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Sample records for blood fluke schistosoma

  1. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, P.; Štefanić, S.; Hradilek, M.; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, J.; Jílková, A.; Ulrychová, L.; McKerrow, J.H.; Caffrey, C.R.; Mareš, M.; Horn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), e0003827. ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * schistosomiasis * prolyl oligopeptidase * blood fluke Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  2. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, Pavla; Štefanic, S.; Hradilek, Martin; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jílková, Adéla; Ulrychová, Lenka; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael; Horn, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), e0003827/1-e0003827/24. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * schistosomiasis * prolyl oligopeptidase * blood fluke Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014 http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0003827

  3. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors.

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    Pavla Fajtová

    Full Text Available Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that infects over 240 million people worldwide, and for which there is a need to identify new targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. Our research is focused on Schistosoma mansoni prolyl oligopeptidase (SmPOP from the serine peptidase family S9, which has not been investigated in detail in trematodes.We demonstrate that SmPOP is expressed in adult worms and schistosomula in an enzymatically active form. By immunofluorescence microscopy, SmPOP is localized in the tegument and parenchyma of both developmental stages. Recombinant SmPOP was produced in Escherichia coli and its active site specificity investigated using synthetic substrate and inhibitor libraries, and by homology modeling. SmPOP is a true oligopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide (but not protein substrates with a strict specificity for Pro at P1. The inhibition profile is analogous to those for mammalian POPs. Both the recombinant enzyme and live worms cleave host vasoregulatory, proline-containing hormones such as angiotensin I and bradykinin. Finally, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of SmPOP that induce deleterious phenotypes in cultured schistosomes.We provide the first localization and functional analysis of SmPOP together with chemical tools for measuring its activity. We briefly discuss the notion that SmPOP, operating at the host-parasite interface to cleave host bioactive peptides, may contribute to the survival of the parasite. If substantiated, SmPOP could be a new target for the development of anti-schistosomal drugs.

  4. Structural Basis for Inhibition of Cathepsin B Drug Target from the Human Blood Fluke, Schistosoma mansoni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Adéla; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Lepšík, Martin; Horn, Martin; Váchová, Jana; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Brynda, Jiří; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 41 (2011), s. 35770-35881. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1585; GA ČR GAP208/11/0295; GA MŠk OC09007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cathepsin B * schistosoma * crystal structure Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2011

  5. In silico analysis of the fucosylation-associated genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni: cloning and characterization of the enzymes involved in GDP-L-fucose synthesis and Golgi import

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Nathan A; Tavis K Anderson; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Yoshino, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate structures of surface-expressed and secreted/excreted glycoconjugates of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni are key determinants that mediate host-parasite interactions in both snail and mammalian hosts. Fucose is a major constituent of these immunologically important glycans, and recent studies have sought to characterize fucosylation-associated enzymes, including the Golgi-localized fucosyltransferases that catalyze the transfer of L-fucose from a GDP-L-fucose...

  6. Structural basis for the inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8, a key epigenetic player in the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Martin Marek

    Full Text Available The treatment of schistosomiasis, a disease caused by blood flukes parasites of the Schistosoma genus, depends on the intensive use of a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the likelihood of the development of drug-resistant parasite strains and renders the search for new drugs a strategic priority. Currently, inhibitors of human epigenetic enzymes are actively investigated as novel anti-cancer drugs and have the potential to be used as new anti-parasitic agents. Here, we report that Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 (smHDAC8, the most expressed class I HDAC isotype in this organism, is a functional acetyl-L-lysine deacetylase that plays an important role in parasite infectivity. The crystal structure of smHDAC8 shows that this enzyme adopts a canonical α/β HDAC fold, with specific solvent exposed loops corresponding to insertions in the schistosome HDAC8 sequence. Importantly, structures of smHDAC8 in complex with generic HDAC inhibitors revealed specific structural changes in the smHDAC8 active site that cannot be accommodated by human HDACs. Using a structure-based approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that build on these specificities. These molecules exhibit an inhibitory effect on smHDAC8 but show reduced affinity for human HDACs. Crucially, we show that a newly identified smHDAC8 inhibitor has the capacity to induce apoptosis and mortality in schistosomes. Taken together, our biological and structural findings define the framework for the rational design of small-molecule inhibitors specifically interfering with schistosome epigenetic mechanisms, and further support an anti-parasitic epigenome targeting strategy to treat neglected diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens.

  7. Structural basis for inhibition of the cathepsin B drug target from the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Adéla; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Lepšík, Martin; Horn, Martin; Váchová, Jana; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Brynda, Jiří; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael

    Hydra : -, 2012. s. 60-60. [Molecular and Cellular Biology of Helminth Parasites. International Conference /7./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Hydra] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12023; GA ČR GA203/09/1585 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cathepsin B1 * Schistosoma * protease * structures Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  8. Global Expression Analysis Revealed Novel Gender-Specific Gene Expression Features in the Blood Fluke Parasite Schistosoma japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Xianyu Piao; Pengfei Cai; Shuai Liu; Nan Hou; Lili Hao; Fan Yang; Heng Wang; Jianwei Wang; Qi Jin; Qijun Chen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum is one of the remarkable Platyhelminths that are endemic in China and Southeast Asian countries. The parasite is dioecious and can reside inside the host for many years. Rapid reproduction by producing large number of eggs and count-react host anti-parasite responses are the strategies that benefit long term survival of the parasite. Praziquantel is currently the only drug that is effective against the worms. Development of novel antiparasite reagents and imm...

  9. Global expression analysis revealed novel gender-specific gene expression features in the blood fluke parasite Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Xianyu Piao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum is one of the remarkable Platyhelminths that are endemic in China and Southeast Asian countries. The parasite is dioecious and can reside inside the host for many years. Rapid reproduction by producing large number of eggs and count-react host anti-parasite responses are the strategies that benefit long term survival of the parasite. Praziquantel is currently the only drug that is effective against the worms. Development of novel antiparasite reagents and immune-prevention measures rely on the deciphering of parasite biology. The decoding of the genomic sequence of the parasite has made it possible to dissect the functions of genes that govern the development of the parasite. In this study, the polyadenylated transcripts from male and female S. japonicum were isolated for deep sequencing and the sequences were systematically analysed. RESULTS: First, the number of genes actively expressed in the two sexes of S. japonicum was similar, but around 50% of genes were biased to either male or female in expression. Secondly, it was, at the first time, found that more than 50% of the coding region of the genome was transcribed from both strands. Among them, 65% of the genes had sense and their cognate antisense transcripts co-expressed, whereas 35% had inverse relationship between sense and antisense transcript abundance. Further, based on gene ontological analysis, more than 2,000 genes were functionally categorized and biological pathways that are differentially functional in male or female parasites were elucidated. CONCLUSIONS: Male and female schistosomal parasites differ in gene expression patterns, many metabolic and biological pathways have been identified in this study and genes differentially expressed in gender specific manner were presented. Importantly, more than 50% of the coding regions of the S. japonicum genome transcribed from both strands, antisense RNA-mediated gene regulation might play a critical

  10. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

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    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  11. Proteomic analysis of human skin treated with larval schistosome peptidases reveals distinct invasion strategies among species of blood flukes.

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    Jessica Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin invasion is the initial step in infection of the human host by schistosome blood flukes. Schistosome larvae have the remarkable ability to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers present in skin in the absence of any mechanical trauma. While a serine peptidase with activity against insoluble elastin appears to be essential for this process in one species of schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, it is unknown whether other schistosome species use the same peptidase to facilitate entry into their hosts.Recent genome sequencing projects, together with a number of biochemical studies, identified alternative peptidases that Schistosoma japonicum or Trichobilharzia regenti could use to facilitate migration through skin. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis of human skin treated with purified cercarial elastase, the known invasive peptidase of S. mansoni, or S. mansoni cathespin B2, a close homolog of the putative invasive peptidase of S. japonicum, to identify substrates of either peptidase. Select skin proteins were then confirmed as substrates by in vitro digestion assays.This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human hosts.

  12. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species. PMID:26859799

  13. Blood loss estimation in Schistosoma incognitum by the use of 51Cr labelled red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C42 Red blood cells labelled with 51Cr were used to study the pathophysiology of S. incognitum infection. Blood volume, cell volume, faecal blood excretion and the half life of the red cells were determined. It was shown that in rabbits infected with the blood fluke, there was loss of blood, which may result in the development of anaemia in the infected animals. (author)

  14. Identification of G protein-coupled receptors in Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni by comparative genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Tulio D L; Young, Neil D.; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Hall, Ross S.; Mangiola, Stefano; Lonie, Andrew; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting ~200 million people worldwide. Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni are two relatively closely related schistosomes (blood flukes), and the causative agents of urogenital and hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, respectively. The availability of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data sets for these two schistosomes now provides unprecedented opportunities to explore their biology, host interactions and schistosomiasis at the molec...

  15. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. PMID:27208886

  16. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exploit an elastohydrodynamic coupling to swim efficiently

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Katsikis, Georgios; Bhargava, Arjun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    The motility of many parasites is critical for the infection process of their host, as exemplified by the transmission cycle of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In their human infectious stage, immature, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect humans by penetrating through the skin. This infection causes Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that is comparable to malaria in its global socio-economic impact. Given that cercariae do not feed...

  17. MOLECULAR APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF TREMATODE PARASITES : THE BLOOD FLUKE

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    Philip T. LoVerde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One important aspect of reproductive development in trematode parasites is the formation of a hardened eggshell which allows the zygote to develop into a miracidium in a hostile environment. The miracidium then can transfer the germline from the vertebrate host to snail intermediate host. Schistosome parasites, unlike other trematodes, have separate sexes and female reproductive development is known to depend on the presence of a male parasite. These facts make the blood flukes ideal material to study the mechanisms that underlie female reproductive development and eggshell formatian. We reasoned that the morphological and biochemical differences between the male and female must be reflected at the molecular level in the differential expression of sexually regulated genes. Radioactive single stranded cDNA was first transcribed from female RNA; and then sequences common to both male and female were removed by hybridization to an excess of male RNA. This probe was used to screen a cDNA library made from mRNA of adult worm paris. One hybridizing clone, pSMf 61-46, was shown to correspond to a 0.9 kilobase mRNA that is present only in mature female worms and is not detectable in female schistosomes from single-sex infections, in male worms or in eggs. Thus expression of the gene was female-specific. During normal bisexual infection this mRNA is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing and increases to a high level at 35 days postinfection, coinciding with egg production. Thus the temporal expression of the gene was dependent on paining with male worm. The nucleotide sequence of the gene shows an open reading frame that encodes a 16 kDA polypeptide that shows strong homology with eggshell proteins on insects. A second female-specific cDNA clone, F-4, represents a 1.6 kilobase mRNA whose expression is also correlated with worm pairing and subsequent egg production, encodes a different putative eggshell component of 44 kDA. The

  18. Identification of lead chemotherapeutic agents from medicinal plants against blood flukes and whipworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Giacomin, Paul R; Pearson, Mark S; Smout, Michael J; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and trichuriasis are two of the most common neglected tropical diseases (NTD) that affect almost a billion people worldwide. There is only a limited number of effective drugs to combat these NTD. Medicinal plants are a viable source of parasiticides. In this study, we have investigated six of the 19 phytochemicals isolated from two Bhutanese medicinal plants, Corydalis crispa and Pleurospermum amabile, for their anthelmintic properties. We used the xWORM technique and Scanning Electron Microscope-based imaging to determine the activity of the compounds. Of the six compounds tested, isomyristicin and bergapten showed significant anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris with bergapten being the most efficacious compound one against both parasites (S. mansoni IC50 = 8.6 μg/mL and T. muris IC50 = 10.6 μg/mL) and also against the schistosomulum stage of S. mansoni. These two compounds induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. The efficacy against multiple phylogenetically distinct parasites and different life stages, especially the schistosomulum where praziquantel is ineffective, makes isomyristicin and bergapten novel scaffolds for broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug development that could be used for the control of helminths infecting humans and animals. PMID:27572696

  19. Characterization of microRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a neglected blood fluke of human and animal health significance.

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    Chun-Ren Wang

    Full Text Available The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a "directed mutation" pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

  20. Propeptide of cathepsin B1 from human blood fluke: structure-function mapping and small mimetics design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horn, Martin; Jílková, Adéla; Vondrášek, Jiří; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael

    Portorož : -, 2010. s. 72-72. [Symposium on Proteases , Inhibitors and Biological Control /12./. 25.9.-29.9.2010, Portorož] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1585 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : protease * schistosoma * propeptide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. Trypsin- and Chymotrypsin-Like Serine Proteases in Schistosoma mansoni - 'The Undiscovered Country'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horn, Martin; Fajtová, Pavla; Arreola, L. R.; Ulrychová, Lenka; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Franta, Zdeněk; Protasio, A. V.; Opavský, David; Vondrášek, Jiří; McKerrow, J. H.; Mareš, Michael; Caffrey, C. R.; Dvořák, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2766/1-e2766/13. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10011 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 248642 - SCHISTOSOMA PROTEASE Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : schistosomiasis * blood fluke * serine protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J); FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014 http://www.plosntds.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002766

  2. Activity of epiisopiloturine against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, L M; Guimaraes, M A; Campelo, Y D; Vieira, M M; Nascimento, C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L; Nakano, E; Kuckelhaus, S S; Batista, M C; Leite, J R; Moraes, J

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, still imposes a considerable public health burden on large parts of the world. The control of this disease depends almost exclusively on the drug praziquantel, and there are no alternative drugs in sight. Natural compounds have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to parasitic infection and potential development into new therapeutic agents. Epiisopiloturine is an imidazole alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), a native plant from Brazil. Here, we report the in vitro effect of this drug on the survival time of Schistosoma mansoni of different ages, such as 3 h old and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days old schistosomula, 49-day-old adults, and on egg output by adult worms. Epiisopiloturine at a concentration of 300 μg/mL caused the death of all schistosomula within 120 h. Extensive tegumental alterations and death were observed when adult schistosomes had been exposed to 150 μg/mL of the epiisopiloturine. At the highest sub-lethal dose of alkaloid (100 μg/mL), a 100% reduction in egg laying of paired adult worms was observed. Additionally, epiisopiloturine showed selective antischistosomal activity and exhibited no cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. This report provides the first evidence that epiisopiloturine is able to kill S. mansoni of different ages and inhibit worm egg laying. PMID:22420337

  3. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. PMID:26571413

  4. Where are the South American freshwater turtle blood flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae)? The first morphological and molecular analysis of spirorchiid cercariae from freshwater snails in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    Trematodes belonging to the family Spirorchiidae are blood parasites mainly of turtles with a worldwide distribution. These flukes were recently reported in some marine turtles from South America, where the occurrence of spirorchiids in freshwater definitive and intermediate hosts is so far unknown. In the present study, three morphotypes of brevifurcate apharyngeate distome cercariae found in freshwater molluscs from an urban reservoir in Brazil were used for morphological and molecular (nuclear 28S rDNA) evaluation. Two morphotypes of cercariae, probably congeneric species, were found in 12/17,465 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. and differ from each other by body size and sequences (0.1%). They present morphology similar to North American freshwater spirorchiids (Spirorchis spp.), however surprisingly molecular data reveals that these lineages are more closely related to marine spirorchiids. A third species found in 2/777 Pomacea sp. differs morphologically from all previously described spirorchiid cercariae and genetically from spirorchiids with available sequences (16-19%), grouping in the phylogenetic tree with freshwater North American species. This is the first report of freshwater spirorchiids in South America and the first molecular confirmation of the involvement of a caenogastropod in the life cycle of spirorchiids. PMID:26253761

  5. Praziquantel sensitivity of Kenyan Schistosoma mansoni isolates and the generation of a laboratory strain with reduced susceptibility to the drug

    OpenAIRE

    Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Sanchez, Melissa C.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Lelo E. Agola; Steven M. Runo; Cupit, Pauline M.; Charles Cunningham

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by blood-dwelling flukes of the genus Schistosoma. While the disease may affect as many as 249 million people, treatment largely relies on a single drug, praziquantel. The near exclusive use of this drug for such a prevalent disease has led to concerns regarding the potential for drug resistance to arise and the effect this would have on affected populations. In this study, we use an in vitro assay of drug sensitivity to test the effect o...

  6. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exploit an elastohydrodynamic coupling to swim efficiently

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Bhargava, Arjun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    The motility of many parasites is critical for the infection process of their host, as exemplified by the transmission cycle of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In their human infectious stage, immature, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect humans by penetrating through the skin. This infection causes Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that is comparable to malaria in its global socio-economic impact. Given that cercariae do not feed and hence have a finite lifetime of around 12 hours, efficient motility is crucial for the parasite's survival and transmission of Schistosomiasis. However, a first-principles understanding of how cercariae swim is lacking. Via a combined experimental, theoretical and robotics based approach, we demonstrate that cercariae propel themselves against gravity by exploiting a unique elastohydrodynamic coupling. We show that cercariae beat their tail in a periodic fashion while maintaining a fixed flexibility near their poster...

  7. A novel coagulation inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L; Fischer, Katja; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms whereby the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum is able to survive in the host venous blood system. Protease inhibitors are likely released by the parasite enabling it to avoid attack by host proteolytic enzymes and coagulation factors. Interrogation of the S. japonicum genomic sequence identified a gene, SjKI-1, homologous to that encoding a single domain Kunitz protein (Sjp_0020270) which we expressed in recombinant form in Escherichia coli and purified. SjKI-1 is highly transcribed in adult worms and eggs but its expression was very low in cercariae and schistosomula. In situ immunolocalization with anti-SjKI-1 rabbit antibodies showed the protein was present in eggs trapped in the infected mouse intestinal wall. In functional assays, SjKI-1 inhibited trypsin in the picomolar range and chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase, FXa and plasma kallikrein in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, SjKI-1, at a concentration of 7·5 µ m, prolonged 2-fold activated partial thromboplastin time of human blood coagulation. We also demonstrate that SjKI-1 has the ability to bind Ca(++). We present, therefore, characterization of the first Kunitz protein from S. japonicum which we show has an anti-coagulant properties. In addition, its inhibition of neutrophil elastase indicates SjKI-1 have an anti-inflammatory role. Having anti-thrombotic properties, SjKI-1 may point the way towards novel treatment for hemostatic disorders. PMID:26463744

  8. Use of ionizing radiation in the development of vaccines against Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma bovis in Sudanese cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary infection with Fasciola gigantica, which had been eliminated by anthelmintic treatment after eight weeks, stimulated partial resistance to homologous challenge in calves and goats. Similar sensitization with F. gigantica or Schistosoma bovis also stimulated significant resistance to heterologous challenge in calves. The level of resistance was indicated by reduced fluke recoveries from sensitized animals compared with controls, by lower values of the enzymes sorbitol dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase, indicating less hepatic damage, and by lower blood indices, indicating more severe anaemia. Infection of calves with metacercariae of F. gigantica irradiated at 30 Gy or 200 Gy resulted in mean fluke recoveries of 75 and 41 respectively, whereas 332 flukes were recovered from controls infected with non-irradiated metacercariae. The flukes recovered from animals infected with irradiated metacercariae were stunted and resided in the small bile ductules. Sensitization for eight weeks with metacercariae of F. gigantica irradiated at 30 Gy resulted in significant resistance in calves, sheep and goats to homologous challenge. Significant resistance was also stimulated in calves by sensitization for eight weeks with metacercariae of F. gigantica irradiated at 200 Gy. However, sensitization for four weeks with F. gigantica irradiated at 30 Gy failed to stimulate significant resistance in calves to homologous challenge, but similar sensitization, twice at an interval of four weeks, resulted in an average reduction of 62% in fluke recovery from calves with homologous challenge. This reduction was, however, statistically insignificant. Moreover, sensitization for eight weeks with cercariae of Schistosoma bovis irradiated at 30 Gy did not stimulate heterologous resistance in calves or goats to F. gigantica. A similar result was also obtained after sensitization of calves for 36 weeks with cercariae of S. bovis irradiated at 30 Gy before challenge with F

  9. The effect on infection of irradiated fasciola gigantic (liver flukes) on goats (Capra hircus linn) blood values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of infection Fasciola gigantic irradiated by using 60Co to goat’s blood values. Twenty local male goats, ten to twelve old months, 115-20 kg of body weight were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups consisting of four replications. Three groups received irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantic a using 45, 55 and 65 Gy respectively. One group in the positive control and another one is the negative control. Each goat received 350 metacercariae. The study in was undertaken for 25 weeks. Body weight, Eosinofil, PCV and Hb were measured. These indicated that infectivity reduced on irradiated Fasciola gigantic. In all parameters, among negative control group and three irradiation-groups showed non significant (p>0,05). (author)

  10. Fecal occult blood and fecal calprotectin as point-of-care markers of intestinal morbidity in Ugandan children with Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya L Bustinduy; SOUSA-FIGUEIREDO, JOSÉ C.; Moses Adriko; Martha Betson; Alan Fenwick; Narcis Kabatereine; J Russell Stothard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding cytoplasmic protein found in neutrophils and increasingly used as a marker of bowel inflammation. Fecal occult blood (FOB) is also a dependable indicator of bowel morbidity. The objective of our study was to determine the applicability of these tests as surrogate markers of Schistosoma mansoni intestinal morbidity before and after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). METHODS: 216 children (ages 3-9 years old) from Buliisa District in Lake Albert, Ug...

  11. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  12. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  13. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Robin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire transcriptome, and, presently, the largest sequence dataset for any species of liver fluke. Twenty percent of contigs were assigned GO classifications. Abundantly represented protein families included those involved in physiological functions that are essential to parasitism, such as anaerobic respiration, reproduction, detoxification, surface maintenance and feeding. GO assignments were well conserved in relation to other parasitic flukes, however, some categories were over-represented in O. viverrini, such as structural and motor proteins. An assessment of evolutionary relationships showed that O. viverrini was more similar to other parasitic (Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum than to free-living (Schmidtea mediterranea flatworms, and 105 sequences had close homologues in both parasitic species but not in S. mediterranea. A total of 164 O. viverrini contigs contained ORFs with signal sequences, many of which were platyhelminth-specific. Examples of convergent evolution between host and parasite secreted/membrane proteins were identified as were homologues of vaccine antigens from other helminths. Finally, ORFs representing secreted proteins with known roles in tumorigenesis were identified, and these might play roles in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini-induced CCA. Conclusion This gene discovery effort for O. viverrini should expedite molecular studies of cholangiocarcinogenesis and accelerate research focused on developing new interventions

  14. Genomes and geography: genomic insights into the evolution and phylogeography of the genus Schistosoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside Joe E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood flukes within the genus Schistosoma still remain a major cause of disease in the tropics and subtropics and the study of their evolution has been an area of major debate and research. With the advent of modern molecular and genomic approaches deeper insights have been attained not only into the divergence and speciation of these worms, but also into the historic movement of these parasites from Asia into Africa, via migration and dispersal of definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This movement was subsequently followed by a radiation of Schistosoma species giving rise to the S. mansoni and S. haematobium groups, as well as the S. indicum group that reinvaded Asia. Each of these major evolutionary events has been marked by distinct changes in genomic structure evident in differences in mitochondrial gene order and nuclear chromosomal architecture between the species associated with Asia and Africa. Data from DNA sequencing, comparative molecular genomics and karyotyping are indicative of major constitutional genomic events which would have become fixed in the ancestral populations of these worms. Here we examine how modern genomic techniques may give a more in depth understanding of the evolution of schistosomes and highlight the complexity of speciation and divergence in this group.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Ugandan Men Is Associated with Increased Abundance and Function of HIV Target Cells in Blood, but Not the Foreskin: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Prodger

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing.Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05, Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05, and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01 than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046. However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue.S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin.

  16. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru. PMID:26373332

  17. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  18. Reversible paralysis of Schistosoma mansoni by forchlorfenuron, a phenylurea cytokinin that affects septins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraik, Ana E; Galkin, Vitold E; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Garratt, Richard C; Smout, Michael J; Loukas, Alex; Mann, Victoria H; Araujo, Ana P U; DeMarco, Ricardo; Brindley, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Septins are guanosine-5'-triphosphate-binding proteins involved in wide-ranging cellular processes including cytokinesis, vesicle trafficking, membrane remodelling and scaffolds, and with diverse binding partners. Precise roles for these structural proteins in most processes often remain elusive. Identification of small molecules that inhibit septins could aid in elucidating the functions of septins and has become increasingly important, including the description of roles for septins in pathogenic phenomena such as tumorigenesis. The plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron, a synthetic cytokinin known to inhibit septin dynamics, likely represents an informative probe for septin function. This report deals with septins of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and their interactions with forchlorfenuron. Recombinant forms of three schistosome septins, SmSEPT5, SmSEPT7.2 and SmSEPT10, interacted with forchlorfenuron, leading to rapid polymerization of filaments. Culturing developmental stages (miracidia, cercariae, adult males) of schistosomes in FCF at 50-500 μM rapidly led to paralysis, which was reversible upon removal of the cytokinin. The reversible paralysis was concentration-, time- and developmental stage-dependent. Effects of forchlorfenuron on the cultured schistosomes were monitored by video and/or by an xCELLigence-based assay of motility, which quantified the effect of forchlorfenuron on fluke motility. The findings implicated a mechanism targeting a molecular system controlling movement in these developmental stages: a direct effect on muscle contraction due to septin stabilization might be responsible for the reversible paralysis, since enrichment of septins has been described within the muscles of schistosomes. This study revealed the reversible effect of forchlorfenuron on both schistosome motility and its striking impact in hastening polymerization of septins. These novel findings suggested routes to elucidate roles for septins in this pathogen

  19. Two heat-induced proteins are associated with transformation of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae to schistosomula.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanton, R; Loula, E C; Parker, J.

    1987-01-01

    Infection with Schistosoma mansoni, a parasitic fluke, is acquired when cercariae found in freshwater bodies at ambient temperature penetrate human skin. In this study the response of S. mansoni cercariae to change in temperature from ambient to that of mammalian hosts was compared to the response of other stages that do not experience such dramatic temperature shifts. In cercariae, temperature increases from 23 degrees C to either 37 degrees C or 42 degrees C primarily induced the synthesis ...

