N forms and followed the partitioning of 15N label among plants, microorganisms and soil...... transported a high proportion of 15N to aboveground parts, whereas the dwarf shrubs allocated most 15N to underground storage. Enhanced 13C in Betula nana roots represents the first field evidence of uptake of intact glycine by this important circumpolar plant. Plant and microbial uptake of label...... was complementary as plants took up more inorganic than organic N, while microbes preferred organic N. Microbes initially took up a large part of the added label, but over the following four weeks microbial 15N decreased by 50% and most 15N was recovered in soil organic matter, while a smaller but slowly increasing...

  14. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  16. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  17. Development of bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients predictive models for ionogenic organic chemicals based on chemical form adjusted descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Yang, Xianhai; Chen, Guosong; Liu, Jining; Shi, Lili; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-10-01

    The partition coefficients between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and water (K BSA/w ) for ionogenic organic chemicals (IOCs) were different greatly from those of neutral organic chemicals (NOCs). For NOCs, several excellent models were developed to predict their logK BSA/w . However, it was found that the conventional descriptors are inappropriate for modeling logK BSA/w of IOCs. Thus, alternative approaches are urgently needed to develop predictive models for K BSA/w of IOCs. In this study, molecular descriptors that can be used to characterize the ionization effects (e.g. chemical form adjusted descriptors) were calculated and used to develop predictive models for logK BSA/w of IOCs. The models developed had high goodness-of-fit, robustness, and predictive ability. The predictor variables selected to construct the models included the chemical form adjusted averages of the negative potentials on the molecular surface (V s-adj - ), the chemical form adjusted molecular dipole moment (dipolemoment adj ), the logarithm of the n-octanol/water distribution coefficient (logD). As these molecular descriptors can be calculated from their molecular structures directly, the developed model can be easily used to fill the logK BSA/w data gap for other IOCs within the applicability domain. Furthermore, the chemical form adjusted descriptors calculated in this study also could be used to construct predictive models on other endpoints of IOCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. potential bag filter for volatile organic amines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VADDYPALLY SHIVAIAH

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... be described as a potential bag filter for volatile organic amines. Keywords. Volatile organic amines; hydrogen ..... this bag filter, which can capture volatile amines to form. Figure 8. Thermal ellipsoid plot of ..... huber H, Baumann M and Amann A 2013 Blood and breath levels of selected volatile organic ...

  19. Identification of a 48 kDa form of unconventional myosin 1c in blood serum of patients with autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severyn Myronovkij

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We searched for protein markers present in blood serum of multiple sclerosis (MS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients in comparison to healthy human individuals. We used precipitation/extraction methods and MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, and identified a protein with Mr ~46 kDa as a fragment of human unconventional myosin IC isoform b (Myo1C. Western blotting with specific anti-human Myo1C antibodies confirmed the identity. Screening of blood serum samples from different autoimmune patients for the presence of Myo1c revealed its high level in MS and RA patients, relatively low level in SLE patients, and undetected in healthy donors. These data are suggesting that the level of p46 Myo1C in blood serum is a potential marker for testing of autoimmune diseases.

  20. Roles of singlet oxygen and triplet excited state of dissolved organic matter formed by different organic matters in bacteriophage MS2 inactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Rosado-Lausell, Sahid L.

    2013-09-01

    Inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triplet excited state of dissolved organic matter (3DOM*) produced by irradiation of natural and synthetic sensitizers with simulated sunlight of wavelengths greater than 320nm was investigated. Natural sensitizers included purified DOM isolates obtained from wastewater and river waters, and water samples collected from Singapore River, Stamford Canal, and Marina Bay Reservoir in Singapore. Linear correlations were found between MS2 inactivation rate constants (kobs) and the photo-induced reaction rate constants of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP), a probe compound shown to react mainly with 3DOM*. Linear correlations between MS2 kobs and singlet oxygen (1O2) concentrations were also found for both purified DOM isolates and natural water samples. These correlations, along with data from quenching experiments and experiments with synthetic sensitizers, Rose Bengal (RB), 3\\'-methoxyacetophenone (3\\'-MAP), and nitrite (NO2-), suggest that 1O2, 3DOM*, and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) could inactivate bacteriophage MS2. Linear correlations between MS2 kobs and Specific Ultraviolet Absorption determined at 254nm (SUVA254) were also found for both purified DOM isolates and natural samples. These results suggest the potential use of TMP as a chemical probe and SUVA254 as an indicator for virus inactivation in natural and purified DOM water samples. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. On the volatility and production mechanisms of newly formed nitrate and water soluble organic aerosol in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Hennigan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of atmospheric gases and fine particle chemistry were made in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA at a site ~30 km down wind of the city center. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 dominated the inorganic aerosol fraction and showed a distinct diurnal signature characterized by rapid morning production and a rapid mid-day concentration decrease. Between the hours of 08:00–12:45, particulate water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC concentrations increased and decreased in a manner consistent with that of NO3, and the two were highly correlated (R2=0.88 during this time. A box model was used to analyze these behaviors and showed that, for both NO3 and WSOC, the concentration increase was caused primarily (~75–85% by secondary formation, with a smaller contribution (~15–25% from the entrainment of air from the free troposphere. For NO3, a majority (~60% of the midday concentration decrease was caused by dilution from boundary layer expansion, though a significant fraction (~40% of the NO3 loss was due to particle evaporation. The WSOC concentration decrease was due largely to dilution (~75%, but volatilization did have a meaningful impact (~25% on the decrease, as well. The results provide an estimate of ambient SOA evaporation losses and suggest that a significant fraction (~35% of the fresh MCMA secondary organic aerosol (SOA measured at the surface volatilized.

  2. Monthly variation in faeces:blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life: a case study of one infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqin; McLachlan, Michael S; Kaserzon, Sarit; Wang, Xianyu; Weijs, Liesbeth; Gallen, Michael; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Li, Yan; Aylward, Lesa L; Sly, Peter D; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2('),4,4('),5,5(')-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2('),4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (Kfb) differed significantly (P<0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in Kfb are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated Kfb. A more stable Kfb after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable Kfb values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in Kfb in infants is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Titanium levels in the organs and blood of rats with a titanium implant, in the absence of wear, as determined by double-focusing ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Marchante-Gayon, Juan M.; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Titanium (Ti) has long been regarded as an inert and biocompatible metal, ideal for biomedical applications such as dental implants or joint replacements. However, concerns about the biocompatibility of Ti have lately arisen. Unfortunately, information on reliable Ti baseline physiological levels in blood and organ tissues is still pending and the real effects of physiological corrosion as opposed to wear processes of Ti or Ti alloys implants is controversial so far. In this work a previously developed and validated methodology, based on using double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) has been used to establish Ti basal levels in blood and organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lungs) of Wistar rats. These data were compared with the levels found in three Wistar rats implanted with a Ti wire embedded in their femur for 18 months, in order to assign possible Ti released purely due to non-wear physiological mechanisms. Results showed that Ti content in all the selected organ tissues and blood was higher than previously determined Ti basal levels, clearly showing both corrosion of the Ti implant and systemic Ti accumulation in target tissues. These results indicate that Ti metal corrosion occurs. This seems to be the only mechanism responsible in the long term for the observed passive dissolution of Ti of the implant in the absence of wear. A comparative study of the systemic distribution of the soluble and particulate Ti potentially released from Ti implants was also carried out by intraperitoneally injection of soluble Ti(citrate){sub 3} and insoluble TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively. Different systemic Ti storage was observed. Whereas soluble Ti was rapidly transported to all distal organs under study, TiO{sub 2} particles were only accumulated in lung tissue. (orig.)

  4. Response of the blood clotting system of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, to a novel form of lipopolysaccharide from a green alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Mara L; Pardy, R L; Wainwright, Norman; Child, Alice; Armstrong, Peter B

    2006-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a component of Gram-negative bacteria and is the principal indicator to the innate immune systems of higher animals of a Gram-negative bacterial invasion. LPS activates the blood clotting system of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. By stimulating blood cell degranulation, LPS triggers the release of the proteins of the clotting system from the cells, and by activating a protease cascade that converts coagulogen, a soluble zymogen, to coagulin, the structural protein of the clot, LPS triggers the production of the fibrillar coagulin blood clot. Although originally thought to be restricted to the Gram-negative bacteria and the cyanobacteria, LPS, or a very similar molecule, has recently been described from a eukaryotic green alga, Chlorella. Here we show that, like LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, the algal molecule stimulates exocytosis of the Limulus blood cell and the clotting of coagulin. The coagulin clot efficiently entraps the cells of Chlorella in a network of fibrils. Invasion and erosion of the carapace by green algae is an important cause of mortality of Limulus, and it is suggested that the cellular response to aLPS may contribute to defense against this pathogen.

  5. The A[subscript 1c] Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The glycated hemoglobin blood test, usually designated as the A[subscript 1c] test, is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.…

  6. SATURATION OF THE SURFACE LAYER OF THE MIRROR CYLINDER OF PISTON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IS HIGHLY ORGANIZED FORMS OF CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Dorokhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of the real research also is consideration of a problem of creation in a blanket of a mirror of the working cylinder of the structure providing antiwear and antifrictional properties.Methods. Opening of new forms of carbon - fullerenes and studying of their properties has channelized development of micromechanics of friction and wear on the basis of formation of new qualities of a blanket in couples of friction by saturation of its crystal structure by convex many-sided molecules of fullerenes, mainly to C60 and C70.Results. In such cases the most acceptable will be technologies of drawing, for example – by means of a bezabrazivny honingovaniye (charging of DVS cylinders. And new in this direction the fact that in this case the aim of introduction of fullerenes, by means of their diffusion, in a crystal lattice of a blanket of the detail which is exposed to friction and wear is pursued is important.Conclusion. It is proved that the combination of temperature, barometric and intense factors at introduction of an implant in a blanket creates an opportunity to avoid during the operation of the engine of emergence of the thermoelastic forces seeking to push out bezabrazivny structure from hollows of a microrelief of rings and rest friction forces.

  7. HIV-1 infected lymphoid organs upregulate expression and release of the cleaved form of uPAR that modulates chemotaxis and virus expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Nebuloni

    Full Text Available Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR and cleaved (c-suPAR form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity of disease, levels of immune activation and ineffective immune recovery also in individuals receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART. However, it is unknown whether and which suPAR forms might contribute to HIV-1 induced pathogenesis and to the related state of immune activation. In this regard, lymphoid organs represent an import site of chronic immune activation and virus persistence even in individuals receiving cART. Lymphoid organs of HIV-1(+ individuals showed an enhanced number of follicular dendritic cells, macrophages and endothelial cells expressing the cell-associated uPAR in comparison to those of uninfected individuals. In order to investigate the potential role of suPAR forms in HIV-1 infection of secondary lymphoid organs, tonsil histocultures were established from HIV-1 seronegative individuals and infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. The levels of suPAR and c-suPAR were significantly increased in HIV-infected tonsil histocultures supernatants in comparison to autologous uninfected histocultures. Supernatants from infected and uninfected cultures before and after immunodepletion of suPAR forms were incubated with the chronically infected promonocytic U1 cell line characterized by a state of proviral latency in unstimulated conditions. In the contest of HIV-conditioned supernatants we established that c-suPAR, but not suPAR, inhibited chemotaxis and induced virus expression in U1 cells. In conclusion, lymphoid organs are an important site of production and release of both suPAR and c-suPAR, this latter form being endowed with the capacity of

  8. Bioavailability and microbial adaptation to elevated levels of uranium in an acid, organic topsoil forming on an old mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joner, E.J.; Munier-Lamy, C.; Gouget, B.

    2007-01-01

    An old mine spoil at a 19. century mining site with considerable residues of uranium (400-800 mg U/kg) was investigated with respect to U concentrations in soil and plants and tolerance to U in the soil microbial community in order to describe the bioavailability of U. Measurements of soil fractions representing water-soluble U, easily exchangeable U, and U bound to humidified organic matter showed that all fractions contained elevated concentrations of U. Plant U concentrations were only 10 times higher at the mine spoil site compared to the reference site (3 mg U/kg vs 0.3 mg U/kg), while the most easily available soil fractions contained 0.18 to 0.86 mg U/kg soil at the mine spoil. An eco-toxicity bioassay using incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the indigenous microbial communities of the two soils in the presence of increasing U concentrations showed that microorganisms at the mining site were sensitive to U but also that they had acquired a substantial tolerance toward U (EC50, the effective concentration reducing activity by 50% of UO 2 -citrate was similar to 120 μM as compared to 30 μM in the reference soil). In the assay, more than 40% of the microbial activity was maintained in the presence of 1 mM UO 2 -citrate versus 3% in the reference soil. We conclude that U-enriched mining waste can contain sufficiently elevated concentrations of bio-available U to affect indigenous microorganisms and that bio-available U imposes a selection pressure that favors the development of a highly uranium-tolerant microbial community, while plant uptake of U remains low. (authors)

  9. Synthesis, characterizations and applications of some nanomaterials (TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures, ZnO structures and CNT-blood platelet clusters)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, O. N.; Srivastava, A.; Dash, D.; Singh, D. P.; Yadav, R. M.; Mishra, P. R.; Singh, J.

    2005-10-01

    TiO_{2} nanostructured films have been synthesized by the hydrolysis of Ti[OCH(CH_{3})_{2}]_{4} as the precursor. These films have been utilized for the dissociation of phenol contaminant in water. Free-standing nanostructured film of silicon carbide (SiC) has been synthesized, employing a simple and new route of spray pyrolysis technique utilizing a slurry of Si in hexane. Another study is done on organized carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. These are made in the form of hollow cylinders (50 mm length, 4 mm diameter and 1.5 mm wall thickness). These CNT-based cylinders are made of conventional CNT and bamboo-shaped CNT. The filtrations of heavy hydrocarbons and E. coli bacteria from water have been carried out. In addition to this, ZnO nanostructures have also been studied. Another study concerns CNT-blood platelet clusters.

  10. The effects of sulforaphane on the liver and remote organ damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion model formed with pringle maneuver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Abdullah; Kapan, Murat; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Alabalik, Ulas; Ulger, Burak Veli; Uslukaya, Omer; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Polat, Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Sulforaphane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR) injury of the liver and distant organs resulting from liver blood flow arrest. Fourty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, each included 10 rats were used. Group I as only laparatomy, Group II laparatomy and Sulforaphane application, Group III hepatic IR; and Group IV as hepatic IR and Sulforaphane application group. Animals were subjected to liver ischemia for 30 min and then reperfusion is started. 5 mg/kg Sulforaphane was applied via oral lavage 15 minutes before initiating the experimental study. Blood samples were taken from the animals for biochemical analysis at 60th minutes of the experiment in the first and second groups; 30 minutes after beginning reperfusion in the third and forth groups. Simultaneously, liver, lung and kidney tissues were sampled for biochemical and histopathological examinations. The administration of sulforaphane significantly reduced the serum TOA and liver TOA levels, increased the serum TAC and liver TAC levels and also decreased The OSI and liver OSI levels. In the histopathologic examination, the injury was reduced by the administration of sulforaphane. Administration of sulforaphane did not lead to any significant changes in any parameter including histopathological parameters in both the kidney and the lung. Sulforaphane reduced the liver oxidative stress from I/R injury. A histological injury in liver was reduced by sulforaphane administration. However, there were no significant effects of sulforaphane on the remote organ injuries induced by IR. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of esomeprazole and pantoprazole in dosage forms and spiked human plasma using organized media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Fathalla; Sharaf El-Din, Mohie; Tolba, Manar M; Alaa, Heba

    2015-05-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of esomeprazole (EMZ) and pantoprazole (PRZ) in their pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma. The proposed method is based on the fluorescence spectral behavior of EMZ in methanol in the presence of 0.1 m NaOH containing 0.5% methyl cellulose (MC) at 306/345 nm. The fluorescence intensity of EMZ was enhanced about 1.3-fold and good linearity in the range 0.4-4.0 µg/mL with a lower detection limit of 0.04 µg/mL and lower quantification limit of 0.14 µg/mL. For PRZ, its methanolic solution exhibited marked native fluorescence at 290/325 nm after enhancement (about 2.1- or 1.4-fold) using either 0.025% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 0.05% MC in the presence of 0.2 m borate buffer of pH 9.5. The fluorescence-concentration plots of PRZ were rectilinear over the ranges 0.2-2.0 and 0.3-3.0 µg/mL with lower detection limits of 0.02 and 0.03 µg/mL and lower quantification limits of 0.07 and 0.09 µg/mL using sodium dodecyl sulfate and MC, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of EMZ and PRZ in their commercial dosage forms and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with the comparison method. Furthermore, in a preliminary investigation, the proposed method was extended to the in vitro determination of the two drugs in spiked human plasma and the results were satisfactory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Chemical properties of various organic electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Pt. 1.. Characterization of passivating layer formed on graphite in alkyl carbonate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Shoichiro; Asahina, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yonei, Ayako; Yokoto, Kiyomi [Tsukuba Research Center, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The characteristics and reaction mechanisms of the passivating film formed on the surface of graphite were investigated in ethylene carbonate-diethyl carbonate solutions containing LiClO{sub 4}, LiPF{sub 6} and LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}. The electron consumption resulting on the irreversible capacity of graphite was almost equivalent to that used in the one-electron reduction of Li{sup +} found in the film. The electrochemical reactions in the first discharge process may be divided into the following steps: (i) `initial film formation step` from 1.4 to 0.55 V; (ii) `main film formation step` from 0.55 to 0.2 V, and (iii) `lithium intercalation step from 0.2 to 0.0 V. Most of the passivating film is formed together with the lithium intercalation reaction at step (ii). The passivating film formed at this step contained a significant amount of organic film such as EtOCO{sub 2}Li, (CH{sub 2}OCO{sub 2}Li){sub 2}, etc. Through the consecutive formation of passivating film at steps (i) and (ii), lithium intercalation into graphite proceeds smoothly without further decomposition of organic electrolyte. (orig.)