  20. Identity of rumen fluke in deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

    2014-11-01

    As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

  1. Changes in IgE- and Antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazibwe Francis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite-specific IgE levels correlate with human resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma spp. after chemotherapy. Although the role of eosinophils in schistosomiasis has been the focus of a great deal of important research, the involvement of other Fcε receptor-bearing cells, such as mast cells and basophils, has not been investigated in relation to human immunity to schistosomes. Chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ kills schistosomes living in an in vivo blood environment rich in IgE, eosinophils and basophils. This releases parasite Ags that have the potential to cross-link cell-bound IgE. However, systemic hypersensitivity reactions are not induced by treatment. Here, we describe the effects of schistosomiasis, and its treatment, on human basophil function by following changes in total cellular histamine and in vitro histamine-release induced by schistosome Ags or anti-IgE, in blood samples from infected Ugandan fishermen, who are continuously exposed to S. mansoni infection, before and 1-day and 21-days after PZQ treatment. Results There was a significant increase in the total cellular histamine in blood samples at 1-day post-treatment, followed by a very significant further increase by 21-days post-treatment. In vitro histamine-release induced by S. mansoni egg (SEA or worm (SWA Ags or anti-IgE antibody, was significantly reduced 1-day post-treatment. The degree of this reduction correlated with pre-treatment infection intensity. Twenty-1-days post-treatment, SEA-induced histamine-release was still significantly lower than at pretreatment. Histamine-release was not correlated to plasma concentrations of total or parasite-specific IgE, nor to specific IgG4 plasma concentrations. Conclusion The biology of human blood basophils is modulated by S. mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment. Infection intensity-dependent suppression of basophil histamine-release, histamine-dependent resistance to infection, and

  2. Screening and identification of DNA aptamers toward Schistosoma japonicum eggs via SELEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuqian; Qin, Zhiqiang; Duan, Minlan; Li, Shizhu; Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lin, Wei; Li, Jianglin; Zhao, Zilong; Liu, Jing; Xiong, Dehui; Huang, Yi; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Chao; Ye, Mao; Tan, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Several million people all over the world are estimated to suffer from severe morbidity as a consequence of schistosomiasis. The worm’s eggs, which cause the symptoms of schistosomiasis, are generally used to diagnose the disease. In this study, we employed egg-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (egg-SELEX) and identified a panel of ssDNA aptamers specifically binding to eggs derived from S. japonicum. Among these, two aptamers LC6 and LC15 exhibited strong binding to and specific recognition of S. japonicum eggs, but not eggs from Fasciolopsis buski, Enterobius, Ascaris or Clonorchis sinensis. Furthermore, tissue imaging results revealed that LC15 could recognize S. japonicum eggs laid in liver tissues with a detection ratio of 80.5%. Collectively, therefore, we obtained useful aptamers specifically recognizing S. japonicum eggs, which will facilitate the development of an effective tool for both schistosomiasis diagnosis and drug delivery. PMID:27121794

  3. Structural parameters, molecular properties, and biological evaluation of some terpenes targeting Schistosoma mansoni parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafud, Ana C; Silva, Marcos P N; Monteiro, Daniela C; Oliveira, Maria F; Resende, João G; Coelho, Mayara L; de Sousa, Damião P; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Pinto, Pedro L S; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; de Moraes, Josué

    2016-01-25

    The use of natural products has a long tradition in medicine, and they have proven to be an important source of lead compounds in the development of new drugs. Among the natural compounds, terpenoids present broad-spectrum activity against infective agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites. In this study, we report a biological screening of 38 chemically characterized terpenes from different classes, which have a hydroxyl group connected by hydrophobic chain or an acceptor site, against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the parasite responsible for schistosomiasis mansoni. In vitro bioassays revealed that 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol (dihydrocitronellol) (10) was the most active terpene (IC50 values of 13-52 μM) and, thus, we investigated its antischistosomal activity in greater detail. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that compound 10 induced severe tegumental damage in adult schistosomes and a correlation between viability and tegumental changes was observed. Furthermore, we compared all the inactive compounds with dihydrocitronellol structurally by using shape and charge modeling. Lipophilicity (miLogP) and other molecular properties (e.g. molecular polar surface area, molecular electrostatic potential) were also calculated. From the 38 terpenes studied, compound 10 is the one with the greatest flexibility, with a sufficient apolar region by which it may interact in a hydrophobic active site. In conclusion, the integration of biological and chemical analysis indicates the potential of the terpene dihydrocitronellol as an antiparasitic agent. PMID:26697994

  4. Screening and identification of DNA aptamers toward Schistosoma japonicum eggs via SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuqian; Qin, Zhiqiang; Duan, Minlan; Li, Shizhu; Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lin, Wei; Li, Jianglin; Zhao, Zilong; Liu, Jing; Xiong, Dehui; Huang, Yi; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Chao; Ye, Mao; Tan, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Several million people all over the world are estimated to suffer from severe morbidity as a consequence of schistosomiasis. The worm's eggs, which cause the symptoms of schistosomiasis, are generally used to diagnose the disease. In this study, we employed egg-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (egg-SELEX) and identified a panel of ssDNA aptamers specifically binding to eggs derived from S. japonicum. Among these, two aptamers LC6 and LC15 exhibited strong binding to and specific recognition of S. japonicum eggs, but not eggs from Fasciolopsis buski, Enterobius, Ascaris or Clonorchis sinensis. Furthermore, tissue imaging results revealed that LC15 could recognize S. japonicum eggs laid in liver tissues with a detection ratio of 80.5%. Collectively, therefore, we obtained useful aptamers specifically recognizing S. japonicum eggs, which will facilitate the development of an effective tool for both schistosomiasis diagnosis and drug delivery. PMID:27121794

  5. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  6. Fecal occult blood and fecal calprotectin as point-of-care markers of intestinal morbidity in Ugandan children with Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya L Bustinduy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding cytoplasmic protein found in neutrophils and increasingly used as a marker of bowel inflammation. Fecal occult blood (FOB is also a dependable indicator of bowel morbidity. The objective of our study was to determine the applicability of these tests as surrogate markers of Schistosoma mansoni intestinal morbidity before and after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ. METHODS: 216 children (ages 3-9 years old from Buliisa District in Lake Albert, Uganda were examined and treated with PZQ at baseline in October 2012 with 211 of them re-examined 24 days later for S. mansoni and other soil transmitted helminths (STH. POC calprotectin and FOB assays were performed at both time points on a subset of children. Associations between the test results and infection were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Fecal calprotectin concentrations of 150-300 µg/g were associated with S. mansoni egg patent infection both at baseline and follow up (OR: 12.5 P = 0.05; OR: 6.8 P = 0.02. FOB had a very strong association with baseline anemia (OR: 9.2 P = 0.03 and medium and high egg intensity schistosomiasis at follow up (OR: 6.6 P = 0.03; OR: 51.3 P = 0.003. Both tests were strongly associated with heavy intensity S. mansoni infections. There was a significant decrease in FOB and calprotectin test positivity after PZQ treatment in those children who had egg patent schistosomiasis at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Both FOB and calprotectin rapid assays were found to correlate positively and strongly with egg patent S. mansoni infection with a positive ameloriation response after PZQ treatment indicative of short term reversion of morbidity. Both tests were appropriate for use in the field with excellent operational performance and reliability. Due to its lower-cost which makes its scale-up of use affordable, FOB could be immediately adopted as a monitoring tool for PC campaigns for efficacy evaluation before and after treatment.

  7. Fecal Occult Blood and Fecal Calprotectin as Point-of-Care Markers of Intestinal Morbidity in Ugandan Children with Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Sousa-Figueiredo, José C.; Adriko, Moses; Betson, Martha; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Background Calprotectin is a calcium-binding cytoplasmic protein found in neutrophils and increasingly used as a marker of bowel inflammation. Fecal occult blood (FOB) is also a dependable indicator of bowel morbidity. The objective of our study was to determine the applicability of these tests as surrogate markers of Schistosoma mansoni intestinal morbidity before and after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Methods 216 children (ages 3–9 years old) from Buliisa District in Lake Albert, Uganda were examined and treated with PZQ at baseline in October 2012 with 211 of them re-examined 24 days later for S. mansoni and other soil transmitted helminths (STH). POC calprotectin and FOB assays were performed at both time points on a subset of children. Associations between the test results and infection were analysed by logistic regression. Results Fecal calprotectin concentrations of 150–300 µg/g were associated with S. mansoni egg patent infection both at baseline and follow up (OR: 12.5 P = 0.05; OR: 6.8 P = 0.02). FOB had a very strong association with baseline anemia (OR: 9.2 P = 0.03) and medium and high egg intensity schistosomiasis at follow up (OR: 6.6 P = 0.03; OR: 51.3 P = 0.003). Both tests were strongly associated with heavy intensity S. mansoni infections. There was a significant decrease in FOB and calprotectin test positivity after PZQ treatment in those children who had egg patent schistosomiasis at baseline. Conclusions Both FOB and calprotectin rapid assays were found to correlate positively and strongly with egg patent S. mansoni infection with a positive ameloriation response after PZQ treatment indicative of short term reversion of morbidity. Both tests were appropriate for use in the field with excellent operational performance and reliability. Due to its lower-cost which makes its scale-up of use affordable, FOB could be immediately adopted as a monitoring tool for PC campaigns for efficacy evaluation before and after

  8. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liang

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs, a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  9. Proteomic identification of IPSE/alpha-1 as a major hepatotoxin secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs.

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    Maha-Hamadien Abdulla

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eggs deposited in the liver of the mammalian host by the blood fluke parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, normally drive a T-helper-2 (Th2-mediated granulomatous response in immune-competent mice. By contrast, in mice deprived of T-cells and incapable of producing granulomata, egg-secreted proteins (ESP induce acute hepatic injury and death. Previous work has shown that one such ESP, the T2 ribonuclease known as omega-1, is hepatotoxic in vivo in that specific antisera to omega-1 prevent hepatocyte damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an in vitro culture system employing mouse primary hepatocytes and alanine transaminase (ALT activity as a marker of heptocyte injury, we demonstrated that S. mansoni eggs, egg-secreted proteins (ESP, soluble-egg antigen (SEA, and omega-1 are directly hepatotoxic and in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of omega-1 using a monoclonal antibody abolished the toxicity of pure omega-1 and diminished the toxicity in ESP and SEA by 47 and 33%, respectively. Anion exchange chromatography of ESP yielded one predominant hepatotoxic fraction. Proteomics of that fraction identified the presence of IPSE/alpha-1 (IL-4 inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs, a known activator of basophils and inducer of Th2-type responses. Pure recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 also displayed a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity in vitro. Monoclonal antibody depletion of IPSE/alpha-1 abolished the latter's toxicity and diminished the total toxicity of ESP and SEA by 32 and 35%, respectively. Combined depletion of omega-1 and IPSE/alpha-1 diminished hepatotoxicity of ESP and SEA by 60 and 58% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We identified IPSE/alpha-1 as a novel hepatotoxin and conclude that both IPSE/alpha-1 and omega-1 account for the majority of the hepatotoxicity secreted by S. mansoni eggs.

  10. SjTPdb: integrated transcriptome and proteome database and analysis platform for Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhi-Qin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma japonicum is one of the three major blood fluke species, the etiological agents of schistosomiasis which remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. In recent years, enormous amounts of both transcriptomic and proteomic data of schistosomes have become available, providing information on gene expression profiles for developmental stages and tissues of S. japonicum. Here, we establish a public searchable database, termed SjTPdb, with integrated transcriptomic and proteomic data of S. japonicum, to enable more efficient access and utility of these data and to facilitate the study of schistosome biology, physiology and evolution. Description All the available ESTs, EST clusters, and the proteomic dataset of S. japonicum are deposited in SjTPdb. The core of the database is the 8,420 S. japonicum proteins translated from the EST clusters, which are well annotated for sequence similarity, structural features, functional ontology, genomic variations and expression patterns across developmental stages and tissues including the tegument and eggshell of this flatworm. The data can be queried by simple text search, BLAST search, search based on developmental stage of the life cycle, and an integrated search for more specific information. A PHP-based web interface allows users to browse and query SjTPdb, and moreover to switch to external databases by the following embedded links. Conclusion SjTPdb is the first schistosome database with detailed annotations for schistosome proteins. It is also the first integrated database of both transcriptome and proteome of S. japonicum, providing a comprehensive data resource and research platform to facilitate functional genomics of schistosome. SjTPdb is available from URL: http://function.chgc.sh.cn/sj-proteome/index.htm.

  11. 2-Cys peroxiredoxins from Schistosoma japonicum: the expression profile and localization in the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takashi; Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu

    2006-10-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) is known to be an antioxidant protein that protects the organisms against various oxidative stresses and functions as a signal transductor. Here, we determined the full-length cDNA sequences of three types of Prx from an Asian blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum: Prx-1, Prx-2 and Prx-3. According to the deduced amino acid sequences, only Prx-3 had a mitochondria-targeting sequence. Using RT-PCR, it was shown that these Prx genes were constitutively expressed in the eggs, cercariae and adult worms of the schistosome. Western blot analysis using antisera specific for each Prx revealed that all the three Prx proteins existed in these developmental stages. By immunolocalization analysis, Prx-1 existed on the surface of a miracidium and in the space between a miracidium and an eggshell. Furthermore, Prx-1 was deposited in the host tissues around the eggs. In adult worms, Prx-1 was not only expressed in the tegument, but also contained in their excretory/secretory products. The surface of the 7 day-schistosomula was stained with anti-Prx-1 antiserum. On the other hand, Prx-2 only existed inside the miracidia in eggs. In addition, Prx-2 was mainly detected in the sub-tegumental tissues, parenchyma, vitelline gland and gut epithelium of the adult worms, but was not detected in the tegument of adults and schistosomula. Taken together with previous reports by other investigators, these data suggest that Prx-1 acts to protect the parasite against the ROS produced by host immune cells, and that Prx-2 plays important roles in intracellular redox signaling and/or in the reduction of ROS generated through the hemoglobinolytic process in the digestive tract. PMID:16806527

  12. Development of a real-time PCR assay with fluorophore-labelled hybridization probes for detection of Schistosoma mekongi in infected snails and rat feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, O; Intapan, P M; Thanchomnang, T; Sri-Aroon, P; Lulitanond, V; Sadaow, L; Maleewong, W

    2012-09-01

    Schistosoma mekongi, a blood-dwelling fluke, is a water-borne parasite that is found in communities along the lower Mekong River basin, i.e. Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic. This study developed a real-time PCR assay combined with melting-curve analysis to detect S. mekongi in laboratory setting conditions, in experimentally infected snails, and in fecal samples of infected rats. The procedure is based on melting-curve analysis of a hybrid between an amplicon from S. mekongi mitochondrion sequence, the 260 bp sequence specific to S. mekongi, and specific fluorophore-labelled probes. This method could detect as little as a single cercaria artificially introduced into a pool of 10 non-infected snails, a single cercaria in filtered paper, and 2 eggs inoculated in 100 mg of non-infected rat feces. All S. mekongi-infected snails and fecal samples from infected rats were positive. Non-infected snails, non-infected rat feces, and genomic DNA of other parasites were negative. The method gave high sensitivity and specificity, and could be applied as a fast and reliable tool for cercarial location in water environments in endemic areas and for epidemiological studies and eradication programmes for intermediate hosts. PMID:22717071

  13. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

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    S Widjajanti

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep, Merino sheep, backcross sheep (10 families and F2 sheep were infected with 300 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The total sheep used in this trial is 621. Those sheep were observed for 12 weeks and the blood samples were collected every 2 weeks after infection. The results showed that total eosinophil counts in all infected sheep increased after two weeks post infection and ITT sheep showed the highest counts. On the other hand, the mean fluke counts on ITT sheep is the lowest compared with the other groups of sheep. Merino and F2 sheep had the highest mean fluke counts. Three families of backcross sheep had the mean flukes count similar to ITT sheep and the other 7 families were similar to the Merino sheep. In conclusion, the highest total eosinophil count at the early stage of infection on ITT sheep might be related with the genetic resistance, which was showed by the lowest flukes count, and the resistance was inherited to some of the backcross sheep, which had similar flukes count with ITT sheep.

  14. Ectopic Schistosoma mansoni Eggs Inside a Lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Kelly Renata; Nunes, Maurício Buzelin; Petroianu, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic schistosomiasis is uncommon and tends to occur when the parasite's eggs or adult forms are located far from their normal site. This report presents the first described case of ectopic Schistosoma mansoni eggs inside a subcutaneous lipoma far from the tissues of this worm's life cycle and with no connection to either portal veins or any other vascular system. These eggs were found inside giant cells surrounded by inflammatory cells. In conclusion, in humans, ectopic S. mansoni eggs can be found far from the tissues of the described life cycle of this worm, with no connection to portal veins or other blood vessels used for their migration. PMID:26598562

  15. The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the model organism Schmidtea mediterranea

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    Zamanian Mostafa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute one of the largest groupings of eukaryotic proteins, and represent a particularly lucrative set of pharmaceutical targets. They play an important role in eukaryotic signal transduction and physiology, mediating cellular responses to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli. The phylum Platyhelminthes is of considerable medical and biological importance, housing major pathogens as well as established model organisms. The recent availability of genomic data for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and the model planarian Schmidtea mediterranea paves the way for the first comprehensive effort to identify and analyze GPCRs in this important phylum. Results Application of a novel transmembrane-oriented approach to receptor mining led to the discovery of 117 S. mansoni GPCRs, representing all of the major families; 105 Rhodopsin, 2 Glutamate, 3 Adhesion, 2 Secretin and 5 Frizzled. Similarly, 418 Rhodopsin, 9 Glutamate, 21 Adhesion, 1 Secretin and 11 Frizzled S. mediterranea receptors were identified. Among these, we report the identification of novel receptor groupings, including a large and highly-diverged Platyhelminth-specific Rhodopsin subfamily, a planarian-specific Adhesion-like family, and atypical Glutamate-like receptors. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out following extensive gene curation. Support vector machines (SVMs were trained and used for ligand-based classification of full-length Rhodopsin GPCRs, complementing phylogenetic and homology-based classification. Conclusions Genome-wide investigation of GPCRs in two platyhelminth genomes reveals an extensive and complex receptor signaling repertoire with many unique features. This work provides important sequence and functional leads for understanding basic flatworm receptor biology, and sheds light on a lucrative set of anthelmintic drug targets.

  16. Identification of the Schistosoma mansoni Molecular Target for the Antimalarial Drug Artemether

    KAUST Repository

    Lepore, Rosalba

    2011-11-28

    Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansonii are the parasites responsible for most of the malaria and schistosomiasis cases in the world. Notwithstanding their many differences, the two agents have striking similarities in that they both are blood feeders and are targets of an overlapping set of drugs, including the well-known artemether molecule. Here we explore the possibility of using the known information about the mode of action of artemether in Plasmodium to identify the molecular target of the drug in Schistosoma and provide evidence that artemether binds to SmSERCA, a putative Ca2+-ATPase of Schistosoma. We also predict the putative binding mode of the molecule for both its Plasmodium and Schistosoma targets. Our analysis of the mode of binding of artemether to Ca2+-ATPases also provides an explanation for the apparent paradox that, although the molecule has no side effect in humans, it has been shown to possess antitumoral activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Schistosoma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=S...chistosoma+japonicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schist...osoma+japonicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  18. The role of host nutrition in the pathogensis of liver fluke anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is widely accepted that the course of many helminth diseases of sheep is determined by two main variables, namely the level of infection and the host's nutritional status, the importance of the latter in the pathogenesis of ovine fascioliasis remains to be determined. The results of the experiment described here demonstrate that dietary quality has no significant effect upon fluke establishment but profoundly influences the severity of the disease as evidenced by the more rapid development of anaemia and by earlier mortalities among sheep restricted to a maintenance ration (containing about 6% crude protein) compared with similarly infected animals receiving a diet commensurate with growth (13% crude protein). Concurrent measurements of blood volume and of red cell turnover using radioisotopic methods revealed that in all animals the anaemia was caused by a combination of haemodilution, intra-hepatic and biliary haemorrhage, but that the earlier and more severe disturbances in protein-restricted sheep reflected the earlier development of these changes in association with a faster rate of fluke migration, and was ultimately complicated by impaired erythropoiesis arising from iron deficiency. (author)

  19. Evolution of sex chromosomes ZW of Schistosoma mansoni inferred from chromosome paint and BAC mapping analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; LoVerde, Philip T

    2012-12-01

    Chromosomes of schistosome parasites among digenetic flukes have a unique evolution because they exhibit the sex chromosomes ZW, which are not found in the other groups of flukes that are hermaphrodites. We conducted molecular cytogenetic analyses for investigating the sex chromosome evolution using chromosome paint analysis and BAC clones mapping. To carry this out, we developed a technique for making paint probes of genomic DNA from a single scraped chromosome segment using a chromosome microdissection system, and a FISH mapping technique for BAC clones. Paint probes clearly identified each of the 8 pairs of chromosomes by a different fluorochrome color. Combination analysis of chromosome paint analysis with Z/W probes and chromosome mapping with 93 BAC clones revealed that the W chromosome of Schistosoma mansoni has evolved by at least four inversion events and heterochromatinization. Nine of 93 BAC clones hybridized with both the Z and W chromosomes, but the locations were different between Z and W chromosomes. The homologous regions were estimated to have moved from the original Z chromosome to the differentiated W chromosome by three inversions events that occurred before W heterohcromatinization. An inversion that was observed in the heterochromatic region of the W chromosome likely occurred after W heterochromatinization. These inversions and heterochromatinization are hypothesized to be the key factors that promoted the evolution of the W chromosome of S. mansoni. PMID:22831897

  20. A population growth trend analysis for Neotricula aperta, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mekongi, after construction of the Pak-Mun dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Attwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work.

  1. The monomeric orphan nuclear receptor Schistosoma mansoni Ftz-F1 dimerizes specifically and functionally with the schistosome RXR homologue, SmRXR1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to understand development and differentiation processes of the parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, several members of the nuclear receptor superfamily were cloned, including SmFtz-F1 (S. mansoni Fushi Tarazu-factor 1). The Ftz-F1 nuclear receptor subfamily only contains orphan receptors that bind to their response element as monomers. Whereas SmFtz-F1 displays these basic functional properties, we have identified an original and specific interaction between SmFtz-F1 and the schistosome RXR homologue, SmRXR1. The mammalian two-hybrid assay showed that the D, E, and F domains of SmFtz-F1 were capable of interacting specifically with the E domain of SmRXR1 but not with that of mouse RXRα. Using three-dimensional LBD homology modelling and structure-guided mutagenesis, we were able to demonstrate the essential role of exposed residues located in the dimerization interfaces of both receptors in the maintenance of the interaction. Cotransfection experiments with constructions encoding full-length nuclear receptors show that SmRXR1 potentiates the transcriptional activity of SmFtz-F1 from various promoters. Nevertheless, the lack of identification of a dimeric response element for this SmFtz-F1/SmRXR1 heterodimer seems to indicate a 'tethering' mechanism. Thus, our results suggest for the first time that a member of the Ftz-F1 family could heterodimerize functionally with a homologue of the universal heterodimerization partner of nuclear receptors. This unique property confirms that SmFtz-F1 may be involved in the development and differentiation of schistosome-specific structures

  2. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    OpenAIRE

    Gasser Robin B; Smout Michael J; Sripa Manop; Sripa Banchob; Mulvenna Jason; Pinlaor Porntip; Laha Thewarach; Brindley Paul J; Loukas Alex

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire tra...

  3. Apoptosis of cholangiocytes modulated by thioredoxin of carcinogenic liver fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchimakul, Pitchaya; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Mann, Victoria H; Popratiloff, Anastas; Laha, Thewarach; Pimenta, Rafael N; Cochran, Christina J; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Chronic infection with the food-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, frequently induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma. Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam, where eating undercooked freshwater fish carrying the juvenile stage of this pathogen leads to human infection. Because inhibition of apoptosis facilitates carcinogenesis, this study investigated modulation by thioredoxin from O. viverrini of apoptosis of bile duct epithelial cells, cholangiocytes. Cells of a cholangiocyte line were incubated with the parasite enzyme after which they were exposed hydrogen peroxide. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis was monitored using flow cytometry, growth in real time and imaging of living cells using laser confocal microscopy. Immunolocalization revealed liver fluke thioredoxin within cholangiocytes. Cells exposed to thioredoxin downregulated apoptotic genes in the mitogen activated protein kinases pathway and upregulated anti-apoptosis-related genes including apoptosis signaling kinase 1, caspase 9, caspase 8, caspase 3, survivin and others. Western blots of immunoprecipitates of cell lysates revealed binding of thioredoxin to apoptosis signaling kinase 1. Together the findings indicated that thioredoxin from O. viverrini inhibited oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of bile duct epithelial cells, which supports a role for this liver fluke oxidoreductase in opisthorchiasis-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:26007234

  4. Epigenetic modulation, stress and plasticity in susceptibility of the snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata, to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matty; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Bridger, Joanna M

    2016-06-01

    Blood flukes are the causative agent of schistosomiasis - a major neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in numerous countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. During the past decade, a concerted effort has been made to control the spread of schistosomiasis, using a drug intervention program aimed at curtailing transmission. These efforts notwithstanding, schistosomiasis has re-emerged in southern Europe, raising concerns that global warming could contribute to the spread of this disease to higher latitude countries where transmission presently does not take place. Vaccines against schistosomiasis are not currently available and reducing transmission by drug intervention programs alone does not prevent reinfection in treated populations. These challenges have spurred awareness that new interventions to control schistosomiasis are needed, especially since the World Health Organization hopes to eradicate the disease by 2025. For one of the major species of human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis in Africa and the Western Hemisphere, freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria serve as the obligate intermediate host of this parasite. To determine mechanisms that underlie parasitism by S. mansoni of Biomphalaria glabrata, which might be manipulated to block the development of intramolluscan larval stages of the parasite, we focused effort on the impact of schistosome infection on the epigenome of the snail. Results to date reveal a complex relationship, manifested by the ability of the schistosome to manipulate the snail genome, including the expression of specific genes. Notably, the parasite subverts the stress response of the host to ensure productive parasitism. Indeed, in isolates of B. glabrata native to central and South America, susceptible to infection with S. mansoni, the heat shock protein 70 (Bg-HSP70) gene of this snail is rapidly relocated in the nucleus and transcribed to express HSP70

  5. Imatinib activity on Schistosoma mansoni

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    Naftale Katz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib, a drug used for treatment of human chronic myeloid leukaemia, due to its activity against protein kinases, has been also evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni showing high schistosomicidal activity. In the present experiments imatinib activity in vitro was confirmed at the doses of 25 µM, 50 µM and 100 µM. The first drug activity observed with the lower dose was interruption of egg-laying and with the higher dosages was the death of the worms. In mice infected with S. mansoni no activity was found even with 1,000 mg/kg/day, 500 mg/kg/day, single oral dose or when administered for three consecutive days. This is another example of the difference of results related to in vitro and in vivo trials using S. mansoni worms.

  6. Developmental transcriptomic features of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

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    Won Gi Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development

  7. Invasion of Flukes of the Echinostomatidae Family in Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia var. domestica) Lofts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case. PMID:27309299

  8. The Sigma Class Glutathione Transferase from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica

    OpenAIRE

    LaCourse, E. James; Perally, Samirah; Morphew, Russell M.; Moxon, Joseph V.; Prescott, Mark; Dowling, David J.; O'Neill, Sandra M.; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo; Hoey, Elizabeth; Zafra Leva, Rafael; Buffoni Perazzo, Leandro; Pérez Arévalo, José; Brophy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Liver fluke infection of livestock causes economic losses of over US$ 3 billion worldwide per annum. The disease is increasing in livestock worldwide and is a re-emerging human disease. There are currently no commercial vaccines, and only one drug with significant efficacy against adult worms and juveniles. A liver fluke vaccine is deemed essential as short-lived chemotherapy, which is prone to resistance, is an unsustainable option in both developed and developing cou...

  9. Simulating the Risk of Liver Fluke Infection using a Mechanistic Hydro-epidemiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Ludovica; Dunne, Toby; Rose, Hannah; Walker, Josephine; Morgan, Eric; Vickerman, Peter; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite found in livestock and responsible for considerable economic losses throughout the world. Risk of infection is strongly influenced by climatic and hydrological conditions, which characterise the host environment for parasite development and transmission. Despite on-going control efforts, increases in fluke outbreaks have been reported in recent years in the UK, and have been often attributed to climate change. Currently used fluke risk models are based on empirical relationships derived between historical climate and incidence data. However, hydro-climate conditions are becoming increasingly non-stationary due to climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts such as land use change, making empirical models unsuitable for simulating future risk. In this study we introduce a mechanistic hydro-epidemiological model for Liver Fluke, which explicitly simulates habitat suitability for disease development in space and time, representing the parasite life cycle in connection with key environmental conditions. The model is used to assess patterns of Liver Fluke risk for two catchments in the UK under current and potential future climate conditions. Comparisons are made with a widely used empirical model employing different datasets, including data from regional veterinary laboratories. Results suggest that mechanistic models can achieve adequate predictive ability and support adaptive fluke control strategies under climate change scenarios.

  10. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework. PMID:27197053

  11. Transcriptome Bioinformatical Analysis of Vertebrate Stages of Schistosoma japonicum Reveals Alternative Splicing Events

    OpenAIRE

    Xinye Wang; Xindong Xu; Xingyu Lu; Yuanbin Zhang; Weiqing Pan

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a molecular process that contributes greatly to the diversification of proteome and to gene functions. Understanding the mechanisms of stage-specific alternative splicing can provide a better understanding of the development of eukaryotes and the functions of different genes. Schistosoma japonicum is an infectious blood-dwelling trematode with a complex lifecycle that causes the tropical disease schistosomiasis. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of Schistoso...

  12. P53 and Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glycans Are Surrogate Markers of Cancerization of the Bladder Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luís; Tavares, Ana; Peixoto, Andreia; Parreira, Beatriz; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Brindley, Paul J.; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%), cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn) and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex), involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed

  13. SmTRC1, a novel Schistosoma mansoni DNA transposon, discloses new families of animal and fungi transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjovski-Almeida Sergio

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CACTA (also called En/Spm superfamily of DNA-only transposons contain the core sequence CACTA in their Terminal Inverted Repeats (TIRs and so far have only been described in plants. Large transcriptome and genome sequence data have recently become publicly available for Schistosoma mansoni, a digenetic blood fluke that is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans, and have provided a comprehensive repository for the discovery of novel genes and repetitive elements. Despite the extensive description of retroelements in S. mansoni, just a single DNA-only transposon belonging to the Merlin family has so far been reported in this organism. Results We describe a novel S. mansoni transposon named SmTRC1, for S. mansoni Transposon Related to CACTA 1, an element that shares several characteristics with plant CACTA transposons. Southern blotting indicates approximately 30–300 copies of SmTRC1 in the S. mansoni genome. Using genomic PCR followed by cloning and sequencing, we amplified and characterized a full-length and a truncated copy of this element. RT-PCR using S. mansoni mRNA followed by cloning and sequencing revealed several alternatively spliced transcripts of this transposon, resulting in distinct ORFs coding for different proteins. Interestingly, a survey of complete genomes from animals and fungi revealed several other novel TRC elements, indicating new families of DNA transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily that have not previously been reported in these kingdoms. The first three bases in the S. mansoni TIR are CCC and they are identical to those in the TIRs of the insects Aedes aegypti and Tribolium castaneum, suggesting that animal TRCs may display a CCC core sequence. Conclusion The DNA-only transposable element SmTRC1 from S. mansoni exhibits various characteristics, such as generation of multiple alternatively-spliced transcripts, the presence of terminal inverted repeats at the extremities of

  14. OCCURRENCE OF THE LUNG FLUKE, PARAGONIMUS HETEROTREMUS IN MANIPUR, INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives.To determine the natural crustacean host,the Paragonimus species,and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals.Methods. The laboratory animals such as puppies,albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs,Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35~328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages.Results. A total of 11 worms,5 mature,5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae,worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus.Conclusion. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa; Chutigan Pilasri

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand.METHODS:A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters,knowledge,attitude,practice,and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection.RESULTS:A total of 1077 persons who were interviewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on Uver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%),public health officers (18.72%),televisions (14.38%),local heads of sub-districts (12.31%),doctors and nurses (9.18%),newspaper (5.72),internets (5.37%),and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness,participation,and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However,good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid's fish. Theresult also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns.CONCLUSION:The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However,improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish.