  13. Headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of hydroxylic methyl-derivatized and volatile organic compounds in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Ilpo; Viinamäki, Jenni; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2010-04-01

    A novel headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ITEX-GC-MS) approach was developed for broad-scale analysis of low molecular weight organic compounds in blood and/or urine. One sample was analyzed following in-vial derivatization with dimethyl sulfate for ethylene glycol (EG), glycolic acid (GA), formic acid (FA), other hydroxylic compounds, and another sample for underivatized volatile organic compounds. Tenax adsorbent resin was used in the microtrap, and a porous layer, open tubular GC capillary column was used for separation. MS was operated in the full-scan mode, identification was based on the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System, and quantification was based on extracted ions. The limits of quantification for EG, GA, and FA in blood were 10, 50, and 30 mg/L, respectively, and the expanded uncertainties of measurement were 20%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. The procedure allowed for the first time the inclusion of EG and GA as their methyl derivatives within a quantitative HS analysis. The ITEX method described here was more sensitive for analysis of volatile organic compounds than the corresponding static headspace analysis as demonstrated for 11 representative compounds.

  14. Do we need more than just powerful blood pressure reductions? New paradigms in end-organ protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Galzerano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Galzerano1, Cristina Capogrosso1, Sara Di Michele2, Emanuele Bobbio3, Paola Paparello1, Carlo Gaudio21Department of Cardiology, San Gennaro Hospital, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Heart and Great Vessels, A. Reale, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Federico II University, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Antihypertensive therapy can lower the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Yet, partly because of inadequate dosing, wrong pharmacological choices, and poor patient adherence, hypertension control remains suboptimal in the majority of hypertensive patients. Achieving greater blood pressure control requires a multifaceted approach that raises awareness of hypertension, uses effective therapies, and improves adherence. Particular classes of antihypertensive therapy have beneficial actions beyond blood pressure and studies have evaluated differences in cardiovascular protection among classes. The LIFE and HOPE studies showed between-class differences that may be due to effects other than blood pressure-lowering. In the ONTARGET study, telmisartan and ramipril provided similar cardiovascular protection but adherence was higher with telmisartan, which was better tolerated. This difference in compliance is likely to be important for long-term therapy. The selection of an agent for cardiovascular protection should depend on an appreciation of its composite properties, including any beneficial effects on tolerability and increased patient adherence, as these are likely to be advantageous for the long-term management of hypertension. This review examines the evidence that the effects beyond blood pressure provided by some antihypertensive agents can also lower the risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal events in patients with hypertension.Keywords: angiotensin II receptor blocker, cardiovascular continuum, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, renin–angiotensin system, telmisartan

  15. Organ and Tissue-specific Sucrose Transporters. Important Hubs in Gene and Metabolite Networks Regulating Carbon Use in Wood-forming Tissues of Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Scott A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Tsai, Chung-Jui [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The overall project objective was to probe the relationship between sucrose transporters and plant productivity in the biomass for biofuels woody perennial, Populus. At the time the proposal was written, sucrose transporters had already been investigated in many plant model systems, primarily with respect to the export of photosynthate sucrose from source leaves, and the uptake of sucrose in storage organs and seeds. Preliminary findings by the PI found that in Populus, sucrose transporter genes (SUTs) were well expressed in wood-forming tissues that comprise the feedstock for biofuels production. Because sucrose comprises by far the predominant form in which photosynthate is delivered from source organs to sink organs like roots and wood-forming tissues, SUTs control a gate that nominally at least could impact the allocation or partitioning of sucrose for potentially competing end uses like growth (stem biomass) and storage. In addition, water use might be conditioned by the way in which sucrose is distributed throughout the plant, and/or by the way in which sucrose is partitioned intracellularly. Several dozen transgenic lines were produced in year 1 of the project to perturb the expression ratio of multiple plasma membrane (PM) SUTs (intercellular trafficking), versus the single tonoplast membrane (TM) sucrose transporter that effectively regulates intracellular trafficking of sucrose. It was possible to obtain transgenic lines with dual SUT gene knockdown using the 35S promoter, but not the wood-specific TUA1 promoter. By the end of project year 2, a decision was made to work with the 35S plants while archiving the TUA1 plants. The PhD candidate charged with producing the transgenic lines abandoned the project during its second year, substantially contributing to the decision to operate with just the 35S lines. That student’s interests ranged more toward evolutionary topics, and a report on SUT gene evolution was published (Peng et al 2014).

  16. Is liberal independent dental practice in danger? Assessing forms of dental practice in the European Regional Organization (ERO) zone of the FDI World Dental Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Seeberger, Gerhard Konrad; Callaway, Angelika; Briseño-Marroquín, Benjamín; Rusca, Philippe; Frank, Michael; Otterbach, Ernst-Jürgen

    2018-02-26

    A trend towards increasingly new forms of dental practice has been observed in the FDI World Dental Federation. Elementary foundations such as the free dentist and therapy choice, and independent, free, self-responsible professional practice may be undermined. The current study is aimed at analyzing the general training framework, organization, and professional types of dental practice in the European Regional Organization (ERO) zone and at critically discussing selected aspects of changes in the dental profession. A questionnaire was developed by the ERO Working-Group "Liberal Dental Practice." Information about dental schools, professional organizations, dental practice regulations, and ambulatory healthcare centers was analyzed. Self-employed dental practice is the most common type of practice (51.7%). Dentists are allowed to work independently immediately after graduation (72.7%). Approximately one-third are organized as compulsory members in chambers/corporations. The density of dentists has a mean of 1,570 inhabitants per dentist. In most countries, there are no special rules for founding dental ambulatory healthcare centers. In a total of 353 universities of the ERO countries surveyed, 16,619 dentists per year were trained, with a trend toward a higher percentage of female students (63%). Despite modern forms of dental practice, the charter of the individual liberal dental profession (CED et al, 2013) should be respected and taken into account on the basis of ethical principles. The commercialization of the dental profession can be neutralized only by establishing and following well-defined ethical principles; oral healthcare quality can thus be ensured without the influence of third parties.

  17. Seeds Of Life In Space (SOLIS): The Organic Composition Diversity at 300-1000 au Scale in Solar-type Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Neri, R.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Codella, C.; Feng, S.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Lefloch, B.; Pineda, J. E.; Vastel, C.; Alves, F.; Bachiller, R.; Balucani, N.; Bianchi, E.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Chacón-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Coutens, A.; Dulieu, F.; Favre, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Holdship, J.; Kahane, C.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Laas, J.; Ospina, J.; Oya, Y.; Podio, L.; Pon, A.; Punanova, A.; Quenard, D.; Rimola, A.; Sakai, N.; Sims, I. R.; Spezzano, S.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theulé, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Viti, S.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Yamamoto, S.

    2017-12-01

    Complex organic molecules have been observed for decades in the interstellar medium. Some of them might be considered as small bricks of the macromolecules at the base of terrestrial life. It is hence particularly important to understand organic chemistry in Solar-like star-forming regions. In this article, we present a new observational project: Seeds Of Life In Space (SOLIS). This is a Large Project using the IRAM-NOEMA interferometer, and its scope is to image the emission of several crucial organic molecules in a sample of Solar-like star-forming regions in different evolutionary stages and environments. Here we report the first SOLIS results, obtained from analyzing the spectra of different regions of the Class 0 source NGC 1333-IRAS4A, the protocluster OMC-2 FIR4, and the shock site L1157-B1. The different regions were identified based on the images of formamide (NH2CHO) and cyanodiacetylene (HC5N) lines. We discuss the observed large diversity in the molecular and organic content, both on large (3000-10,000 au) and relatively small (300-1000 au) scales. Finally, we derive upper limits to the methoxy fractional abundance in the three observed regions of the same order of magnitude of that measured in a few cold prestellar objects, namely ˜ {10}-12-10-11 with respect to H2 molecules. Based on observations carried out under project number L15AA with the IRAM-NOEMA interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  18. [Form tendency and bio-availability dynamics of Cu and Zn in different farm soils after application of organic fertilizer of livestock and poultry manures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, He-ping; Li, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Su, De-chun

    2015-01-01

    Soil incubation experiments were conducted with different sources of manures containing heavy metals to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cu and Zn) and their form transformation in different soils. This study may assist in developing strategies to ascertain the loads of heavy metals which entered into soils together with manures, and promote policies to evaluate the ecological risk in agriculture soils. The results showed that, during the six months of soil incubation, the pH value of acidic soil increased and the pH value of calcareous soil reduced. After adding chicken manures, the contents of available Cu in both calcareous and acid soils were significant lower than those in the equivalent inorganic salt treatments, but there was no significant difference between the treatments in the contents of available Zn in both calcareous and acid soils. Furthermore, there were also no significant differences between pig matures and the equivalent inorganic salt treatments in the contents of available Cu and Zn in both calcareous and acid soils. The results of form tendency showed that the main forms of Cu and Zn in both calcareous and acid soils, which entered into soils together with manures, were exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides, and organic. And the proportions of different heavy metals species in calcareous and acid soils were different with different manures sources. After six months of incubation, the contents of exchangeable and Fe-Mn oxides Cu, Zn were lower than those in the equivalent inorganic salt treatments, the contents of organics Cu and Zn were higher than those in the equivalent inorganic salt treatments, and other Cu and Zn forms in soils showed no difference with inorganic salt treatments.

  19. Exciplex-Forming Co-Host-Based Red Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Long Operational Stability and High Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hyun; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2017-02-01

    The use of exciplex forming cohosts and phosphors incredibly boosts the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by providing a barrier-free charge injection into an emitting layer and a broad recombination zone. However, most of the efficient OLEDs based on the exciplex forming cohosts has suffered from the short operational lifetime. Here, we demonstrated phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs) having both high efficiency and long lifetime by using a new exciplex forming cohost composed of N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-3,1-diyl))tris(diphenylphosphine oxide) (PO-T2T). The red-emitting PhOLEDs using the exciplex forming cohost achieved a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 34.1% and power efficiency of 62.2 lm W 1- with low operating voltages and low efficiency roll-offs. More importantly, the device demonstrated a long lifetime around 2249 h from 1000 cd m -2 to 900 cd m -2 (LT 90 ) under a continuous flow of constant current. The efficiencies of the devices are the highest for red OLEDs with an LT 90 > 1000 h.

  20. Control of blood pressure and prevention of end-organ damage in patients with accelerated hypertension by combination with arotinolol and extended release nifedipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Nakamoto, H; Nemoto, H; Sugahara, S; Okada, H

    2000-03-01

    In patients with accelerated (malignant) hypertension, end-organ damage is the determinant factor for prognosis. Although recent advances in antihypertensive therapy have improved the outcome of patients with accelerated hypertension, the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy still remains less convinced. In this study, we followed 13 patients clinically diagnosed with accelerated hypertension (defined as diastolic blood pressure > 130 mmHg, retinopathy with K-W IV and accelerated renal impairment) for 3 yr. One patient died due to acute myocardial infarction arising from poor compliance with antihypertensive therapy. One patient was maintained on hemodialysis for 3 yr. One patient was introduced for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for a year and then lived without dialysis therapy. The remaining 10 patients were followed for 3 yr. All patients were initially treated with intravenous administration of calcium antagonist for reduction of blood pressure, followed by hemodialysis therapy if needed. After stabilization of blood pressure, combination therapy with extended release nifedipine (40 to 80 mg daily) and arotinolol (20 mg daily) was started. The targets for blood pressure control were a systolic pressure of 135 mmHg and a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg. If blood pressure control was unsatisfactory, guanabenz (2 to 4 mg before bedtime), a central acting drug, was added. At presentation, the mean diastolic blood pressure (mDBP) among the 10 remaining patients was 134 +/- 2 mmHg, the mean serum creatinine (mScr) was 4.5 +/- 0.7 mg/dl and the left ventricular mass index (LVMi) as measured by echocardiography was 150 +/- 9 g/m2. At 1 yr, the mDBP was reduced to 90 +/- 3 mmHg, the mScr to 2.9 +/- 0.9 mg/dl and the LVMi to 140 +/- 9 g/m2. At 3 yr, the mDBP was stabilized at 79 +/- 3 mmHg, the mScr maintained at 2.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, and the LVMi reduced to 128 +/- 9 g/m2. These results indicate that appropriate blood pressure control is important for

  1. Monthly variation in faeces:blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life: a case study of one infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiqin; McLachlan, Michael S.; Kaserzon, Sarit; Wang, Xianyu; Weijs, Liesbeth; Gallen, Michael; Toms, Leisa-Maree L.; Li, Yan; Aylward, Lesa L.; Sly, Peter D.; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2 ′ ,4,4 ′ ,5,5 ′ -Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) and 2,2 ′ ,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p′-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K fb ) differed significantly (P<0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K fb are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K fb . A more stable K fb after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K fb values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K fb in infants is worthy of further investigation. - Highlights: • Measured POPs concentrations in faecal samples decreased rapidly following weaning. • Ratio of faecal:blood concentrations (K fb ) changed over the first

  2. Cord Blood Banking for Potential Future Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T; Lubin, Bertram H; Cairo, Mitchell S; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2017-11-01

    This policy statement is intended to provide information to guide pediatricians, obstetricians, and other medical specialists and health care providers in responding to parents' questions about cord blood donation and banking as well as the types (public versus private) and quality of cord blood banks. Cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with some fatal diseases. Cord blood transplantation offers another method of definitive therapy for infants, children, and adults with certain hematologic malignancies, hemoglobinopathies, severe forms of T-lymphocyte and other immunodeficiencies, and metabolic diseases. The development of universal screening for severe immunodeficiency assay in a growing number of states is likely to increase the number of cord blood transplants. Both public and private cord blood banks worldwide hold hundreds of thousands of cord blood units designated for the treatment of fatal or debilitating illnesses. The procurement, characterization, and cryopreservation of cord blood is free for families who choose public banking. However, the family cost for private banking is significant and not covered by insurance, and the unit may never be used. Quality-assessment reviews by several national and international accrediting bodies show private cord blood banks to be underused for treatment, less regulated for quality control, and more expensive for the family than public cord blood banks. There is an unquestionable need to study the use of cord blood banking to make new and important alternative means of reconstituting the hematopoietic blood system in patients with malignancies and blood disorders and possibly regenerating tissue systems in the future. Recommendations regarding appropriate ethical and operational standards (including informed consent policies, financial disclosures, and conflict-of-interest policies) are provided for physicians, institutions, and organizations that

  3. Prevalence and estimated incidence of blood-borne viral pathogen infection in organ and tissue donors from northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariadis, G; Plitt, S S; O'Brien, S; Yi, Q-L; Fan, W; Preiksaitis, J K

    2007-01-01

    To determine the potential safety benefit of introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT) in tissue and organ donors, the risk of virus transmission was examined in a Canadian population. Anonymous data on Northern Alberta tissue and organ donors from 1998 to 2004 were used to determine the seroprevalence and estimate the seroincidence and residual risk of HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV infection. Of the 3372 donors identified, 71.1% were surgical bone, 13.2% were living organ and 15.6% were deceased organ/tissue donors. Seroprevalence was: HIV 0.00%, HBV 0.09%, HCV 0.48% and HTLV 0.03%. Incidence (/100,000 p-yrs) and residual risks (/100,000 donors) could only be estimated for HBV (24.2 and 3.9) and HCV (11.2 and 2.2). Risk estimates were higher for deceased donors than surgical bone donors. HCV had the highest prevalence and HBV had the highest estimated incidence. HIV and HTLV risks were extremely low precluding accurate quantification. In this region of low overall viral prevalence, HCV NAT would be most effective in deceased organ donors. In surgical bone donors the cost of implementing NAT is high without significant added safety benefit.

  4. Nosocomial blood stream infection in intensive care units at Assiut University Hospitals (Upper Egypt with special reference to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim This study investigated the nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI in the adult ICUs in Assiut university hospitals to evaluate the rate of infection in different ICUs, causative microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance, outcome of infection, risk factors, prevalence of extended spectrum B-lactamase producing organisms and molecular typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to highlight the role of environment as a potential source of nosocomial BSI. Methods This study was conducted over a period of 12 months from January 2006 to December 2006. All Patients admitted to the different adult ICUs were monitored daily by attending physicians for subsequent development of nosocomial BSI. Blood cultures were collected from suspected patients to detect the causative organisms. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs was conducted among gram negative isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were tested by PCR to determine the most common group of B-lactamase genes responsible for resistance. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from infected patients and those isolated from the environment were typed by RAPD technique to investigate the role of environment in transmission of infection. Results The study included 2095 patients who were admitted to different ICUs at Assiut University Hospitals from January 2006 to December 2006. Blood samples were collected from infected patients for blood cultures. The colonies were identified and antibiotic sensitivities were performed. This study showed that the rate of nosocomial BSI was 75 per 1000 ICU admissions with the highest percentages in Trauma ICU (17%. Out of 159 patients with primary bloodstream infection, 61 patients died representing a crude mortality rate of 38%. Analysis of the organisms causing BSI showed that Gram positive organisms were reported in 69.1% (n = 121; MRSA was the most prevalent (18.9%, followed by methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (16

  5. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  6. Importance of enhanced mass resolution in removing interferences when measuring volatile organic compounds in human blood by using purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M A; Ashley, D L; Cardinali, F L; McGraw, J M; Patterson, D G

    1992-11-01

    The number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be purged from human blood is so great that they cannot be separated completely by capillary gas chromatography. As a result, the single-mass chromatograms used for quantitating the target compounds by mass spectrometry have many interferences at nominal (integer) mass resolution of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The results of these interferences range from small errors in quantitation to completely erroneous results for the target VOCs. By using a magnetic sector mass spectrometer, these interferences at nominal mass can be removed at higher resolution by lowering the ion chromatogram windows around the masses of interest. At 3000 resolution (10% valley definition), unique single-ion chromatograms can be made for the quantitation ions of the target VOCs. Full-scan mass data are required to allow the identification of unknown compounds purged from the blood. By using isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, most target VOCs can be detected in the low parts per trillion range for a 10-mL quantity of blood from which the VOCs have been removed by a purge-and-trap method.