  16. A salting out and resin procedure for extracting Schistosoma mansoni DNA from human urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Nilton B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper a simple and cheap salting out and resin (InstaGene matrix® resin - BioRad DNA extraction method from urine for PCR assays is introduced. The DNA of the fluke Schistosoma mansoni was chosen as the target since schistosomiasis lacks a suitable diagnostic tool which is sensitive enough to detect low worm burden. It is well known that the PCR technique provides high sensitivity and specificity in detecting parasite DNA. Therefore it is of paramount importance to take advantage of its excellent performance by providing a simple to handle and reliable DNA extraction procedure, which permits the diagnosis of the disease in easily obtainable urine samples. Findings The description of the extraction procedure is given. This extraction procedure was tested for reproducibility and efficiency in artificially contaminated human urine samples. The reproducibility reached 100%, showing positive results in 5 assay repetitions of 5 tested samples each containing 20 ng DNA/5 ml. The efficiency of the extraction procedure was also evaluated in a serial dilution of the original 20 ng DNA/5 ml sample. Detectable DNA was extracted when it was at a concentration of 1.28 pg DNA/mL, revealing the high efficiency of this procedure. Conclusions This methodology represents a promising tool for schistosomiasis diagnosis utilizing a bio-molecular technique in urine samples which is now ready to be tested under field conditions and may be applicable to the diagnosis of other parasitic diseases.

  17. Prolylendopeptidasa z krevničky střevní Schistosoma mansoni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, Pavla; Váchová, Jana; Jílková, Adéla; Vondrášek, Jiří; Dvořák, Jan; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael; Horn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 5 (2013), s. 411-411. ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /13./. 14.5.2013-17.5.2013, Žďár nad Sázavou] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1481 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : prolyl endopeptidase * proteases * expression * parasites * blood fluke Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  18. Myeloradiculitis: a rare event in schistosoma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, D; Hofmann, C; Sudeck, H; Burchard, G-D; Moser, A

    2006-12-01

    Schistosomiasis a parasitic disease caused by trematodes is widely distributed in (sub-)tropical countries. Depending on the species the infection manifests clinically as gastrointestinal (preferentially Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum) or urinary (preferentially S. haematobium) disorders. Here we present an uncommon case of myeloradiculitis leading to bladder palsy and sensory loss at the lower limbs. PMID:17180592

  19. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asressa Yeneneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39 and Fogera breed (n=345 of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83% followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%, and Schistosomosis (9.89%. The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97% than Fogera breed (44.35%. However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection.

  20. Efficacy of two formulations of albendazole against liver flukes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T M; Qureshi, T; Miller, D K; Wade, C G; Rogers, J A

    1992-07-01

    Albendazole (10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered as a drench suspension or as a feed additive to 24 cattle with naturally acquired infections of Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna. Cattle were euthanatized 16 to 30 days after treatment, and the number of viable flukes was counted. Viable F hepatica and F magna were decreased by 91.4% and 70.6% for drench administration and by 82.9% and 71.9% for the feed additive treatment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 formulations in decreasing viable fluke numbers, compared with untreated controls. PMID:1497187

  1. Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorni, A; Diamant, A

    2005-06-01

    Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:16060271

  2. The cercarial glycocalyx of Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Cercariae, the freshwater stage of Schistosoma mansoni infectious to man, are covered by a single unit membrane and an immunogenic glycocalyx. When cercariae penetrate the host skin, they transform to schistosomula by shedding tails, secreting mucous and enzymes, and forming microvilli over their surface. Here the loss of the glycocalyx from cercariae transforming in vitro was studied morphologically and biochemically. By scanning electron microscopy, the glycocalyx was a dense mesh composed ...

  3. Pseudoneoplastic lesion of the breast caused by Schistosoma mansoni Pseudoneoplasma da mama causado pelo Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Anselmo Lima; Aécio Costa Cavalcanti; Márcia Maria Macêdo Lima; Nestor Piva

    2004-01-01

    A case of a pseudoneoplastic lesion of the breast clinically and sonographically suggestive of a fibroadenoma is reported. Excisional biopsy revealed the nodule was an inflammatory process consequent to infection by Schistosoma mansoni.Relata-se um caso de uma lesão pseudoneoplásica da mama clinicamente e ultrasonograficamente sugestiva de um fibroadenoma. A biópsia excisional revelou que o nódulo tratava-se de um processo inflamatório conseqüente à infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni.

  4. Pseudoneoplastic lesion of the breast caused by Schistosoma mansoni Pseudoneoplasma da mama causado pelo Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Anselmo Lima

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of a pseudoneoplastic lesion of the breast clinically and sonographically suggestive of a fibroadenoma is reported. Excisional biopsy revealed the nodule was an inflammatory process consequent to infection by Schistosoma mansoni.Relata-se um caso de uma lesão pseudoneoplásica da mama clinicamente e ultrasonograficamente sugestiva de um fibroadenoma. A biópsia excisional revelou que o nódulo tratava-se de um processo inflamatório conseqüente à infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni.

  5. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cauquil

    Full Text Available An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle and batch level (81%. Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level. Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70 and 47.1% (33/70, respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  6. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.;

    Liver fluke infection, also known as fasciolosis, is a world-wide prevalent zoonotic parasitic disease infecting a wide range of host species and is caused by Fasciola hepatica. Despite of the substantial economic and animal welfare effects of the disease, knowledge on its prevalence...

  7. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of F. hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  8. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  9. A model to assess the efficacy of vaccines for control of liver fluke infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joanne; Howell, Alison; McCann, Cathy; Caminade, Cyril; Bowers, Roger G; Williams, Diana; Baylis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, common liver fluke, infects cattle and sheep causing disease and production losses costing approximately $3billion annually. Current control relies on drugs designed to kill the parasite. However, resistance is evident worldwide and widespread in some areas. Work towards a vaccine has identified several antigens of F. hepatica that show partial efficacy in terms of reducing worm burden and egg output. A critical question is what level of efficacy is required for such a vaccine to be useful? We have created the first mathematical model to assess the effectiveness of liver fluke vaccines under simulated field conditions. The model describes development of fluke within a group of animals and includes heterogeneity in host susceptibility, seasonal exposure to metacercariae and seasonal changes in temperature affecting metacercarial survival. Our analysis suggests that the potential vaccine candidates could reduce total fluke burden and egg output by up to 43% and 99%, respectively, on average under field conditions. It also suggests that for a vaccine to be effective, it must protect at least 90% of animals for the whole season. In conclusion, novel, partial, vaccines could contribute substantially towards fasciolosis control, reducing usage of anthelmintics and thus delaying the spread of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:27009747

  10. Opisthorchis viverrini-like liver fluke in birds from Vietnam: morphological variability and rDNA/mtDNA sequence confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, T H; Nguyen, T G; Victor, B; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

    2014-12-01

    Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the 'bird' Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke. PMID:23721954

  11. Schistosoma mansoni: cercarial responses to irradiance changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saladin, K.S.

    1982-02-01

    Cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni alternate between active swimming and passive drifting. They began swimming in response to either an increase or decrease in irradiance experienced during the passive phase. The number of cercariae reacting to a shadow was proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus. The shadow response may be mediated by the cercaria's ciliary receptors. About half as many cercariae reacted to an irradiance increase as to an equivalent decrease. This report is the first quantitative study of photosensory stimulus-response relationships in schistosome cercariae.

  12. Intermediate hosts of schistosoma mansoni in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1992-01-01

    The Brazilian planorbidical chart is slowly but progressively been increased by new data. Distribution of vector species of Schistosoma mansoni, according to Paraense, 1986, may be thus resumed: Biomphalaria glabrata - delimited by paralells 13 and 21-S and meridians 39 and 45-W, area of greater dominance (Southerst Bahia, oriental half of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). It is observed along the coast line of the state of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte. Starti...

  13. Population dynamics and host reactions in young foxes following experimental infection with the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissen Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT including the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio, are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. However, little is known about the infection dynamics and clinical symptoms in the final hosts which include a range of animal species and man. We aimed to generate such information using an experimental model with H. pumilio in foxes. Method Eight commercially bred foxes were each orally infected with 2000 H. pumilio metacercariae. Another three foxes served as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly. The body weight was measured, standard haematological and biochemical analysis were performed regularly. All foxes were euthanized at day 56 post infection (p.i.. Adult worms were quantified and location in the small intestine noted. Results Anorexia was observed in all infected foxes starting day 12 p.i. and lasting for approximately a week. A weight loss was noticed in the infected group in weeks 3–6 p.i. Five of eight infected foxes excreted H. pumilio eggs day 9 p.i. onwards, the remaining three started on day 13 p.i. Mean (± SD faecal egg counts showed an initial peak at day 16–20 with a maximum of 1443 ± 1176 eggs per gram of faeces (epg, where after a stable egg output around 4–500 epg was seen. Worm burdens ranged between 116–2070 adult flukes with a mean (± SD worm recovery of 948 ± 666. The majority of worms were found in the lower part of the jejunum. Total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were significant lower in the infected group from first week p.i. onwards and throughout the study period. A significantly lower level of eosinophils was found in week 2 p.i. and transient anaemia was seen in week 2 and 4 p.i. Conclusion This study showed a short prepatency period, an initial peak in egg excretion, establishment of infection in all animals with predilection site in the lower jejunum and a marked but

  14. The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini--multiple pathways to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Smout, Michael J; Mairiang, Eimorn; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and adjacent countries. In addition to infection-associated morbidity, infection with O. viverrini and the related Clonorchis sinensis are unarguable risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CAA, bile-duct cancer). Here we review the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and the association between O. viverrini infection and bile-duct cancer, focusing on the molecular parallels between wound healing, chronic inflammation, and cancer development. We review a schema for human disease progression from fluke infection, chronic opisthorchiasis, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis, and present a rationale for biomarker discovery to facilitate early intervention. We conclude by addressing post-genomic advances with a view to developing new control strategies to combat this infectious cancer. PMID:22947297

  15. The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini –multiple pathways to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J.; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Michael J. Smout; Mairiang, Eimorn; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and adjacent countries. In addition to infection-associated morbidity, infection with O. viverrini and the related Clonorchis sinensis are unarguable risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer. Here we review the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and the association of O. viverrini infection and bile duct cancer, focusing on the molecular parallels between wound healing, chronic inflam...

  16. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Plieskatt, Jordan L; Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Mulvenna, Jason P; Krause, Lutz; Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Brindley, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is a fish-borne trematode endemic in East Asia. Following ingestion, the flukes locate to the biliary treȩ where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The mechanisms by which O. viverrini infection culminates in CCA remain unknown. An unexplored aspect is its influence on the host microbiome. In the hamster, infection with this pathogen reliably leads to CCA. Genomic DNAs of microbiota from colorectal contents and bile of hamsters and from whol...

  17. CpG-island methylation study of liver fluke-related cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sriraksa, R; Zeller, C.; El-Bahrawy, M A; Dai, W; Daduang, J; Jearanaikoon, P; Chau-in, S; Brown, R; Limpaiboon, T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Genetic changes have been widely reported in association with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), while epigenetic changes are poorly characterised. We aimed to further evaluate CpG-island hypermethylation in CCA at candidate loci, which may have potential as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Methods: We analysed methylation of 26 CpG-islands in 102 liver fluke related-CCA and 29 adjacent normal samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Methylation of interest loci was confirmed usin...

  18. Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    OpenAIRE

    Pinlaor, Porntip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Morales, Maria E.; Mann, Victoria H.; Parriott, Sandi K.; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Robinson, Mark W.; To, Joyce; Dalton, John P.; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships, immunolocali...

  19. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, A; Frankena, K; Bodker, R.; Toft, N.; Thamsborg, S.M.; Enemark, H. L.; Halasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish catt...

  20. Modeling and analysis of Schistosoma Argonaute protein molecular spatial conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Conclusions: The information relationship between the structure and function of the Argonaute protein can be initially established with bioinformatics tools and the internet server, and this provides the theoretical basis for further clarifying the function of Schistosoma Argonaute protein.

  1. Pseudoneoplastic lesion of the breast caused by Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Carlos Anselmo; Cavalcanti Aécio Costa; Lima Márcia Maria Macêdo; Piva Nestor

    2004-01-01

    A case of a pseudoneoplastic lesion of the breast clinically and sonographically suggestive of a fibroadenoma is reported. Excisional biopsy revealed the nodule was an inflammatory process consequent to infection by Schistosoma mansoni.

  2. RNAi dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver flukes reveals the persistence of gene silencing in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McVeigh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (dsRNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain, validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL and B (FheCatB cysteine proteases, and a σ-class glutathione transferase (FheσGST.Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200-320 nt dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (siRNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent and in all cases silencing persisted for ≥25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; FheσGST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively.In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control

  3. Reducing the future threat from (liver) fluke: realistic prospect or quixotic fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-08-01

    The liver fluke remains an economically significant parasite of livestock and is emerging as an important zoonotic infection of humans. The incidence of the disease has increased in the last few years, as a possible consequence of changes to the World's climate. Future predictions suggest that this trend is likely to continue. Allied to the changing pattern of disease, reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) have appeared in the literature, although they do not all represent genuine cases of resistance. Nevertheless, any reports of resistance are a concern, because triclabendazole is the only drug that has high activity against the migratory and damaging juvenile stages of infection. How to deal with the twin problems (of increasing incidence and drug resistance) is the overall theme of the session on "Trematodes: Fasciola hepatica epidemiology and control" and of this review to introduce the session. Greater knowledge of fluke epidemiology and population genetics will highlight those regions where surveillance is most required and indicate how quickly resistant populations of fluke may arise. Models of disease risk are becoming increasingly sophisticated and precise, with more refined data analysis programmes and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data. Recent improvements have been made in our understanding of the action of triclabendazole and the ways in which flukes have become resistant to it. While microtubules are the most likely target for drug action, tubulin mutations do not seem to be involved in the resistance mechanism. Rather, upregulation of drug uptake and metabolism processes appear to be more important and the data relating to them will be discussed. The information may help in the design of new treatment strategies or pinpoint potential molecular markers for monitoring fluke populations. Advances in the identification of novel targets for drugs and vaccines will be made by the various "-omics" technologies that are now being applied to

  4. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium by Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hany Sady; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Romano Ngui; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Salwa Dawaki; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Init Ithoi; Yvonne A. L. Lim; Kek Heng Chua; Johari Surin

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes a real-time PCR approach with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) assay developed for the detection and differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in fecal and urine samples collected from rural Yemen. The samples were screened by microscopy and PCR for the Schistosoma species infection. A pair of degenerate primers were designed targeting partial regions in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene of S. mansoni and S. haematobium using real-tim...

  5. Molecular aspects of Schistosoma mansoni female maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Moraes Giannini

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Incubation of total protein extracts of Schistosoma mansoni with 3H 17-beta-estradiol and 20-hydroxyecdysone, revealed steroid binding proteins in both, male and female worms. The interaction of nuclear proteins with restriction fragments of the gender and stage-specific gene F-10 was investigated using the "Band-Shift" technique. Distinct male and female nuclear proteins bound to the fragments of this gene. Among the nuclear proteins, only those rich in cysteine residues bound to DNA. In vitro incubation of live worms with the estrogen antagonist Tamoxifen, altered the pattern of the DNA binding proteins, producing in females, a band profile similar to that obtained with male worm protein extracts. When Tamoxifen was injected into schistosome infected mice, the eggs produced by females presented an abnormal morphology, compatible with non-viable eggs. These results suggest that the regulation of transcription of the F-10 gene might involve steroid receptors.

  6. Risk Factors for Opisthorchis viverrini and Minute Intestinal Fluke Infections in Lao PDR, 2009–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Ki, Moran; Eom, Keeseon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal fluke (Ov/MIF) in Lao People's Democratic Republic according to different regions and evaluate the effect of ingestion of raw freshwater fish on the infection. Demographic data, behavioral data, and symptoms were obtained, and the Kato–Katz method was used for the diagnosis of Ov/MIF. In total, 3,046 individuals were enrolled. The risk factors associated with acquisition of Ov/MIF were raw fish...

  7. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  8. Fasciola hepatica: Histological changes in the somatic and reproductive tissues of liver fluke following closantel treatment of experimentally-infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, S; Hanna, R E B; Brennan, G P; Solana, H; Fairweather, I

    2016-01-15

    Lambs infected with the Cullompton isolate of Fasciola hepatica were treated orally or subcutaneously with 10mg/kg of closantel at 16 weeks post-infection. Adult flukes were recovered from the liver of individual animals at 12h, 24h, or 36h post-treatment. The flukes were processed for histological analysis. In general, degenerative changes in the reproductive and somatic tissues were progressive, and were most marked in flukes exposed to closantel in vivo for 36h. However, flukes from a 12h subcutaneously-treated lamb showed marked deterioration of the testis, possibly because a portion of the dose has been delivered intravenously. Fewer intact eggs were seen in the uterus of flukes exposed to closantel for longer times (whether administered subcutaneously or orally to the host). The most conspicuous closantel-induced effect in flukes from treated hosts was progressive damage to the tegumental syncytium. While the flukes from 24h-treated hosts showed relatively minor damage to limited areas of the syncytium, towards the posterior end, the flukes from 36h-treated hosts (and flukes from the lamb that putatively received intravenous dosage) had lost large areas of the surface syncytium from the posterior end and dorsal surface, although the syncytium over the anterior end and the anterior ventral surface was largely spared. In areas where the syncytium had sloughed, the underlying structures such as the vitelline follicles, gut profiles and testis profiles, showed marked degeneration and breakdown. Other changes included cell depletion and early stage apoptosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. This study establishes a model for histological changes in closantel-sensitive F. hepatica exposed to closantel in vivo. Histopathological studies could be complementary to the efficacy controlled test for for closantel resistance in fluke populations. PMID:26790736

  9. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jianmei Yang; Zhiqiang Fu; Yang Hong; Haiwei Wu; Yamei Jin; Chuangang Zhu; Hao Li; Ke Lu; Yaojun Shi; Chunxiu Yuan; Guofeng Cheng; Xingang Feng; Jinming Liu; Jiaojiao Lin

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection we...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Miracidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Rotgans, Bronwyn A; Strong, April; Liang, Di; Ni, Guoying; Limpanont, Yanin; Ramasoota, Pongrama; McManus, Donald P; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive control efforts, schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in developing nations in the tropics and sub-tropics. The miracidium, along with the cercaria, both of which are water-borne and free-living, are the only two stages in the life-cycle of Schistosoma mansoni which are involved in host invasion. Miracidia penetrate intermediate host snails and develop into sporocysts, which lead to cercariae that can infect humans. Infection of the snail host by the miracidium represents an ideal point at which to interrupt the parasite's life-cycle. This research focuses on an analysis of the miracidium proteome, including those proteins that are secreted. We have identified a repertoire of proteins in the S. mansoni miracidium at 2 hours post-hatch, including proteases, venom allergen-like proteins, receptors and HSP70, which might play roles in snail-parasite interplay. Proteins involved in energy production and conservation were prevalent, as were proteins predicted to be associated with defence. This study also provides a strong foundation for further understanding the roles that neurohormones play in host-seeking by schistosomes, with the potential for development of novel anthelmintics that interfere with its various life-cycle stages. PMID:26799066

  11. Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the Reproductive Organs and Differential Effects of Triclabendazole on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Fluke Isolates and on Flukes from Selected Field Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarises the findings of a series of studies in which the histological changes, induced in the reproductive system of Fasciola hepatica following treatment of the ovine host with the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ, were examined. A detailed description of the normal macroscopic arrangement and histological features of the testes, ovary, vitelline tissue, Mehlis’ gland and uterus is provided to aid recognition of the drug-induced lesions, and to provide a basic model to inform similar toxicological studies on F. hepatica in the future. The production of spermatozoa and egg components represents the main energy consuming activity of the adult fluke. Thus the reproductive organs, with their high turnover of cells and secretory products, are uniquely sensitive to metabolic inhibition and sub-cellular disorganisation induced by extraneous toxic compounds. The flukes chosen for study were derived from TCBZ-sensitive (TCBZ-S and TCBZ-resistant (TCBZ-R isolates, the status of which had previously been proven in controlled clinical trials. For comparison, flukes collected from flocks where TCBZ resistance had been diagnosed by coprological methods, and from a dairy farm with no history of TCBZ use, were also examined. The macroscopic arrangement of the reproductive system in flukes was studied using catechol/carmine stained whole mounts, and the histology of the main organs was examined using conventional haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Validation of apoptosis in the fluke sections was carried out using an in situ hybridisation method designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks. In TCBZ-S flukes exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 24–96 h in vivo, but not in TCBZ-R flukes, those tissues where active meiosis and/or mitosis occurred (testis, ovary, and vitelline follicles, were found to display progressive loss of cell content. This was due to apparent failure of cell division to keep pace with expulsion of the mature or

  12. Bovine and ovine rumen fluke in Ireland-Prevalence, risk factors and species identity based on passive veterinary surveillance and abattoir findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolan, Dónal P; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Sheehan, Maresa; Skuce, Philip J; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of rumen fluke, the incidence of clinical paramphistomosis and the trematode's species identity were studied in cattle and sheep in the Republic of Ireland using passive veterinary surveillance (faecal examination and necropsy results; 2010-2013) and abattoir data. Based on faecal examination, the prevalence of rumen fluke was higher in cattle than in sheep. Rumen fluke prevalence in cattle and sheep fluctuated over the year and in most years (2011-2013), prevalence was higher in winter (December-February) than in summer (June-August). For 3 of 4 years studied, there was no correlation between monthly prevalence of rumen fluke and prevalence of liver fluke as estimated by faecal examination. At sample level, joint occurrence of rumen fluke and liver fluke was 1.1-2.0 times more common than would be expected under the assumption of independence. Based on necropsy data, a spike in deaths attributed to paramphistomosis was observed in 2012, when rainfall was unusually high. This spike in mortality was not accompanied by a spike in faecal prevalence, emphasizing that the incidence of disease, which is due to high burdens of juvenile rumen fluke in the gut, is not correlated with prevalence of infection, which is measured by faecal examination and reflects presence of adult fluke in the rumen. At slaughter, 52% of 518 cattle from 101 herds were positive for rumen fluke, compared to 14% of 158 sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher than reported in most studies from mainland Europe and varied by animal category, age, sex, abattoir visit and location (county) of farm from which the animal was submitted for slaughter, but in multivariate analysis, only sampling month and county were significantly associated with detection of rumen fluke. The identity of rumen fluke in cattle and sheep was confirmed as Calicophoron daubneyi. Although C. daubneyi is thought to share an intermediate host snail with Fasciola hepatica, the differences in prevalence between host

  13. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetayer, Julie D; Snead, Elizabeth C; Starrak, Greg S; Wagner, Brent A

    2016-06-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel. PMID:27247459

  14. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an effort to enhance accuracy of diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, this study explores day-to-day variability and diagnostic performance of real-time PCR for detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA compared to other diagnostic tools in an endemic area before and after...... tool for detection of S. haematobium infections, with less day-to-day variation and higher sensitivity compared to microscopy. The superior performance of PCR before, and two and 18 months post-treatment provides a compelling argument for PCR as an accurate and reproducible tool for monitoring...

  15. Characteristics and molecular phylogeny of Fasciola flukes from Bangladesh, determined based on spermatogenesis and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Shoriki, Takuya; Katakura, Ken; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to precisely discriminate Fasciola spp. based on DNA sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. We collected 150 adult flukes from the bile ducts of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats from six different regions of Bangladesh. Spermatogenic status was determined by analyzing stained seminal vesicles. The ITS1 types were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The nad1 haplotypes were identified based on PCR and direct sequencing and analyzed phylogenetically by comparing with nad1 haplotypes of Fasciola spp. from other Asian countries. Of the 127 aspermic flukes, 98 were identified as Fg type in ITS1, whereas 29 were identified as Fh/Fg type, indicating a combination of ITS1 sequences of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. All the 127 aspermic flukes showed Fsp-NDI-Bd11 in nad1 haplotype with nucleotide sequences identical to aspermic Fasciola sp. from Asian countries. Further, 20 spermic flukes were identified as F. gigantica based on their spermatogenic status and Fg type in ITS1. F. gigantica population was thought to be introduced into Bangladesh considerably earlier than the aspermic Fasciola sp. because 11 haplotypes with high haplotype diversity were detected from the F. gigantica population. However, three flukes from Bangladesh could not be precisely identified, because their spermatogenic status, ITS1 types, and nad1 haplotypes were ambiguous. Therefore, developing a robust method to distinguish aspermic Fasciola sp. from other Fasciola species is necessary in the future. PMID:24781019

  16. A new rapid diagnostic test for detection of anti-Schistosoma mansoni and anti-Schistosoma haematobium antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Jean T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitological methods are widely used for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. However, they are insensitive, particularly in areas of low endemicity, and labour-intensive. Immunoassays based on detection of anti-schistosome antibodies have the merit of high sensitivity and recently a rapid diagnostic test (RDT, incorporating Schistosoma mansoni cercarial transformation fluid (SmCTF for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in blood has been developed. Here, we assessed the diagnostic performance of the SmCTF-RDT for S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections by comparing it with microscopy for egg detection. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Azaguié, south Côte d’Ivoire. 118 pre-school-aged children submitted two stool and two urine samples, which were subjected to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration methods for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium eggs, respectively. Urine was also subjected to a commercially available cassette test for S. mansoni, which detects circulating cathodic antigen. A finger-prick blood sample was used for the SmCTF-RDT for detection of anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium antibodies. Results The prevalence of both anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium antibodies was more than three times higher than the prevalence of infection estimated by egg detection under a microscope. Using quadruplicate Kato-Katz as the reference standard for the diagnosis of S. mansoni infection, the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV, and positive predictive value (PPV of the SmCTF-RDT was 75.0%, 84.2% and 22.5%, respectively. When two urine filtrations were considered as the reference standard for the diagnosis of S. haematobium infection, the sensitivity, NPV and PPV of SmCTF-RDT was 66.7%, 94.9% and 5.1%, respectively. The specificity of SmCTF-RDT, when using egg-detection as the reference standard, was estimated to be 34.4%. This low specificity may be a reflection of the

  17. Structural studies of Schistosoma mansoni adenylate kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, I.A. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Pereira, H.M.; Garrat, R.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-SC), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Parasitic diseases are a major cause of death in developing countries, however receive little or no attention from pharmaceutical companies for the development of novel therapies. In this respect, the Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CBME) of the Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos (IFSC / USP) has developed expertise in all stages of the development of active compounds against target enzymes from parasitic diseases. The present work focuses on the adenylate kinase enzymes (ADK's) from Schistosoma mansoni. These enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze the reaction of phosphoryl exchange between nucleotides in the reaction 2ADP to ATP + AMP, which is critical for the cells life cycle. Due to the particular property of the reaction catalyzed, the ADK's are recognized as reporters of the cells energetic state, translating small changes in the balance between ATP and ADP into a large change in concentration of AMP. The genome of S. mansoni was recently sequenced by the Sanger Center in England. On performing searches for genes encoding adenylate kinases we found two such genes. The corresponding gene products were named ADK1 (197 residues) and ADK2 (239 residues), and the two sequences share only 28 percent identity. Both have been cloned into the pET-28a(+)vector, expressed in E. coli and purified. Preliminary tests of activity have been performed only for ADK1 showing it to be catalytically active. Crystallization trials were performed for both proteins and thus far, crystals of ADK1 have been obtained which diffract to 2.05 at the LNLS beamline MX2 and the structure solved by molecular replacement. Understanding, at the atomic level, the function of these enzymes may help in the development of specific inhibitors and may provide tools for developing diagnostic tests for schistosomiasis. (author)

  18. Intermediate hosts of schistosoma mansoni in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian planorbidical chart is slowly but progressively been increased by new data. Distribution of vector species of Schistosoma mansoni, according to Paraense, 1986, may be thus resumed: Biomphalaria glabrata - delimited by paralells 13 and 21-S and meridians 39 and 45-W, area of greater dominance (Southerst Bahia, oriental half of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. It is observed along the coast line of the state of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte. Starting from there, it is found towards the southwest, in the direction to the Sao Francisco River and South-Center of Minas Gerais. Isolated population may be observed in other states. Its presence is probably, associated to the transmission of schistosomiasis in all areas where it occurs. B. tenagophila - extends it self through a wide strip of coast-line the South of Bahia (17-45"S, 39-15'W, RS(33-41'S, 53-27'W. In Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul states it is found further inland. It is important in schistosomiasis transmission in the Paraíba valley (SP. Isolated populations are observed in the Federal District and Minas Gerais state. B. straminea - better adapter species to climatic variation, having a more dense ditribution in the northeast (41-Wand 110-S, south of Bahia and northeast of Minas Gerais (150 and 180-S, 400 and 440-W It is less susceptible than B. glabrata, being however the most important responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni in the northeast, chiefly in the northeastern dry area, where it is almost the only transmissive species.

  19. Quantitative assessment of eosinophiluria in Schistosoma haematobium infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Mshinda, H M; Hatz, C F; Kombe, Y; Nkulila, T; Poulsen, Lars K.; Christensen, N O; Vennervald, B J

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophiluria, as quantified by measuring eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in urinary extracts, microhematuria, egg excretion, and ultrasound-detectable bladder pathology were recorded in Schistosoma haematobium-infected Tanzanian school children at a baseline survey and during an 18-month post...