  7. Perubahan Nilai Hematologi, Biokimia Darah, Bobot Organ dan Bobot Badan Tikus Putih pada Umur Berbeda (THE CHANGES ON HEMATOLOGICAL, BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL VALUES, ORGAN AND BODY WEIGHT OF RAT AT DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marice Sihombing

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Research and development of health science require an animal model which has been known for itsorigin and characteristics. One of experimental animal model which is commonly used is albino rat. Thepurpose of this study was to investigate weight of organs (kidney, liver, spleen, and lung, hematologicalvalues (hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte and leucocyte, and the values of the biochemical blood (SGPT,SGOT, glucose and total protein of the albino rat at different ages. This study used 60 rats, which weredivided into 3 groups based on age namely 1, 2, and 3 months and groups based on sex that each groupconsisted of 10 males and 10 females. Samples of age and sex groups of rat were taken randomly. Eachcage consisted of 5 rats with the same ages and sex. Those rats fed and tap water ad libitum. The rats weresacrificed anaesthetically by with ether to take their blood and measure their organ‘s weight. Data wasanalyzed using one way ANOVA test, except data from heart organ which was analyzed using nonparametrictest (Friedman Test. To find out the increase of rats body weight age 1 -3 months, it was usedregression linier test. Results of statistic showed that there were significantly difference (p < 0,05 in bodyweight change, average of hematological values, blood biochemical values and organs weight in accordancewith increasing of rats age in all age groups. In contrast, average of hematocrit values had no significantlydifference (p > 0,05. Generally, male rats were bigger than female rats but there was no difference in all

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S

    2011-02-01

    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  10. Morphometric Evaluation of the Blood Pressure Related Organs in Nili-Ravi Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis With Advancing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty clinically healthy buffaloes of either sex were divided into two age-groups of equal size i.e., young (12-42 months and adult (48-96 months. Histological sections were prepared by routine method and stained by H&E. AutoCAD® image analysis software and ocular micrometer were used for the morphometric evaluations. Studies revealed that the adrenal cortex of buffalo was divided into four zones, zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, zona fasciculate and zona reticularis. The zona fasciculata was recorded as the widest and zona reticularis narrowest zone of the adrenal cortex. The volume of cardiomyocytic nuclei (μm3, volume of renal corpuscles (μm3×103, volume of nuclei of cells of zona glomerulosa (μm3, thickness of the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia and zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex in adult buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01 higher as compared to their younger counterparts. It is conceivable that the development of blood related parameters showed an increase parallel to the advancing age in order to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process in buffalo.

  11. Water soluble organic carbon in aerosols (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) and various precipitation forms (rain, snow, mixed) over the southern Baltic Sea station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U

    2016-12-15

    In the urbanized coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, complex measurements of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were conducted between 2012 and 2015, involving atmospheric precipitation in its various forms (rain, snow, mixed) and PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols. WSOC constituted about 60% of the organic carbon mass in aerosols of various sizes. The average concentration of WSOC was equal to 2.6μg∙m -3 in PM1, 3.6μg∙m -3 in PM2.5 and 4.4μg∙m -3 in PM10. The lowest concentration of WSOC was noted in summer as a result of effective removal of this compound with rainfall. The highest WSOC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols were measured in spring, which should be associated with developing vegetation on land and in the sea. On the other hand, the highest WSOC concentrations in PM1 occurred in winter at low air temperatures and greatest atmospheric stability, when there were increased carbon emissions from fuel combustion in the communal-utility sector and from transportation. WSOC concentrations in precipitation were determined by its form. Mixed precipitation turned out to be the richest in soluble organic carbon (5.1mg·dm -3 ), while snow contained the least WSOC (1.7mg·dm -3 ). Snow and rain cleaned carbon compounds from the atmosphere more effectively when precipitation lasted longer than 24h, while in the case of mixed precipitation WSOC was removed most effectively within the first 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Elite Assay and the Panther-System for Individual NAT Screening of Blood, Hematopoietic Stem Cell, Tissue and Organ Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Albert

    2016-05-01

    The performance of the multiplex Procleix Ultrio Elite assay as individual donor nucleic acid test (ID-NAT) for the detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV was evaluated in a retrospective, single center study. ID-NAT results of 21,181 blood donors, 984 tissue donors, 293 hematopoietic stem cell donors and 4 organ donors were reviewed in synopsis with results of serological screening and additional discriminatory and repetitive NAT in case of positive donors. Specificity of the initial Procleix Ultrio Elite assay was 99.98% and after discriminatory testing 100.00%. Initially invalid results were observed in 75 of 21,181 blood donors (0.35%) but 16 of 984 tissue donors (1.62%, p donors. All these had valid negative ID-NAT results after repeated testing or testing of 1:5 diluted specimens in case of tissue donors. Occult hepatitis B (defined here as HBV DNAemia without HBsAg detection) was demonstrated by ID-NAT in two anti-HBc-positive tissue donors and suspected in two other tissue donors, where a definite diagnosis was not achieved due to the insufficient sample volumes available. The Procleix Ultrio Elite assay proved to be specific, robust and rapid. Therefore, routine ID-NAT may also be feasible for organ and granulocyte donors.

  13. Cuff-Based Oscillometric Central and Brachial Blood Pressures Obtained Through ABPM are Similarly Associated with Renal Organ Damage in Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Pareja, Júlia; Yun, Sergi; Vázquez, Susana; Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Blanch, Pedro; Calero, Francesca; Sierra, Cristina; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) has been suggested to be a better estimator of hypertension-associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-hour central BP, in comparison with 24-hour peripheral BP, with the presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. Brachial and central (calculated by an oscillometric system through brachial pulse wave analysis) office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) data and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in 208 hypertensive patients. Renal organ damage was evaluated by means of the albumin to creatinine ratio and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Fifty-four patients (25.9%) were affected by renal organ damage, displaying either microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/g creatinine) or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ABPM-derived BP estimates (both central and brachial) showed significant associations with the presence of renal damage. Odds ratios for central BP estimates were not significantly higher than those obtained for brachial BP. Compared with peripheral ABPM, cuff-based oscillometric central ABPM does not show a closer association with presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. More studies, however, need to be done to better identify the role of central BP in clinical practice. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. An Investigation of Organic and Inorganic Mercury Exposure and Blood Pressure in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgon Rajaee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the cardiovascular effects of mercury (Hg exposure, and that organic methylmercury and inorganic Hg2+ may affect the cardiovascular system and blood pressure differentially. In small-scale gold mining communities where inorganic, elemental Hg exposures are high, little is known about the effects of Hg on blood pressure. In 2011, we assessed the relationship between Hg exposure and blood pressure (BP in a cross-sectional study of adults from a small-scale gold mining community, Kejetia, and subsistence farming community, Gorogo, in Ghana’s Upper East Region. Participants’ resting heart rate and BP were measured, and hair and urine samples were provided to serve as biomarkers of organic and inorganic Hg exposure, respectively. Participants included 70 miners and 26 non-miners from Kejetia and 75 non-miners from Gorogo. Total specific gravity-adjusted urinary and hair Hg was higher among Kejetia miners than Kejetia non-miners and Gorogo participants (median urinary Hg: 5.17, 1.18, and 0.154 µg/L, respectively; hair Hg: 0.945, 0.419, and 0.181 µg/g, respectively. Hypertension was prevalent in 17.7% of Kejetia and 21.3% of Gorogo participants. Urinary and hair Hg were not significantly associated with systolic or diastolic BP for Kejetia or Gorogo participants while adjusting for sex, age, and smoking status. Although our results follow trends seen in other studies, the associations were not of statistical significance. Given the unique study population and high exposures to inorganic Hg, the work contained here will help increase our understanding of the cardiovascular effects of Hg.

  15. Comparison of the in vitro effects of saline, hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch, hypertonic saline, and two forms of hydroxyethyl starch on whole blood coagulation and platelet function in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurlod, Virginie A; Howard, Judith; Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Adamik, Katja N

    2015-01-01

    To compare the in vitro effects of hypertonic solutions and colloids to saline on coagulation in dogs. In vitro experimental study. Veterinary teaching hospital. Twenty-one adult dogs. Blood samples were diluted with saline, 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH), 7.2% hypertonic saline (HTS), hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 or hydroxyethyl starch 600/0.75 at ratios of 1:22 and 1:9, and with saline and HES at a ratio of 1:3. Whole blood coagulation was analyzed using rotational thromboelastometry (extrinsic thromboelastometry-cloting time (ExTEM-CT), maximal clot firmness (MCF) and clot formation time (CFT) and fibrinogen function TEM-CT (FibTEM-CT) and MCF) and platelet function was analyzed using a platelet function analyzer (closure time, CTPFA ). All parameters measured were impaired by saline dilution. The CTPFA was prolonged by 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH) and HTS but not by HES solutions. At clinical dilutions equivalent to those generally administered for shock (saline 1:3, HES 1:9, and hypertonic solutions 1:22), CTPFA was more prolonged by HH and HTS than other solutions but more by saline than HES. No difference was found between the HES solutions or the hypertonic solutions. ExTEM-CFT and MCF were impaired by HH and HTS but only mildly by HES solutions. At clinically relevant dilutions, no difference was found in ExTEM-CFT between HTS and saline or in ExTEM-MCF between HH and saline. No consistent difference was found between the 2 HES solutions but HH impaired ExTEM-CFT and MCF more than HTS. At high dilutions, FibTEM-CT and -MCF and ExTEM-CT were impaired by HES. Hypertonic solutions affect platelet function and whole blood coagulation to a greater extent than saline and HES. At clinically relevant dilutions, only CTPFA was markedly more

  16. Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP

  17. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Andersen, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Thrombelastograph (TEG; Haemoscope Corp.) analyzes clot formation in whole blood (WB) and treatment based on this analysis has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements in liver and cardiac surgery when compared to conventional coagulation analysis. Implementing TEG as a routine...... laboratory-based analysis, however, requires validation of the activators employed and the effect of storage of the WB sample in citrate before analysis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The effect of kaolin, tissue factor (TF) 1:17,000, or TF 1:42,500 on TEG clotting time (R), Angle (velocity of clot formation......), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. RESULTS: Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1...

  18. Pathway analysis in blood cells of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus: comparison of pigs that develop a chronic form of infection or recover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulst, Marcel; Loeffen, Willie; Weesendorp, Eefke

    2013-02-01

    Infection of pigs with CSFV can lead to either acute disease, resulting in death or recovery, or chronic disease. The mechanisms by which CSFV manipulates the pig's first line of defence to establish a chronic infection are poorly understood. Therefore, pigs were infected with moderately virulent CSFV, and whole blood was collected on a regular basis during a period of 18 days. Using whole-genome microarrays, time-dependent changes in gene expression were recorded in blood cells of chronically diseased pigs and pigs that recovered. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated genes indicated that different immunological pathways were regulated in chronically diseased pigs compared to recovered pigs. In recovered pigs, antiviral defence mechanisms were rapidly activated, whereas in chronically diseased pigs, several genes with the potential to inhibit NF-κB- and IRF3/7-mediated transcription of type I interferons were up-regulated. Compared to recovered pigs, chronically diseased pigs failed to activate NK or cytotoxic T-cell pathways, and they showed decreased gene activity in antigen-presenting monocytes/macrophages. Remarkably, in chronically diseased pigs, genes related to the human autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were up-regulated during the whole period of 18 days. CSFV pathology in kidney and skin resembles that of SLE. Furthermore, enzymes involved in the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and of tryptophan to kynurenines were expressed at different levels in chronically diseased and recovered pigs. Both of these chemical processes may affect the functions of T helper/regulatory cells that are crucial for tempering the inflammatory response after a viral infection.

  19. Effect of Individualized vs Standard Blood Pressure Management Strategies on Postoperative Organ Dysfunction Among High-Risk Patients Undergoing Major Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Guinot, Pierre-Gregoire; Godet, Thomas; Lorne, Emmanuel; Cuvillon, Philippe; Bertran, Sebastien; Leone, Marc; Pastene, Bruno; Piriou, Vincent; Molliex, Serge; Albanese, Jacques; Julia, Jean-Michel; Tavernier, Benoit; Imhoff, Etienne; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Pereira, Bruno; Jaber, Samir

    2017-10-10

    Perioperative hypotension is associated with an increase in postoperative morbidity and mortality, but the appropriate management strategy remains uncertain. To evaluate whether an individualized blood pressure management strategy tailored to individual patient physiology could reduce postoperative organ dysfunction. The Intraoperative Norepinephrine to Control Arterial Pressure (INPRESS) study was a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial conducted in 9 French university and nonuniversity hospitals. Adult patients (n = 298) at increased risk of postoperative complications with a preoperative acute kidney injury risk index of class III or higher (indicating moderate to high risk of postoperative kidney injury) undergoing major surgery lasting 2 hours or longer under general anesthesia were enrolled from December 4, 2012, through August 28, 2016 (last follow-up, September 28, 2016). Individualized management strategy aimed at achieving a systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 10% of the reference value (ie, patient's resting SBP) or standard management strategy of treating SBP less than 80 mm Hg or lower than 40% from the reference value during and for 4 hours following surgery. The primary outcome was a composite of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and dysfunction of at least 1 organ system of the renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, coagulation, and neurologic systems by day 7 after surgery. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome, durations of ICU and hospital stay, adverse events, and all-cause mortality at 30 days after surgery. Among 298 patients who were randomized, 292 patients completed the trial (mean [SD] age, 70 [7] years; 44 [15.1%] women) and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome event occurred in 56 of 147 patients (38.1%) assigned to the individualized treatment strategy vs 75 of 145 patients (51.7%) assigned to the standard treatment strategy

  20. Photochemical Aging of α-pinene and β-pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol formed from Nitrate Radical Oxidation: New Insights into the Formation and Fates of Highly Oxygenated Gas- and Particle-phase Organic Nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, T.; Sanchez, J.; Boyd, C.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    The nitrate radical (NO3), one of the most important oxidants in the nocturnal atmosphere, can react rapidly with a variety of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to form high mass concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and organic nitrates (ON). Despite its critical importance in aerosol formation, the mechanisms and products from the NO3 oxidation of BVOCs have been largely unexplored, and the fates of their SOA and ON after formation are not well characterized. In this work, we studied the formation of SOA and ON from the NO3 oxidation of α-pinene and β-pinene and investigated for the first time how they evolve during dark and photochemical aging through a series of chamber experiments performed at the Georgia Tech Environmental Chamber (GTEC) facility. The α-pinene and β-pinene SOA are characterized using real-time gas- and particle-phase measurements, which are used to propose mechanisms for SOA and organic nitrate formation and aging. Highly oxygenated gas- and particle-phase ON (containing as many as 9 oxygen atoms) are detected during the NO3 reaction. In addition, the β-pinene SOA and α-pinene SOA exhibited drastically different behavior during photochemical aging. Our results indicate that nighttime ON formed by NO3+monoterpene chemistry can serve as either NOx reservoirs or sinks depending on the monoterpene precursor. Results from this study provide fundamental data for evaluating the contributions of NO3+monoterpene reactions to ambient OA measured in the Southeastern U.S.

  1. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Home Types of Blood Donations Blood Types Blood Types Not all blood is alike. There are eight ... African descent. Learn More About Blood and Diversity Blood Types and Transfusion There are very specific ways in ...

  2. Chemical Basis for Qualitative and Quantitative Differences Between ABO Blood Groups and Subgroups: Implications for Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakanthan, M; Tao, K; Zou, L; Meloncelli, P J; Lowary, T L; Suzuki, K; Boland, D; Larsen, I; Burch, M; Shaw, N; Beddows, K; Addonizio, L; Zuckerman, W; Afzali, B; Kim, D H; Mengel, M; Shapiro, A M J; West, L J

    2015-10-01

    Blood group ABH(O) carbohydrate antigens are carried by precursor structures denoted type I-IV chains, creating unique antigen epitopes that may differ in expression between circulating erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Characterization of such differences is invaluable in many clinical settings including transplantation. Monoclonal antibodies were generated and epitope specificities were characterized against chemically synthesized type I-IV ABH and related glycans. Antigen expression was detected on endomyocardial biopsies (n = 50) and spleen (n = 11) by immunohistochemical staining and on erythrocytes by flow cytometry. On vascular endothelial cells of heart and spleen, only type II-based ABH antigens were expressed; type III/IV structures were not detected. Type II-based ABH were expressed on erythrocytes of all blood groups. Group A1 and A2 erythrocytes additionally expressed type III/IV precursors, whereas group B and O erythrocytes did not. Intensity of A/B antigen expression differed among group A1 , A2 , A1 B, A2 B and B erythrocytes. On group A2 erythrocytes, type III H structures were largely un-glycosylated with the terminal "A" sugar α-GalNAc. Together, these studies define qualitative and quantitative differences in ABH antigen expression between erythrocytes and vascular tissues. These expression profiles have important implications that must be considered in clinical settings of ABO-incompatible transplantation when interpreting anti-ABO antibodies measured by hemagglutination assays with reagent erythrocytes. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Rapid detection of Gram-positive organisms by use of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test and the BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN system in a multicenter pediatric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Turner, N N; Roundtree, S S; Young, S; Brock-Haag, C A; Lacey, D; Abuzaid, S; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Doern, C D

    2013-11-01

    Assays that expedite the reporting of organism identification and antibiotic susceptibility status in positive blood cultures can fast track interventions that improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GP) in two pediatric hospitals. Positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN blood cultures with Gram-positive organisms were tested using the BC-GP in tandem with routine laboratory procedures. To test organisms underrepresented in the clinical blood culture evaluation, blood culture bottles were spiked with diluted organism suspensions at concentrations of 10 to 100 CFU per milliliter. A total of 249 Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered from 242 blood cultures. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with sensitivities of 100%, 99%, and 100% and specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.5%, respectively. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis with sensitivities of 95%, 80%, and 96%, respectively, and 100% specificity. The BC-GP correctly identified 14/15 cases of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium bacteremia and 9 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It misidentified 5/15 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus mitis/Streptococcus oralis and 1/3 blood cultures spiked with Streptococcus anginosus group as S. pneumoniae. The BC-GP detected a case of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia but failed to detect 2/3 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus agalactiae. BC-GP's rapid accurate detection of Staphylococcus spp., E. faecium, and E. faecalis and its ability to ascertain mecA, vanA, and vanB status may expedite clinical decisions pertaining to optimal antibiotic use. False-positive S. pneumoniae results may warrant reporting of only "Streptococcus spp." when this organism is reported by the BC-GP.