  20. Risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal fluke infections in Lao PDR, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Ki, Moran; Eom, Keeseon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal fluke (Ov/MIF) in Lao People's Democratic Republic according to different regions and evaluate the effect of ingestion of raw freshwater fish on the infection. Demographic data, behavioral data, and symptoms were obtained, and the Kato-Katz method was used for the diagnosis of Ov/MIF. In total, 3,046 individuals were enrolled. The risk factors associated with acquisition of Ov/MIF were raw fish consumption and province. Khong Island showed the highest prevalence (odds ratio = 80.1, 95% confidence interval = 47.9-133.9, P hygiene), and access to clean water and sanitation should be considered. PMID:24980495

  1. Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis): epidemiology, economic impact and public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleha, A A

    1991-12-01

    Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) is an important parasitic disease found worldwide affecting sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo, as well as other domestic ruminants. The common causative agents are Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica which require various species of Lymnaea, fresh water snails, as their intermediate hosts. The epidemiology of the disease and its prevalence in Malaysia is mentioned briefly. The disease causes considerable impact on the economy of the livestock industry. The economic losses consist of costs of anthelmintics, drenches, labor, liver condemnation at meat inspection; and losses in production due to mortality, reduction in meat, milk and wool production; and reduction in growth rate, fertility and draught power. The disease also has public health significance, causing human fascioliasis and "halzoun". PMID:1822928

  2. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF LIVER FLUKE (FASCIOLOIDES MAGNA) INFECTION IN FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA) IN SERBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, Saša M; Marinković, Darko; Kulišić, Zoran

    2016-04-28

    Giant liver fluke ( Fascioloides magna ) infection is an important health problem of cervids in southeastern Europe. We measured the prevalence and intensity of infection with F. magna in a fenced area near the Danube River in the South Bačka District of Serbia. Parasitologic, pathomorphologic, and histopathologic examinations were conducted from November 2007 to February 2008, beginning with a population of 127 adult fallow deer ( Dama dama ). After a positive diagnosis, therapy with triclabendazole-medicated corn was applied. Deer were treated at four baiting stations, using medicated feed providing triclabendazole at an estimated dose of 10-14 mg/kg of body weight per deer. Treatment lasted for 7 d in early February 2008 and an additional 7 d 2 wk later. For the complete success of pharmacotherapy it was necessary to prevent any contact of deer with the snail intermediate host ( Galba truncatula ). Intervention in the habitat, removing grass and low vegetation, and draining ponds reduces the possibility of contact. Six months after the treatment, livers of hunted deer were reddish, with fibrous tracks; pigmentation and cysts in the parenchyma were surrounded by a fibrous capsule and their fecal samples contained no eggs of F. magna . Over the following years, livers of hunted deer were negative, and the last control cull in March 2015 confirmed complete absence of infection. We reconfirmed the presence of giant liver flukes in fallow deer in Serbia, apparently the result of natural spread across the Danube from Hungary and Croatia. We also report that the treatment of deer with triclabendazole-medicated corn is an effective method for administration of therapeutic doses of drug in semicaptive deer. Interventions in the environment are necessary to prevent recontact of deer with habitats used by the snail intermediate host, and enable the success of the therapy. PMID:26967130

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the adult rumen fluke Paramphistomum cervi following next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vijayata; Garg, Sweta; Chourasia, Reetika; Hasnani, J J; Patel, P V; Shah, Tejas M; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Mohapatra, Amitbikram; Blake, Damer P; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-10-01

    Rumen flukes are parasitic trematodes (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of major socioeconomic importance in many countries. Key representatives, such as Paramphistomum cervi, can cause "Rumen fluke disease" or paramphistomosis and undermine economic animal productivity and welfare. P. cervi is primarily a problem in sheep, goat and buffalo production as a consequence of reduced weight gain and milk production, clinical disease or death. Recent technological advances in genomics and bioinformatics now provide unique opportunities for the identification and pre-validation of drug targets and vaccines through improved understanding of the biology of pathogens such as P. cervi and their relationship with their hosts at the molecular level. Here, we report next generation transcriptome sequencing analysis for P. cervi. RNAseq libraries were generated from RNA extracted from 15 adult P. cervi parasites sampled from each of three different host species (sheep, goat and buffalo) and a reference transcriptome was generated by assembly of all Ion Torrent PGM sequencing data. Raw reads (7,433,721 in total) were initially filtered for host nucleotide contamination and ribosomal RNAs and the remaining reads were assembled into 43,753 high confidence transcript contigs. In excess of 50% of the assembled transcripts were annotated with domain- or protein sequence similarity derived functional information. The reference adult P. cervi transcriptome will serve as a basis for future work on the biology of this important parasite. Using the widely investigated trematode virulence factor and vaccine candidate Cathepsin L as an example, the epitope GPISIAINA was found to be conserved in P. cervi isolated from three different host species supporting its candidacy for vaccine development and illustrating the utility of the adult P. cervi transcriptome. PMID:26049095

  4. Bioactivity of miltefosine against aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium and their snail hosts, supported by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bardicy Samia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miltefosine, which is the first oral drug licensed for the treatment of leishmaniasis, was recently reported to be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel antischistosomal derivatives with potent activity in vivo against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. In this paper an in vitro study was carried out to investigate whether it has a biocidal activity against the aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail intermediate host, Biomphalaria alexandrina , thus being also a molluscicide. Additionally, to see whether miltefosine can have a broad spectrum antischistosomal activity, a similar in vitro study was carried out on the adult stage of Schistosoma haematobium, the second major human species, its larval stages and snail intermediate host, Bulinus truncutes. This was checked by scanning electron microscopy. Results Miltefosine proved to have in vitro ovicidal, schistolarvicidal and lethal activity on adult worms of both Schistosoma species and has considerable molluscicidal activity on their snail hosts. Scanning electron microscopy revealed several morphological changes on the different stages of the parasite and on the soft body of the snail, which further strengthens the current evidence of miltefosine's activity. This is the first report of mollusicidal activity of miltefosine and its in vitro schistosomicidal activity against S.haematobium. Conclusions This study highlights miltefosine not only as a potential promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel broad spectrum schistosomicidal derivatives, but also for molluscicidals.

  5. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyathilakan, N; Murali, K; Anandaraj, A; Abdul Basith, S

    2012-04-01

    The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. Based on the in vitro trials conducted using above plant extracts at 1 percent, 2.5 percent and 5 percent concentration, the extracts of O. ficus indica showed flukicidal effect at 2.5 and 5% concentration. However A. sativum and L. inermis were effective at 5% concentration only. The study indicated the potential for developing herbal-based anthelmintics to control F. gigantica in livestock. PMID:23543611

  6. Prevalence of Platynosomum fastosum infection in free roaming cats in northeastern Brazil: Fluke burden and grading of lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R R; Teixeira, A C; Oliveira, J A A; Cavalcanti, L P G

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this paper was to investigate prevalence and parasite load of the trematode Platynosomum fastosum infection and the risk of developing cholangitis/cholangiohepatitis among infected domestic cats in a city of northeastern Brazil, and to characterize the influence of fluke burden in the formation of lesions in liver and gallbladder. A total of 141 cats was necropsied and examined for the presence of P. fastosum. The observed prevalence was 42.6% (60/141, 95% CI=34.2-50.9). Parasite load varied from 1 to 219 flukes per animal. Adult cats were more frequently infected than kittens (proaming cats in northeastern Brazil, with increased risk of liver disease. PMID:27523932

  7. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of RIZ1 and the correlation to clinicopathological parameters in liver fluke-related cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khaenam, Prasong; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; LIMPAIBOON, TEMDUANG

    2010-01-01

    The retinoblastoma interacting zinc finger (RIZ1) gene is adjacent to D1S228 where microsatellite instability has been associated with poor patient survival in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis and pathogenesis of CCA is necessary to improve patient survival. Therefore, we determined the genetic and epigenetic alterations of RIZ1 in 81 CCA samples and 69 matched non-tumor tissues. Methylation was found i...

  8. A Granulin-Like Growth Factor Secreted by the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, Promotes Proliferation of Host Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Smout, Michael J.; Laha, Thewarach; Mulvenna, Jason; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Jones, Alun; Brindley, Paul J.; Loukas, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, infects millions of people throughout south-east Asia and is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma, or cancer of the bile ducts. The mechanisms by which chronic infection with O. viverrini results in cholangiocarcinogenesis are multi-factorial, but one such mechanism is the secretion of parasite proteins with mitogenic properties into the bile ducts, driving cell proliferation and creating a tumorigenic environment. Using a proteomic approach, we i...

  9. Molecular evidence shows that the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is the predominant Fasciola species in ruminants from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, U; van Paridon, B; Shabbir, M Z; Shafee, M; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Gilleard, J

    2016-03-01

    Fascioliasis is an important disease affecting livestock, with great costs to producers worldwide. It has also become a serious issue for human populations in some endemic areas as an emerging zoonotic infection. There are two Fasciola species of liver fluke responsible for this disease, which occur worldwide, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Identifying these two species on the basis of adult or egg morphology requires specialist knowledge due to the similarity of characters, and may misidentify putative intermediate or hybrid forms. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA of liver flukes collected from multiple species of hosts from seven localities in the Punjab and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan, to determine the distribution of these two species. All 46 flukes processed in this study, collected from seven sites, showed the rDNA ITS-2 genotype corresponding to F. gigantica, contradicting previous reports, based on adult and egg morphology, that both species are present in Pakistan, with F. hepatica being the more common. PMID:25758445

  10. In vivo activity of aryl ozonides against Schistosoma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Ingram, Katrin; Vargas, Mireille; Chollet, Jacques; Wang, Xiaofang; Dong, Yuxiang; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated the in vivo antischistosomal activities of 11 structurally diverse synthetic peroxides. Of all compounds tested, ozonide (1,2,4-trioxolane) OZ418 had the highest activity against adult Schistosoma mansoni, with total and female worm burden reductions of 80 and 90% (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, treatment of S. haematobium-infected mice with OZ418 reduced the total worm burden by 86%. In conclusion, OZ418 is a promising antischistosomal lead compound. PMID:22106214

  11. In Vivo Activity of Aryl Ozonides against Schistosoma Species

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Jennifer; Ingram, Katrin; Vargas, Mireille; Chollet, Jacques; Wang, Xiaofang; Dong, Yuxiang; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the in vivo antischistosomal activities of 11 structurally diverse synthetic peroxides. Of all compounds tested, ozonide (1,2,4-trioxolane) OZ418 had the highest activity against adult Schistosoma mansoni, with total and female worm burden reductions of 80 and 90% (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, treatment of S. haematobium-infected mice with OZ418 reduced the total worm burden by 86%. In conclusion, OZ418 is a promising antischistosomal lead compound.

  12. Inhibition of surface membrane maturation in schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiest, P M; Tartakoff, A M; Aikawa, M.; Mahmoud, A. A.

    1988-01-01

    The surface membrane of the multicellular parasite Schistosoma mansoni is radically reorganized during the transformation of cercariae into schistosomula. The current study investigates factors involved in maturation of the surface from a trilaminate to a multilaminate membrane. When maturation was induced in the presence of puromycin (900 microM), the acquisition of a multilaminate surface and stainability with fluorescein-conjugated Con A were similar to that of control parasites. Similarly...

  13. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad

  14. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  15. Cercarial glycocalyx of Schistosoma mansoni activates human complement.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, J C; Caulfield, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Human complement activation by cercariae and schistosomula of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni was studied in vitro. Cercariae are composed of tails which are shed after infection of the host and bodies which transform into the larvae or schistosomula after infection. After incubation in fresh normal human serum (NHS), cercarial tails bound more anti-C3 antibodies than did cercarial bodies (CB), and the tails were rapidly lysed, while the attached CB remained intact. Complement activati...

  16. Ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni caused by artemether

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Shuhua; Shen Binggui; Utzinger Jürg; Chollet Jacques; Tanner Marcel

    2002-01-01

    Progress has been made over the last decade with the development and clinical use of artemether as an agent against major human schistosome parasites. The tegument has been identified as a key target of artemether, implying detailed studies on ultrastructural damage induced by this compound. We performed a temporal examination, employing a transmission electron microscope to assess the pattern and extent of ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated wit...

  17. Schistosoma mansoni: a rare cause of tubal infection

    OpenAIRE

    CA Faria; JCJ Conceição; TF Valadares; Rodrigues, B; L Carneiro

    2010-01-01

    S. haematobium is an important cause of urinary schistosomiasis, and symptomatic female genital infection is a common gynecological finding in areas where S. haematobium is prevalent. On the other hand, genital manifestations of intestinal schistosomas as S. mansoni are not frequent or are misdiagnosed. A case of a 40-year-old woman with abnormal uterine bleeding and asymptomatic tubal infection by S. mansoni identified in histological examination is presented.

  18. Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum

    OpenAIRE

    Citek Jindrich

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR) is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR ...

  19. Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

    2007-12-01

    The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails. PMID:18383803

  20. Liver fluke-induced hepatic oxysterols stimulate DNA damage and apoptosis in cultured human cholangiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusakul, Apinya; Loilome, Watcharin; Namwat, Nisana; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Kuver, Rahul; Dechakhamphu, Somkid; Sukontawarin, Pradit; Pinlaor, Somchai; Lee, Sum P; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2012-03-01

    Oxysterols are cholesterol oxidation products that are generated by enzymatic reactions through cytochrome P450 family enzymes or by non-enzymatic reactions involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Oxysterols have been identified in bile in the setting of chronic inflammation, suggesting that biliary epithelial cells are chronically exposed to these compounds in certain clinical settings. We hypothesized that biliary oxysterols resulting from liver fluke infection participate in cholangiocarcinogenesis. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified oxysterols in livers from hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini that develop cholangiocarcinoma. Five oxysterols were found: 7-keto-cholesta-3,5-diene (7KD), 3-keto-cholest-4-ene (3K4), 3-keto-cholest-7-ene (3K7), 3-keto-cholesta-4,6-diene (3KD), and cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol). Triol and 3K4 were found at significantly higher levels in the livers of hamsters with O. viverrini-induced cholangiocarcinoma. We therefore investigated the effects of Triol and 3K4 on induction of cholangiocarcinogenesis using an in vitro human cholangiocyte culture model. Triol- and 3K4-treated cells underwent apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed significantly increased levels of Bax and decreased levels of Bcl-2 in these cells. Increased cytochrome c release from mitochondria was found following treatment with Triol and 3K4. Triol and 3K4 also induced formation of the DNA adducts 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine, 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in cholangiocytes. The data suggest that Triol and 3K4 cause DNA damage via oxidative stress. Chronic liver fluke infection increases production of the oxysterols Triol and 3K4 in the setting of chronic inflammation in the biliary system. These oxysterols induce apoptosis and DNA damage in cholangiocytes. Insufficient and impaired DNA repair of such mutated cells may enhance clonal expansion and further drive the change in

  1. Raw Fish Consuming Behavior Related to Liver Fluke Infection among Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a health problem in rural communities of Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate raw fish consuming behavior related to liver fluke infection among the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were screened for CCA, and samples who had a high score of CCA risk were purposively selected. A predesigned questionnaire was utilized to collect the data from all participants. X2-test was used for analysis of associations between demographic data and raw fish consumption. The results revealed that participants had past histories of stool examination (33.0%), liver fluke infection (21.0%), praziquantel use (24.0%), raw fish consumption (78.0%), relatives family consuming raw fish (73.0%), and relatives family with CCA (3.0%). Participants consumed several dished related to liver fluke infection, mainly raw fermented fish (13.0%), under smoked catfish (5.00%), raw pickled fish (4.00%), and raw spicy minced fish salad (3.00%). The most common types of cyprinoid fish were Barbodes gonionotus (39%), Hampala dispar (38%), Puntius brevis (37%), Cyclocheilichthys armatus (33%), Puntioplites proctozysron (32%), and Luciosoma bleekeri (30%), respectively. Participants had a low level of knowledge (mean=3.79, SD=0.74), moderate attitude (mean=7.31, SD=7.31) and practice (mean=38.64, SD=6.95) regarding liver fluke prevention and control. Demographic variables like age (>36 years old; X2-test=17.794, p-value=0.001), education (primary school; X2-test=18.952, p-value=0.001), marital status (married; X2-test=12.399, p-value=0.002), and income (<5,000 baht; X2-test=27.757, p-value=0.015) were significantly associated with raw fish consumption. This result indicates that the population had risk consumption for liver

  2. MUC1 and MUC5AC mucin expression in liver fluke-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chanchai Boonla; Banchob Sripa; Peti Thuwajit; Ubon Cha-On; Anucha Puapairoj; Masanao Miwa; Sopit Wongkham

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of MUC1 and MUC5AC in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Association of expressions of mucins MUC1 and MUC5AC with clinical findings, metastasis, and survival of the liver fluke-associated ICC patients was determined.METHODS: The expressions of MUC1 and MUC5AC mucins were examined by immunohistochemical staining in 87cases of histologically-proven ICC. The expressions of mucins in relationship between clinicopathological significance and prognosis of the patients were evaluated.RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (60%) exhibited both MUC1 and MUC5AC expressions, whereas 31% expressed either MUC1or MUC5AC, and 9% expressed neither. High MUC1immunoreactivity displayed a significant correlation with tumor progression as reflected by vascular invasion (P<0.001),whereas high expression of MUC5AC significantly correlated with neural invasion (P = 0.022) and advanced ICC stage (P = 0.008). Patients with high expression of MUC1 had a significantly shorter survival (P = 0.0002). According to multivariate analyses, MUC1 reactivity (P = 0.026),histological grading and stage of tumor represented the least probability of survival.CONCLUSION: MUC1 is overexpressed in liver flukeassociated cholangiocarcinoma and relates to vascular invasion and poor prognosis, whereas MUC5AC mucin is neoexpressed and relates to neural invasion and advanced ICC stage. High MUC1 expression in tumor may be useful for predicting the poor outcome of ICC patients.

  3. Gynecological manifestations, histopathological findings, and schistosoma-specific polymerase chain reaction results among women with Schistosoma haematobium infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma hae...

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares, Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  5. Bioactivity of miltefosine against aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium and their snail hosts, supported by scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    El Bardicy Samia; Eissa Maha M; Tadros Menerva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Miltefosine, which is the first oral drug licensed for the treatment of leishmaniasis, was recently reported to be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel antischistosomal derivatives with potent activity in vivo against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. In this paper an in vitro study was carried out to investigate whether it has a biocidal activity against the aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail intermediate host, Biompha...

  6. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els De Roeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of <5m resolution was acquired in the spring of 2013 for the area around Bruges, Belgium, a region where dairy farms suffer from liver fluke infections transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs, such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations.

  7. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  8. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V. R.; Tchuem Tchuenté, L. A.; Théron, A.; JOURDANE, J; Ly, A.; Moncrieff, C. B.; B. Gryseels

    2000-01-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maxim...

  9. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J W; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C were infected by exposure to 500 cercariae or injected intraperitoneally with 150 cercariae, and serum monitored over a 63-day period. In cercariae-injected carp, irrespective of time and temperatu...

  10. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium by Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a real-time PCR approach with high resolution melting-curve (HRM assay developed for the detection and differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in fecal and urine samples collected from rural Yemen. The samples were screened by microscopy and PCR for the Schistosoma species infection. A pair of degenerate primers were designed targeting partial regions in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1 gene of S. mansoni and S. haematobium using real-time PCR-HRM assay. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.8%; 23.8% of the participants were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. With regards to the intensity of infections, 22.1% and 77.9% of S. haematobium infections were of heavy and light intensities, respectively. Likewise, 8.1%, 40.5% and 51.4% of S. mansoni infections were of heavy, moderate and light intensities, respectively. The melting points were distinctive for S. mansoni and S. haematobium, categorized by peaks of 76.49 ± 0.25 °C and 75.43 ± 0.26 °C, respectively. HRM analysis showed high detection capability through the amplification of Schistosoma DNA with as low as 0.0001 ng/µL. Significant negative correlations were reported between the real-time PCR-HRM cycle threshold (Ct values and microscopic egg counts for both S. mansoni in stool and S. haematobium in urine (p < 0.01. In conclusion, this closed-tube HRM protocol provides a potentially powerful screening molecular tool for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium. It is a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method. Hence, this method is a good alternative approach to probe-based PCR assays.

  11. Infecção natural de roedores silvestres pelo Schistosoma mansoni Natural infection of sylvatic rodents by Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Maria Correa Silva; Zilton A. Andrade

    1989-01-01

    No município baiano de Planalto, 47% dos roedores silvestres capturados (Nectomys) estavam infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni, enquanto a prevalência desta infecção na população humana da área era de 3,26%. Os roedores habitam zonas peridomiciliares, têm hábitos aquáticos e eliminam ovos viáveis do S. mansoni. Albergam número variável de vermes e formam granulomas periovulares pequenos, principalmente no fígado e intestinos, sem fibrose hepática importante ou sinais de hipertensão porta. A d...

  12. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RECENT ISOLATES OF Schistosoma mansoni TO PRAZIQUANTEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENDONÇA, Adriana Maria B.; FEITOSA, Ana Paula S.; VERAS, Dyana L.; MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago J.; CAVALCANTI, Marília G. dos Santos; BARBOSA, Constança Clara G. S.; BRAYNER, Fábio A.; ALVES, Luiz C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), but concerns over PZQ resistance have renewed interest in evaluating the in vitro susceptibility of recent isolates of Schistosoma mansoni to PZQ in comparison with well-established strains in the laboratory. Material and methods: The in vitro activity of PZQ (6.5-0.003 µg/mL) was evaluated in terms of mortality, reduced motor activity and ultrastructural alterations against S. mansoni. Results: After 3 h of incubation, PZQ, at 6.5 µg/mL, caused 100% mortality of all adult worms in the three types of recent isolates, while PZQ was inactive at concentrations of 0.08-0.003 µg/mL after 3 h of incubation. The results show that the SLM and Sotave isolates basically presented the same pattern of susceptibility, differing only in the concentration of 6.5 µg/mL, where deaths occurred from the range of 1.5 h in Sotave and just in the 3 h range of SLM. Additionally, this article presents ultrastructural evidence of rapid severe PZQ-induced surface membrane damage in S. mansoni after treatment with the drug, such as disintegration, sloughing, and erosion of the surface. Conclusion: According to these results, PZQ is very effective to induce tegument destruction of recent isolates of S. mansoni. PMID:26910445

  13. Polymyxin B as inhibitor of LPS contamination of Schistosoma mansoni recombinant proteins in human cytokine analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacífico Lucila G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli vectors are generally contaminated with endotoxin. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Polymyxin B to neutralize the effect of LPS present as contaminant on Schistosoma mansoni recombinant proteins produced in E. coli in inducing TNF-α and IL-10. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals chronically infected with S. mansoni were stimulated in vitro with recombinant Sm22.6, Sm14 and P24 antigens (10 μg/mL in the presence of Polymyxin B (10 μg/mL. Results The levels of cytokines were measured using ELISA. There was greater than 90 % reduction (p S. mansoni recombinant proteins in the presence of Polymyxin B, a reduction in the levels of TNF-α and IL-10 was also observed. However, the percentage of reduction was lower when compared to the cultures stimulated with LPS, probably because these proteins are able to induce the production of these cytokines by themselves. Conclusion This study showed that Polymyxin B was able to neutralize the effect of endotoxin, as contaminant in S. mansoni recombinant antigens produced in E. coli, in inducing TNF-α and IL-10 production.

  14. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  15. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  16. Radiation-resistant acquired immunity of vaccinated mice to Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccination of mice with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni induces specific acquired resistance to challenge infection. This resistance is immunologically-mediated, possibly via a delayed-type hypersensitivity. Studies of parasite migration have shown that the protective mechanism operates most effectively in the lungs of vaccinated mice. We have probed the mechanism by exposing mice to 500 rads of gamma radiation before challenge infection. Our results show that the effector mechanism operative against challenge larvae is resistant to radiation. In contrast, classical immune responses are markedly suppressed by the same treatment. While leukocyte populations in the blood fall dramatically after irradiation, numbers of cells recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage are unaffected. We suggest that vaccination with attenuated cercariae establishes populations of sensitized cells in the lungs which trigger the mechanism of resistance when challenge schistosomula migrate through pulmonary capillary beds. Although the cells may be partially disabled by irradiation, they remain responsive to worm antigens and thereby capable of initiating the elimination mechanism. This hypothesis would explain the radiation resistance of vaccine-induced immunity to S. mansoni

  17. Radiation-resistant acquired immunity of vaccinated mice to Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Dixon, B.; Wilson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    Vaccination of mice with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni induces specific acquired resistance to challenge infection. This resistance is immunologically-mediated, possibly via a delayed-type hypersensitivity. Studies of parasite migration have shown that the protective mechanism operates most effectively in the lungs of vaccinated mice. We have probed the mechanism by exposing mice to 500 rads of gamma radiation before challenge infection. Our results show that the effector mechanism operative against challenge larvae is resistant to radiation. In contrast, classical immune responses are markedly suppressed by the same treatment. While leukocyte populations in the blood fall dramatically after irradiation, numbers of cells recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage are unaffected. We suggest that vaccination with attenuated cercariae establishes populations of sensitized cells in the lungs which trigger the mechanism of resistance when challenge schistosomula migrate through pulmonary capillary beds. Although the cells may be partially disabled by irradiation, they remain responsive to worm antigens and thereby capable of initiating the elimination mechanism. This hypothesis would explain the radiation resistance of vaccine-induced immunity to S. mansoni.

  18. Schistosoma mansoni antigens alter the cytokine response in vitro during cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Michelle Barbosa Bafica

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection or associated products are able to down-modulate the type 1 CD4+ T cell inflammatory response characteristic of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated how S. mansoni antigens altered the immune response that was induced by the soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL patients. Cytokines were measured from the supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with SLA. This was performed using the sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique in the presence or absence of S. mansoni recombinant antigens Sm29, SmTSP-2 and PIII. The addition of S. mansoni antigens to the cultures resulted in the reduction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ levels in 37-50% of patients. Although to a lesser extent, the antigens were also able to decrease the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. We compared patients that either had or did not have reduction in IFN-γ and TNF-α production in cultures stimulated with SLA in the presence of S. mansoni antigens. We found that there was no significant difference in the levels of interleukin (IL-10 and IL-5 in response to S. mansoni antigens between the groups. The antigens used in this study down-modulated the in vitro proinflammatory response induced by SLA in a group of CL patients through a currently undefined mechanism.

  19. Mechanisms of evasion of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula to the lethal activity of complement

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    F. Juarez Ramalho-Pinto

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni became resistant to antibody-dependent complement damage in vitro after pre-incubation with normal human erythrocytes (NHuE whatever the ABO or Rh blood group. Resistant parasites were shown to acquire host decay accelerating factor (DAF , a 70 kDa glycoprotein attached to the membrane of NHue by a GPI anchor. IgG2a mAb anti-human DAF (IA10 immunoprecipitated a 70 kDa molecule from 125I-labeled schistosomula pre-incubated with NHuE and inhibited their resistance to complement-dependent killing in vtro. Incubationof schistosomula with erytrocytes from patients with paroxsimal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNHE or SRBC, wich are DAF-deficient, did not protect the parasites from complement lesion. Supernatant of 100,000 x g collected from NHuE incubated for 24 h in defined medium was shown to contain a soluble form of DAF and to protect schistosomula from complement killing. Schistosomula treated with trypsin before incubation with NHuE ghosts did not become resistant to complement damage. On the other hand, pre-treatment with chymotrypsin did not interfere with the acquisition of resistance by the schistosomula. These results indicate that, in vitro, NHuE DAF can be transferred to schistosomula in a soluble form and that the binding of this molecule to the parasite surface is dependent upon trypsin-sensitive chymotrypsin-insensitive polipeptide(s present on the surface of the worm.

  20. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations. PMID:25599638

  1. Eye-flukes in fish, living in cooling water from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here on the effects of raised water temperature on the prevalence, mean infrapopulation density and consequences of eye-flukes in fish. The study was mainly performed in the Biotest basin situated 120 km north of Stockholm, Sweden. This 1 km2 basin is an enclosed brackish water (5 permillage) area receiving heated (about 8 degree C) cooling water (90 m3/s) from Forsmark nuclear power station. Both morphological and experimental studies of the parasite larvae of sampled fish indicate that we are dealing with four strains of Diplostomum, two of which occur in perch and the other two in roach. Since taxonomic revisions are under hand elsewhere we prefer to name these strains Diplostomum sp1-4. Metacercariae of D.sp 1 were found between the retina and sclera in the eye of perch while that of D.sp 4 were found in the eye-lens of roach in over 90 % of fish examined. Metacercariae of the other two D.-species and of Tylodelphys clavata and Cotylurus sp were found at lower frequencies. Cercariae of Diplostomum spp were found to develop from sporocysts in snails of the genus Lymnaea. The period of cercarial shedding starts about one month earlier and is also prolonged in the Biotest basin compared to the reference locality. The infection procedure, however, is the same in both areas. During experimental infections with cercariae on yearlings of bleak we found a distinct correlation between an increased fry mortality and an increased cercariae density, a connection which was strengthened at increased water temperature. Furthermore, the results indicate that the defence mechanisms of the fish respond slower towards infections with Diplostomum spp than that is known to be the case with bacterial infections. The speed with which the metacercariae accumulate in the eye of the fish is higher in the Biotest basin than in the reference locality. In spite of this, the mean infrapopulation density of metacercariae in older fish is not higher here than in the reference

  2. Gynecological Manifestations, Histopathological Findings, and Schistosoma-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Results Among Women With Schistosoma haematobium Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ravaoalimalala, Vololomboahangy Elisabeth; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Feldmeier, Hermann; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; van Lieshout, Lisette; Roald, Borghild; Leutscher, Peter; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    Background. The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Methods. Women aged 15–35 years living in an S. haematobium-endemic area in Madagascar underwent pelvic and colposcopic examinations. Small biopsy specimens were obtained from lesions and examined histopathologically. Schistosoma PCR was done on urine, biopsy, cervicovaginal lavage, and genital mucosal surface specimens. Results. Sandy patches and rubbery papules were found in 41 of 118 women (35%). Rubbery papules reflected an intense cellular immune reaction dominated by eosinophils, epithelial erosion, and viable ova. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of rubbery papules with age, even after adjustment for urinary ova excretion. The sandy patches with grains showed moderate cellular immune reaction and ova (viable and/or calcified). They were most prevalent in cases with low-intensity urinary S. haematobium infection. Forty-two percent of women with Schistosoma-negative urine specimens had at least 1 genital specimen test positive for Schistosoma by PCR. Conclusions. The results indicate a diversity of lesions caused by S. haematobium and a dynamic evolution of the genital lesions. Schistosoma PCR may give an indication of the diagnosis. PMID:25725656

  3. Synthesis and SAR Studies of Praziquantel Derivatives with Activity against Schistosoma japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Xin Yu; Bainian Feng; Wen-Hua Fan; Gu-Ping Wang; Xu-Ren Yin; Xia Chen; Li-Jun Song; Wen-Long Wang

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of praziquantel derivatives with activity against adult Schistosoma japonicum are described. Several of them showed better worm killing activity than praziquantel and could serve as leads for further optimization.

  4. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor) in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira; Pedro Raso; Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1986-01-01

    Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation) started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was short...

  5. Analysis of regulatory protease sequences identified through bioinformatic data mining of the Schistosoma mansoni genome

    OpenAIRE

    Minchella Dennis J; Mayfield Chris; Bos David H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background New chemotherapeutic agents against Schistosoma mansoni, an etiological agent of human schistosomiasis, are a priority due to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drug treatments to prevent reinfection. Proteases have been under scrutiny as targets of immunological or chemotherapeutic anti-Schistosoma agents because of their vital role in many stages of the parasitic life cycle. Function has been established for only a handful of identified S. mansoni ...

  6. Lactate as a Novel Quantitative Measure of Viability in Schistosoma mansoni Drug Sensitivity Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie; Zöphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval-stage Schistosoma allows the use of a certain degree of automation in the screening of compounds. Unfortunately, the throughput is limited, as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism, wh...

  7. Molecular confirmation of Schistosoma and family relationship in two ancient Egyptian mummies

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, C. D.; David, R; Spigelman, M.; Donoghue, H. D.

    2014-01-01

    Egg morphology and immunocytochemistry have identified schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt. Our study aimedbto detect and characterize schistosomal DNA in mummified human tissue. Liver samples from the mummy Nekht-Ankh (c. 3900 BP) and intestinal samples from Khnum-Nakht, possibly his brother, were analyzed using PCR primers suitable for fragmented ancient DNA, specific for either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium. Mitochondrial primers examined any relationship between the supposed...

  8. A REVIEW OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN INDONESIA WITH REFERENCE TO SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  9. Condiloma acuminado anal com ovos de Schistosoma mansoni em paciente HIV-positivo Condilomata acuminata with Schistosoma eggs in HIV-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Pirani Carneiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Condiloma acuminado e ovos de Schistosoma são freqüentemente encontrados na região anal, mas não há nenhum caso descrito de associação dessas doenças nessa região. No colo uterino a associação de infecção por HPV (vírus do papiloma humano e ovos de Schistosoma em paciente HIV (vírus da imunodeficiência humana-positivo já foi relatada e há evidências de que essa associação possa alterar a história natural dessas doenças. Assim como no colo uterino, é possível que essa interação também ocorra na região anal. Nosso objetivo, portanto, é relatar um caso de condiloma anal em paciente HIV-positivo, que foi submetido a ressecção cirúrgica e que apresentou no exame histopatológico numerosos ovos de Schistosoma mansoni.Condilomata acuminata and Schistosoma eggs are frequently found in the anal region, but there is no report about the association of these diseases in this region. The association of HPV infection and Schistosoma eggs in an HIV-positive patient was found in uterine cervix and there is evidence suggesting that this association can alters the natural history of these diseases. Like in the cervix, it is possible that this interaction also occurs in the anal region. So, we report a case of anal Condilomata acuminata, in an HIV-positive patient, that was ressected and contained on histopathologic examination, multiple Schistosoma eggs.

  10. The effect of Zymomonas mobilis culture on experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection O efeito da cultura de Zymomonas mobilis na infecção experimental por Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Fátima Macedo Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available C57Bl/10 male mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni were distributed into mixed, prophylactic and curative groups. A culture of Zymomonas mobilis was orally administered to mice. A 61% protection from the infection was observed in the curative group (p Camundongos C57Bl/10 do sexo masculino, infectados com Schistosoma mansoni foram distribuídos nos grupos misto, profilático e curativo. Cultura de Zymomonas mobilis foi administrada oralmente aos camundongos. Uma proteção de 61% foi observada no grupo curativo (p<0,05. Os estudos histopatológicos dos fígados e intestinos mostraram resultados similares.

  11. Immunization of mice with cobalt-60 irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameters of immunization of mice with 60Co-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae are described and related to protection against subsequent challenge infection. Such immunization was found to be dependent on dose of irradiation, number of immunizing cercariae, and number and time course of infections. Low levels of resistance were obtained with low irradiation doses, in contrast to previous studies in mice. In general, resistance increased with increasing irradiation doses, up to approximately 48 to 56 Kr. Maximal resistance (70 to 80%) was induced by a single exposure to 250 to 500 cercariae, irradiated at a dose rate of 2 Kr/minute to a total dose of 56 Kr, administered percutaneously 4 to 6 wk prior to challenge. Challenge could be delayed for at least 15 wk after immunization without a decrease in resistance. The resistance obtained was not attributable to a delayed migration of challenge worms

  12. Immunization of mice with cobalt-60 irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minard, P.; Dean, D.A.; Jacobson, R.H.; Vannier, W.E.; Murrell, K.D.

    1978-01-01

    Parameters of immunization of mice with /sup 60/Co-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae are described and related to protection against subsequent challenge infection. Such immunization was found to be dependent on dose of irradiation, number of immunizing cercariae, and number and time course of infections. Low levels of resistance were obtained with low irradiation doses, in contrast to previous studies in mice. In general, resistance increased with increasing irradiation doses, up to approximately 48 to 56 Kr. Maximal resistance (70 to 80%) was induced by a single exposure to 250 to 500 cercariae, irradiated at a dose rate of 2 Kr/minute to a total dose of 56 Kr, administered percutaneously 4 to 6 wk prior to challenge. Challenge could be delayed for at least 15 wk after immunization without a decrease in resistance. The resistance obtained was not attributable to a delayed migration of challenge worms.

  13. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  14. Structural bioinformatics study of PNP from Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Uchôa, Hugo Brandão; Canduri, Fernanda; Pereira, José Henrique; Camera, João Carlos; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Palma, Mário Sergio; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira

    2004-09-10

    The parasite Schistosoma mansoni lacks the de novo pathway for purine biosynthesis and depends on salvage pathways for its purine requirements. Schistosomiasis is endemic in 76 countries and territories and amongst the parasitic diseases ranks second after malaria in terms of social and economic impact and public health importance. The PNP is an attractive target for drug design and it has been submitted to extensive structure-based design. The atomic coordinates of the complex of human PNP with inosine were used as template for starting the modeling of PNP from S. mansoni complexed with inosine. Here we describe the model for the complex SmPNP-inosine and correlate the structure with differences in the affinity for inosine presented by human and S. mansoni PNPs. PMID:15313179

  15. Structural bioinformatics study of PNP from Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parasite Schistosoma mansoni lacks the de novo pathway for purine biosynthesis and depends on salvage pathways for its purine requirements. Schistosomiasis is endemic in 76 countries and territories and amongst the parasitic diseases ranks second after malaria in terms of social and economic impact and public health importance. The PNP is an attractive target for drug design and it has been submitted to extensive structure-based design. The atomic coordinates of the complex of human PNP with inosine were used as template for starting the modeling of PNP from S. mansoni complexed with inosine. Here we describe the model for the complex SmPNP-inosine and correlate the structure with differences in the affinity for inosine presented by human and S. mansoni PNPs

  16. A potential vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Uruguay Um vetor potencial do Schistosoma mansoni no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibily experiments were carried out with a Biomphalaria straminea-like planorbid snail (Biomphalaria aff. straminea, species inquirenda from Espinillar, near Salto (Uruguay, in the area of the Salto Grande reservoir, exposed individually to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ2 and BH2 strains. Of 130 snails exposed to the SJ2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria tenagophila, 30 became infected (23%. The prepatent (precercaria period ranged from 35 to 65 days. The cercarial output was irregular, following no definite pattern, varying from 138 to 76,075 per snail (daily average 4.3 to 447.5 and ending up with death. Three specimens that died, without having shed cercarie, on days 69 (2 and 80 after exposure to miracidia, had developing secondary sporocysts in their tissues, justifying the prospect of a longer precercarial period in these cases. In a control group of 120 B. teangophila, exposed to the SJ2 strain, 40 became infected, showing an infection rate (33.3% not significantly different from that of the Espinillar snail (X [raised to the power of] 2 = 3.26. No cercarie were produced by any of the Espinilar snails exposed to miracidia of the BH2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria glabrata. Four specimens showed each a primary sporocyst in one tentacle, which disappeared between 15 and 25 days post-exposure, and two others died with immature, very slender sporocysts in their tissues on days 36 and 54. In a control group of 100 B. glabrata exposed to BH2 miracidia, 94 shed cercariae (94% and 6 remained negative. Calculation of Frandsen's (1979a, b TCP/100 index shows that "Espinillar Biomphalaria-SJ2 S. mansoni" is a vector-parasite "compatible" combination. Seeing that tenagophila-borne schistosomiasis is prevalent in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states and has recently spread sothwards to Santa Catarina state, and the range of B. tenagophila overlaps taht of the Espinillar Biomphalaria, the possibility of

  17. Homology-based annotation of non-coding RNAs in the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Clara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomes are trematode parasites of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are considered the most important of the human helminth parasites in terms of morbidity and mortality. Draft genome sequences are now available for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA plays a crucial role in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis, and pathogenesis. The genome-wide annotation of ncRNAs is a non-trivial task unless well-annotated genomes of closely related species are already available. Results A homology search for structured ncRNA in the genome of S. mansoni resulted in 23 types of ncRNAs with conserved primary and secondary structure. Among these, we identified rRNA, snRNA, SL RNA, SRP, tRNAs and RNase P, and also possibly MRP and 7SK RNAs. In addition, we confirmed five miRNAs that have recently been reported in S. japonicum and found two additional homologs of known miRNAs. The tRNA complement of S. mansoni is comparable to that of the free-living planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, although for some amino acids differences of more than a factor of two are observed: Leu, Ser, and His are overrepresented, while Cys, Meth, and Ile are underrepresented in S. mansoni. On the other hand, the number of tRNAs in the genome of S. japonicum is reduced by more than a factor of four. Both schistosomes have a complete set of minor spliceosomal snRNAs. Several ncRNAs that are expected to exist in the S. mansoni genome were not found, among them the telomerase RNA, vault RNAs, and Y RNAs. Conclusion The ncRNA sequences and structures presented here represent the most complete dataset of ncRNA from any lophotrochozoan reported so far. This data set provides an important reference for further analysis of the genomes of schistosomes and indeed eukaryotic genomes at large.

  18. Intestinal and liver flukes of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes) from Slovakia: uniform or diverse compound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorová, Petronela; Sitko, Jiljí; Špakulová, Marta; Hurníková, Zuzana

    2016-07-01

    During 2012-2014 up to 286 birds of the orders Falconiformes (5 species), Accipitriformes (11 species), and Strigiformes (7 species) were examined for trematodes and this represents the first detailed study in Slovakia. A total of 12 trematode species belonging to the families Diplostomidae, Cyathocotylidae, Strigeidae, and Opisthorchiidae were identified. Rare infections were found in falcons where only two species (40 %) and three of 85 examined birds (3.5 %) were infected with a low range of two to four worms of generalists Strigea falconis or Plagiorchis elegans. Contrary to that, ten accipitriformes species (90.9 %) and 63 of 156 bird individuals (40.4 %) were infected with nine flukes: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Conodiplostomum spathula, Neodiplostomum attenuatum, Neodiplostomum spathoides, Parastrigea flexilis, Strigea falconis, Strigea vandenbrokae, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, and Metorchis bilis. S. falconis and N. attenuatum were the most frequent, occurring in parallel in eight and four bird species, in numbers up to 575 and 224. The intensity of infection with other fluke species was low ranging from one to 13 worms. Three owl (Strigiformes) representatives (42.9 %) were exclusive hosts for Neodiplostomum canaliculatum and Strigea strigis, and the proportion of positive and dissected individual birds was 10:45 (22.2 %). Both trematodes occurred in two or three owl species. In conclusion, apparent dissimilarity of trematode load of three unrelated lines of falcons, eagles, and owls was revealed. The present study extends our knowledge on the composition of the trematode fauna in Slovakia as all species except S. falconis and P. elegans that represent new host and species records in Slovakia. PMID:27055533

  19. A granulin-like growth factor secreted by the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, promotes proliferation of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Michael J; Laha, Thewarach; Mulvenna, Jason; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Jones, Alun; Brindley, Paul J; Loukas, Alex

    2009-10-01

    The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, infects millions of people throughout south-east Asia and is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma, or cancer of the bile ducts. The mechanisms by which chronic infection with O. viverrini results in cholangiocarcinogenesis are multi-factorial, but one such mechanism is the secretion of parasite proteins with mitogenic properties into the bile ducts, driving cell proliferation and creating a tumorigenic environment. Using a proteomic approach, we identified a homologue of human granulin, a potent growth factor involved in cell proliferation and wound healing, in the excretory/secretory (ES) products of the parasite. O. viverrini granulin, termed Ov-GRN-1, was expressed in most parasite tissues, particularly the gut and tegument. Furthermore, Ov-GRN-1 was detected in situ on the surface of biliary epithelial cells of hamsters experimentally infected with O. viverrini. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 was expressed in E. coli and refolded from inclusion bodies. Refolded protein stimulated proliferation of murine fibroblasts at nanomolar concentrations, and proliferation was inhibited by the MAPK kinase inhibitor, U0126. Antibodies raised to recombinant Ov-GRN-1 inhibited the ability of O. viverrini ES products to induce proliferation of murine fibroblasts and a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line in vitro, indicating that Ov-GRN-1 is the major growth factor present in O. viverrini ES products. This is the first report of a secreted growth factor from a parasitic worm that induces proliferation of host cells, and supports a role for this fluke protein in establishment of a tumorigenic environment that may ultimately manifest as cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:19816559

  20. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  1. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jipeng Wang

    Full Text Available The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs, ATP and hypoxanthine on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well

  2. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99 m (99m Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with 99m Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The99m Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author)

  3. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Studies on the genomic association between schistosomiasis and hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Zied, Akram M.; Tarek M El-Beltagy; Hekmat M Tantawy; Rasha H Soliman; Badr, Fouad M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are successful parasites, apparently as a result of prolonged co-evolution with their hosts. Studies done nationwide in Egypt found the highest risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is in those infested with schistosome without history of blood transfusions. However, the association between schistosomiasis and HCV infection is incompletely understood. Aims: The overall aim of this ...

  5. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.

  6. Early Detection of Schistosoma Egg-Induced Pulmonary Granulomas in a Returning Traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Noémie; Le Govic, Yohann; Kettani, Sami; Pihet, Marc; Hemery, Sandrine; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a French traveler who developed acute pulmonary schistosomiasis 2 months after visiting Benin. He presented with a 1-month history of fever, cough, and thoracic pain. Initial investigations revealed hypereosinophilia and multiple nodular lesions on chest computed tomography scan. Lung biopsies were performed 2 months later because of migrating chest infiltrates and increasing eosinophilia. Histological examination showed schistosomal egg-induced pulmonary granulomas with ova exhibiting a prominent terminal spine, resembling Schistosoma haematobium. However, egg shells were Ziehl-Neelsen positive, raising the possibility of a Schistosoma intercalatum or a Schistosoma guineensis infection. Moreover, involvement of highly infectious hybrid species cannot be excluded considering the atypical early pulmonary oviposition. This case is remarkable because of the rarity of pulmonary schistosomiasis, its peculiar clinical presentation and difficulties in making species identification. It also emphasizes the need to consider schistosomiasis diagnosis in all potentially exposed travelers with compatible symptoms. PMID:26787142

  7. Morphology and viability of adult Fasciola gigantica(giant liver flukes) from Philippine carabaos(Bubalus bubalis) upon in vitro exposure to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aimee; Caye; G.; Chang; Mary; Jane; C.; Flores

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of lead in the morphology and viability of Fasciola gigantica(F. gigantica)(giant liver fluke) isolated from infected livers of carabaos in vitro using the following concentrations of lead: 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L. Methods: In vitro viability and motility assay was conducted to evaluate the ef ects of lead using 1% methylene blue as the vital dye for assessment of the l ukes’ viability. Results: Results indicate that F. gigantica can tolerate lead exposure as high as 200 mg/L with visible morphological variations. Upon exposure to lead, liver l ukes tend to curl and excrete black precipitates as a sign of physiological stress response. Furthermore, the lethal concentration(LC50) of lead against F. gigantica in vitro was 160 mg/L. Conclusions: In conclusion, tolerance of liver flukes to high levels of lead suggests its potential as a possible biomarker of environmental pollution.

  8. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J.; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host–parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identified 2448 potential microsatellites from 83 Mb of F. hepatica genome sequence using msatfinder. Thirty-five loci were developed and optimised for microsatellite PCR, resulting in a panel of 15 polymorphic loci, with a range of three to 15 alleles. This panel was validated on genomic DNA from 46 adult F. hepatica; 38 liver flukes sourced from a Northwest abattoir, UK and 8 liver flukes from an established isolate (Shrewsbury; Ridgeway Research). Evidence for null alleles was found at four loci (Fh_1, Fh_8, Fh_13 and Fh_14), which showed markedly higher levels of homozygosity than the remaining 11 loci. Of the 38 liver flukes isolated from cattle livers (n = 10) at the abattoir, 37 genotypes were identified. Using a multiplex approach all 15 loci could be amplified from several life cycle stages that typically yield low amounts of DNA, including metacercariae, the infective life cycle stage present on pasture, highlighting the utility of this multiplex microsatellite panel. This study reports the largest panel of microsatellite markers available to date for population studies of F. hepatica and the first multiplex panel of microsatellite markers that can be used for several life cycle stages. PMID:25796359

  9. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host-parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identifie...

  10. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E

    2015-06-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host-parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identified 2448 potential microsatellites from 83 Mb of F. hepatica genome sequence using msatfinder. Thirty-five loci were developed and optimised for microsatellite PCR, resulting in a panel of 15 polymorphic loci, with a range of three to 15 alleles. This panel was validated on genomic DNA from 46 adult F. hepatica; 38 liver flukes sourced from a Northwest abattoir, UK and 8 liver flukes from an established isolate (Shrewsbury; Ridgeway Research). Evidence for null alleles was found at four loci (Fh_1, Fh_8, Fh_13 and Fh_14), which showed markedly higher levels of homozygosity than the remaining 11 loci. Of the 38 liver flukes isolated from cattle livers (n=10) at the abattoir, 37 genotypes were identified. Using a multiplex approach all 15 loci could be amplified from several life cycle stages that typically yield low amounts of DNA, including metacercariae, the infective life cycle stage present on pasture, highlighting the utility of this multiplex microsatellite panel. This study reports the largest panel of microsatellite markers available to date for population studies of F. hepatica and the first multiplex panel of microsatellite markers that can be used for several life cycle stages. PMID:25796359

  11. Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum

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    Citek Jindrich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison. Results Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves. Conclusions The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females.

  12. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  13. Effect of immunization on migration of Schistosoma mansoni through lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minard, P.; Dean, D.A.; Vannier, W.E.; Murrell, K.D.

    1978-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula migrate through the lungs of infected mice; peak recovery occurs 6 days following infection. When cercariae were irradiated at /sup 60/Co doses of 24 to 64 Kr, the number of schistosomula recovered from lungs 6 days after infection decreased in a dose-dependent fashion. The pattern of lung migration of schistosomes irradiated at 56 Kr prior to infection was similar to that of nonirradiated schistosomes, but greatly reduced numbers were recovered. When mice were immunized by a single infection with 56 Kr attenuated cercariae 6 wk prior to challenge, the pattern of challenge migration through the lungs was altered. The number of schistosomes recovered increased rapidly between 2 and 6 days post-infection, and showed a plateau between 8 and 10 days with peak recovery occurring 10 days post-infection. This peak recovery was reduced in comparison to that of non-immunized mice, but did not account for all of the reduction observed at the adult worm stage.

  14. UVB-induced immune suppression and infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, F.P.; Lewis, F.A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). School of Medicine]|[Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) causes a systematic immunosuppression of cell-mediated immunity. The question of whether UV immunosuppression modulates the course of infectious diseases is important because UVB levels in sunlight are sufficient to predict significant UV-induced immunosuppression at most latitudes. We have investigated the effect of immunosuppressive doses of UVB on the disease caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated once or three times weekly over 60-80 days with UV from a bank of FS40 sunlamps. Each UV treatment consisted of an immunosuppressive UV dose, as determined by suppression of contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene, corresponding to about 15-30 min of noonday tropical sunlight exposure under ideal clear sky conditions. Cumulative UV doses were between 80 and 170 kJ/m{sup 2}. Worm and egg burdens, liver granuloma diameters and liver fibrosis showed minimal changes (< 20%) compared with parameters in unirradiated animals. Ultraviolet irradiation (a total of 55 kJ/m{sup 2} administered in six treatments) did not impair the resistance to rechallenge conferred by vaccination with {sup 60}Co-irradiated cercariae. We have observed a dichotomy between UV immnosuppression and both disease and vaccination in this helminth infection, in contrast to the effects of UVB shown in other infectious diseases. (author).

  15. UVB-induced immune suppression and infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) causes a systematic immunosuppression of cell-mediated immunity. The question of whether UV immunosuppression modulates the course of infectious diseases is important because UVB levels in sunlight are sufficient to predict significant UV-induced immunosuppression at most latitudes. We have investigated the effect of immunosuppressive doses of UVB on the disease caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated once or three times weekly over 60-80 days with UV from a bank of FS40 sunlamps. Each UV treatment consisted of an immunosuppressive UV dose, as determined by suppression of contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene, corresponding to about 15-30 min of noonday tropical sunlight exposure under ideal clear sky conditions. Cumulative UV doses were between 80 and 170 kJ/m2. Worm and egg burdens, liver granuloma diameters and liver fibrosis showed minimal changes (2 administered in six treatments) did not impair the resistance to rechallenge conferred by vaccination with 60Co-irradiated cercariae. We have observed a dichotomy between UV immnosuppression and both disease and vaccination in this helminth infection, in contrast to the effects of UVB shown in other infectious diseases. (author)

  16. Conservation and developmental expression of ubiquitin isopeptidases in Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Verciano Pereira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several genes related to the ubiquitin (Ub-proteasome pathway, including those coding for proteasome subunits and conjugation enzymes, are differentially expressed during the Schistosoma mansoni life cycle. Although deubiquitinating enzymes have been reported to be negative regulators of protein ubiquitination and shown to play an important role in Ub-dependent processes, little is known about their role in S. mansoni . In this study, we analysed the Ub carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (UCHs proteins found in the database of the parasite’s genome. An in silico ana- lysis (GeneDB and MEROPS identified three different UCH family members in the genome, Sm UCH-L3, Sm UCH-L5 and Sm BAP-1 and a phylogenetic analysis confirmed the evolutionary conservation of the proteins. We performed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and observed a differential expression profile for all of the investigated transcripts between the cercariae and adult worm stages. These results were corroborated by low rates of Z-Arg-Leu-Arg-Gly-Gly-AMC hydrolysis in a crude extract obtained from cercariae in parallel with high Ub conjugate levels in the same extracts. We suggest that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the cercaria and early schistosomulum stages is related to a decrease in 26S proteasome activity. Taken together, our data suggest that UCH family members contribute to regulating the activity of the Ub-proteasome system during the life cycle of this parasite.

  17. Molluscan response to parasite: Biomphalaria and Schistosoma mansoni interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Negrão-Corrêa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Digenetic trematodes use molluscs, almost always a Gastropoda, in their evolutive cycle, as intermediary hosts. The genus Schistosoma, with three main species that infect humans - S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium – shows a prevalence of 200 million patients in various countries worldwide, and 600 million people are still at risk of infection. S. mansoni is the most prevalent species, and Biomphalaria snails are its intermediary hosts. Although the campaigns of schistosomiasis control based on chemotherapy have reduced the morbidity and prevalence of this disease, transmission continues in almost all the areas submitted to intervention. One of the factors that has influence on the susceptibility of Biomphalaria to S. mansoni infection is ability of the host internal defense system (IDS to recognize and destroy the parasite. In Biomphalaria, the IDS is composed of cellular elements named hemocytes that act jointly with soluble components present in hemolymph, which could affect directly the larvae, or act in the recognition of the parasite, and activation of hemocytes. The susceptibility level of the mollusc has been attributed to the hemocyte capacity of involving and destroying the parasite, and this will be the centre of interest of this review.The study of S. mansoni and Biomphalaria interaction in resistant snail strains is important not only due to the academic-scientific value of this fascinating research area, but also to the potentially possible alternatives for the control of this endemia.

  18. Activity of praziquantel on in vitro transformed Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts

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    ACA Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effective against all the evolutive phases of Schistosoma mansoni. Infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails have their cercarial shedding interrupted when exposed to PZQ. Using primary in vitro transformed sporocysts, labeled with the probe Hoechst 33258 (indicator of membrane integrity, and lectin of Glycine max (specific for carbohydrate of N-acetylgalactosamine membrane, we evaluated the presence of lysosomes at this evolutive phase of S. mansoni, as well as the influence of PZQ on these acidic organelles and on the tegument of the sporocyst. Although the sporocyst remained alive, it was observed that there was a marked contraction of its musculature, and there occurred a change in the parasite's structure. Also, the acidic vesicles found in the sporocysts showed a larger delimited area after contact of the parasites with PZQ. Damages to the tegument was also observed, as show a well-marked labeling either with Hoechst 33258 or with lectin of Glycine max after contact of sporocysts with the drug. These results could partially explain the interruption/reduction mechanism of cercarial shedding in snails exposed to PZQ.

  19. Ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni caused by artemether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Xiao

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made over the last decade with the development and clinical use of artemether as an agent against major human schistosome parasites. The tegument has been identified as a key target of artemether, implying detailed studies on ultrastructural damage induced by this compound. We performed a temporal examination, employing a transmission electron microscope to assess the pattern and extent of ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated with a single dose of 400 mg/kg artemether. Eight hours post-treatment, damage to the tegument and subtegumental structures was seen. Tegumental alterations reached a peak 3 days after treatment and were characterized by swelling, fusion of distal cytoplasma, focal lysis of the tegumental matrix and vacuolisation. Tubercles and sensory organelles frequently degenerated or collapsed. Typical features of subtegumental alterations, including muscle fibres, syncytium and parenchyma tissues, were focal or extensive lysis, vacuolisation and degeneration of mitochondria. Severe alterations were also observed in gut epithelial cells and vitelline cells of female worms. Our findings of artemether-induced ultrastructural alterations in adult S. mansoni confirm previous results obtained with juvenile S. mansoni and S. japonicum of different ages.

  20. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  1. Ultra–Low-Cost Urine Filtration for Schistosoma haematobium Diagnosis: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K. D.; Duah, Evans; Andrews, Jason R.; Bogoch, Isaac I.