  4. Evaluation quantitative des produits formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique Quantitative Evaluation of Products Formed During the Geochemical Evolution of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évaluation quantitative des produits mobiles formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique est nécessaire parce qu'on ne peut jamais retrouver ces produits en place dans. la roche où ils ont pris naissance. Ils ont, en effet, pu migrer durant l'histoire géologique, et de toute manière une fraction, importante et non connue, se perd lors de la prise des échantillons puis de leur conservation avant analyse. La connaissance de l'analyse d'un état E et d'un état plus évolué E' ne suffit pas pour reconstituer les quantités de produits formés. La pyrolyse type Rock-Eval sur kérogènes, avec détermination du carbone résiduel, permet par contre, à partir d'une hypothèse raisonnable, de calculer les hydrocarbures produits. L'analyse élémentaire permet d'y ajouter CO2, H2O, H2S et N2 (considérés comme seuls produits à côté des hydrocarbures. Une analyse chromatographique sommaire supplémentaire permet d'estimer la composition globale des hydrocarbures. Dans le cas des roches, on propose des techniques de correction de l'effet de matrice pratiquement utilisables et qui permettent de retrouver les résultats précédents, au prix d'une incertitude accrue. The mobile products formed during the geochemical evolution of organic matter must be quantitatively evaluated because these products can never be found in place in the rock where they were formed. Indeed, they may have migrated during geological history, and in any case a large and unknown fraction gets lost when samples are taken and then stored before being analysed. Knowing the elemental analysis of a state E and of a more evolved state E' does not suffice for recreating the amounts of products formed. On the other hand Rock-Eval type pyrolysis of kerogens, including the determination of the residual carbon, can be used to compute the hydrocarbons produced, on the basis of a reasonable hypothesis. Elemental analysis then enables the evaluation of CO2, H2O

  5. Deep sequencing of HIV-1 near full-length proviral genomes identifies high rates of BF1 recombinants including two novel circulating recombinant forms (CRF) 70_BF1 and a disseminating 71_BF1 among blood donors in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Watanabe, Jaqueline Tomoko; Calabria, Paula; Felix, Alvina Clara; Loureiro, Paula; Sabino, Ester C; Busch, Michael P; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2014-01-01

    The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n = 26) extends to the whole genome sequences. Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV near full-length genomes (NFLGs) were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 blood donors. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was compared between plasma and PBMCs. Of the 26 samples studied, 20 NFLGs and 4 partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Two distinct BF1 recombinant profiles designated CRF70_BF1 and CRF71_BF1, with 4 samples in profile I and 11 in profile II were detected and thus constitute two novel recombinant forms circulating in PE. Evidence of dual infections was detected in four patients co-infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. According to our estimate, the new CRF71_BF1 accounts for 10% of the HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors in PE. Discordant data between the plasma and PBMCs-virus were found in 15 of 24 donors. Six of these strains displayed major DRMs only in PBMCs and four of which had detectable DRMs changes at prevalence between 1-20% of the sequenced population. The high percentage of the new RF71_BF1 and other BF1 recombinants found among blood donors in Pernambuco, coupled with high rates of transmitted DRMs and dual infections confirm the need for effective surveillance to monitor the prevalence and distribution of HIV variants in a variety of settings in Brazil.

  6. Treatment of hypertension and metabolic syndrome: lowering blood pressure is not enough for organ protection, new approach-arterial destiffening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Reuven

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) have been shown to induce end organ damage. Until now, the main approach to reduce CVRF-induced end organ damage was by normalization of CVRFs; this approach was found effective to reduce damage and cardiovascular (CV) events. However, a residual risk always remained even when CVRFs were optimally balanced. An additional risk factor which has an immense effect on the progression of end organ damage is aging. Aging is accompanied by gradual stiffening of the arteries which finally leads to CV events. Until recently, the process of arterial aging was considered as unmodifiable, but this has changed. Arterial stiffening caused by the aging process is similar to the changes seen as a result of CVRF-induced arterial damage. Actually, the presence of CVRFs causes faster arterial stiffening, and the extent of damage is proportional to the severity of the CVRF, the length of its existence, the patient's genetic factors, etc. Conventional treatments of osteoporosis and of hormonal decline at menopause are potential additional approaches to positively affect progression of arterial stiffening. The new approach to further decrease progression of arteriosclerosis, thus preventing events, is the prevention of age-associated arterial structural changes. This approach should further decrease age-associated arterial stiffening. A totally new promising approach is to study the possibility of affecting collagen, elastin, and other components of connective tissue that participate in the process of arterial stiffening. Reduction of pulse pressure by intervention in arterial stiffening process by novel methods as breaking collagen cross-links or preventing their formation is an example of future directions in treatment. This field is of enormous potential that might be revolutionary in inducing further significant reduction of cardiovascular events.

  7. The effect of prebiotic and organic zinc alone and in combination in broiler diets on the performance and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Güngör

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prebiotic and organic zinc alone and in combination in broiler diets on the live weight gain (LWG, feed consumption (FC, feed consumption ratio (FCR, carcass yield, some relative organ weights and blood parameters. A total of 160 Ross 308 one-day old male chicks were assigned to 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. Treatment for each group consisted of: first group (control group received basal diet without supplementation; second group received 1 g/kg Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS; third group received 80 mg/kg organic zinc (OZn; and fourth group received 80 mg/kg organic zinc + 1 g/kg Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS+OZn. The study lasted 42 days. The supplementation of MOS and OZn had no effect on the LWG, FC, FCR, carcass yield, serum, aspartate aminotranferase, (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride levels during the experiment (P>0.05. Relative organ weights (liver, spleen, pancreas were significantly higher in OZn group than those in the other groups (P<0.001. There was a significant difference in serum total cholesterol and glucose levels between treatment groups and control group (P<0.001. Serum Zn and Fe levels were significantly lower in control group than those in OZn and MOS+OZn groups (P<0.001. The highest and the lowest Cu levels were in the MOS+OZn and control groups, respectively (P<0.001. These data suggest that OZn with MOS combination may have a beneficial effect on serum mineral level in broilers.

  8. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of piroxicam in pure form, capsule and human blood serum samples via ion-pair complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Nina; Keyhanian, Fereshteh

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method involves formation of stable yellow colored ion-pair complexes of the amino derivative (basic nitrogen) of PX with three sulphonphthalein acid dyes namely; bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) in acidic medium. The colored species exhibited absorption maxima at 438, 429 and 432 nm with molar absorptivity values of 9.400 × 103, 1.218 × 103 and 1.02 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for PX-BCG, PX-BTB and PX-BPB complexes, respectively. The effect of optimum conditions via acidity, reagent concentration, time and solvent were studied. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 48 h. Beer’s law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient in the concentration ranges 1-100 μg mL-1 for BCG, BTB complexes and 1-95 μg mL-1 for BPB complex. The composition ratio of the ion-pair complexes were found to be 1:1 in all cases as established by Job’s method. No interference was observed from common additives and excipients which may be present in the pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PX in capsule and human blood serum samples with good accuracy and precision.

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH ... Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH ...

  10. Continuous Change in Membrane and Membrane-Skeleton Organization During Development From Proerythroblast to Senescent Red Blood Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Minetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of erythropoiesis and the possibility of producing artificial red blood cells (RBCs in vitro, a most critical step is the final differentiation of enucleated erythroblasts, or reticulocytes, to a fully mature biconcave discocyte, the RBC. Reviewed here is the current knowledge about this fundamental maturational process. By combining literature data with our own experimental evidence we propose that the early phase in the maturation of reticulocytes to RBCs is driven by a membrane raft-based mechanism for the sorting of disposable membrane proteins, mostly the no longer needed transferrin receptor (TfR, to the multivesicular endosome (MVE as cargo of intraluminal vesicles that are subsequently exocytosed as exosomes, consistently with the seminal and original observation of Johnstone and collaborators of more than 30 years ago (Pan BT, Johnstone RM. Cell. 1983;33:967-978. According to a strikingly selective sorting process, the TfR becomes cargo destined to exocytosis while other molecules, including the most abundant RBC transmembrane protein, band 3, are completely retained in the cell membrane. It is also proposed that while this process could be operating in the early maturational steps in the bone marrow, additional mechanism(s must be at play for the final removal of the excess reticulocyte membrane that is observed to occur in the circulation. This processing will most likely require the intervention of the spleen, whose function is also necessary for the continuous remodeling of the RBC membrane all along this cell's circulatory life.

  11. Effects of essential oils from Liquidambar orientalis Mill. leaves on growth performance, carcass and some organ traits, some blood metabolites and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altop, A; Erener, G; Duru, M E; Isik, K

    2018-02-01

    1. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of liquidambar essential oils (LEO) isolated from Turkish sweet gum (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) leaves on growth performance, carcass, edible inner organs (EIO), gastrointestinal traits (gut), some blood metabolites and jejunum microbiota in broilers. 2. A total of 375 one-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 5 pens with 15 birds. The birds were fed on diets without antibiotics (CONT), with antibiotic (50 mg per kg, AB), with LEOs at 0.0405 (0.04LEO), 0.0811 (0.08LEO) or 0.1622 (0.16LEO) g/kg feed up to 42 d of age. The levels of LEOs included to diets were determined according to in vitro antimicrobial activity. 3. From d 1 to 42, the 0.08LEO treatment had higher live weight gain (LWG) compared to others. The 0.08LEO treatment increased feed intake (FI) compared to the CONT, AB and 0.04LEO. However, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of these birds was lower than those in the AB and 0.16LEO treatments. From 1 to 42 d of age for LWG, the effects were quadratic and cubic, while those for FI and FCR were cubic and quadratic, respectively. Birds that fed 0.08LEO and AB diets had higher and lower carcass weights (CW) than those that fed other diets. The effect of LEO levels was cubic on the CW. The 0.08LEO and 0.16LEO decreased abdominal fat (AF) weight compared to the AB. The blood cholesterol decreased by the 0.04LEO and 0.08LEO treatments compared to the CONT. For the blood cholesterol, the effects of LEO levels were cubic. The 0.08LEO treatments decreased Escherichia coli counts in jejunum compared to the CONT and 0.16LEO. 4. Feeding a diet with LEO at 0.0811 g/kg might increase the LWG, FI and weights of carcass and AF, whereas it might decrease blood cholesterol and E. coli counts without affecting blood high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, glucose, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase concentrations.

  12. Clausura grupal e identificación de necesidades en las donaciones de sangre y órganos Group closure and needs identification in blood and organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casado-Neira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La acción de dar sin compromiso, el altruismo y la solidaridad están en el centro de la donación de sangre y órganos con fines terapéuticos. Según se hace ver las personas hacen una entrega desinteresada y transcendental: ‘la sangre salva vidas’. El altruismo y la solidaridad son aquí ineludibles, pero la donación está sometida a los principios de la reciprocidad. La captación y fidelización de donantes se enfrenta a veces a crisis o dificultades que se pueden explicar en parte por cómo los donantes interpretan la reciprocidad. Recurriendo a entrevistas y al análisis de contenido de campañas de captación de donantes de sangre y órganos identificamos dos tipos de reciprocidad (según sea el tipo de destino y concepción de la comunidad: focalizada o difusa. La focalizada es característica de sistemas sociales basados en relaciones personales estrechas (reales o virtuales. La difusa responde a una concepción individualista y anónima de la vida social. En la donación esto va a ser fundamental porque la reciprocidad focalizada es difícilmente compatible con la donación terapéutica, que es voluntaria, altruista y anónima. Lo que dificulta la donación es el intercambio restrictivo de la reciprocidad focalizada, no que este grupo comparta sangre o herencia biológica común que deseen preservar.Three moral values are within the blood and organ donation with therapeutical purpose: giving without obligation, altruism and solidarity. It seems than for donors unselfishness is something transcendental: blood save lives. Altruism and solidarity are present, but spending is under the pattern of reciprocity. Recruiting and keeping blood and organ spenders is an uncertain and complex process. How spenders live reciprocity can help us to understand rejections to donation. The research work is based on personal interviews and on the analyses of the material used in recruitment actions of blood and organ donors. Two kinds of

  13. The distribution and ultrastructure of the forming blood capillaries and the effect of apoptosis on vascularization in mouse embryonic molar mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guohua; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guobin; Yang, Jingwen; Wan, Chunyan; Zhang, Lu; Song, Guangtai; Chen, Shuo; Chen, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Vascularization is essential for organ and tissue development. Teeth develop through interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. The developing capillaries in the enamel organ, the dental epithelial structure, occur simultaneously by mechanisms of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis at the onset of dentinogenesis. The vascular neoformation in the dental mesenchyme has been reported to start from the cap stage. However, the mechanisms of vascularization in the dental mesenchyme remain unknown. In the hope of understanding the mechanisms of the formation of dental mesenchymal vasculature, mouse lower molar germs from embryonic day (E) 13.5 to E16.5 were processed for immunostaining of CD31 and CD34, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the role of apoptosis for the vascularization in dental mesenchyme was examined by in vitro culture of E14.0 lower molars in the presence of the apoptosis inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) and a subsequent subrenal culture. Our results showed that CD31- and CD34-positive cells progressively entered the central part of the dental papilla from the peridental mesenchyme. For TEM, angioblasts, young capillaries with thick endothelium and endothelial cells containing vacuoles were observed in peripheral dental mesenchyme, suggesting vasculogenesis was taking place. The presence of lateral sprouting, cytoplasmic filopodia and transluminal bridges in the dental papilla suggested angiogenesis was also occurring. Inhibition of apoptosis delayed the angiogenic vascularization of the dental papilla. Therefore, these data demonstrated that molar mesenchyme is progressively vascularized by mechanisms of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and apoptosis partially contributes to the vascularization of the dental papilla.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blood and blubber of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at three northern Gulf of Mexico sites following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Jennifer E; Ylitalo, Gina M; Rowles, Teresa K; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S; Townsend, Forrest I; Pearce, Ronald W; Bolton, Jennie L; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; Schwacke, Lori H

    2018-04-15

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), including those impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, inhabit the coastal and estuarine waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). In response to the spill, dolphin health assessments conducted in Barataria Bay, Louisiana - a site that experienced heavy and prolonged oiling - uncovered a high prevalence of health abnormalities and individuals in poor body condition. Although the health effects observed were suggestive of petroleum toxicity, a lack of pre-spill information regarding dolphin health raises the possibility that other environmental factors may have contributed to the adverse health of dolphins in this oil-impacted area. To assess how exposure to other environmental pollutants may affect the health of northern GoM dolphin populations impacted by the DWH oil spill, a suite of 69 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides, was determined in blood and a subset of blubber samples collected during health assessments of 145 bottlenose dolphins at three GoM sites: two oil impacted sites - Barataria Bay, LA (BB), and Mississippi Sound, MS (MS) and an unimpacted reference site - Sarasota Bay, FL (SB). Overall, levels of POPs at all three sites appeared comparable or lower than concentrations previously reported for coastal bottlenose dolphin populations outside of the northern GoM. POP levels measured in BB dolphins were also comparable or lower than those measured at the unimpacted reference site (SB) within the northern GoM. Additionally, the relationship between blubber and blood contaminant levels in a smaller subset of BB and SB suggests that BB animals were not experiencing elevated blood-contaminant concentrations as a result of their poor body condition. Cumulatively, these results suggest that background levels of POPs measured are unlikely to produce the health abnormalities previously reported for BB dolphins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  15. Production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in organic lambs' feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Antunović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' feed. The research was conducted on 30 Merinolandschaf lambs of 90 days' age over 30 days. Lambs were fed with feed mixture (1000 g day−1 lamb−1. In the control group protein supplement was soybean meal (SC, while in the experimental groups soybean meal was partially replaced with 13 % peas (P13 and 26 % peas (P26. In the haematological parameters of lambs' blood, concentrations of minerals (Ca, P, Mg and Fe and biochemical parameters (urea, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, β-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids as well as enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and CK were determined. After slaughter, carcass development was measured. Samples of m. semimembranosus and tallow were taken in which concentrations of fatty acids were analysed. Values of meat pH and colour were taken 45 min 24 h post mortem, and water-holding capacity was calculated. By analysing the production properties of lamb, we found that slaughtering characteristics of lamb carcasses, haematological and most of the biochemical indicators did not differ. Urea concentrations were reduced in the blood of lambs in P13 and P26. Concentration of C18:2 n-6 increased in tallow of lambs of group SC compared to group P26 of lambs. The above-mentioned results indicate the possibility of partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' diets in organic farming without changes in production.

  16. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  17. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  18. Effect of blood components, abdominal distension, and ecdysone therapy on the ultrastructural organization of posterior midgut epithelial cells and perimicrovillar membranes in Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Albuquerque-Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blood components, nerve-cord severance, and ecdysone therapy on the posterior midgut epithelial cells of 5th-instar Rhodnius prolixus nymphs 10 days after feeding were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Cutting the nerve-cord of the blood-fed insects partially reduced the development of microvilli and perimicrovillar membranes (PMM, and produced large vacuoles and small electrondense granules; insects fed on Ringer's saline diet exhibited well developed microvilli and low PMM production; swolled rough endoplasmatic reticulum and electrondense granules; Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone led to PMM development, glycogen particles, and several mitochondria in the cytoplasm; epithelial cells of the insects fed on Ringer's saline meal whose nerve-cord was severed showed heterogeneously distributed microvilli with reduced PMM production and a great quantity of mitochondria and glycogen in the cytoplasm; well developed microvilli and PMM were observed in nerve-cord severed insects fed on Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone; Ringer's saline diet containing hemoglobin recovered the release of PMM; and insects fed on human plasma showed slightly reduced PMM production, although the addition of ecdysone in the plasma led to a normal midgut ultrastructural organization. We suggest that the full development of microvilli and PMM in the epithelial cells depends on the abdominal distension in addition to ingestion of hemoglobin, and the release of ecdysone.

  19. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual organ function disturbance in the course of giant cell arteritis coexisting with optic disc drusen – a case repor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Modrzejewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presented ophthalmologic syndrome connected with visual organ function disorder in giant cell arteritis patient concomitant with optic nerve disc drusen. Diagnostic difficulties were shown in relation to incidence of both similar ophthalmic symptoms as well as interpretation of specialists examinations results (pattern visual evoked potential test, scanning laser polarimetry, and perimetric tests – kinetic and static. Apart from ophthalmic investigations, significant role of radiological examinations was considered, especially color Doppler ultrasonography of retrobulbar circulation – optic artery, central retinal artery, long posterior ciliary arteries. Adequate interpretation of results seems to be crucial to establish scheme and timing of treatment in case of co-occurrence of the abovementioned disorders. In the presented case early implementation of steroid therapy resulted in improvement of blood flow parameters and the regression of ophthalmological complaints. Visual field deficiency in kinetic perimetry, reduced wave amplitude p100 in visual evoked potential test as well as decrease in number of optic nerve fibers in optic nerve disc region in scanning laser polarimetry exam can be diagnostic features in diagnosis of visual impairment in the course of giant cell arteritis and optic nerve disc drusen. Evaluation of blood flow velocity parameters in retrobulbar arteries in color Doppler ultrasonography is the most valuable screening in monitoring ophthalmic dysregulation in presented disorders.

  20. Safety of blood group A2-to-O liver transplantation: an analysis of the United Network of Organ Sharing database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Michael D; Guarrera, James V; Olsen, Sonja K; Brown, Robert S; Emond, Jean C; Cherqui, Daniel

    2012-09-15

    ABO-incompatible organ transplantation typically induces hyperacute rejection. A2-to-O liver transplantations have been successful. This study compared overall and graft survival in O recipients of A2 and O grafts based on Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were used. The first A2-to-O liver transplantation was entered on March 11, 1990; all previous transplantations were excluded. Between March 11, 1990, and September 3, 2010, 43,335 O recipients underwent transplanation, of whom 358 received A2 grafts. There were no significant differences in age, sex, and race between the groups. Recipients of A2 grafts versus O grafts were significantly more likely to be hospitalized at transplantation (45% vs. 38%, P≤0.05) and to have a higher mean (SD) model for end-stage liver disease score (24 [11] vs. 22 [10], P≤0.05). 10% of A2 recipients and 9% of O recipients underwent retransplantation. No significant differences existed in rejection during the transplantation admission and at 12 months: 7% versus 6% and 20% versus 22% for A2 recipients and O recipients, respectively; and there were no significant differences in contributing factors to graft failure or cause of death. At 5 years, overall survival of A2 and O graft recipients was 77% and 74%, respectively (log rank=0.71). At 5 years, graft survival was 66% in both groups (log rank=0.52). Donor blood group was insignificant on Cox regression for overall and graft survival. Using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we present the largest series of A2-to-O liver transplantations and conclude this mismatch option to be safe with similar overall and graft survival. This opens possibilities to further meet the demands of a shrinking organ supply, especially with regard to expanding living-donor options.

  1. Impact of blood glucose, diabetes, insulin, and obesity on standardized uptake values in tumors and healthy organs on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büsing, Karen A.; Schönberg, Stefan O.; Brade, Joachim; Wasser, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronically altered glucose metabolism interferes with 18 F-FDG uptake in malignant tissue and healthy organs and may therefore lower tumor detection in 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The present study assesses the impact of elevated blood glucose levels (BGL), diabetes, insulin treatment, and obesity on 18 F-FDG uptake in tumors and biodistribution in normal organ tissues. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET/CT was analyzed in 90 patients with BGL ranging from 50 to 372 mg/dl. Of those, 29 patients were diabetic and 21 patients had received insulin prior to PET/CT; 28 patients were obese with a body mass index > 25. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of normal organs and the main tumor site was measured. Differences in SUV max in patients with and without elevated BGLs, diabetes, insulin treatment, and obesity were compared and analyzed for statistical significance. Results: Increased BGLs were associated with decreased cerebral FDG uptake and increased uptake in skeletal muscle. Diabetes and insulin diminished this effect, whereas obesity slightly enhanced the outcome. Diabetes and insulin also increased the average SUV max in muscle cells and fat, whereas the mean cerebral SUV max was reduced. Obesity decreased tracer uptake in several healthy organs by up to 30%. Tumoral uptake was not significantly influenced by BGL, diabetes, insulin, or obesity. Conclusions: Changes in BGLs, diabetes, insulin, and obesity affect the FDG biodistribution in muscular tissue and the brain. Although tumoral uptake is not significantly impaired, these findings may influence the tumor detection rate and are therefore essential for diagnosis and follow-up of malignant diseases

  2. Variation in Pediatric Organ Donor Management Practices Among US Organ Procurement Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Robert S; Armbrecht, Eric S

    2018-03-01

    Reports of actual pediatric organ donor management practice among US organ procurement organizations are sparse, and the use of standardized management guidelines is unknown. A recent consensus statement from the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations offers guidelines for the management of the pediatric organ donor. To describe the use of guidelines and routine practices in the management of the pediatric organ donor with respect to hemodynamics, lung and ventilator management, fluid and electrolytes, hormonal replacement therapy, the use of blood products, thermoregulation, and prophylactic antibiotics. Cross-sectional observational study using a survey and follow-up telephone interview with respondents from all 58 US organ procurement organizations. All 58 US Organ Procurement Organizations participated. A majority employed written guidelines for the management of pediatric donor hemodynamics, thermoregulation, fluids, and electrolytes. Management of blood products, the lung, and mechanical ventilation were less commonly committed to written guidelines, but common practices were described. All used various forms of hormonal replacement therapy and the majority administered empiric antibiotic therapy. Wide variation was observed in the management of the lung, mechanical ventilation, and glycemic control. Most OPOs used forms of standardized donor management for the pediatric organ donor although variation in the content of that management exists. Barriers to an evidence-based approach to the pediatric donor need to be determined and addressed.

  3. Safety evaluation of zinc methionine in laying hens: Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, organ development, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N N; Liu, B; Xiong, P W; Guo, Y; He, J N; Hou, C C; Ma, L X; Yu, D Y

    2018-04-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether high-dose zinc methionine (Zn-Met) affected the safety of laying hens, including laying performance, hematological parameters, serum chemical parameters, organ index, and histopathology. A total of 540 20-week-old Hy-Line White laying hens was randomly allocated to 6 groups with 6 replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 70, 140, 350, 700, or 1,400 mg Zn/kg diet as Zn-Met. The experiment lasted for 8 wk after a 2-week acclimation period. Results showed that dietary supplementation with 70 or 140 mg Zn/kg diet as Zn-Met significantly increased average daily egg mass (ADEM), laying rate (LR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P hens fed with 0, 350, or 700 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met (P > 0.05); hens administered 1,400 mg Zn/kg showed a significant increase in BSER and remarkable decreases in ADEM, LR, and FCR (P hens receiving 0, 70, 140, 350, or 700 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met in serum chemical parameters (P > 0.05); supplementation with 1,400 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met remarkably elevated the concentrations of serum total bilirubin (TBILI), glucose (GLU), uric acid (UA), and creatinine (CRE) (P hens administered 0, 70, 140, 350, or 700 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met, while significant histological lesions were observed in the heart, liver, lung, and kidney tissues of hens receiving 1,400 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met. No significant differences were detected in hematological parameters or organ index (P > 0.05). In conclusion, a nominal Zn concentration of 700 mg/kg as Zn-Met is considered to be no-observed-adverse-effect level following daily administration to hens for 56 days.

  4. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  5. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monod

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA. The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34–1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds, which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52 to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36. Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L−1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L−1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  6. TGF-β Blood Levels Distinguish Between Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Virus Sepsis and Sepsis due to Other Forms of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramirez, Erick J; Ortiz-Stern, Alejandro; Martinez-Mejia, Corazon; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rendon, Adrian; Mata-Tijerina, Viviana L; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G

    2015-06-01

    There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. In this study, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and laboratory markers were evaluated to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and their association with fatal cases. Serum samples of consecutive patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and progression to sepsis were evaluated. Serum inflammatory cytokines and routine laboratory tests were performed and correlated with positivity for influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the results of three clinical severity scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], CURB-65, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II]). High SOFA scores and some of its individual components, but not CURB-65 or APACHE II scores, correlate with fatal cases regardless of etiology. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, Ca(++), Cl(-), prothrombin times, and partial thromboplastin times discriminate influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. High levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were increased in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (pinfluenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients and non-(H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (pinfluenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients, and patients with other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. TGF-β levels were negatively correlated with SOFA on admission in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients. TGF-β levels are a useful tool for differentiating influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of pneumonia progressing to sepsis.

  7. Effects of NOx on the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol formed by the ozonolysis and photooxidation of α-pinene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Babar, Zaeem Bin; Baek, Sun Jong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lim, Ho-Jin

    2017-10-01

    The molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), obtained from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of α-pinene, was investigated using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI). SOA formation was performed in an indoor smog chamber. The molecular formulae of individual species were identified on the basis of the measured ionic mass using guidelines, such as number of atoms, elemental ratios, and the nitrogen rule. In each of the SOAs obtained, 815-3501 monomeric and oligomeric (mainly dimeric) species were identified below m/z 800. From ozonolysis, mainly 95% of the typical oxygenated species (CHO) were detected, whereas from photooxidation under high NOx conditions, 32% of nitrogen-containing species (CHON) were detected. Several common intense species (e.g., C9H14O6, C10H14O6, C10H16O5, C17H26O7, C19H28O9, C10H15NO8, and C10H15NO9) could be listed as candidate tracers for the conventional tracers for α-pinene SOA. The increased percentage of CHON as a primary effect of NOx on the SOA composition evidently affected other physicochemical parameters, such as elemental ratios (i.e., O/C, H/C, and N/C), the double-bond equivalent (DBE), the carbon oxidation state (OSC), and the organic-mass-to-carbon ratio (OM/OC). The O/C and OM/OC for CHON were greater than those observed for CHO, indicating that nitrogen preferentially exists in the oxidized form (e.g., -ONO2). The complexity of oligomerization was observed in DBE and OM/OC according to the number of carbon atoms.

  8. The effect of riverine dissolved organic matter and other nitrogen forms on the growth and physiology of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjian; Lundgren, Veronica; Lu, Songhui; Granéli, Edna

    2014-01-01

    The effect of various nitrogen (N) sources, including riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM), nitrate, ammonium, and urea, on the growth and physiology of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum was compared in a batch culture experiment. P. minimum grew equally well in the presence of identical amounts of nitrate, ammonium, and urea. Approximately 18 to 20% of organic N bound to the DOM was bioavailable. Although the available N added in the DOM treatment was only 1/3 of the amount of any other N sources, the cell densities of P. minimum in the DOM treatment increased to 61 ~ 65% of those in the nitrate, ammonium or urea treatment. The maximum specific growth rates did not differ significantly between the treatments with the highest in the ammonium treatment (0.55 ± 0.13 d- 1) and the lowest in the urea treatment (0.39 ± 0.04 d- 1). P. minimum assimilated the available DOM-bound N in a short period (fewer than 5 days), which was faster than utilizing urea. The increase in the cellular N:P ratios of P. minimum showed the alleviation of N stress in all the treatments after the addition of various N forms. The densities and cellular compositions of P. minimum stabilizing in all the treatments for the whole stationary phase indicated that P. minimum has adaptive physiology under sub-optimal conditions and is a competitive bloom species. We suggest that P. minimum cells utilize DOM-bound N for their growth, and the efficiency in utilizing the available DOM-bound N for growth is comparable to when P. minimum utilizes nitrate, ammonium or urea.

  9. Conception and development of a bibliographic database of blood nutrient fluxes across organs and tissues in ruminants: data gathering and management prior to meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, Jean; Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    In the organism, nutrient exchanges among tissues and organs are subject to numerous sources of physiological or nutritional variation, and the contribution of individual factors needs to be quantified before establishing general response laws. To achieve this, meta-analysis of data from publications is a useful tool. The objective of this work was to develop a bibliographic database of nutrient fluxes across organs and tissues of ruminant animals (Flora) under Access using the Merise method. The most important criteria for Flora were the ease to relate the various information, the exhaustivity and the accuracy of the data input, a complete description of the diets, taking into account the methods of the methodological procedures of measurement and analysis of blood nutrients and the traceability of the information. The conceptual data model was built in 6 parts. The first part describes the authors and source of publication, and the person in charge of data input. It clearly separates and identifies the experiments, the groups of animals and the treatments within a publication. The second part is concerned with feeds, diets and their chemical composition and nutritional value. The third and fourth parts describe the infusion of any substrates and the methods employed, respectively. The fifth part is devoted to the results of blood flows and nutrient fluxes. The sixth part gathers miscellaneous experimental information. All these parts are inter-connected. To model this database, the Merise method was utilised and 26 entities and 32 relationships were created. At the physical level, 93 tables were created, corresponding, for the majority, to entities and relationships of the data model. They were divided into reference tables (n = 65) and data tables (n = 28). Data processing was developed in Flora and included the control of the data, generic calculations of unknown data from given data, the automation of the estimation of the missing data or the chemical

  10. Infrared spectroscopy of secondary organic aerosol precursors and investigation of the hygroscopicity of SOA formed from the OH reaction with guaiacol and syringol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waed; Coeur, Cecile; Tomas, Alexandre; Fagniez, Thomas; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Cuisset, Arnaud

    2017-04-10

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) synchrotron analyses supplemented by density functional theory (DFT) anharmonic calculations have been undertaken to study the fundamental vibrational signatures of guaiacol and syringol, two methoxyphenol compounds found at the highest concentrations in fresh wood smoke and precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) affecting the radiative balance and chemistry of the atmosphere. Nitroderivatives of these two compounds have also been studied experimentally for nitroguaiacol and theoretically for nitrosyringol. All the active fundamental vibrational bands have been assigned and compared to available gas phase measurements, providing a vibrational database of the main precursors for the analysis of SOA produced by atmospheric oxidation of methoxyphenols. In addition, the SOA formed in an atmospheric simulation chamber from the OH reaction with guaiacol and syringol were analyzed using the ATR-FTIR synchrotron spectroscopy and their hygroscopic properties were also investigated. The vibrational study confirms that nitroguaiacol and nitrosyringol are the main oxidation products of methoxyphenols by OH and are key intermediates in SOA production. The hydration experiments highlight the hydrophilic and hydrophobic characters of nitrosyringol and nitroguaiacol, respectively.

  11. Transport and deposition of Suwannee River Humic Acid/Natural Organic Matter formed silver nanoparticles on silica matrices: the influence of solution pH and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaighe, Nelson; Depner, Sean W; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sohn, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The transport and deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed from Ag(+) reduction by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter (SRNOM) utilizing a silica matrix is reported. The morphology and stability of the AgNPs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The percentage conversion of the initial [Ag(+)] to [AgNPs] was determined from a combination of atomic absorption (AAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and centrifugation techniques. The results indicate higher AgNP transport and consequently low deposition in the porous media at basic pH conditions and low ionic strength. However, at low acidic pH and high ionic strength, especially with the divalent metallic cations, the mobility of the AgNPs in the porous media was very low, most likely due to NP aggregation. Overall, the results suggest the potential for AgNP contamination of subsurface soils and groundwater aquifers is mostly dependent on their aggregation state, controlled by the soil water and sediment ionic strength and pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The solid-state structures of organic salts formed by calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with nucleic bases cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium

    KAUST Repository

    Shkurenko, Aleksander

    2018-02-19

    Calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid has been demonstrated to possess an interesting range of biological properties, including atypical anti-cancer activity. The robustness of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid and its ubiquitous dimeric motif offers perspectives for pre-defined solid state complexation with small molecules. In the current article we describe co-crystals (organic salts) of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with four nucleic base cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium. A number of characteristic interactions between the components in the four co-crystals are pointed out also using the Hirshfeld surface analysis. All the four co-crystals are based on layers of calix[4]arene dimers, alternating with layers of nucleic acid molecules. Two of the reported crystal structures (cytosinium and guaninium) are 1D channel-type structures, while the two others (adeninium and uracilium) represent 2D channel-type structures. In three out of four reported structures, interactions between the cations of nucleic bases are present generating 1D chains of cations. A constant motif is that the nucleic base is present in a type of cavity formed by one aromatic ring and a phosphonic acid moiety.