    2014-01-01

    Simple, efficient, and cost-effective strategies are needed for urine sample preparation in the field diagnosis of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated inexpensive and widely available paper products (paper towels, school workbook paper, and newspaper) to gravity-filter urine containing 60 eggs/mL of Schistosoma haematobium. Eggs were reliably visualized by light microscopy by using single-ply paper towels as urine filters. This filtration method has broad applicability in clinical and public health settings in resource-constrained environments. PMID:24980496

  2. Ultra-low-cost urine filtration for Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard K D; Duah, Evans; Andrews, Jason R; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2014-09-01

    Simple, efficient, and cost-effective strategies are needed for urine sample preparation in the field diagnosis of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated inexpensive and widely available paper products (paper towels, school workbook paper, and newspaper) to gravity-filter urine containing 60 eggs/mL of Schistosoma haematobium. Eggs were reliably visualized by light microscopy by using single-ply paper towels as urine filters. This filtration method has broad applicability in clinical and public health settings in resource-constrained environments. PMID:24980496

  3. Kinetika tvorbe protutijela u teladi imunizirane glutation-S transferazom metilja Schistosoma mansoni.

    OpenAIRE

    Aradaib, Imadeldin; Omer, Rihab; Majid, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Šestero teladi bilo je imunizirano antigenom pripravljenim od glutation-S-transferaze (GST) metilja Schistosoma mansoni, koji je bio proizveden u bakteriji E. coli (GST-coli) ili kvascu (GST-kvasac). Kontrolnih šestero teladi dobilo je ekstrakt bakterije E. coli ili kvasca. Dva pokusno invadirana teleta držana su kao izvor invazije te za dobivanje antiseruma za metilj Schistosoma bovis. Kinetika tvorbe protutijela u cijepljene teladi bila je praćena postupkom Western blot i imunoenzimnim test...

  4. Light and electron microscopy observations of embryogenesis and egg development in the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (Platyhelminthes, Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khampoosa, Panita; Jones, Malcolm K; Lovas, Erica M; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Laha, Thewarach; Piratae, Supawadee; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Tesana, Smarn

    2012-02-01

    Eggs of most species digenean flukes hatch in the external environment to liberate larvae that seek and penetrate a snail intermediate host. Those of the human liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini, hatch within the gastrointestinal canal of their snail hosts. While adult parasites are primarily responsible for the pathology in cases of human opisthorchiasis, their eggs also contribute by inducing granulomata and in serving as nidi for gallstone formation. In view of the peculiar biology of O. viverrini eggs and their contribution to pathology, we investigated embryogenesis in this species by light and transmission electron microscopy. Egg development was traced from earliest stages of coalescence in the ootype until full embryonation in the distal region of the uterus. Fully mature eggs were generally impermeable to resin and could not be examined by conventional electron microscopy methods. However, the use of high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation of previously fixed eggs enabled the internal structure of mature eggs, particularly the subshell envelopes, to be elucidated. Fertilization occurs in the ootype, and the large zygote is seen therein with a single spermatozoon wrapped around its plasma membrane. As the zygote begins to divide, the spent vitellocytes are pushed to the periphery of the eggs, where they progressively degrade. The early eggshell is formed in the ootype by coalescing eggshell precursor material released by approximately six vitelline cells. The early eggs have a thinner eggshell and are larger than, but lack the characteristic shape of, mature eggs. Characteristic shell ornamentation, the "muskmelon" appearance of eggs, appears after eggshell polymerization in the ootype. Pores are not present in the shell of O. viverrini eggs. The inner and outer envelopes are poorly formed in this species, with the outer envelope evident beneath the eggshell at the opercular pole of the mature egg. The miracidium has a conical anterior end

  5. A comparative study of karyotypes and chromosomal location of rDNA genes in important liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reblánová, M.; Špakulová, M.; Orosová, Martina; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Rajský, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2011), s. 2021-1028. ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : SCHISTOSOMA-MANSONI * DIFFERENTIATION * FISH * ITS2 * HYBRIDIZATION * EPIDEMIOLOGY * LOCALIZATION * CYTOGENETICS * SHEEP Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  6. The effect of treatment on the age-antibody relationship in children infected with Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutapi Francisca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of praziquantel treatment on the age-antibody relationship was studied in 174 children aged between 6 and 17 years from a schistosome endemic area in Zimbabwe. The children were co-infected with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium with infection prevalences of 74% and 53% respectively. Antibody levels for the isotypes IgA, IgE, IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, directed against soluble egg antigen were measured using an indirect ELISA assay. Treatment resulted in a significant increase in levels of IgG2 and IgG3 while levels of IgA decreased significantly. In untreated children there were significant decreases in levels of IgG4. Treatment also resulted in significant alteration in the age-antibody profiles for the isotypes IgE, IgM, IgG1 and IgG2 in treated children but not in untreated children. The results are discussed in the context of factors believed to give rise to the age-antibody relationship; i.e. age-related exposure patterns, age-related development of acquired immunity, age-related hormonal changes and age-related changes in innate susceptibility to infection.

  7. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  8. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of RIZ1 and the correlation to clinicopathological parameters in liver fluke-related cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaenam, Prasong; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Limpaiboon, Temduang

    2010-03-01

    The retinoblastoma interacting zinc finger (RIZ1) gene is adjacent to D1S228 where microsatellite instability has been associated with poor patient survival in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis and pathogenesis of CCA is necessary to improve patient survival. Therefore, we determined the genetic and epigenetic alterations of RIZ1 in 81 CCA samples and 69 matched non-tumor tissues. Methylation was found in 31 of 81 (38%) tumor samples and in 5 of 69 (7%) matched non-tumor tissues. Frameshift mutations (2 of 81) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) (14 of 81) were not common. Statistical analysis found no significant correlation between RIZ1 alterations and clinicopathological features, but RIZPro704 LOH was associated with patient survival in the multivariate analysis. RIZ1 hypermethylation may be one of the crucial molecular events contributing to cholangiocarcinogenesis, and RIZPro704 LOH may adversely impact patient survival. The biological function of RIZ1 in CCA should be further investigated in order to verify its potential role in regulating this cancer. PMID:22993552

  9. The prolonged use of niclosamide as a molluscicide for the control of Schistosoma mansoni Uso prolongado da niclosamida como moluscicida para o controle do Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Coura-Filho; Nelymar Martinelli Mendes; Cecilia Pereira de Souza; José Pedro Pereira

    1992-01-01

    Applications of niclosamide at three-monthly intervals were undertaken for 14 years in foci of Biomphalaria glabrata in the water sources of Peri-Peri (Capim Branco, MG). All the residents of the area were submitted to an annual fecal examination (Kato/Katz) and those individuals eliminating Schistosoma mansoni eggs were treated with oxamniquine. A malacological survey was undertaken at three-monthly intervals by means of ten scoops with a perforated ladle each ten metres along the two banks ...

  10. Effect of Maternal Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Praziquantel Treatment During Pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Immune Responsiveness among Offspring at Age Five Years.

    OpenAIRE

    Tweyongyere, R; Naniima, P; Mawa, PA; Jones, FM; Webb, EL; Cose, S; Dunne, DW; Elliott, AM

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. ma...

  11. Lethal effect of oxamniquine and praziquantel on mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni Efeito letal de oxamniquina e praziquantel em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Maria A.F. Tonelli; Eugênio M. A. Goulart; Edward Tonelli; Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-01-01

    Lethality caused by administration of oxamniquine and praziquantel to mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni, and their respective controls (uninfected), has been studied. As the results indicate, the infected animals clearly showed higher mortality rates when praziquantel was used. Surprisingly, it may be noted that exactly the contrary occurs in relation to the use of oxamniquine, inasmuch as marked higher mortality rates were seen in the control animals (uninfected). These observations lea...

  12. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioli, D.; Dennert, G.

    1976-07-01

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat.

  13. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat

  14. Fast evolutionary rates associated with functional loss in class I glucose transporters of Schistosoma mansoni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Lancelot, J.; Pierce, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, NOV 19 2015 (2015), s. 980. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * glucose transporters * transcriptional regulation * phylogen * biophysics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  15. Effect of gamma-radiation on cercariae of Schistosoma incognitum and S. spindale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study an attempt has been made to study the effect of gamma radiation on cercariae of Schistosoma incognitum and S. spindale in mice at different dose levels of radiation, so as to note differences in their developmental patterns, compared with non-irradiated controls. (author). 10 refs

  16. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in 1994-96 among 231 children and 181 adults in order to determine the effects of iron on reinfection rates and intensities of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni. Adults given 60 mg...

  17. Evaluation of the molluscicidal and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae activity of Croton floribundus extracts and kaurenoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina M. Medina; Juliana L. B. Peixoto; Silva, Adriano A.; Shirani K. Haraguchi; Dina L. M. Falavigna; Maria L. M. Zamuner; Maria H. Sarragiotto; Vidotti, Gentil J.

    2009-01-01

    Lethality of the extracts of Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant from south Brazil, and of the kaurenoic acid, an isolated compound, and two of its derivatives against adult Biomphalaria glabrata snails, Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and Artemia salina Leach. brine shrimp larvae are reported. Both extracts and the isolated compound showed significant molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities and reduced toxicity in brine shrimp assays.

  18. Techniques for locating isotopically labelled schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni in host tissued for ultrastructural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, J.E.; Wilson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    The use of /sup 75/Selenomethionine labelled cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni for ultrastructural localization of resin-embedded tissue were successful. The autoradiographic technique was more sensitive and schistosomula were readily located in pulmonary tissue up to 24 days post infection.

  19. Immunization of baboons with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Dean, D.A.; Hall, J.E.

    1981-06-26

    Studies on the efficacy of a vaccine against schistosomiasis in young baboons (Papio anubis) disclosed that immunization with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation induced significant protection against subsequent infection with normal, viable S. mansoni cercariae. Such immunization resulted in reduced worm burdens (70%) and egg excretion rates (82%). These results support immunization as a potential method for schistosomiasis control.

  20. Immunization of Baboons with Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the efficacy of a vaccine against schistosomiasis in young baboons (Papio anubis) disclosed that immunization with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation induced significant protection against subsequent infection with normal, viable S. mansoni cercariae. Such immunization resulted in reduced worm burdens (70 percent) and egg excretion rates (82 percent). These results support immunization as a potential method for schistosomiasis control

  1. Immunization of baboons with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the efficacy of a vaccine against schistosomiasis in young baboons (Papio anubis) disclosed that immunization with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation induced significant protection against subsequent infection with normal, viable S. mansoni cercariae. Such immunization resulted in reduced worm burdens (70%) and egg excretion rates (82%). These results support immunization as a potential method for schistosomiasis control

  2. Immunization of Baboons with Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M.; Minard, P.; Dean, D.A.; Hall, J.E.

    1981-06-01

    Studies on the efficacy of a vaccine against schistosomiasis in young baboons (Papio anubis) disclosed that immunization with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by gamma irradiation induced significant protection against subsequent infection with normal, viable S. mansoni cercariae. Such immunization resulted in reduced worm burdens (70 percent) and egg excretion rates (82 percent). These results support immunization as a potential method for schistosomiasis control.

  3. Techniques for locating isotopically labelled schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni in host tissued for ultrastructural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of 75Selenomethionine labelled cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni for ultrastructural localization of resin-embedded tissue were successful. The autoradiographic technique was more sensitive and schistosomula were readily located in pulmonary tissue up to 24 days post infection. (author)

  4. Cytokine mRNA profiles in pigs exposed prenatally and postnatally to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, Michala E.; Johansen, Maria V.; Aasted, Bent; Lind, Peter; Ornbjerg, Niel; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2007-01-01

    The pig is a natural host for Schistosoma japonicum and a useful animal model of human infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences between the cytokine profiles in prenatally or postnatally S. japonicum exposed pigs. Seven prenatally exposed pigs, 7 postnatally exposed p...

  5. Schistosoma japonicum-like ova in liver and rectal biopsies of three cases in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S K; Kay, R W; Thomas, I

    1979-03-01

    Three cases of schistosomiasis in 2 Filipinos and one Chinese in Sabah are reported. Diagnosis was based on incidental histological findings of Schistosoma japonicum-like ova in the liver and rectal biopsies. As these 3 patients are immigrants to Sabah, it is assumed that they are imported cases, and that Sabah has been free of the disease from 1970 to 1977. PMID:573502

  6. The effect of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, H; Byskov, Jens

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy of all infected individuals, using praziquantel 40 mg/kg in a single dose, was the initial component of the recently introduced control programme against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Ngamiland, Botswana. To evaluate the effect of praziquantel in Ngamiland, 81 children were...

  7. Activation route of the Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 drug target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Adéla; Horn, Martin; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Marešová, Lucie; Fajtová, Pavla; Brynda, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 39. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * cathepsin B1 * sulfated polysaccharides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  8. Increased prevalence of leukocytes and elevated cytokine levels in semen from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutscher, Peter D C; Pedersen, Mette; Raharisolo, Clairette;

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the seminal inflammatory response to egg infestation of the urogenital organs in 240 semen-donating men aged 15-49 years living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of Madagascar. In 29 subjects (12%) with excretion of > or =5 ova/ejaculate, leukocytospermia (>...

  9. The schistosoma-specific antibody response after treatment in non-immune travellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Liv Marie; Christensen, Anders Vittrup; Navntoft, Dorte;

    2009-01-01

    Egg detection is the gold standard in diagnosing and controlling treatment in schistosomiasis, but sensitivity is poor in lightly infected individuals, whereas Schistosoma-specific antibodies are more sensitive. The purpose of the study was to evaluate use of Gut Associated Antigen (GAA) and Memb...

  10. Myeloradicular Form of Neuroschistosomiasis in a Six-Year-Old Boy Infected With Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, João Victor; Salgado, Izabel Athayde da Silva Cruz; Braga Júnior, Leônidas Lopes; Serra, Silane Calland Marques; Barros, Verbena Maria de Carvalho; Silva, Maria José Alves; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2015-12-01

    Neuroschistosomiasis is a severe disease caused by the presence of Schistosoma eggs and/or adult worms in the central nervous system. Schistosomal transverse myelitis represents a rare clinical form with nonspecific clinical findings, and it is thus underdiagnosed, especially in children. In this report, we describe a 6-year-old patient with the myeloradicular form of neuroschistosomiasis. PMID:26780026

  11. Impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the trophic interactions of molluscivores and Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary With a global disease burden of 240 million infected people, of which 90% live in sub-Saharan Africa, schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases affecting people in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Schistosoma parasites are th

  12. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death. PMID:20306689

  13. Immunoglobulins and complement in the skin of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li-Hsue, S.Y.; Hsue, H.F.; Hanson, H.O.

    1981-01-01

    Skin sections of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were stained by an unlabeled antibody enzyme method for the detection of IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and C3. While all of them could be found in the skin lesions, their distribution patterns varied with time and reactions. In whealing reaginic reactions, IgE appeared prominent, having an affinity to the mast cells. In Arthus-like reactions, IgG was predominant. IgG complexes were found on the schistosomula, on the walls of blood vessels, and in granulocytes near the schistosomula. In the late stage of Arthus-like reactions and in delayed hypersensitive reactions, IgA was predominant in granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and macrophages. Characteristics of each immunoglobulin pattern seemed to reflect its function in the effector mechanism. It may be speculated that these immunoglobulins and C3, together with effector cells, synergistically and sequentially destroy schistosomula in the skin.

  14. Immunoglobulins and complement in the skin of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin sections of Rhesus monkeys immunized with X-irradiated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were stained by an unlabeled antibody enzyme method for the detection of IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and C3. While all of them could be found in the skin lesions, their distribution patterns varied with time and reactions. In whealing reaginic reactions, IgE appeared prominent, having an affinity to the mast cells. In Arthus-like reactions, IgG was predominant. IgG complexes were found on the schistosomula, on the walls of blood vessels, and in granulocytes near the schistosomula. In the late stage of Arthus-like reactions and in delayed hypersensitive reactions, IgA was predominant in granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and macrophages. Characteristics of each immunoglobulin pattern seemed to reflect its function in the effector mechanism. It may be speculated that these immunoglobulins and C3, together with effector cells, synergistically and sequentially destroy schistosomula in the skin. (orig.)

  15. Schistosoma haematobium infection and CD4+ T-cell levels: a cross-sectional study of young South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Kleppa

    Full Text Available Schistosoma (S. haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis and has been hypothesized to adversely impact HIV transmission and progression. On the other hand it has been hypothesized that HIV could influence the manifestations of schistosomiasis. In this cross-sectional study, we explored the association between urogenital S. haematobium infection and CD4 cell counts in 792 female high-school students from randomly selected schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We also investigated the association between low CD4 cell counts in HIV positive women and the number of excreted schistosome eggs in urine. Sixteen percent were HIV positive and 31% had signs of urogenital schistosomiasis (as determined by genital sandy patches and / or abnormal blood vessels on ectocervix / vagina by colposcopy or presence of eggs in urine. After stratifying for HIV status, participants with and without urogenital schistosomiasis had similar CD4 cell counts. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in HIV positive women with low and high CD4 cell counts. There was no significant difference in the number of eggs excreted in urine when comparing HIV positive and HIV negative women. Our findings indicate that urogenital schistosomiasis do not influence the number of circulating CD4 cells.

  16. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  17. Infecção natural de roedores silvestres pelo Schistosoma mansoni Natural infection of sylvatic rodents by Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Correa Silva

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available No município baiano de Planalto, 47% dos roedores silvestres capturados (Nectomys estavam infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni, enquanto a prevalência desta infecção na população humana da área era de 3,26%. Os roedores habitam zonas peridomiciliares, têm hábitos aquáticos e eliminam ovos viáveis do S. mansoni. Albergam número variável de vermes e formam granulomas periovulares pequenos, principalmente no fígado e intestinos, sem fibrose hepática importante ou sinais de hipertensão porta. A deposição maior de ovos se faz a nível do intestino, sobretudo do jejuno, com passagem de grande número de ovos para as fezes. Miracídios isolados a partir dos ovos retirados dos roedores infectaram normalmente a Biomphalaria glabrata, com eliminação de cercárias, com as quais se provocou infecção no camundongo branco, em tudo semelhante aquelas causadas por outras cepas de origem humana. Também camundongos que foram deixados em contacto com as águas infestadas pelos roedores silvestres se infectaram facilmente, atestando o alto grau de transmissibilidade da área. Conclui-se que os roedores silvestres de planalto toleram bem a infecção esquistossomótica natural, são bons eliminadores de ovos viáveis do S. mansoni, estão infectados por uma cepa semelhante a que infecta o homem e podem ter um papel na manutenção do ciclo vital do S. mansoni na área estudada.In Planalto, a small locality in the interior of the Bahia state, Brazil, 47% of sylvatic rodents were found to be naturally infected with Schistosoma mansoni, whereas the prevalence of the infection in the inhabitants of the area was 3.26%. The rodents (Nectomys live near the houses, in contact with water passing viable schistosome eggs in the stools. Worm burden is variable amongst such rodents. Periovular granulomas are small, especially in liver and intestines, and hepatic fibrosis is mild or absent, with no morphological evidence of portal hypertension being noted

  18. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion. PMID:26924446

  19. Relationship of Impairment of Schistosome 28-Kilodalton Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Activity to Expression of Immunity to Schistosoma mattheei in Calves Vaccinated with Recombinant Schistosoma bovis 28-Kilodalton GST

    OpenAIRE

    Grzych, Jean-Marie; De Bont, Jan; Liu, Jinli; Neyrinck, Jean-Loup; Fontaine, Josette; Vercruysse, Jozef; Capron, André

    1998-01-01

    Sera from calves vaccinated with the recombinant Schistosoma bovis-derived 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (28GST) and subsequently naturally or experimentally exposed to Schistosoma mattheei were studied for their content of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to recombinant S. bovis 28GST as well as for their capacity to inhibit the enzymatic activity of the antigen. The results were analyzed in regard to the presence (natural infection) or absence (experimental infection) o...

  20. Combined effects of social stress and liver fluke infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgustinovich, Damira F; Marenina, Mariya K; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya; Tenditnik, Mikhail V; Katokhin, Alexey V; Pavlov, Konstantin S; Sivkov, Anton Yu; Vishnivetskaya, Galina B; Lvova, Maria N; Tolstikova, Tatiana G; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of two influences, social stress and acute opisthorchiasis, were investigated in inbred C57BL/6J male mice. In the model of social stress, mice were repeatedly attacked and defeated by aggressive outbred ICR male mice and were in continuous sensory contact with an aggressive conspecific mouse in their home cage for 20days. Acute opisthorchiasis was provoked by invasion of Opisthorchis felineus (50 larvae per animal) on the fourth day after the social stress was induced. Simultaneous action of both factors caused the hypertrophy of adrenal glands, as well as elevated the activity of cathepsins B and L in the spleen. This effect on the activity of the cysteine proteases in the hippocampus and hypothalamus following O. felineus invasion was the predominant result of simultaneous action with social stress. Acute opisthorchiasis, social stress, and their combination caused an increase in the level of blood IL-6 in approximately 30% of the animals. Social stress induced a more pronounced effect on mouse plus-maze behavior than O. felineus invasion. Our results suggest a more severe negative effect of the simultaneous influence of both factors on most of the parameters that were investigated. PMID:26778779

  1. Cloning and characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomes depend for growth and development on host hormonal signals, which may include the insulin signalling pathway. We cloned and assessed the function of two insulin receptors from Schistosoma japonicum in order to shed light on their role in schistosome biology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated, from S. japonicum, insulin receptors 1 (SjIR-1 and 2 (SjIR-2 sharing close sequence identity to their S. mansoni homologues (SmIR-1 and SmIR-2. SjIR-1 is located on the tegument basal membrane and the internal epithelium of adult worms, whereas SjIR-2 is located in the parenchyma of males and the vitelline tissue of females. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SjIR-2 and SmIR-2 are close to Echinococcus multilocularis insulin receptor (EmIR, suggesting that SjIR-2, SmIR-2 and EmIR share similar roles in growth and development in the three taxa. Structure homology modelling recovered the conserved structure between the SjIRs and Homo sapiens IR (HIR implying a common predicted binding mechanism in the ligand domain and the same downstream signal transduction processing in the tyrosine kinase domain as in HIR. Two-hybrid analysis was used to confirm that the ligand domains of SjIR-1 and SjIR-2 contain the insulin binding site. Incubation of adult worms in vitro, both with a specific insulin receptor inhibitor and anti-SjIRs antibodies, resulted in a significant decrease in worm glucose levels, suggesting again the same function for SjIRs in regulating glucose uptake as described for mammalian cells. CONCLUSIONS: Adult worms of S. japonicum possess insulin receptors that can specifically bind to insulin, indicating that the parasite can utilize host insulin for development and growth by sharing the same pathway as mammalian cells in regulating glucose uptake. A complete understanding of the role of SjIRs in the biology of S. japonicum may result in their use as new targets for drug and vaccine development against

  2. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, J. E. T.; Croll, D.; Harrison, W. E.; Utzinger, J; Freeman, M. C.; Templeton, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel ...

  3. Tracking the Odysseys of Juvenile Schistosomes to Understand Host Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hansell, Elizabeth; Braschi, Simon; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Sajid, Mohammed; Debnath, Moumita; Ingram, Jessica; Lim, K C; McKerrow, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Background During invasion of human skin by schistosome blood fluke larvae (cercariae), a multicellular organism breaches the epidermis, basement membrane, and dermal barriers of skin. To better understand the pathobiology of this initial event in schistosome infection, a proteome analysis of human skin was carried out following invasion by cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. Methodology and Results Human skin samples were exposed to cercariae for one-half hour to two hours. Controls were expos...

  4. Curse of schistosomiasis on Egyptian liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by a trematode blood fluke of the genus schistosoma that belongs to the schistosomatidae family.The ancient Egyptians contracted the disease more than 4 000 years ago.It was recognized through haematuria,the main sign of urinary bilharziasis was recorded in the Kahun papyrus 1900 B.C.as"a-a-a" disease[1].

  5. Neuartige C-Typ Lektin-vermittelte Signalmechanismen, die das NLRP3 Inflammasom aktivieren und zur IL-1ß Produktion führen: Konsequenzen für TH2 polarisierte Immunantworten

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic infection caused by parasitic blood flukes (e.g. Schistosoma mansoni). Previous research has demonstrated how S. mansoni-derived soluble egg antigen (SEA) can dampen immune responses. The results presented within this thesis demonstrate that (glyco-)lipids within SEA dampen Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses, whereas (glyco-)proteins activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and thus IL-1ß production. This SEA-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation depends on the ...

  6. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  7. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  8. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  9. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  10. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Polimorfismo de tallas en las cercarias de una cepa venezolana de Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphism of size in the cercariae of one venezuelan strain of Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Luz A. Pino; Liboria Matinella; Gustavo Morales

    1999-01-01

    Mediante la impregnación con nitrato de plata, de un lote de 47 cercarias de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni (Venezuela), se evidenció un polimorfismo de tallas. El morfo estaría conformado por las cercarias mas grandes (entre 152,9 y 218µm), este grupo siempre presente en la población de cercarias en menor porcentaje (29,8%). El grupo constituido por las cercarias de talla normal, menores de 152,8µm es dominante en la población de cercarias (70,2%). La comparación entre el largo de ambos l...

  12. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nuha R; Paveley, Ross; Gardner, J Mark F; Bell, Andrew S; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  13. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large. PMID:26288742

  14. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM. By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  15. Impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the trophic interactions of molluscivores and Schistosoma host snails

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary With a global disease burden of 240 million infected people, of which 90% live in sub-Saharan Africa, schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases affecting people in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Schistosoma parasites are the causative agents of schistosomiasis. They complete their asexual life stages in susceptible aquatic snails while the sexual stages are completed in susceptible mammals including man. Control of this disease is ta...

  16. Schistosoma mansoni: Tyrosinkinase-Signalwege in den Reproduktionsorganen und Aktin-Promotoranalysen im Transgenmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Svenja

    2008-01-01

    Der humanpathogene Parasit Schistosoma mansoni zeigt ein im Tierreich nahezu einmaliges biologisches Phänomen - die vom Männchen beeinflusste Maturation des Weibchens. Während der Paarung werden Signalkaskaden im Weibchen initiiert, die Proliferations- und Differenzierungsprozesse in den Reproduktionsorganen steuern. Um die zugrunde liegenden molekularen Prozesse besser zu verstehen, wurden in unserer Arbeitsgruppe Gene kloniert und charakterisiert, die für Signalmoleküle kodieren. Darunter ...

  17. Efficacy of niclosamide as a potential antipenetrant (TAP) against cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    John I. Bruce; Robert Miller; Lawrence Lightner; Subbiah Yoganathan

    1992-01-01

    A 1% (W/V) formulation of Niclosamide (2', 5-Dichloro-4-nitrosalicylanilide) (TAP) was tested on Cebus apella monkeys as a topical prophylatic against schistosomiasis mansoni. Two experiments were conducted using the same formulation. In the first experiment, the TAP provided complete protection against schistosomiasis for 3 days. Of the 4 monkeys treated with TAP 7 days before exposure to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, 2 were completely protected. The remaining 2 monkeys of the 7 day treatme...

  18. Genetic Population Structure of Cercariae from an Urban Foci of Schistosoma mansoni, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Samaly S.; Lúcio M Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E.; Zilton A. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Brazil has meant that many persons from rural areas where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic have migrated to cities. Discovery of a focus of active transmission in the city of Salvador prompted a citywide survey for active and potential transmission sites. Cercariae shed from infected snails collected from four locations were used to determine how these samples were related and if they were representative of the parasite population infecting humans. Each cercarial collectio...

  19. Quantitative Detection of Schistosoma japonicum Cercariae in Water by Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Yuen Wai; Remais, Justin

    2008-01-01

    In China alone, an estimated 30 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, caused by the Schistosoma japonicum parasite. Disease has re-emerged in several regions that had previously attained transmission control, reinforcing the need for active surveillance. The environmental stage of the parasite is known to exhibit high spatial and temporal variability, and current detection techniques rely on a sentinel mouse method which has serious limitations in obtaining data in both time and spac...

  20. Effects of exogenous glucose on survival and infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Bernard; Laterra, Robert; KIM, YONGHYUN

    2002-01-01

    The effects of exogenous glucose in artificial spring water (ASW) were studied on the survival and infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. The mean percent survival of cercariae maintained in 1% glucose in ASW for 36 and 48hr was significantly greater than that of cercariae maintained identically in ASW. Cercariae maintained in ASW with or without glucose for 24hr, fixed in neutral buffered formalin, and stained in Oil Red O, showed an accumulation of neutral lipid in the tail. Cercaria...

  1. Immunization of mice with ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: a re-evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.A.; Murrell, K.D.; Xu, S.; Mangold, B.L.

    1983-07-01

    Mice immunized by percutaneous exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae developed levels of resistance to subsequent S. mansoni infection comparable to those induced by gamma-irradiated cercariae (50-70% reduction in adult worm burden). Cercariae treated with ultraviolet doses ranging from one to three times the minimum dose required to prevent long-term survival induced the highest levels of resistance.

  2. Sensory Protein Kinase Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae: Host Location and Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Ressurreição, Margarida; Kirk, Ruth S; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Page, Nigel M.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni cercariae display specific behavioral responses to abiotic/biotic stimuli enabling them to locate and infect the definitive human host. Here we report the effect of such stimulants on signaling pathways of cercariae in relation to host finding and invasion. Cercariae exposed to various light/temperature regimens displayed modulated protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activities, with distin...

  3. Sequential histological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata during the course of Schistosoma mansoni infection

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata, highly susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni, were seen to shed less and less cercariae along the time of infection. Histological examination kept a close correlation with this changing pattern of cercarial shedding, turning an initial picture of no-reaction (tolerance) gradually into one of hemocyte proliferation with formation of focal encapsulating lesions around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae, a change that became disseminated toward the 142nd day post miracid...

  4. Immunization of mice with ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: a re-evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice immunized by percutaneous exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae developed levels of resistance to subsequent S. mansoni infection comparable to those induced by gamma-irradiated cercariae (50-70% reduction in adult worm burden). Cercariae treated with ultraviolet doses ranging from one to three times the minimum dose required to prevent long-term survival induced the highest levels of resistance

  5. Ultrastructural and biochemical detection of biotin and biotinylated polypeptides in Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Biotinylation is proposed for the identification of surface proteins in Schistosoma mansoni using the streptavidin-HRP conjugate for the detection of labeled polypeptides. However, control samples also showed several endogenous biotinylated polypeptides. In an attempt to determine the possibility of nonspecific binding between the streptavidin-HRP conjugate and polypeptides from S. mansoni, the conjugate was blocked with biotinamidecaproate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BcapNHS) before biotin-s...

  6. The Schistosoma japonicum genome reveals features of host-parasite interplay

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Huajun; Chen, Xiangyi; Zhang, Lei; WANG Kai; Guo, Jing; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Bo; Huang, Wei; Jin, Ke; Tonghai, Dou; Hasegawa, Masami; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes human schistosomiasis, a significant cause of morbidity in China and the Philippines. Here we present a draft genomic sequence for the worm, which is the first reported for any flatworm, indeed for the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The genome provides a global insight into the molecular architecture and host interaction of this complex metazoan pathogen, revealing that it can exploit host nutrients, neuroendocrine hormones and signaling ...

  7. Elimination of Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms by Rhesus Macaques: Basis for a Therapeutic Vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, R. Alan; Langermans, Jan A. M.; van Dam, Govert J.; Vervenne, Richard A.; Hall, Stephanie L.; Borges, William C.; Dillon, Gary P.; Thomas, Alan W.; Patricia S Coulson

    2008-01-01

    Background Among animal models of schistosomiasis, the rhesus macaque is unique in that an infection establishes but egg excretion rapidly diminishes, potentially due to loss of adult worms from the portal system via shunts or death by immune attack. Principal Findings To investigate this, six rhesus macaques were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the infection monitored until portal perfusion at 18 weeks. Despite a wide variation in worm numbers recovered, fecal egg output and cir...

  8. Parasitological characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni infection in swiss mice with underlying malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Simões Carla; Neves Renata Heisler; Barros Lucas de Andrade; Brito Patrícia Dias; Cravo Cristiane Oliveira; Moura Egberto Gaspar de; Machado-Silva José Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The effects of a protein-restricted diet (8% protein, 81% carbohydrate and 11% lipids) on Schistosoma mansoni infectivity, fecal egg excretion and intestinal egg distribution in Swiss (SW) mice were studied. Pregnant mice received a deficient diet from the middle of gestation until delivery. Seven-days-old mice were exposed to 50 cercariae (BH strain, Brazil). Offspring mice had a free access to the deficient diet since lactation until adulthood. The controls were fed with a commercial mice d...

  9. Schistosoma mansoni-Mediated Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation Requires Patency and Foxp3+ Treg Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Layland, Laura E.; Kathrin Straubinger; Manuel Ritter; Eva Loffredo-Verde; Holger Garn; Tim Sparwasser; Clarissa Prazeres da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The continual rise of asthma in industrialised countries stands in strong contrast to the situation in developing lands. According to the modified Hygiene Hypothesis, helminths play a major role in suppressing bystander immune responses to allergens, and both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that the tropical parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni elicits such effects. The focus of this study was to investigate which developmental stages of schistosome infection confer suppre...

  10. In vitro and in vivo studies of the effect of artemether on Schistosoma mansoni.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, S H; Catto, B A

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether artemether, a derivative of the antimalarial agent qinghaosu, is therapeutically active against Schistosoma mansoni, we determined the in vitro, in vivo, and histopathologic effects of the drug on S. mansoni worms. In vitro, toxic effects of artemether on S. mansoni were not seen at concentrations of less than 100 micrograms/ml. However, in vivo, 30 and 50% reductions in the lengths of male and female worms, respectively, were observed 14 days after treatment. By 56 days ...

  11. Mechanism of Anemia in Schistosoma mansoni–Infected School Children in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Sara E.; Muok, Erick M.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Odhiambo, Keziah; Mwinzi, Pauline M. N.; Secor, W. Evan; Karanja, Diana M. S.

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanism of anemia associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection might provide useful information on how treatment programs are implemented to minimize schistosomiasis-associated morbidity and maximize treatment impact. We used a cross-sectional study with serum samples from 206 Kenyan school children to determine the mechanisms in S. mansoni-associated anemia. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunos...

  12. Proteomic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni proteins released during in vitro miracidium-to-sporocyst transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Sabat, Greg; Brown, James F.; Zhang, Mengzi; Taft, Andrew; Peterson, Nathan; Harms, Amy; YOSHINO, TIMOTHY P.

    2008-01-01

    Free-living miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni, upon penetration of the their snail intermediate host, undergo dramatic morphological and physiological changes as they transform to the parasitic sporocyst stage. During this transformation process, developing larvae release a diverse array of proteins, herein referred to as larval transformation proteins (LTPs), some of which are postulated to serve a parasite protective function. In the present study, nanoLC-tandem MS analysis was performed on ...

  13. Diagnostic of Biomphalaria snails and Schistosoma mansoni: DNA obtained from traces of shell organic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta L Caldeira; Liana K. Jannotti-Passos; Pollanah M Lira; Omar S Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater snails belonging to the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts for the parasite trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Africa and in the neotropical region. Identification of such molluscs is carried out based on morphological characters and the presence of cercariae is verified through squeezing snails between two glass slides or by exposing them to artificial light. However, sometimes, the material collected includes molluscs with decomposed bodies or, yet, only empty shells, whi...

  14. Evidence against rapid emergence of praziquantel resistance in Schistosoma haematobium, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, G. C.; Liang, Y S; M. J. Doenhoff

    2000-01-01

    We examined the long-term efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis, during a school-based treatment program in the Msambweni area of Coast Province, Kenya, where the disease is highly endemic. Our results, derived from treating 4,031 of 7,641 children from 1984 to 1993, indicate substantial year-to- year variation in drug efficacy. However, the pattern of this variation was not consistent with primary or progressive emergence of ...

  15. Bayesian geostatistical prediction of the intensity of infection with Schistosoma mansoni in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Archie C.A. Clements; MOYEED, RANA; Brooker, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A Bayesian geostatistical model was developed to predict the intensity of infection with Schistosoma mansoni in East Africa. Epidemiological data from purposively-designed and standardized surveys were available for 31,458 schoolchildren (90% aged between 6-16 years) from 459 locations across the region and used in combination with remote sensing environmental data to identify factors associated with spatial variation in infection patterns. The geostatistical model explicitly takes into accou...

  16. Analysis of regulatory protease sequences identified through bioinformatic data mining of the Schistosoma mansoni genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minchella Dennis J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New chemotherapeutic agents against Schistosoma mansoni, an etiological agent of human schistosomiasis, are a priority due to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drug treatments to prevent reinfection. Proteases have been under scrutiny as targets of immunological or chemotherapeutic anti-Schistosoma agents because of their vital role in many stages of the parasitic life cycle. Function has been established for only a handful of identified S. mansoni proteases, and the vast majority of these are the digestive proteases; very few of the conserved classes of regulatory proteases have been identified from Schistosoma species, despite their vital role in numerous cellular processes. To that end, we identified protease protein coding genes from the S. mansoni genome project and EST library. Results We identified 255 protease sequences from five catalytic classes using predicted proteins of the S. mansoni genome. The vast majority of these show significant similarity to proteins in KEGG and the Conserved Domain Database. Proteases include calpains, caspases, cytosolic and mitochondrial signal peptidases, proteases that interact with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules, and proteases that perform regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Comparative analysis of classes of important regulatory proteases find conserved active site domains, and where appropriate, signal peptides and transmembrane helices. Phylogenetic analysis provides support for inferring functional divergence among regulatory aspartic, cysteine, and serine proteases. Conclusion Numerous proteases are identified for the first time in S. mansoni. We characterized important regulatory proteases and focus analysis on these proteases to complement the growing knowledge base of digestive proteases. This work provides a foundation for expanding knowledge of proteases in Schistosoma species and examining their diverse function and potential as targets

  17. Increase of malaria attacks among children presenting concomitant infection by Schistosoma mansoni in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Diop Mamadou; Camara Pape; Akiana Jean; Mbaye Pape A; Le Hesran Jean-Yves; Sokhna Cheikh; Ly Abdoulaye; Druilhe Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Helminthic infections concomitant with malaria are common in inter-tropical areas. A recent study showed that mice co-infected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium chabaudi develop higher P. chabaudi parasitaemia and had a higher mortality rate. This important observation deserved to be further investigated among human populations. Malaria attacks were recorded in 512 children aged 6–15 years living in Richard Toll (Northern Senegal) among whom 336 were infected by S. mansoni, and...

  18. Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria snails in Lake Victoria: distribution, genetics and ecological dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Standley, Claire J

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni, is a disease of major public health importance in the Lake Victoria region. Accurate information pertaining to the disease's distribution can greatly assist in the maintenance and realignment of existing control strategies. Rapid mapping of disease prevalence is reliant on diagnostic technologies; in the case of intestinal schistosomiasis, traditional stool-based methods are beginning to be complimented with new...

  19. Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiphak, Sara

    This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

  20. First report of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna infection in farmed fallow deer (Dama dama in Poland – pathomorphological changes and molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamon Jacek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female fallow deer was subjected to the necropsy and virological testing, due to a suspected infectious disease in the herd of farmed deer in the Southeastern region of Poland. The animal was found negative for the presence of BVDV, BoHV-1, BTV, and EHDV antibodies and BVDV antigen. The toxicological examination did not reveal any coccidiostats, mycotoxins, rodenticides, carbamate pesticides, and organophosphorus pesticides. The flukes found during postmortem examination were first characterised microscopically as Fascioloides magna and later their identity was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The autopsy revealed lesions characteristic for F. magna infection, including different size cystic spaces in the liver, filled with brownish mucous fluid and flukes, and black pigment covering the surface of parietal and visceral peritoneum with the highest concentrations localised next to the liver. The changes observed in the liver tissue were typical of liver cirrhosis. The results demonstrated that in Poland, where the cervid farming is developing dynamically, the problem of fascioloidosis is present and may probably exert a significantly negative influence on the productivity of such farms if no antiparasitic treatment is performed.

  1. Evaluation of portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of Schistosoma and soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Coulibaly, Jean T; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer; Stothard, J Russell; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of parasitic worm (helminth) infections requires specialized laboratory settings, but most affected individuals reside in locations without access to such facilities. We tested two portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of helminth infections in a cross-sectional survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. We examined 164 stool samples under a light microscope and then re-examined with a commercial portable light microscope and an experimental mobile phone microscope for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. Additionally, 180 filtered urine samples were examined by standard microscopy and compared with the portable light microscope for detection of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Conventional microscopy was considered the diagnostic reference standard. For S. mansoni, S. haematobium and Trichuris trichiura, the portable light microscope showed sensitivities of 84.8%, 78.6% and 81.5%, respectively, and specificities of 85.7%, 91.0% and 93.0%, respectively. For S. mansoni and T. trichiura, we found sensitivities for the mobile phone microscope of 68.2% and 30.8%, respectively, and specificities of 64.3% and 71.0%, respectively. We conclude that the portable light microscope has sufficient diagnostic yield for Schistosoma and T. trichiura infections, while the mobile phone microscope has only modest sensitivity in its current experimental set-up. Development of portable diagnostic technologies that can be used at point-of-sample collection will enhance diagnostic coverage in clinical and epidemiological settings. PMID:24776232

  2. Effects of Mirazid Treatment and Vaccination with Irradiated Cercariae in Experimentally Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schistosomiasis Tops all the endemic parasitic diseases particularly in Egypt. This study was performed on 4 groups of mice, each group formed of 25 mice. Group 1 (control group) infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, group 2 (vaccinated group) vaccinated with irradiated cercariae, group 3 (treated group) infected with living cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni, then treated with Mirazid in the day post infection and group 4 (vaccinated and treated group) vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni then challenged and treated with Mirazid in the day post infection. By comparing the results of group 4 (vaccinated and treated group) with respective control there was a highly significant difference in all parameters. The worm burden reduction was 100 % and the percentage reduction of the eggs in the liver was 96.6 % and in the intestine was 89.76 %. Also, there were marked reduction in the size and number of granulomas with preservation of the liver architecture and absence of areas of degeneration and necrosis. So, this study shown that resistance to schistosomiasis can be consistently induced in mice by combining drug therapy with vaccination

  3. [Pulmonary bilharziosis due to Schistosoma haematobium: pitfalls of species diagnosis. A case report from Libreville, Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Dong, F Ondo; Mbamendame, S; Assapi, M Ndong; Mbourou, J B; Roy, E; Kombila, M; Diané, C

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case of pulmonary schistosomiasis treated at la Fondation Jeanne Ebori in Libreville, Gabon. This case is exceptional due to the rarity of the disease and the schistosomiasis agent involved. The patient was a 47-year-old woman who presented with recurrent right-sided pneumonia 6 months after initial hospitalization and nonspecific antimicrobial therapy. Her general status was altered by hyperthermia, right chest pain, and repetitive bouts of hemoptysia. Because etiological diagnosis could not be achieved and clinical condition was deteriorating, the decision was taken to perform exploratory thoracotomy. Based on operative findings, medial and lower lobectomy was performed. Histological examination demonstrated granulomatous inflammatory lesions due to bilharziosis. Infection was attributed to Schistosoma haematobium that is the most common agent in pulmonary localizations. However Ziehl coloration raised the possibility of involvement of Schistosoma intercalatum that has never been observed in the lung and of a hybrid species. Natural hybridization between S. haematobium and S. intercalatum and the presence of active transmission of the Schistosoma hybrid has been suspected in Gabon. PMID:16038357

  4. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    described as permanent, standing, fresh and clear. Although the highest percentage of samples of all three species was reported from loci that fell within the interval ranging from 16-20°C, a significant number of samples of L. truncatula came from loci falling with in the 11-15°C interval. In view of the fact that Lymnaea species are well known as intermediate hosts for liver fluke in South Africa and elsewhere in the world, the widespread occurrence of these snails could have considerable health and economic consequences. Lymnaea natalenis is the most important and probably the only intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica, the most common liver fluke in Africa but F. gigantica has been reliably reported only from Lesotho where its traditional intermediate host, L. truncatula is widespread. However, the epidemiology of fasciolosis in South Africa has been complicated by the invasion of many water-bodies by L. columella because this species has proved to be a successful host for F. hepatica where it had been introduced elsewhere in the world. To our knowledge its role in South Africa in this respect has not yet been evaluated. Due to the fact that no statistics are available in print, the results of positive serological tests on cattle herds all over South Africa were used to compile a map depicting the possible occurrence of Fasciola species in livestock in this country. Although human infections with Fasciola in Africa was considered as very rare in 1975 the situation has changed. It is considered an underrated and underreported disease in humans in Ethiopia and in Egypt an increase in cases of fasciolosis and prevalence’s as high as 12.8% in humans have also recently been reported. To our knowledge the only cases of human fasciolosis reported in literature for South Africa were from northern KwaZulu-Natal where F. hepatica infections were found in 22 out of 7 569 school children examined in 1981. Efforts to obtain recent statisticson human infections from various

  5. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  6. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confidence to respond in emergency situations with the skills that can help to save a life. Learn more » Red Cross Information Donating Blood Learn About Blood Hosting a Blood Drive For Hospitals Engage with Us About Us Media ...

  7. Liver Fluke Induces Cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Mairiang, Eimorn; Laha, Thewarach; Smout, Michael; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajaraphongsa; Tesana, Smarn; Thinkamrop, Bandit; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss the molecular pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and associated cholangiocarcinogenesis, particularly nitrative and oxidative DNA damage and the clinical manifestations of cholangiocarcinoma.

  8. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  9. Development and evaluation of a sensitive PCR-ELISA system for detection of schistosoma infection in feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Inácia Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA was developed to overcome the need for sensitive techniques for the efficient diagnosis of Schistosoma infection in endemic settings with low parasitic burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This system amplifies a 121-base pair tandem repeat DNA sequence, immobilizes the resultant 5' biotinylated product on streptavidin-coated strip-well microplates and uses anti-fluorescein antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the hybridized fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The detection limit of the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA system was determined to be 1.3 fg of S. mansoni genomic DNA (less than the amount found in a single cell and estimated to be 0.15 S. mansoni eggs per gram of feces (fractions of an egg. The system showed good precision and genus specificity since the DNA target was found in seven Schistosoma DNA samples: S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. magrebowiei and S. rhodaini. By evaluating 206 patients living in an endemic area in Brazil, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection was determined to be 18% by examining 12 Kato-Katz slides (41.7 mg/smear, 500 mg total of a single fecal sample from each person, while the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA identified a 30% rate of infection using 500-mg of the same fecal sample. When considering the Kato-Katz method as the reference test, artificial sensitivity and specificity rates of the PCR-ELISA system were 97.4% and 85.1%, respectively. The potential for estimating parasitic load by DNA detection in feces was assessed by comparing absorbance values and eggs per gram of feces, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.700 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the development and field evaluation of a sensitive Schistosoma PCR-ELISA, a system that may serve as an alternative for diagnosing Schistosoma infection.

  10. INFEKSI Schistosoma japonicum PADA HOSPES RESERVOIR TIKUS DI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU, KABUPATEN POSO, SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Agus Nurjana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tikus merupakan salah satu mamalia yang dapat menjadi sumber penularan di daerah endemis schistosomiasis. Telah dilakukan penangkapan tikus dengan perangkap di 22 daerah fokus keong yang tersebar di 6 desa di Dataran Tinggi Napu, Kabupaten Poso, Sulawesi Tengah untuk mengetahui tingkat infeksi Schistosoma japonicum pada tikus. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa tingkat infeksi pada tikus sebesar 22,7% (5/22, dimana tingkat infeksi pada Rattus norvegicus lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Rattus exulans. Uji statistik dengan Fisher exact menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan antara spesies tikus dengan infeksi cacing Schistosoma japonicum (P = 0, 039. Pengendalian tikus sangat sulit dilakukan sehingga diperlukan kerja sama lintas sektor antara Kementerian Kesehatan, Pertanian, Kehutanan dan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu. Kata kunci: Schistosoma japonicum, tikus, Dataran Tinggi Napu Abstract Rat is one of the mammals that can be the source of transmission in endemic areas schistosomiasis. Rat collection was done by using trap in 22 foci that spread in 6 villages in Napu Highland, Poso District Central Sulawesi. This study was done to investigate the infection rate of Schistosoma japonicum in rats. The result showed that infection rate of Schistosoma japonicum in rats was 22.7% (5/22. The infection rate in Rattus norvergicus was higher then in Rattus exulans. Fisher exact test showed that there is a relationship between species of rats and  schistosomiasis infection (P=0.039. To control rat’s population is difficult, therefore to control the disease inter sectoral cooperation Ministry of Health, Agriculture, Foresty, and Lore Lindu National Park is needed. Key words: Schistosoma japonicum, rat, Napu Highland

  11. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavitra Pillay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%. SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%, seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6% of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0% of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7% of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and

  12. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S; Zadoks, Ruth N; Skuce, Philip J; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson's R = 0.89, p advantages of cELISA over FE: i) the ability to store samples long term (frozen) without apparent loss in diagnostic power; and ii) reduced labour and the ability to process large batches. Further evaluation of cELISA sensitivity in red deer, where a range of fluke burdens can be obtained, is desirable. In the interim, the cELISA is a practicable diagnostic for F. hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer. PMID:27598003

  13. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den, L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and 50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan con...

  14. Sequential histological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata during the course of Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli Teixeira Lemos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata, highly susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni, were seen to shed less and less cercariae along the time of infection. Histological examination kept a close correlation with this changing pattern of cercarial shedding, turning an initial picture of no-reaction (tolerance gradually into one of hemocyte proliferation with formation of focal encapsulating lesions around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae, a change that became disseminated toward the 142nd day post miracidial exposure. Findings were suggestive of a gradual installation of acquired immunity in snails infected with S. mansoni.

  15. Developmental regulation of protein kinase A expression and activity in Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Swierczewski, Brett E.; Davies, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    c-AMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs) are the main transducers of cAMP signaling in eukaryotic cells. Recently we reported the identification and characterization of a PKA catalytic subunit (SmPKA-C) in Schistosoma mansoni that is required for adult schistosome viability in vitro. To gain further insights into the role of SmPKA-C in biological processes during the schistosome life cycle, we undertook a quantitative analysis of SmPKA-C mRNA expression in different life cycle stages. Our data ...

  16. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.Camundongos infectados com 60 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni tomaram-se mais resistentes ao sarcoma 180 na forma de tumor ascítico. A inoculação das células tumorais foi feita no 50º dia de infecção e a evolução do tumor foi acompanhada através dapesagem dos animais com intervalos de 48 horas. Nos camundongos infectados o ganho de peso (formação da ascite começou mais tarde e foi menor do que nos controles não infectados. Também o número de células tumorais na cavidade peritoneal 72 horas após a implantação do tumor foi menor no grupo infectado. Este aumento de resistência a um tumor transplantávelpossivelmente está relacionado ao efeito de endotoxinas sobre a atividade tumoricida dos macrofagos ativados pela infecção. A imunossupressão induzida pela infecção favorece a proliferação de bactérias da flora endógena aumentando a quantidade de endotoxinas absorvidas pelo intestino.

  17. Labelling of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae with 99 m technetium: a preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae with technetium 99 m (99 m Tc) is performed. The effect of stannous chloride concentration in the labelling process, the stability of the labelling and the viability of the 99 m Tc labeled cercariae are studied. The incorporation of the radioactivity in the cercariae increases with an increase in the stannous chloride concentration reaching constant values threshold 13000 u M. The characteristic motion of the cercariae was only modify at the concentration of 130000 u M. (M.A.C.)

  18. Lichtphysiologische Untersuchungen an Cercarien von Schistosoma mansoni, eines Erregers menschlicher intestinaler Bilharziose

    OpenAIRE

    Kopf, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In unserer Arbeit führten wir lichtreizphysiologische Untersuchungen an Cercarien von Schistosoma mansoni durch, der Erreger der intestinalen Bilharziose. Wir konnten nachweisen, daß Cercarien ihre höchste Aktivität bei 500 nm Lichtwellenlänge und 10000 Cd Lichtstärke haben. Ferner stellten wir fest, daß Dunkelreize die Passivphasen und die anschließende Aktivphase verkürzen, während Lichtreize die Passivphasen und die folgende Aktivphase verlängern. Eine Dunkelreizgabe in der Aktivphase verk...

  19. Development of a real time polymerase chain reaction for quantitation of Schistosoma mansoni DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lisa do Vale Gomes; Fábio L Melo; Roberto P Werkhauser; Frederico GC Abath

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the development of a SYBR Green I based real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection on the ABI Prism 7000 instrument. Primers targeting the gene encoding the SSU rRNA were designed to amplify with high specificity DNA from Schistosoma mansoni, in a real time quantitative PCR system. The limit of detection of parasite DNA for the system was 10 fg of purified genomic DNA, that means less than the equivalent to one parasite cell (genome ~580 fg DNA). Th...

  20. Disseminated peritoneal Schistosoma japonicum: a case report and review of the pathological manifestations of the helminth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziasis, bilharziosis or snail fever) is a human disease syndrome caused by infection from one of several species of parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. The three main species infecting humans are S haematobium, S japonicum, and S mansoni. S japonicum is most common in the far east, mostly in China and the Philippines. We present an unusual case of S japonicum in a 32-year-old Filipino woman who had schistosomal ova studding the peritoneal cavity and forming a mass in the right iliac fossa. (author)

  1. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  2. Histopathology of experimental Schistosoma incognitum infection in mice following exposure to normal and irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tissue reactions in mice, experimentally infected with normal and irradiated cercariae of S. incognitum were studied. The lesions observed in the skin, liver, lungs and the intestine of mice infected with normal cercariae are briefly described, and compared with those observed with cercariae irradiated at 3000 r of gamma rays. In general, the reactions in mice exposed to normal cercariae were more intense than in those infected with irradiated cercariae. The severity of the reactions appeared largely due to the deposition of eggs in the tissues of the mice infected with normal cercariae. The experimental evidence suggested that most of the flukes from the irradiated cercariae are destroyed in the liver by tissue reaction. (author)

  3. The feasibility of MS and advanced data processing for monitoring Schistosoma mansoni infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Crina I.A.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Derks, Rico J.;

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and the evaluation of chemotherapeutic interventions are of prime importance for the improvement of control and prevention strategies for Schistosomiasis. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers of Schistosoma mansoni infec...

  4. Dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium egg output and associated infection parameters following treatment with praziquantel in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Stete Katarina; Krauth Stefanie J; Coulibaly Jean T; Knopp Stefanie; Hattendorf Jan; Müller Ivan; Lohourignon Laurent K; Kern Winfried V; N’Goran Eliézer K; Utzinger Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Praziquantel is the drug of choice in preventive chemotherapy targeting schistosomiasis. Increasing large-scale administration of praziquantel requires monitoring of drug efficacy to detect early signs of development of resistance. Standard protocols for drug efficacy monitoring are necessary. Here, we determined the optimal time point for praziquantel efficacy assessment against Schistosoma haematobium and studied the dynamics of infection parameters following treatment. ...

  5. Biolistic transformation of Schistosoma mansoni: Studies with modified reporter-gene constructs containing regulatory regions of protease genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jan; Beckmann, S.; Lim, K.-C.; Engel, J. C.; Grevelding, C. G.; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 1 (2010), s. 37-40. ISSN 0166-6851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Schistosoma * Protease * Transgene * Gene promoter * Biolistics * Electroporation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.875, year: 2010

  6. Evaluation of the In Vivo Activity of Tribendimidine against Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Clonorchis sinensis, and Opisthorchis viverrini▿

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Jennifer; Shu-Hua, Xiao; Chollet, Jacques; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-01-01

    We examined the in vivo activity of tribendimidine against selected trematodes. A single 150-mg/kg dose of tribendimidine achieved a 99.1% reduction of Clonorchis sinensis in rats. A 400-mg/kg dose of tribendimidine reduced Opisthorchis viverrini in hamsters by 95.7%. High doses of tribendimidine showed no activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

  7. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase Abnormalities of hemoglobin , the protein in ... sickle and Pappenheimer Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood References Bain BJ. The peripheral ...

  8. New perspectives on host-parasite interplay by comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  9. Mice lack of LRG-47 display the attenuated outcome of infection with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanan; Wu, Jingjiao; Zhang, Meijuan; Hou, Min; Ji, Minjun

    2016-03-01

    Interferon-inducible GTPase LRG-47 (also named immune-related GTPase M, Irgm1) is a member of the p47 GTPase family that has been shown to regulate host resistance to intracellular pathogens. Little knowledge has been known about the role of LRG-47 in host's responses to extracellular pathogens. To investigate possible roles of LRG-47 in the course of Schistosoma japonicum infection, LRG-47-deficient (LRG-47(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice were challenged with cercariae of S. japonicum, and the cellular and humoral responses in mice were analyzed. At the acute stage of S. japonicum infection, in contrast to WT mice, LRG-47(-/-) mice showed the significantly decreased egg burden, low schistosome-specific antibody response, and the decreased Th1 and increased Tc1 responses. Additionally, Schistosoma japonicum-specific egg antigen immunization also produced the similar humoral and cellular immune responses as S. japonicum infection. Taken together, these data suggested that the deficiency of LRG-47 might affect host's CD4(+) T cell immune response via the weakening of IFN-γ downstream signaling; however, the specific function of LRG-47 on dealing with extracellular worm needs to be further studied. PMID:26660918

  10. Reduced protective effect of Plasmodium berghei immunization by concurrent Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F Laranjeiras

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on concomitant schistosomiasis and human and experimental malaria have shown a variation in the immunospecific response, as well as an increase in the severity of both parasitoses. In the present study, a murine co-infection model was used to determine the effects of a co-infection with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium berghei on the protective immunity acquired by repeated malarial infections and subsequent curative treatment with chloroquine. Our results have demonstrated that, compared to an infection with P. berghei only, the co-infection increases the malarial parasitaemia and decreases the survival rate. Indeed, mice that were immunized by infection and treatment with drug displayed no mortality whereas co-infected mice showed a reduced protective efficacy of immunization against P. berghei (mortality > 60%. Interestingly, this high mortality rate was not associated with high levels of parasitaemia. Our findings support the idea of a suppressive effect of a Schistosoma co-infection on the anti-malarial protection by immunization. This result reveals a possible drawback of the development of anti-malarial vaccines, especially considering the wide endemic areas for both parasitoses.