  13. Clarin-1, encoded by the Usher Syndrome III causative gene, forms a membranous microdomain: possible role of clarin-1 in organizing the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Zhou, Yun; Hajkova, Dagmar; Miyagi, Masaru; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Geng, Ruishuang; Alagramam, Kumar N; Isosomppi, Juha; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Flannery, John G; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2009-07-10

    Clarin-1 is the protein product encoded by the gene mutated in Usher syndrome III. Although the molecular function of clarin-1 is unknown, its primary structure predicts four transmembrane domains similar to a large family of membrane proteins that include tetraspanins. Here we investigated the role of clarin-1 by using heterologous expression and in vivo model systems. When expressed in HEK293 cells, clarin-1 localized to the plasma membrane and concentrated in low density compartments distinct from lipid rafts. Clarin-1 reorganized actin filament structures and induced lamellipodia. This actin-reorganizing function was absent in the modified protein encoded by the most prevalent North American Usher syndrome III mutation, the N48K form of clarin-1 deficient in N-linked glycosylation. Proteomics analyses revealed a number of clarin-1-interacting proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, focal adhesions, cell migration, tight junctions, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with the hypothesized role of clarin-1 in actin organization, F-actin-enriched stereocilia of auditory hair cells evidenced structural disorganization in Clrn1(-/-) mice. These observations suggest a possible role for clarin-1 in the regulation and homeostasis of actin filaments, and link clarin-1 to the interactive network of Usher syndrome gene products.

  14. Poly-brominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other persistent organic pollutants in blood of penguins from the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsolini, S.; Ademollo, N.; Mariottini, M.; Focardi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyl-dichloro ethane (pp'-DDE) including its isomers and metabolites are known as POPs very well. POPs are particularly hazardous to wildlife not only because they are toxic but because they are persistent and distributed on global scale. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of POPs used worldwide as flame retardants with an increasing trend in the market demand (67.4 ktons in 2001), but with some restrictions in their usage in Europe. PBDEs are hydrophobic, highly soluble in lipids, resistant to biodegradation and have similar behavior to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Their bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties, as well their global increasing presence, have already been reported by many authors. PBDEs have been detected in remote Arctic regions10 that seem to be their final sink. PBDEs show acute toxicity and a prolonged exposure can affect the function of thyroid and cause neurodevelopmental disorders and estrogenic and hepatic effects. Furthermore, a synergic effect with dioxin-like compounds or other POPs cannot be excluded. The two aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate accumulation levels and patterns of PCBs, PBDEs and chlorinated pesticides in blood samples of the Adelie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, the Emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri and the South Polar skua, Cataracta maccormicki from three sites in the Ross Sea (Antarctica); (2) to assess the suitability of blood for the detection of POP residues in supposedly low contaminated organisms that live in protected/ecologically sensitive areas.

  15. Effects of Clinically Meaningful Concentrations of Antipseudomonal β-Lactams on Time to Detection and Organism Growth in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupper, Mordechai; Nicolau, David P; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Tanner, Linda K; Kuti, Joseph L

    2017-12-01

    The effectiveness of antimicrobial binding resins present in blood culture (BC) bottles in removing meropenem, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam is unknown. We assessed the time to detection (TTD) and growth of 2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in the presence of clinically meaningful concentrations of these antibiotics. Bactec Plus Aerobic/F and BacT/Alert FA Plus BC bottles were inoculated with one of two isolates (1 meropenem susceptible and 1 resistant), followed by fresh whole blood containing the peak, midpoint, or trough plasma concentrations for meropenem, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. Matching bottles were loaded into their respective detection instruments and a standard incubator at 37°C, with TTD and CFU being monitored for up to 72 h. Bacterial growth was observed for 11/48 (22.9%), 22/48 (45.8%), and 47/48 (97.9%) of all BC bottles inoculated with the peak, midpoint, and trough concentrations, respectively ( P ≤ 0.001). When P. aeruginosa was isolated, the TTD was typically <26 h, and no differences between Bactec and BacT/Alert bottles were observed. In both systems, meropenem was removed to a greater degree than were ceftolozane and ceftazidime; however, concentrations for all antibiotics remained above the MIC for the susceptible organisms at 12 h. BC bottles containing antibiotic binding resins may not sufficiently inactivate achievable concentrations of meropenem, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. The consistent identification of both P. aeruginosa isolates was observed only in the presence of antibiotic trough concentrations. To minimize false-negative BC results for patients already receiving these antibiotics, cultures should be collected just prior to the next dose, when antibiotic concentrations are lowest. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Blood-borne interleukin-1β acts on the subfornical organ to upregulate the sympathoexcitatory milieu of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Felder, Robert B

    2018-03-01

    We previously reported that microinjection of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the subfornical organ (SFO) elicits a pressor response accompanied by increases in inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the SFO and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study sought to determine whether blood-borne IL-1β induces similar neurochemical changes in the SFO and PVN and, if so, whether increased inflammation and RAS activity at the SFO level orchestrate the sympathoexcitatory response to circulating IL-1β. In urethane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous injection of IL-1β (500 ng) increased blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1a receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β, as well as the tumor necrosis factor-α p55 receptor and the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO and PVN. Pretreatment with SFO microinjections of the angiotensin II type 1a receptor blocker losartan (1 µg), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1 µg), or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 µg) attenuated expression of these excitatory mediators in the SFO and downstream in the PVN and the IL-1β-induced pressor responses. An SFO lesion minimized the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory and RAS components as well as c-Fos, an indicator of neuronal excitation, in the PVN. These studies demonstrate that circulating IL-1β, which increases in cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and heart failure, acts on the SFO to increase inflammation and RAS activity in the SFO and PVN and that intervening in these neurochemical processes in the SFO can significantly reduce the sympathetic response.

  17. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jin Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen. There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05 by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05 increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05 by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05 on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

  18. Effects of dietary alfalfa flavonoids extraction on growth performance, organ development and blood biochemical indexes of Yangzhou geese aged from 28 to 70 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary alfalfa flavonoids extraction supplemental level on growth performance, organ development and blood biochemical indexes of Yangzhou geese at the age of 28 to 70 days. Two hundred and forty 21-day-old healthy male geese with similar body weight were randomly distributed into 4 groups with 6 replicates per group and 10 geese per replicate. Geese in the control group were fed a basal diet and the others in the experimental groups (groups 1, 2, and 3 were fed experimental diets supplemented with 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg alfalfa flavonoids extraction (the concentration of it was 81%, respectively. The experiment had 7 days for pre-test and 42 days for formal test. The results showed that the final body weight and average daily intake of group 2 were significantly higher than those of other groups (P  0.05. Pre-slaughter live weight, carcass weight, slaughter rate, semi-eviscerated weight, semi-eviscerated rate, eviscerated weight, eviscerated rate, leg muscle weight and leg muscle rate had no significant difference between each group (P > 0.05. The breast muscle weight and ratio of each test group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P  0.05. Spleen weight in test groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P  0.05. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase (AST in groups 2 and 3 were higher than those in the group 1 and control group but not obvious (P > 0.05 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in groups 1 and 2 was higher than that in the control group and group 3 (P > 0.05. It is concluded that alfalfa flavonoids extraction added in dietary feed improve the growth performance, organ development and blood biochemical indexes of Yangzhou geese. It is concluded that 300 mg/kg supplemental level of the dietary alfalfa flavonoids extraction is optimal in this experiment.

  19. Organic salts formed by 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine and selected carboxylic acids via a variety of hydrogen bonds: Synthons cooperation, and crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peiqi; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yingying; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    By using solvent evaporation method, 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAPI) is employed to crystallize with a variety of acids, including 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (HDHBA), 3-nitrophthalic acid (H2NPA), 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (H2ATIPIA), 2,5-dibromoterephthalic acid (H2DBTPA), 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (H2NDSA), sebacic acid (H2SA), 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTA), and biphenyl-2,2‧,5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BPTA). In all eight complexes, protons are completely exchanged from O atom of acid to nitrogen of TAPI in 1, 3, 4, and, 5, partly transferred in 2, 6, 7, and 8. The crystal structure of all eight complexes exhibit that classical robust hydrogen bonds X-H⋯X (X = O/N) direct the molecular crystals to bind together in a stacking modes. Classical hydrogen bond Nsbnd H⋯O is participated in forming all eight organic salts, while hydrogen bonding Osbnd H⋯O are found in constructing the diversity structures in salts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7. The analysis shows that some classical supramolecular synthons, such as I R22(8), V R24(12), and VI S(6), are observed again in the construction of hydrogen-bonding networks. In the formation of layered and reticular structure, strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules and ligands having well-refined hydrogen atoms have been considered. Water molecules play an important role in building supramolecular structures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8. Moreover, salts 1-8 are further characterized and analyzed by element analysis, infrared radiation, thermogravimetric analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra.

  20. Use of an exchange method to estimate the association and dissociation rate constants of cadmium complexes formed with low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids released from plant roots can form complexes with cadmium (Cd) in the soil solution and influence metal bioavailability not only due to the nature and concentration of the complexes but also due to their lability. The lability of a complex influences its ability to buffer changes in the concentration of free ions (Cd); it depends on the association (, m mol s) and dissociation (, s) rate constants. A resin exchange method was used to estimate and (m mol s), which is the conditional estimate of depending on the calcium (Ca) concentration in solution. The constants were estimated for oxalate, citrate, and malate, three low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots and expected to strongly influence Cd uptake by plants. For all three organic acids, the and estimates were around 2.5 10 m mol s and 1.3 × 10 s, respectively. Based on the literature, these values indicate that the Cd- low-molecular-weight organic acids complexes formed between Cd and low-molecular-weight organic acids may be less labile than complexes formed with soil soluble organic matter but more labile than those formed with aminopolycarboxylic chelates. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Properties of Blood, Porphyrins, and Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) Overwintering on the South Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. K.; Harris, M. L.; Trudeau, S.; Ikonomou, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) is a little-studied species of North American sea duck. Estimates suggest it has experienced a precipitous decline in breeding numbers over the latter half of the past century. To investigate the potential role of contaminant uptake and toxicity in the population decline, this study undertook to measure blood chemistry, porphyrin concentrations, EROD, and organic contaminants in mature surf scoters wintering in the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada. Hepatic organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether, and nonylphenol concentrations were relatively low; for example, ΣTEQs (toxic equivalents) for PCBs, dioxins, and furans combined ranged from 4.7 ng/kg wet weight in reference-site (Baynes Sound) birds to 11.4 ng/kg wet weight in birds from Vancouver Harbour. Nonetheless, elevated EROD activity indicated that birds in Howe Sound were responding to an Ah-receptor-mediated stressor, which was also affecting hematocrit values and possibly vitamin A status. In addition, a low proportion of lymphocytes in individuals across locations in early spring samples was associated with poor body condition. The apparent loss of fitness just prior to the onset of northerly migrations to breeding grounds is of particular concern. Compromised health of mature birds at this point in the season might impact negatively on the productivity and survival of some individuals, particularly those overwintering in Howe Sound. PMID:20204344

  2. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (Ptryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Enterococcus faecium SLB 120 on growth performance, blood parameters, relative organ weight, breast muscle meat quality, excreta microbiota shedding, and noxious gas emission in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R X; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2017-09-01

    This 5-week study was conducted to determine the effects of Enterococcus faecium (SLB 120) on growth performance, blood parameters, relative organ weight, breast muscle meat quality, excreta microbiota shedding, and noxious gas emission in broilers. A total of 816 one-day-old male broilers were allocated to 4 groups with 12 replications (17 broilers/pen) according to body weight (43.2 ± 0.32 g). Dietary treatment groups were: (1) CON, basal diet, (2) T1, CON + 0.05% E. faecium, (3) T2, CON + 0.10% E. faecium, (4) T3, CON + 0.20% E. faecium. From day 1 to 21, dietary E. faecium supplementation showed linear increase (P faecium supplementation showed a linear increase (P faecium supplementation showed a linear increase (P faecium supplementation showed a linear decrease (P faecium supplementation linearly decreased (P faecium improved growth performance, the digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen, the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, and shifted excreta microbiota by increasing Lactobacillus and decreasing E.coli counts, as well as decreased excreta NH3, H2S, and total mercaptans gas emission. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Admission Hematocrit and Rise in Blood Urea Nitrogen at 24 h Outperform other Laboratory Markers in Predicting Persistent Organ Failure and Pancreatic Necrosis in Acute Pancreatitis: A Post Hoc Analysis of Three Large Prospective Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Wu, Bechien U.; Bakker, Olaf J.; Dudekula, Anwar; Singh, Vikesh K.; Besselink, Marc G.; Yadav, Dhiraj; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Whitcomb, David C.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Banks, Peter A.; Papachristou, Georgios I.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Predicting severe acute pancreatitis (AP) remains a challenge. The present study compares admission blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hematocrit, and creatinine, as well as changes in their levels over 24 h, aiming to determine the most accurate laboratory test for predicting persistent organ

  5. Association between level of personality organization as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI and outcome of inpatient treatment for personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Wubbo R; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Tiemens, Bea G; Verheul, Roel; Meerman, Anke; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M

    2014-01-01

    The association between level of personality organization as assessed by theory-driven profile interpretation of the MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form and treatment outcome was investigated in a naturalistic follow-up study among 121 psychotherapy inpatients who had been treated for their severe personality pathology. Treatment outcome was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (De Beurs & Zitman, 2006). Personality organization was associated with severity of psychopathology at baseline, the end of treatment, and 36 months after baseline. At 36 months after baseline, all patients except those with the high-level borderline organization profile and the psychotic borderline profile maintained their improvement. Contrary to expectations, (a) personality organization did not differentiate between patients with successful and unsuccessful out-comes, and (b) patients with a neurotic personality organization did not respond better than those with a borderline personality organization. Because of the small N, conclusions are tentative.

  6. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1 is involved in pentamidine transport at the human and mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri N Sekhar

    Full Text Available Pentamidine is an effective trypanocidal drug used against stage 1 Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT. At the blood-brain barrier (BBB, it accumulates inside the endothelial cells but has limited entry into the brain. This study examined transporters involved in pentamidine transport at the human and mouse BBB using hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cell lines, respectively. Results revealed that both cell lines expressed the organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3, however, P-gp was only expressed in hCMEC/D3 cells. Polarised expression of OCT1 was also observed. Functional assays found that ATP depletion significantly increased [3H]pentamidine accumulation in hCMEC/D3 cells (***p<0.001 but not in bEnd.3 cells. Incubation with unlabelled pentamidine significantly decreased accumulation in hCMEC/D3 and bEnd.3 cells after 120 minutes (***p<0.001. Treating both cell lines with haloperidol and amantadine also decreased [3H]pentamidine accumulation significantly (***p<0.001 and **p<0.01 respectively. However, prazosin treatment decreased [3H]pentamidine accumulation only in hCMEC/D3 cells (*p<0.05, and not bEnd.3 cells. Furthermore, the presence of OCTN, MATE, PMAT, ENT or CNT inhibitors/substrates had no significant effect on the accumulation of [3H]pentamidine in both cell lines. From the data, we conclude that pentamidine interacts with multiple transporters, is taken into brain endothelial cells by OCT1 transporter and is extruded into the blood by ATP-dependent mechanisms. These interactions along with the predominant presence of OCT1 in the luminal membrane of the BBB contribute to the limited entry of pentamidine into the brain. This information is of key importance to the development of pentamidine based combination therapies which could be used to treat CNS stage HAT by improving CNS delivery, efficacy against trypanosomes and safety profile of pentamidine.

  7. Peripheral blood T cell proliferative response to chlamydial organisms in gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis and presumed pelvic inflammatory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmanesh, M.; Brunst, M.; Sukthankar, A.; Pearce, J. H.; Gaston, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferative response to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in (a) controls, (b) various stages of gonococcal (c) and non-gonococcal urethritis, and (d) women with a clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). METHODS: We categorised 102 men presenting to a GUM clinic with urethritis by organisms (C trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (both by culture), and whether it was their first (urethritis naive) or subsequent (urethritis experienced) attack. 23 women presenting to the clinic with a clinical diagnosis of PID were also investigated. We measured PBMC proliferative responses to C trachomatis (DK20--an oculogenital strain, serovar E), lysate of McCoy cells (used to propagate chlamydiae), and the recall antigen PPD. Controls were 37 men and women without present or past history of urethritis or chlamydial infection. Results were expressed as the ratio of the stimulation index (SI) obtained with DK20 compared with McCoy cells (DK index), and the ratio of the SI obtained with DK20 compared with PPD (PPD index). RESULTS: The median SI to DK20 in the urethritis was 12.7 which was significantly higher than the controls (7.6, p urethritis patients (17.4) and the controls (22.4). All urethritis patient subgroups had a significantly higher DK index and PPD index than the controls. There was no difference in the PPD and DK index between urethritis naive and urethritis experienced patients and between the culture positive and culture negative urethritis subgroups. In PID patients only the PPD index was significantly higher than the controls. CONCLUSION: Men presenting with urethritis and women presenting with PID both have significantly greater peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to the DK20 strain of C trachomatis than controls. A similar T cell proliferative response pattern in urethritis naive patients with either gonococcal or non-gonococcal urethritis could

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... educational meetings and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: ... Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation ...

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... login, patients interested in viewing an access-controlled article in Blood may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission ...

  16. Comparison of phytate and other organic P forms in Mehlich-3 and Alkaline-EDTA matrices by ICP, NMR and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The favored method of organic P identification over the last few decades has been 31P NMR. While this technique has the distinct advantage of speciating the organic P fraction, it has a relatively poor detection threshold (0.05 mg/ml), which typically limits 31P NMR to qualitative or confirmative ap...

  17. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red ...

  18. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Types What's in this article? Four Blood Groups... Plus Rh Factor... ...Make Eight Blood Types Why Blood Type Matters Print en español Tipos de sangre About 5 million Americans need blood transfusions every ...

  19. Short-term blood pressure variability over 24 h and target organ damage in middle-aged men and women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, J M

    2015-03-19

    Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been associated with cardiovascular events; however, the prognostic significance of short-term BPV remains uncertain. As uncertainty also remains as to which measure of variability most accurately describes short-term BPV, this study explores different indices and investigates their relationship with subclinical target organ damage (TOD). We used data from the Mitchelstown Study, a cross-sectional study of Irish adults aged 47-73 years (n=2047). A subsample (1207) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). As measures of short-term BPV, we estimated the s.d., weighted s.d. (wSD), coefficient of variation (CV) and average real variability (ARV). TOD was documented by microalbuminuria and electrocardiogram (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). There was no association found between any measure of BPV and LVH in both unadjusted and fully adjusted logistic regression models. Similar analysis found that ARV (24 h, day and night), s.d. (day and night) and wSD were all univariately associated with microalbuminuria and remained associated after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and antihypertensive treatment. However, when the models were further adjusted for the mean BP the association did not persist for all indices. Our findings illustrate choosing the appropriate summary measure, which accurately captures that short-term BPV is difficult. Despite discrepancies in values between the different measures, there was no association between any indexes of variability with TOD measures after adjustment for the mean BP.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 19 March 2015; doi:10.1038\\/jhh.2015.18.

  20. Association between level of personality organization as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI and outcome of inpatient treatment for personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.R.; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E.H.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Verheul, R.; Meerman, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The association between level of personality organization as assessed by theory-driven profile interpretation of the MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form and treatment outcome was investigated in a naturalistic follow-up study among 121 psychotherapy inpatients who had been treated for

  1. Differential treatment response of subtypes of patients with borderline personality organization, as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch short form of the MMPI: a naturalistic follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurelings-Bontekoe, E.H.M.; Peen, J.; Noteboom, A.; Alkema, M.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the validity of different subtypes of borderline personality organization (BPO) as assessed by theory-driven profiles of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form (DSFM; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Onnink, Williams, & Snellen, 2008) in

  2. The impact of seabirds on the content of various forms of phosphorus in organic soils of the Bellsund coast, western Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziółek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In areas isolated from direct human impact, such as Spitsbergen, environmental changes result mainly from natural processes, which include nutrient enrichment caused by seabirds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of nutrient enrichment of organic soils fertilized by seabirds, indicated by the phosphorus content and transformations. This study encompassed two areas on the Bellsund coast. A profile without the influence of seabirds and profiles located at different distances from the colony of birds (0–150 m were analysed. A sequential phosphorus fractionation method was used, and three inorganic P (Pi fractions were obtained as a result: Pi-L (labile P, Pi-FeAl (P associated with Fe and Al and Pi-CaMg (P associated with Ca and Mg; and two fractions of organic P (Po: Po-HuAc (P associated with humic acids and Po-Res (residual P. Polar organic soils not subjected to the direct seabird impact contained amounts of total phosphorus (Pt similar to organic soils in other climate zones. The presence of the seabird colony increased the Pt content and changed the distribution between the ratio of organic and inorganic P fractions. Within the inorganic P fraction, the Pi–CaMg component was dominant and its distribution was modified by the fertilizing effect of bird droppings. The nutrient enrichment of organic soils by birds in the polar zone was therefore very strong.

  3. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill patients. Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations The Foundation for America's Blood Centers Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations About Blood What is Blood? ...

  4. C-14-activity incorporation into the protein of fetal organs of guinea pigs with different maternal placental blood flow and fetal arterial O2-saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenzl, B.

    1981-01-01

    In anaesthesised gravid guinea-pigs the dilate, end section of a placental radial artery was connected to the A.carotis via a flow meter and a throttle in order to measure and widely alter the maternal placental blood flow. Blood samples are taken from the fetal A.carotis, the fetal arterial O 2 -saturation and the Hb-content were determined. By altering the maternal placental blood circulation the fetal arterial O 2 -concentration can stabilised at various levels. In order to study the protein synthesis, under these conditions one infused 185 kBq C-14-leucine over a period of 3 hours into the jugular vein of the fetus. During infusion the radioactive concentrations in whole plasma and plasma water were measured. After the infusion the radioactive concentrations in the tissue fluid, the intracellular fluid and the acid-insoluble tissue fraction (protein) of the heart, kidenys, liver, the muscles of the upper end lower part of the body, the brain and the placenta were measured. The following deductions were drawn from the findings: The maternal placental blood flow vitally influences the activity incorporation per activity concentration in the plasma water. These findings agree with the hypotheses that the maternal blood circulation has an essential influence on the fetal proteins synthesis and that this influence can be attributed to the connection between placenta connection blood flow and oxygen saturation of fetal arterial blood. (orig.) [de

  5. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  6. Аn improvement of process of organization of pedagogical practice is priority condition of forming of professional competence of future teachers the basics of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.І. Kara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improving the organization of teaching practice as one of the primary conditions of formation professional competence of future teachers of basic health. Highlighted that the improvement of the process of organizing teaching practice can be done by improving the content of the students during the teaching practice, the organization of joint work of all supervisors (teachers of higher educational institutions and teachers of general educational institutions, compliance with the uniform requirements supervisors to an evaluation of the student's performance. It is noted that purposeful pedagogical guidance and to improve the content of the students during the teaching practice creates the conditions for the formation of all the components of professional competence of future teachers.

  7. Time Resolved Spectroscopic Studies on a Novel Synthesized Photo-Switchable Organic Dyad and Its Nanocomposite Form in Order to Develop Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Abhijit; Yadav, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Jana, Aindrila; Ganguly, Tapan

    2015-08-01

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations in pico and nanosecond time domain were made in the different environments on a novel synthesized dyad, 3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (MNTMA) in its pristine form and when combined with gold (Au) nanoparticles i.e., in its nanocomposite structure. Both steady state and time resolved measurements coupled with the DFT calculations performed by using Gaussian 03 suit of software operated in the linux operating system show that though the dyad exhibits mainly the folded conformation in the ground state but on photoexcitation the nanocomposite form of dyad prefers to be in elongated structure in the excited state indicating its photoswitchable nature. Due to the predominancy of elongated isomeric form of the dyad in the excited state in presence of Au Nps, it appears that the dyad MNTMA may behave as a good light energy converter specially in its nanocomposite form. As larger charge separation rate (kcs ~ 4 x 10(8) s-1) is found relative to the rate associated with the energy wasting charge recombination processes (kcR ~ 3 x 10(5) s-1) in the nanocomposite form of the dyad, it demonstrates the suitability of constructing the efficient light energy conversion devices with Au-dyad hybrid nanomaterials.

  8. Blood transfusion safety; current status and challenges in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Aneke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject. The World Health Organization has been in the forefront of efforts to establish safe, available, and affordable blood transfusion services in most parts of Africa through encouraging adequate blood donor recruitment, donor blood testing, and collection as well developing strategies for the rational use of blood. Even though modest improvement has been recorded, particularly with regards to donor blood screening for common TTIs, considerable efforts are needed in the form of robust public enlightenment campaigns (on blood donation and continuous system improvement to drive the current transfusion practices in the country toward safety and self-sustenance.

  9. Blood transfusion safety; current status and challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneke, John C.; Okocha, Chide E.

    2017-01-01

    The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa) remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject. The World Health Organization has been in the forefront of efforts to establish safe, available, and affordable blood transfusion services in most parts of Africa through encouraging adequate blood donor recruitment, donor blood testing, and collection as well developing strategies for the rational use of blood. Even though modest improvement has been recorded, particularly with regards to donor blood screening for common TTIs, considerable efforts are needed in the form of robust public enlightenment campaigns (on blood donation) and continuous system improvement to drive the current transfusion practices in the country toward safety and self-sustenance. PMID:28316432

  10. Basic Blood Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Basic Blood Chemistry Tests KidsHealth / For Parents / Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Print ... learn how the body’s organs are working. Often, blood tests check electrolytes, the minerals that help keep the ...

  11. The Use of Novel Therapies to Reconstitute Blood Cell Production Production and Promote Organ Performance, Using Bone Marrow Failure as Modela Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    severe adverse event reported in subject 02-005 - the subject had an anaphylactic reaction to a blood transfusion (33 minutes from the start of the...005 was reported to have an allergic reaction to a packed red cell transfusion , classified as Grade 3 anaphylaxis. The subject was hospitalized...There was one severe adverse event reported in subject 02-005 - the subject had an anaphylactic reaction to a blood transfusion (33 minutes from the

  12. Contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to SOA formed in an irradiated toluene/alpha-pinene/NO(x)/ air mixture: comparison of results using 14C content and SOA organic tracer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenberg, John H; Lewis, Charles W; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O

    2007-06-01

    An organic tracer method, recently proposed for estimating individual contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, was evaluated by conducting a laboratory study where a binary hydrocarbon mixture, containing the anthropogenic aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene, and the biogenic monoterpene, alpha-pinene, was irradiated in air in the presence of NO(x) to form SOA. The contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to the total SOA concentration, calculated using the organic tracer method, were compared with those obtained with a more direct 14C content method. In the study, SOA to SOC ratios of 2.07 +/- 0.08 and 1.41 +/- 0.04 were measured for toluene and (alpha-pinene SOA, respectively. The individual tracer-based SOA contributions of 156 microg m(-3) for toluene and 198 microg m(-)3 for alpha-pinene, which together accounted for 82% of the gravimetrically determined total SOA concentration, compared well with the 14C values of 182 and 230 microg m(-3) measured for the respective SOA precursors. While there are uncertainties associated with the organic tracer method, largely due to the chemical complexity of SOA forming chemical mechanisms, the results of this study suggest the organic tracer method may serve as a useful tool for determining whether a precursor hydrocarbon is a major SOA contributor.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  14. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  15. In situ formed Fe-N doped metal organic framework@carbon nanotubes/graphene hybrids for a rechargeable Zn-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Zhang, Yelong; Liu, Xiangjian; Chen, Lulu; Jia, Jianbo

    2017-11-30

    This study presents an in situ route to produce 3D Fe-N doped metal organic framework@carbon nanotubes/graphene (Fe-MOF@CNTs-G) hybrids as efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts in both basic and acidic solutions. A rechargeable zinc-air battery assembled with Fe-MOF@CNTs-G exhibits a lower charge/discharge overpotential than the commercial IrO 2 + 20% Pt/C catalyst.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence and clinical forms in blood donor candidates in Brazil Prevalência e formas clínicas de Trypanosoma cruzi em candidatos a doadores de sangue no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J Silveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and clinical forms of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated among blood donor candidates attended at a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January 1997 to April 1999. The investigation was done by means of the indirect hemagglutination test and was confirmed via ELISA. Data were collected from clinical examinations, conventional electrocardiogram, chest radiography and echocar-diography. The results showed that despite Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence of 1.17% (128 patients, mainly in males aged 40 years or over, 70.8% of these patients, mainly males aged 19 to 39 years, demonstrated abnormalities that allowed the diagnosis of cardiopathy and/or esophagopathy. This once again corroborates the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in urban centers.A prevalência e a manifestação das formas clinicas de Trypanosoma cruzi foram avaliadas em candidatos a doadores de sangue atendidos em um hospital geral de Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no período de janeiro de 1997 a abril de 1999. A pesquisa sorológica foi realizada por meio do teste de hemaglutinação indireta e confirmada pelo ELISA. Os dados foram coletados considerando os exames clínicos, eletrocardiograma convencional, radiografia de tórax e ecocardiografia. Os resultados demonstraram que, apesar da prevalência ser de 1,17% (128 pacientes, principalmente entre homens com idade igual ou superior a 40 anos, 70,8%, principalmente de homens entre 19 e 39 anos, demonstraram alterações que permitiram o diagnóstico de cardiopatias e/ou esofagopatias, ratificando mais uma vez sua importância nos centros urbanos.

  17. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis of mat-forming and accompanying bacteria covering organically-enriched marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile (Calbuco Island)

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Carlos; Paredes, Javier; Valenzuela, Cristian; Lam, Phyllis; Guillou, Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The mat forming bacteria covering organic matter-enriched and anoxic marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile, were examined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This mat was absent in the sea bed outside the direct influence of the farm (360 m outside fish cages). Based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences (similar to 1500 bp), mat-forming filamentous cells were settled as the sulphur-oxidizing and putatively dissimilative nitrate-reducing Beggict...

  18. Unusual features of long-range density fluctuations in glass-forming organic liquids: A Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkowski, A.; Fischer, E. W.; Steffen, W.; Glaser, H.; Baumann, M.; Ruths, T.; Meier, G.

    2001-01-01

    A new feature of glass-forming liquids, i.e., long-range density fluctuations of the order of 100 nm, has been extensively characterized by means of static light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy and Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy in orthoterphenyl (OTP) and 1,1-di(4 # prime#-methoxy-5 # prime#methyl-phenyl)-cyclohexane (BMMPC). These long-range density fluctuations result in the following unusual features observed in a light scattering experiment, which are not described by the existing theories: (i) strong q-dependent isotropic excess Rayleigh intensity, (ii) additional slow component in the polarized photon correlation function, and (iii) high Landau-Placzek ratio. These unusual features are equilibrium properties of the glass-forming liquids and depend only on temperature, provided that the sample has been equilibrated long enough. The temperature-dependent equilibration times were measured for BMMPC and are about 11 orders of magnitude longer than the α process. It was found that the glass-forming liquid OTP may occur in two states: with and without long-range density fluctuations ('clusters'). We have characterized the two states by static and dynamic light scattering in the temperature range from T g to T g +200 K. The relaxation times of the α process as well as the parameters of the Brillouin line are identical in both OTP with and without clusters. The α process (density fluctuations) in OTP was characterized by measuring either the polarized (VV) or depolarized (VH) correlation function, which are practically identical and q-independent. This feature, which is commonly observed in glass-forming liquids, is not fully explained by the existing theories

  19. Isoreticular metal-organic frameworks, process for forming the same, and systematic design of pore size and functionality therein, with application for gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Li, Hailian; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel

    2007-03-27

    The ability to design and construct solid-state materials with pre-determined structures is a grand challenge in chemistry. An inventive strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic carboxylate links into extended networks has been advanced to a point that has allowed the design of porous structures in which pore size and functionality can be varied systematically. MOF-5, a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn--O--C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its 3-D porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups, --Br, --NH2, --OC3H7, --OC5H11, --H4C2, and --H4C4, and its pore size expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl. The ability to direct the formation of the octahedral clusters in the presence of a desired carboxylate link is an essential feature of this strategy, which resulted in the design of an isoreticular (having the same framework topology) series of sixteen well-defined materials whose crystals have open space representing up to 91.1% of the crystal volume, and homogeneous periodic pores that can be incrementally varied from 3.8 to 28.8 angstroms. Unlike the unpredictable nature of zeolite and other molecular sieve syntheses, the deliberate control exercised at the molecular level in the design of these crystals is expected to have tremendous implications on materials properties and future technologies. Indeed, data indicate that members of this series represent the first monocrystalline mesoporous organic/inorganic frameworks, and exhibit the highest capacity for methane storage (155 cm3/cm3 at 36 atm) and the lowest densities (0.41 to 0.21 g/cm3) attained to date for any crystalline material at room temperature.

  20. The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of haemopoietic organs and blood of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishurova, E.; Kropachova, K.; Reksa, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of rat hemopoietic tissues and blood was followed up. We have found that the dynamics of the changes seems to be similar to that observed after acute exposure, and the hemopoiesis recovery starts just at the time of irradiation. In evaluating the damage and recovery extent after accidental irradiation, we consider it expedient to complement the biological dosimetry with the indices studied work including the determination of DNA and RNA concentrations in blood of irradiated human beings

  1. Learning from the Co-operative Institutional Model: How to Enhance Organizational Robustness of Third Sector Organizations with More Pluralistic Forms of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Taylor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organizations are oftentimes seen as contributing to a robust civil society. Yet the dominant modes of third sector organizational governance often adhere to a unitary orientation. The over-reliance on unitary modes of governance introduces two challenges: first, organizational stakeholders are kept from utilizing participatory mechanisms that would enable them to act as societal intermediaries, and; second, these organizations may underperform due to the artificial separation of stakeholders from participating in governance. This paper addresses calls to widen our knowledge by translating theory into practice through a discussion about the efficacy of pluralistic governance. The co-operative enterprise in introduced to focus analyses on pluralist modes of stakeholder governance. A specific co-operative’s governance structure and practice is introduced—Choctaw Electric Co-operative—through an archival analyses of secondary media accounts of a stakeholder-led reform initiative in rural Oklahoma. The Ostrom Design Principles—a diagnostic used to assess institutional robustness—are applied to demonstrate the shortsightedness of unitary governance, and highlight the potential benefits of pluralistic stakeholder engagement. Knowledge is widened in two ways: first, empirical analyses of co-operative enterprise may provide for significant insights and innovations in third sector governance, and; second proper systems of pluralistic governance exhibit enormous capacity to better orient the firm toward better serving the stakeholder base, improving performance and institutional robustness, while empowering stakeholders as societal intermediaries.

  2. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  3. Blood bank regulations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products.

  4. Reaction of Pb(II) and Zn(II) with Ethyl Linoleate To Form Structured Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Complexes: A Model for Degradation in Historic Paint Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Margaret G.; Palmer, Michael R.; Suchomel, Matthew R.; Berrie, Barbara H. (NGA); (Bordeaux)

    2016-09-23

    To investigate soap formation in drying oils in historic paints, the reaction between metal acetates (K+, Zn2+, Pb2+) and ethyl linoleate (EL) was studied using optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron microscopy. Pb(II) and Zn(II) react rapidly with EL to form highly structured, spherulitic, luminescent crystallites that aggregate. Evidence from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction indicates that these are organic–inorganic hybrid complexes or coordination polymers. FTIR absorbance peaks at ca. 1540 cm–1 for Pb(II) and ca. 1580 cm–1 for Zn(II) are consistent with the formation of carboxylate complexes. The complexes formed offer insight into the degradation processes observed in oil paint films, suggesting that soap formation is rapid when metal ions are solubilized and can occur with unsaturated fatty acids that are present in fresh oils. These complexes may account for the atypical luminescence observed in lead-containing cured oil paint films.

  5. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  6. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  7. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toes. Let's find out more about each ingredient. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, ... after you are better, B cells can become memory cells that remember how to make the special ...

  8. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Donating Blood What's in this article? Who Can Donate Blood? Before Donating Are There Any Risks? Print en español Donar sangre According to the American Red Cross, there's a ...

  9. Vomiting Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if vomiting blood causes dizziness after standing, rapid, shallow breathing or other signs of shock. Call 911 ... severe blood loss or shock, such as: Rapid, shallow breathing Dizziness or lightheadedness after standing up Blurred ...

  10. Validate or falsify: Lessons learned from a microscopy method claimed to be useful for detecting Borrelia and Babesia organisms in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Audun; Hajdusek, Ondrej; Øines, Øivind; Quarsten, Hanne; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Herstad, Tove K; Kjelland, Vivian; Sima, Radek; Jalovecka, Marie; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Aaberge, Ingeborg S

    2016-01-01

    A modified microscopy protocol (the LM-method) was used to demonstrate what was interpreted as Borrelia spirochetes and later also Babesia sp., in peripheral blood from patients. The method gained much publicity, but was not validated prior to publication, which became the purpose of this study using appropriate scientific methodology, including a control group. Blood from 21 patients previously interpreted as positive for Borrelia and/or Babesia infection by the LM-method and 41 healthy controls without known history of tick bite were collected, blinded and analysed for these pathogens by microscopy in two laboratories by the LM-method and conventional method, respectively, by PCR methods in five laboratories and by serology in one laboratory. Microscopy by the LM-method identified structures claimed to be Borrelia- and/or Babesia in 66% of the blood samples of the patient group and in 85% in the healthy control group. Microscopy by the conventional method for Babesia only did not identify Babesia in any samples. PCR analysis detected Borrelia DNA in one sample of the patient group and in eight samples of the control group; whereas Babesia DNA was not detected in any of the blood samples using molecular methods. The structures interpreted as Borrelia and Babesia by the LM-method could not be verified by PCR. The method was, thus, falsified. This study underlines the importance of doing proper test validation before new or modified assays are introduced.

  11. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-N bond forming reactions using organic azides as the nitrogen source: a journey for the mild and versatile C-H amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwangmin; Kim, Hyunwoo; Chang, Sukbok

    2015-04-21

    Owing to the prevalence of nitrogen-containing compounds in functional materials, natural products and important pharmaceutical agents, chemists have actively searched for the development of efficient and selective methodologies allowing for the facile construction of carbon-nitrogen bonds. While metal-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions have been established as one of the most general protocols for C-N bond formation, these methods require starting materials equipped with functional groups such as (hetero)aryl halides or their equivalents, thus generating stoichiometric amounts of halide salts as byproducts. To address this aspect, a transition-metal-catalyzed direct C-H amination approach has emerged as a step- and atom-economical alternative to the conventional C-N cross-coupling reactions. However, despite the significant recent advances in metal-mediated direct C-H amination reactions, most available procedures need harsh conditions requiring stoichiometric external oxidants. In this context, we were curious to see whether a transition-metal-catalyzed mild C-H amination protocol could be achieved using organic azides as the amino source. We envisaged that a dual role of organic azides as an environmentally benign amino source and also as an internal oxidant via N-N2 bond cleavage would be key to develop efficient C-H amination reactions employing azides. An additional advantage of this approach was anticipated: that a sole byproduct is molecular nitrogen (N2) under the perspective catalytic conditions. This Account mainly describes our research efforts on the development of rhodium- and iridium-catalyzed direct C-H amination reactions with organic azides. Under our initially optimized Rh(III)-catalyzed amination conditions, not only sulfonyl azides but also aryl- and alkyl azides could be utilized as facile amino sources in reaction with various types of C(sp(2))-H bonds bearing such directing groups as pyridine, amide, or ketoxime. More recently, a new

  12. A mass spectrometric study of secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors in a reaction chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Alfarra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS has been utilised to provide on-line measurements of the mass spectral signatures and mass size distributions of the oxidation products resulting from irradiating 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB and α-pinene, separately, in the presence of nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide and propene in a reaction chamber. Mass spectral results indicate that both precursors produce SOA with broadly similar chemical functionality of a highly oxidised nature. However, significant differences occur in the minor mass spectral fragments for the SOA in the two reaction systems, indicating that they have different molecular composition. Nitrogen-containing organic compounds have been observed in the photooxidation products of both precursors, and their formation appeared to be controlled by the temporal variability of NOx. Although the overall fragmentation patterns of the photooxidation products in both systems did not change substantially over the duration of each experiment, the contribution of some individual mass fragments to total mass appeared to be influenced by the irradiation time. The effective densities of the 1,3,5-TMB and α-pinene SOA particles were determined for various particle sizes using the relationship between mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameters. The effective density for the 1,3,5-TMB SOA ranged from 1.35–1.40 g/cm3, while that for α-pinene SOA ranged from 1.29–1.32 g/cm3. The determined effective densities did not show dependence on irradiation time. Results suggest that further chemical processing of SOA takes place in the real atmosphere, as neither the α-pinene nor the 1,3,5-TMB experimental results reproduce the right relative product distribution between carbonyl-containing and multifunctional carboxylic acid species measured at ambient locations influenced by aged continental organic aerosols.

  13. EFFECT OF INCREASED WHOLE-BLOOD VISCOSITY ON REGIONAL BLOOD FLOWS IN CHRONICALLY HYPOXEMIC LAMBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DALINGHAUS, M; KNOESTER, H; GRATAMA, JWC; VANDERMEER, J; ZIJLSTRA, WG; KUIPERS, JRG

    In chronic hypoxemia blood flow and oxygen supply to vital organs are maintained, but to nonvital organs they are decreased. We measured organ blood flows (microspheres) and whole blood viscosity in 10 chronically hypoxemic lambs, with an atrial septal defect and pulmonary stenosis, and in 8 control

  14. Glomerulonefritis fibrilar: Una rara forma de enfermedad glomerular por depósitos organizados Fibrillary glomerulo-nephritis: A rare form of glomerular disease with organized deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta B. Cabrera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de una mujer de 67 años de edad que consultó por debilidad y astenia, constatándose proteinuria de rango nefrótico y dislipemia. Se realizó punción para biopsia renal, la que se analizó por microscopia óptica, inmunofluorescencia y microscopia electrónica de transmisión. El análisis ultra-estructural reveló la existencia de depósitos fibrilares organizados, rectos, no ramificados, cuyo espesor osciló entre 15 y 20 nm. Dichas fibrillas ópticamente se veían como una expansión mesangial discretamente nodular, ligeramente PAS positiva, rojo Congo negativa y débilmente positiva para IgG. El diagnóstico fue glomerulonefritis fibrilar. Las enfermedades glomerulares por depósitos organizados pueden exhibir superposición sindrómica e histopatológica. Por tal motivo, resulta de importancia una primera separación entre aquellas rojo Congo positivas o negativas, siendo en este último caso la microscopia electrónica de transmisión la que diferencia dos entidades: la glomerulonefritis fibrilar y la glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide. Esta diferencia se apoya no sólo en las características ultraestructurales, sino en sus características clínicas. La glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide muestra una fuerte asociación con procesos linfoproliferativos, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con la glomerulonefritis fibrilar.We describe the case of a 67 year-old female who presented weakness and fatigue. Laboratory data showed nephrotic level of proteinuria and dyslipidemia. A renal biopsy was performed, and studied by light microscopy, immuno-fluorescence and electron microscopy. Ultra-structural analysis revealed the existence of organized fibrillary deposits, straight and without ramifications, the thickness of which ranged from 15 to 20 nm. These fibres were identified, by light microscopy, as slightly nodular mesangial expansions PAS positive, Congo red negative and weakly positive for IgG. Given the above findings, the

  15. Phosphorus Forms and Distribution in Selected Soils Formed Over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus Forms and Distribution in Selected Soils Formed Over Different Parent Materials in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Fe-P. Organic P correlated positively with Fe-P, Al-P and total P. Ca-P correlated negatively with sand and positively with organic carbon, exchangeable Ca, Al-P and total P. Fe-P correlated positively with ...

  16. Characterization of HDEHP-lanthanide complexes formed in a non-polar organic phase using 31P NMR and ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Hiscox, Bill; Nash, Kenneth L

    2012-01-21

    HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) is one of the extractant molecules most intensively used in liquid-liquid extraction systems. Of particular interest in this investigation is its application in the TALSPEAK process, which is among the methods currently considered to be ready for technological deployment for the separation of trivalent actinides (Am(III) and Cm(III)) from lanthanide (Ln(III)) cations. However, several fundamental features of the chemistry of this separation system are not well understood. It has become clear that the lactic acid (LacH), which is employed as a buffer in the aqueous phase, plays a very complex role in the biphasic chemistry of the system. In this study, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((31)P NMR) was used to investigate the rate of HDEHP (AH) exchange occurring in the binary complexes Ln(AHA)(3) (Ln = La and Sm), which are usually considered to be the predominant species present in a non-polar organic phase (1,3-diisopropylbenzene). The rate data indicate considerably faster ligand exchange kinetics for La(AHA)(3) than is seen for Sm(AHA)(3), with a corresponding shift from a dissociative interchange to an associative process. With the introduction of lactic acid (LacH) and higher concentrations of lanthanides into the system, ternary complexes (Ln(3+)-HDEHP-lactate) become dominant, as demonstrated using (31)P NMR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). Lactate partitioning experiments indicate that the amount of lactate extracted is correlated with the concentration of Ln(3+). The terminal ternary complex species appears to have the general stoichiometry 1 : 2 : 1 (Ln(3+) : HDEHP : lactate). The detection of bimetallic ternary complexes (by ESI-MS) with La(3+) and the observation of multiple phosphorus environments (by NMR) suggest the presence of polymetallic complexes with the general formula (LaA(2)Lac)(n). A model is proposed in which DEHP(-) molecules bridge two metal ions.

  17. Modeling of the self-organization processes in crystal-forming systems. Tetrahedral metal clusters and the self-assembly of crystal structures of intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushin, G. D.

    2017-09-01

    A combinatorial and topological modeling of 1D, 2D, and 3D packings of symmetrically linked A4 tetrahedra has been performed. Three types of 1D chains with tetrahedra connectivities of 4, 6, and 8 were used to model 2D layers L-1, L-2, and L-3 and 3D frameworks FR-1, FR-2, FR-3, and FR-4. A family of tetrahedral structures with FR-1, FR-2, and FR-3 frameworks has been selected among the intermetallic compounds with chemical compositions of A 3 B, A 2 B 2, AB 3, A 2 BC, AB 2 C, and ABCD; this family includes more than 1900 compounds (TOPOS program package). It is found that the topological models of tetrahedral 3D frameworks are in correspondence with all types of the crystal structures formed in Au-Cu binary systems (FR-1 for Cu3Au (auricupride), Cu2Au2 (tetraauricupride), and CuAu3 (bogdanovite)), in the Mg-Cd system (FR-3 for Mg3Cd, Mg2Cd2, and MgCd3), in the Li-Hg system (FR-2 for Li3Hg and Li2Hg2 and FR-3 for LiHg3), in the Li-Ag-Al ternary system (FR-2 for LiAg2Al and Li2AgAl), and in the Li-Mg-Pd-Sn quaternary system (FR-2 for LiMgPdSn). Framework FR-4 has been established in ternary intermetallic compounds A(Li2Sn2); A = Cu, Ag, Au.

  18. The subcellular and organ distribution and natural form of histidyl-proline diketopiperazine in rat brain determined by a specific radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, T; Prasad, C; Peterkofsky, A

    1980-11-10

    Histidyl-proline diketopiperazine is produced in brain as a product of the metabolism of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. A number of the previously observed central nervous system and pituitary activities resulting from an exposure to thyrotropin-releasing hormone appear to involve the conversion of the releasing factor to the cyclic dipeptide. In the present study, the development of a rabbit antiserum that is highly specific for histidyl-proline diketopiperazine is described; the antiserum has essentially no capability to bind thyrotropin-releasing hormone or a number of other related peptides. The antibody can also distinguish between the natural form of the cyclic dipeptide and a diastereomer containing D-proline. A procedure for extraction, with high yield, of histidyl-proline diketopiperazine from brain is described. With the aid of the specific antiserum it was found that the preponderance of the cyclic dipeptide in rat brain is bound to high molecular weight material, mainly in the range of Mr = 70,000; histidyl-proline diketopiperazine can be disassociated from this material by boiling in salt/methanol solution. The concentration of the dipeptide in rat brain is in the range of 275 to 565 pmol/brain, approximately 2.5 times the concentrations determined for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (113 to 210 pmol/brain). A study of the subcellular distribution of histidyl-proline diketopiperazine and thyrotropin-releasing hormone suggests that the releasing factor is concentrated in synaptosomal vesicles while the diketopiperazine is not. A determination of the regional distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and histidyl-proline diketopiperazine indicated that both peptides are found in highest concentrations in pituitary and hypothalamus, but are detectable in other areas of brain as well.

  19. Stabilized Romanowsky blood stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, J W; Dean, W W; Stastny, M; Lubrano, G J

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that the degradation of thiazine dyes which normally occurs in methanolic solution, as in the case of Romanowsky blood stains, can be prevented by making the solution acidic. In a certain range of acidity, the stain precipitates in the form of monothiazine eosinate, but by making the solution sufficiently acidic, eosin is protonated and the precipitate cannot form. These observations have been used to develop a blood stain which is stable, even at elevated temperatures, for several months. For use the stain is neutralized by a specially formulated fixative solution.

  20. Subclass of individual IgA-secreting human lymphocytes. Investigation of in vivo pneumococcal polysaccharide-induced and in vitro mitogen-induced blood B cells by monolayer plaque-forming cell assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T; Sigsgaard, T

    1988-01-01

    was recorded among IgA-secreting blood cells in PWM- and EBV-stimulated cultures. In contrast, a predominance of IgA2 (54%) was found among IgA-secreting cells (2531/10(6)) isolated from the blood 7 days after in vivo stimulation with pneumococcal polysaccharides, and a similar proportion (51%) of IgA2...... producing cells was found among IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide-secreting cells. It was thus confirmed that IgA1 is the predominant subclass of blood IgA-secreting cells in general. However, the high percentage of IgA2-secreting cells found after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides suggests...... that these Ag have an unusually high ability to activate IgA2 B cells, or that the B cells stimulated originate from lymphatic tissues with a high frequency of IgA2 committed cells....

  1. Summary of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's survey regarding formation, occurrence and distribution of unintentional formed organic compounds in Sweden.; Summering av referensgruppsarbete betraeffande Naturvaardsverkets regeringsuppdrag om oavsiktligt bildade aemnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, Evalena [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    This report summaries parts of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's assignment regarding formation, occurrence and distribution of unintentional formed organic compounds in Sweden. The assignment was focused on four organic compounds viz, hexachlorinated benzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. The estimated levels of theses compounds produced on a yearly base in Sweden are relatively low from a global perspective. Various combustion processes are still the main source for these compounds in Sweden. Combustion of biofuels both small-scale and full-scale appears to be two large sources among the analysed sources. However the estimation is based on very few data with a large variation and should thus only be seen as a preliminary result. Additional studies are planed to give more data into the estimation before a valid evaluation can be given.

  2. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  3. Formas de carbono orgánico en suelos con diferentes usos en el departamento del Magdalena (Colombia Some forms of organic carbon in soil with different uses in the Department of Magdalena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez-Polo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS lábiles y humificadas pueden ser afectadas por las prácticas de uso y manejo; sin embargo el impacto de estos cambios no se ha evaluado en suelos y ambientes tropicales. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los contenidos y algunas formas de carbono orgánico del suelo (COS en cinco zonas de clima cálido tropical (0 - 1110 m.s.n.m. del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia y el efecto que sobre ellas han tenido las prácticas asociadas a suelos cultivados con café (Coffea arabica, banano (Musa sp., palma africana (Elaeis guineensis y sábila (Aloe vera, comparados con suelos de bosques naturales. No se encontraron diferencias (P Fractions of soil organic matter (SOM labile and humified, can be affected by use and management practices, but the impact of these changes has not been evaluated in soils of tropical environments. The present study investigated the contents and some forms of soil organic carbon (SOC in five warm tropical climate zones of the Department of Magdalena (Colombia, and the effect of the cropping practices on these forms of organic carbon in cultivated soils, associated with Coffee (Coffea arabica, Banana (Musa sp., African palm (Elaeis guineensis, Aloe (Aloe vera compared to natural forest soils. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were not found between zones as much use soil as. Low average values of SOM in the study areas and higher contents of total carbon in forest soils than in cultivated soils were reported. Forest soils had an average carbon accumulation total of 42.4 mg/ha at 20 cm, compared to 33.8 mg/ha in the cultivated soils, this equates to an average loss of 23% total C by the effect of crop management in these soils, compared to C humified (C extracted with sodium pyrophosphate, values are observed very low in cultivated soils and almost zero in forest soils, but forest soils had a higher number of stable forms of C (Cnox. In the soil cultivated

  4. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by