  11. Rate of action of schistosomicides in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with adult Schistosoma mansoni were dosed with a single oral dose of 125 or 250 mg/kg oltipraz, 50 or 100 mg/kg oxamniquine, or 200 or 400 mg/kg praziquantel. The mortality rate of worms and oogram changes were determined between 1 and 16 weeks after dosing. The time required between dosing and postmortem to obtain maximum effectiveness was 1 week for praziquantel, 2 weeks for oxamniquine and 8 weeks for oltipraz. Changes in oograms persisted throughout most of the experiment, although relapse has been observed at the 4th week on.Camundongos infectados experimentalmente com Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados por via oral com dose única de 125 ou 250 mg/kg de oltipraz, 50 ou 100 mg/kg de oxamniquine, e 200 ou 400 mg/kg de praziquantel. O número de vermes e alteração do oograma foram determinados entre a 1ª e 16ª semanas após o tratamento. O tempo necessário para observar o máximo de atividade da droga foi de 1 semana para o praziquantel, 2 semanas para o oxamniquine e 8 semanas para o oltipraz. Alterações do oograma persistiram durante o período de observação, embora recidiva tenha sido detectada, já na 4ª semana, com as drogas utilizadas.

  12. Schistosoma mansoni PIII antigen modulates in vitro granuloma formation by regulating CD28, CTLA-4, and CD86 expression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouain, C S; Falcão, P L; Goes, T S; Leite, M F; Goes, A M

    2004-02-15

    We investigated the in vitro responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from intestinal chronic schistosomiasis patients to PIII, a multivalent antigen prepared from Schistosoma mansoni adult worm. PIII decreased cellular proliferation and granulomatous reaction. Moreover, induced the reduction of IFN-gamma levels and increased IL-10 production. To better understand the mechanism through which the observed suppression occurs, the present study focused on the phenotypic pattern displayed by PBMC treated with PIII in an in vitro granuloma assay. Expression of the surface markers CD28, CTLA-4 and CD86 by lymphocytes and monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated a significant decrease of CD28+CD4+ and CD28+CD8+ T-cell percentage stimulated by PIII compared to its non-infected counterparts. This suppressive effect was related to a significant increase in the percentage of T-cells expressing CTLA-4. PIII also promoted a significant increase in the percentage of cells expressing CD86. Indeed, our results demonstrated that PIII was capable of modulating in vitro granuloma reaction, and this event was related to the balance of IL-10, IFN-gamma and CD28, CTLA-4, CD86 bringing new insight to the immunoregulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:15019278

  13. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Yang

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390 in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114 in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections.

  14. Potential immunomodulatory effects of plant lectins in Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Eliana A G; Athanazio, Daniel A; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Vicente; Carmo, Theomira M A; Reis, Alice; Trocolli, Graziela; Croda, Julio; Harn, Donald; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2008-01-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding glycoproteins that can stimulate, in a non-antigen-specific fashion, lymphocytes, leading to proliferation and cytokine production. Some lectins are utilized as in vitro mitogenic lymphocyte stimulators and their use as immunomodulators against infectious diseases has been evaluated experimentally. In the experimental murine model, the immune response to schistosomiasis is Th1-like during the initial stage of infection, with a shift towards a Th2-like response after oviposition. We report the response of schistosomiasis patients' (n=37) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to stimulation by lectins, including newly isolated lectins from Brazilian flora, and by Schistosomamansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA). Cytokine production upon lectin stimulation ex vivo was assessed in PBMC supernatants, collected at 24 and 72 h, by sandwich ELISA to IL-5, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. In PBMC from infected patients all but one of the lectins induced a Th2-like cytokine response, characterized by elevated IL-5 production that was higher than that induced by SEA stimulation alone. Our results show that the Th2 environment present during schistosomiasis is not affected and that it may be further stimulated by the presence of lectins. PMID:18579103

  15. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections. PMID:26234898

  16. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  17. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

    OpenAIRE

    S Widjajanti; S.E Estuningsih; Subandriyo; D Piedrafita; Raadsma, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep, Merino sheep, b...

  18. Cercarial transformation and in vitro cultivation of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, John N; Jolly, Emmitt R

    2011-01-01

    Schistosome parasites are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a chronically debilitating disease that affects over 200 million people globally and ranks second to malaria among parasitic diseases in terms of public health and socio-economic impact (1-4). Schistosome parasites are trematode worms with a complex life cycle interchanging between a parasitic life in molluscan and mammalian hosts with intervening free-swimming stages. Briefly, free-swimming cercariae infect a mammalian host by penetrating the skin with the aid of secreted proteases, during which time the cercariae lose their tails, transforming into schistosomules. The schistosomules must now evade the host immune system, develop a gut for digestion of red blood cells, and migrate though the lungs and portal circulation en route to their final destination in the hepatic portal system and eventually the mesenteric veins (for S. mansoni) where male and female worms pair and mate, producing hundreds of eggs daily. Some of the eggs are excreted from the body into fresh water, where the eggs hatch into free-swimming miracidia (5-10). The miracidia infect specific snail species and transform into mother and daughter sporocysts, which in turn, produce infective cercariae, completing the life cycle. Unfortunately, the entire schistosome life cycle cannot be cultured in vitro, but infective cercariae can be transformed into schistosomules, and the schistosomules can be cultured for weeks for the analysis of schistosome development in vitro or microarray analysis. In this protocol, we provide a visual description of cercarial transformation and in vitro culturing of schistosomules. We shed infectious cercariae from the snail host Biomphalaria glabrata and manually transform them into schistosomules by detaching their tails using an emulsifying double-ended needle. The in vitro cercarial transformation and schistosomules culture techniques described avoid the use of a mammalian host, which simplifies

  19. "In vivo" leukocyte chemotaxis in experimental mice Schistosoma mansoni infection Quimiotaxia de leucócitos "in vivo" na infecção experimental por Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirte Maria Teixeira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The "in vivo" chemotaxis was studied in C57B1/10 mice 10, 30, 50 and 60 days after a Schistosoma mansoni infection in comparison to a control group (uninfected mice. Staphylococcal protein A was injected into a connective tissue air pouch of control and experimental mice and the leukocyte chemotaxis was counted. A decrease in polymorphonuclear (PMN leukocyte response was found in infected mice in comparison to the control group (pA quimiotaxia de leucócitos "in vivo" foi avaliada em camundongos da linhagem C57B1/10 e estudada 10, 30, 50 e 60 dias após a infecção por Schistosoma mansoni. A proteína A foi utilizada como quimiotático e injetada no tecido conjuntivo no dorso dos camundongos dos grupos experimentais e controle. Nos grupos experimentais foi observado uma diminuição na resposta dos leucócitos polimorfonucleares (PMN em comparação com o grupo controle (p<0.05. Os camundongos estudados 10 dias após a infecção, mostraram uma diminuição na resposta quimiotática de leucócitos PMN, comparando com o grupo controle (p<0.05 e este dado tornou-se mais evidente nos grupos experimentais estudados 30 e 50 dias após a infecção. Apesar da resposta quimiotática dos leucócitos PMN nos camundongos estudados 60 dias após a infecção aumentarem em comparação aos animais analisados 50 dias após a infecção, este aumento foi bem menor em relação ao grupo controle. A resposta quimiotática dos mononucleares não apresentou diferença significativa entre camundongos experimentais e controles

  20. Blood / Money

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  1. Characterization of nine microsatellite loci for Dicrocoelium dendriticum, an emerging liver fluke of ungulates in North America, and their use to detect clonemates and random mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paridon, Bradley J; Goater, Cameron P; Gilleard, John S; Criscione, Charles D

    2016-05-01

    This study characterizes polymorphic microsatellite loci from adults of the liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum sampled from a population of sympatric beef cattle and wapiti in a region of emergence in southern Alberta, Canada. We also scrutinized the markers to validate their use in studying the population genetics of this complex life cycle parasite. Among the nine loci described, four deviated significantly from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) due to technical artefacts. The remaining five loci were in HWE. These five provided sufficient resolution to identify clonemates produced from the obligate asexual reproduction phase of the life cycle in snails and to assess the impact of non-random transmission of clonemates on measures of FIS, FST and genotypic disequilibrium. Excluding clonemates, we show that the sub-population of worms was in HWE, that average FIS within hosts was 0.003 (p=0.4922) and that there was no population genetic structure among hosts FST=0.001 (p=0.3243). These markers will be useful for studies of Dicrocoelium dendriticum ecology, transmission, and evolution. PMID:27188658

  2. 2D-PAGE analysis of the soluble proteins of the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica and biliary amphistome, Gigantocotyle explanatum, concurrently infecting Bubalus bubalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasir A; Khan, Mohd Abdul Hannan; Abidi, S M A

    2016-09-01

    The digenetic trematodes, Fasciola gigantica and Gigantocotyle explanatum, belonging to the family Fasciolidae and Paramphistomidae respectively, have been often found to concurrently infect the liver of Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, causing serious pathological damage to the vital organ, incurring huge economic losses. In the present study the soluble gene products of both F. gigantica and G. explanatum were analyzed by 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The soluble proteomic profile revealed considerable similarity as well as differences in the size, distribution pattern, total number, the isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mr) of the resolved polypeptide spots. The maximum number of polypeptide spots with a molecular weight range of >10 to 160 kDa were recorded with a pI range of 7-9 followed by pI range of 5-7, 9-10 and 3-5 in both the parasites. However, considerable variation was recorded in the Mr of the polypeptides belonging to each pI range. The genetic heterogeneity could be an obvious contributing factor for such differences but some polypeptides appeared to be conserved in the two species. The molecular similarities and the habitat preference by these worms may be a consequence of microenvironmental cues that guide these flukes to reach their habitat through different routes and establish a successful host-parasite relationship. PMID:27605808

  3. Immune responses in rats and sheep induced by a DNA vaccine containing the phosphoglycerate kinase gene of Fasciola hepatica and liver fluke infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Pyziel, Anna M; Zygner, Wojciech; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Immune responses of rats and sheep following vaccination with cDNA encoding phosphoglycerate kinase of Fasciola hepatica (cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV) and F. hepatica infection were investigated in the present study. cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated female Sprague-Dawley rats were better protected by vaccination than their male counterparts - 48% reduction in fluke burden for females and no protection for males when compared with appropriate infection control groups. Moreover, male rats developed marked leukocytosis during the study with higher neutrophil, eosinophil and monocyte responses than females. Additionally, dynamics of eosinophil and monocyte responses varied between sexes. Increased titres of anti-FhPGK IgG1 and IgG2a correlated with the protective effect of vaccination that was observed among female rats. In the case of male sheep, no differences in worm burdens and in the course of the immune response were observed following vaccination. Titres of specific antibodies detected were low, and cellular responses were not significant. Apparently, sheep immune responses induced by cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccination are not effective at controlling F. hepatica infection. Poor immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in large animals is still a major obstacle of this technology that has to be overcome. PMID:27078643

  4. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  5. Immunization of pigs against infection with Schistosoma japonicum using ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10 000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 μWatt.min/cm2). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2.5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0.01% of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pig's health. (Author)

  6. Protection of sheep against Schistosoma bovis using cryopreserved radiation-attenuated schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sheep were vaccinated with two doses of 3 krad-irradiated cryopreserved Schistosoma bovis schistosomula containing 20,000 and 17,000 organisms respectively, injected intramuscularly 23 days apart after storage in liquid nitrogen for between 9 and 46 days. A challenge of 5360 S. bovis cercariae was administered percutaneously approximately four weeks after the last vaccine dose to these animals and to three controls. Post-challenge the vaccinated animals gained significantly more weight (27% v. 9%), produced fewer eggs in their faeces, showed a smaller reduction in PCV values (-18% v. -27%) and were over-all in better condition than control animals. At perfusion 49.1% fewer adult worms were found in the vaccinated sheep than in controls. The tissue egg burdens were similar in both groups. Histopathologically both groups were similar except that fewer and smaller egg lesions were observed in the livers of vaccinated animals. (author)

  7. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  8. Schistosoma mansoni: migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated parasites in naive guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressed tissue autoradiography using [75Se]selenomethionine labelled parasites has been used to investigate the migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in naive guinea pigs. By Day 14 after infection. 44% of normal parasites were detected as reduced silver foci in the liver; this value corresponded well with the number of liver parasites recovered by retrograde perfusion of the hepatic portal system on Day 42 (42% of the challenge). In contrast, cercariae subjected to 50 krad of gamma irradiation failed to migrate out of the skin. The migration capacity of 20 krad irradiated parasites was less severely affected in that about half of the challenge parasites reached the lungs, but virtually none moved to the liver. These data are discussed in relation to the kinetics of immunity induced in guinea pigs by infection or vaccination with normal or radiation attenuated parasites

  9. Schistosoma mansoni: migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated parasites in naive guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, H.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Compressed tissue autoradiography using (75Se)selenomethionine labelled parasites has been used to investigate the migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in naive guinea pigs. By Day 14 after infection. 44% of normal parasites were detected as reduced silver foci in the liver; this value corresponded well with the number of liver parasites recovered by retrograde perfusion of the hepatic portal system on Day 42 (42% of the challenge). In contrast, cercariae subjected to 50 krad of gamma irradiation failed to migrate out of the skin. The migration capacity of 20 krad irradiated parasites was less severely affected in that about half of the challenge parasites reached the lungs, but virtually none moved to the liver. These data are discussed in relation to the kinetics of immunity induced in guinea pigs by infection or vaccination with normal or radiation attenuated parasites.

  10. Schistosoma bovis, S. intercalatum and S. haematobium: methods for in vivo radiolabelling of cercariae with radioselenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercariae of Schistosoma bovis, S. intercalatum and S. haematobium were radiolabelled by individual exposure of their respective host snails to 75Se-methionine in 1 ml water for a period of 20 hours. Maximum cercaria-bound radioactivity was obtained four to seven days after labelling of snails, but detectable levels of radioactivity incorporation were obtained with all three species for a period of 32 days. The radiolabelling procedure did not interfere with the production of cercariae or with the biological characteristics of the labelled larvae. The described research opens the way for the application of various radioisotope tracer systems in studies on host-parasite relationships between cercariae and schistosomula of terminal-spined species of schistosomes and the final host. (author)

  11. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease

  12. Protection of sheep against Schistosoma bovis using cryopreserved radiation-attenuated schistosomula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, E.R.; Dobinson, A.R.; Andrews, B.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Ham, P.J. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, St. Albans (UK). Winches Farm Field Station); Lucas, S.B. (University Coll. Hospital, London (UK))

    1985-03-01

    Three sheep were vaccinated with two doses of 3 krad-irradiated cryopreserved Schistosoma bovis schistosomula containing 20,000 and 17,000 organisms respectively, injected intramuscularly 23 days apart after storage in liquid nitrogen for between 9 and 46 days. A challenge of 5360 S. bovis cercariae was administered percutaneously approximately four weeks after the last vaccine dose to these animals and to three controls. Post-challenge the vaccinated animals gained significantly more weight (27% v. 9%), produced fewer eggs in their faeces, showed a smaller reduction in PCV values (-18% v. -27%) and were over-all in better condition than control animals. At perfusion 49.1% fewer adult worms were found in the vaccinated sheep than in controls. The tissue egg burdens were similar in both groups. Histopathologically both groups were similar except that fewer and smaller egg lesions were observed in the livers of vaccinated animals.

  13. Immunization of pigs against infection with Schistosoma japonicum using ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.-E.; Jiang, C.-F.; Han, J.-J.; Li, Y.-L. (Tongji Medical Univ., Wuhan (China). Dept. of Parasitology); Ruppel, A. (Institute for Tropical Hygiene, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1993-06-01

    Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10 000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 [mu]Watt.min/cm[sup 2]). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2.5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0.01% of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pig's health. (Author).

  14. Attrition of schistosomes in an irradiation-attenuated cercarial immunization model of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attrition of Schistosoma mansoni challenge worms was studied in irradiation-attenuated cercaria-immunized mice as a function of site and time. The peak recovery of schistosomula from the lungs of immunized mice was delayed 2 days in comparison with non-immunized controls. The difference between the peak recoveries of control and immunized mice accounted for about half of the final attrition observed at the 7-week adult worm stge. Hepatic-mesenteric vein worm recoveries obtained 10 to 42 days after challenge were reduced in most cases at least as much as the 49-day counts. Somewhat higher reductions were observed at 14 to 28 days than at 49 days, confirming the evidence of delayed migration obtained at the lung phase. These findings, coupled with histologic observations, indicate that at least half of the worm elimination attributable to immunization occurs 8 or more days after the challenge infection

  15. Garlic attenuates histological and histochemical alterations in livers of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Riad, N H; Taha, H

    2016-08-01

    Interest in screening for new anti-schistosomal agents is growing because of increased concerns about resistance to and safety of praziquantel. We investigated the anti-schistosomal action of prophylactic and therapeutic doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical alterations caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Livers of infected mice were characterized by granulomas, periportal inflammation and fibrosis, hepatocyte vacuolation, fatty degeneration and necrosis, and hypertrophy and pigmentation of Kupffer cells. Significant depletion of carbohydrates and increased lipid vacuoles also were observed. All garlic regimens caused suppression of granuloma formation and amelioration of histological and histochemical changes; the continuous treatment protocol produced the best results. Garlic appears to be a safe and economical anti-schistosomal adjuvant for attenuating the pathogenicity of schistosomiasis. PMID:27045197

  16. Detection of circulating polysaccharide antigen of Schistosoma mansoni in hamster sera by crossed immunoelectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Fernandes

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (IEC was used for detection of free and complexed circulating polisaccharide anodic antigen (AgCA of Schistosoma mansoni in sera of infected hamsters. An attempt was also done to detect AgCA in human sera from patients infected with S. mansoni. The conditions for isolation and detection of complexed AgCA were established. The sensitivity of IEC was increased by incorporation of 2% polyethylene glicol (PEG to the agarose and by maintaining the system at 4°C during the electrophoretic run. Free AgCA was detected in 12 and the complexed in 30 of the 37 hamsters sera analysed. Correlation between AgCA (free and complexed and the parasite load was observed. AgCA was not detected, under the experimental conditions used, in human sera from 7 patients in the acute and 23 in the chronic phase of infection.

  17. Schistosomicidal evaluation of Zanthoxylum naranjillo and its isolated compounds against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguine, Caio G; Costa, Eveline S; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Bastos, Jairo K; Silva, Márcio L A; Cunha, Wilson R; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2009-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the EtOAc fraction (EF) obtained from the ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum naranjillo (Rutaceae) leaves (EE) by preparative HPLC resulted in the isolation of protocatechuic acid (1), gallic acid (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (4). This is the first time that the presence of compounds 1-4 in Z. naranjillo has been reported. Compounds 1-4, the EE, and EF were tested in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The results showed that the S. mansoni daily egg production decreased by 29.8%, 13.5%, 28.4%, 17.7%, 16.3%, and 6.4%, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 were also able to separate adult worm pairs into male and female. This activity may be correlated with the reduction in egg production, since 1 and 3 showed better inhibitory properties compared with 2 and 4. PMID:20158148

  18. Characterization of the O- and N-linked oligosaccharides in glycoproteins synthesized by Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures of the O- and N-linked oligosaccharides in glycoproteins synthesized by larval and adult schistosomes of Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated. Mechanically transformed schistosomula or adult schistosomes were incubated in media containing either [3H]mannose, [3H]glucosamine or [3H]galactose for 48 and 24 hr, respectively, to radiolabel metabolically the oligosaccharide moieties of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Analyses of the radiolabeled glycoproteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and fluorography demonstrated that numerous glycoproteins from 48-hr old schistosomula and adult schistosomes were labeled by both the [3H]mannose and [3H]glucosamine precursors. The [3H]galactose precursor was incorporated into numerous glycoproteins in adult schistosomes; however, few, if any, glycoproteins in schistosomula were labeled by this radioactive sugar precursor

  19. [Myeloradiculitis due to Schistosoma haematobium: about an observation in Dakar (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubacar, S; Diagne, N S; Ben Adji, D W; Diop, A M; Seydi, M; Maiga, Y; Toure, K; Ndiaye, M; Diop, A G; Ndiaye, M M

    2016-05-01

    Nervous localisations of schistosomiasis are rare. We report the case of a 25 year-old Senegalese patient admitted for a progressive myeloradiculitis onset, over a one week period. The diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium myeloradiculitis was made in front of a positive serum serology for S. haematobium, presence of S. haematobium eggs in urine, hyperproteinorachia, endemicity of S. haematobium in the region where the patient was originating and a past medical history of macroscopic hematuria in a context of river bathing. There was also no arguments for another cause to these neurological manifestations. Our patient was treated with praziquantel, prednisone and physiotherapy. Evolution was marked 6 weeks after the beginning of treatment by a significant improvement of motor deficit, enabling the patient to walk again. There was also a regression of genitosphincter dysfunction. Work-up for patients presenting with paraplegia in tropical countries, should also include search for S. heamatobium infection. PMID:26936766

  20. Structural basis for selective inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni: kinetic and structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Marcelo S; Postigo, Matheus P; Pereira, Humberto M; Oliva, Glaucius; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2010-02-15

    Selectivity plays a crucial role in the design of enzyme inhibitors as novel antiparasitic agents, particularly in cases where the target enzyme is also present in the human host. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni (SmPNP) is an attractive target for the discovery of potential antischistosomal agents. In the present work, kinetic studies were carried out in order to determine the inhibitory potency, mode of action and enzyme selectivity of a series of inhibitors of SmPNP. In addition, crystallographic studies provided important structural insights for rational inhibitor design, revealing consistent structural differences in the binding mode of the inhibitors in the active sites of the SmPNP and human PNP (HsPNP) structures. The molecular information gathered in this work should be useful for future medicinal chemistry efforts in the design of new inhibitors of SmPNP having increased affinity and selectivity. PMID:20129792

  1. Crystallization and X-ray analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni guanidino kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray structure of the guanidino kinase from S. mansoni has been determined at 2.8 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method. The 716-amino-acid guanidino kinase from the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni results from the fusion of two guanidino kinase subunits. Crystals of this 80 kDa protein have been obtained in the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.7, b = 122.1, c = 63.2 Å, β = 108.5°. Synchrotron data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution on ESRF beamline ID29. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method, using the 357-amino-acid structure of the arginine kinase from Trypanosoma cruzi as the search model

  2. Morfologia e desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 em infecções unissexuais experimentalmente produzidas no camundongo Morphology and development of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in unisexual infections produced experimentally in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Zanotti

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni em infecções unissexuais no camundongo. Os esquistossomos fêmeos apresentaram-se menos desenvolvidos do que os machos. Houve correlação entre o comprimento dos machos e o número de testículos. Verificou-se que o isolamento sexual é prejudicial aos dois sexos, principalmente à fêmea.The Schistosoma mansoni development in mice submitted to unisexual infections was studied. The single female worms developed less than the single males. There was correlation between the male's length and the number of his tests. It was verified that sexual isolation of the schistosomes is prejudicial to both sexes, mainly for the female.

  3. The Role of Efflux Pumps in Schistosoma mansoni Praziquantel Resistant Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Carrilho, Emanuel; Viveiros, Miguel; Afonso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease caused by a trematode of the genus Schistosoma that is second only to malaria in public health significance in Africa, South America, and Asia. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice to treat this disease due to its high cure rates and no significant side effects. However, in the last years increasingly cases of tolerance to PZQ have been reported, which has caused growing concerns regarding the emergency of resistance to this drug. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the selection of a parasitic strain that has a stable resistance phenotype to PZQ. It has been reported that drug resistance in helminths might involve efflux pumps such as members of ATP-binding cassette transport proteins, including P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein families. Here we evaluate the role of efflux pumps in Schistosoma mansoni resistance to PZQ, by comparing the efflux pumps activity in susceptible and resistant strains. The evaluation of the efflux activity was performed by an ethidium bromide accumulation assay in presence and absence of Verapamil. The role of efflux pumps in resistance to PZQ was further investigated comparing the response of susceptible and resistant parasites in the absence and presence of different doses of Verapamil, in an ex vivo assay, and these results were further reinforced through the comparison of the expression levels of SmMDR2 RNA by RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This work strongly suggests the involvement of Pgp-like transporters SMDR2 in Praziquantel drug resistance in S. mansoni. Low doses of Verapamil successfully reverted drug resistance. Our results might give an indication that a combination therapy with PZQ and natural or synthetic Pgp modulators can be an effective strategy for the treatment of confirmed cases of resistance to PZQ in S. mansoni. PMID:26445012

  4. Screening and Primary Characterization of New Antigen Genes of Schistosoma Japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 易新元; 李先平; 曾宪芳; 章洁

    2004-01-01

    To find Schistosoma japonicum(S.j) new antigen gene thus provide more useful vaccine candidates, the cDNA library of S. j adult worm was screened with sera of rabbits immtmized with the membrane antigens of Schistosoma japonicum hepato-portal schistosomula (SjHmAg). The positive clones were amplified by PCR and sequenced, then the sequences of clones were compared with all sequences in GenBank database using Blast process. The new clones were submitted to GenBank for accession numbers. Fifteen positive clones were obtained after three rounds of i mmunoscreening. The size of S. j cDNA fragments in positive clones ranged from 0.7 kb-3.0 kb after automatically excised with the helper phage. Sequence analysis revealed that partial sequence of clone M5 had significant homology with S.j mitochondria rnRNA, the other positive clones were new S.j genes. M2 clone sequence (GenBank accession number AF502579) was 730 bp long it had a 117 bp open reading frame (ORF). The sequence of M15 (GenBank accession number AF502582) has no transmembrane region and encodes 92 amino acids, and its protein contains a ferredoxins iron-sulfur binding region signature and two VWFC signal regions. The size of M1 ,M8, M9, M12( GenBank accession numbers: AF502578, AF502580, AF500622, AF502581 ) ranges from 402 bp to 766 bp. It concluded that the sera from rabbit immunized with SjHmAg could recognize S. j specific antigens molecules, and these antigens may induce the protective immunity against S.j infection.

  5. Identification of Candidate Serum Biomarkers for Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice Using Multiple Proteomic Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardoush, Manal I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is an important helminth infection of humans. There are few reliable diagnostic biomarkers for early infection, for recurrent infection or to document successful treatment. In this study, we compared serum protein profiles in uninfected and infected mice to identify disease stage-specific biomarkers. Methods Serum collected from CD1 mice infected with 50–200 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were analyzed before infection and at 3, 6 and 12 weeks post-infection using three mass spectrometric (MS) platforms. Results Using SELDI-TOF MS, 66 discriminating m/z peaks were detected between S. mansoni infected mice and healthy controls. Used in various combinations, these peaks could 1) reliably diagnose early-stage disease, 2) distinguish between acute and chronic infection and 3) diagnose S. mansoni infection regardless the parasite burden. The most important contributors to these diagnostic algorithms were peaks at 3.7, 13 and 46 kDa. Employing sample fractionation and differential gel electrophoresis, we analyzed gel slices either by MALDI-TOF MS or Velos Orbitrap MS. The former yielded eight differentially-expressed host proteins in the serum at different disease stages including transferrin and alpha 1- antitrypsin. The latter suggested the presence of a surprising number of parasite-origin proteins in the serum during both the acute (n = 200) and chronic (n = 105) stages. The Orbitrap platform also identified many differentially-expressed host-origin serum proteins during the acute and chronic stages (296 and 220 respectively). The presence of one of the schistosome proteins, glutathione S transferase (GST: 25 KDa), was confirmed by Western Blot. This study provides proof-of-principle for an approach that can yield a large number of novel candidate biomarkers for Schistosoma infection. PMID:27138990

  6. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  7. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  8. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  9. Neuroschistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni: a review of pathogenesis, clinical syndromes and diagnostic approaches Neuroesquistossomose devido a Schistosoma mansoni: revisão da patogênese, síndromes clínicas e manejo diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroschistosomiasis (NS is the second most common form of presentation of infection by the trematode, Schistosoma mansoni. Granulomatous inflammatory reaction occurs as a result of schistosome eggs being transmitted to spinal cord or brain via the vascular system, or by inadvertent adult worm migration to these organs. The two main clinical syndromes are spinal cord neuroschistosomiasis (acute or subacute myelopathy and localized cerebral or cerebellar neuroschistosomiasis (focal CNS impairment, seizures, increased intracranial pressure. Presumptive diagnosis of NS requires confirming the presence of S. mansoni infection by stool microscopy or rectal biopsy for trematode eggs, and serologic testing of blood and spinal fluid. The localized lesions are identified by signs and symptoms, and confirmed by imaging techniques (contrast myelography, CT and MRI. Algorithms are presented to allow a stepwise approach to diagnosis.Neuroesquistossomose (NS é a segunda forma mais freqüente de apresentação da infecção causada pelo trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni. A inflamação do tipo granulomatosa ocorre como resultado da presença de ovos do S. mansoni que atingiram a medula espinhal ou o encéfalo via o sistema vascular ou pela migração inadvertida de vermes adultos para estes órgãos. Duas síndromes clínicas principais podem ser identificadas: a mielopatia esquistossomótica (aguda ou subaguda e a neuroesquistossomose cerebral ou cerebelar localizada (comprometimento focal do Sistema Nervoso Central, convulsões, hipertensão intracraniana. O diagnóstico presumido da NS requer a confirmação da presença da infecção por exame microscópico de fezes ou pela biópsia retal em busca de ovos de trematódeo e testes sorológicos no sangue e no líquor. As lesões localizadas são identificadas por sinais e sintomas, e confirmadas por exames de imagem (mielografia contrastada, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. Algoritmos s

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism alterations in Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni and exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex

    OpenAIRE

    Clélia Christina Mello-Silva; Mônica Magno Vilar; Maurício Carvalho Vasconcellos; Jairo Pinheiro; Maria de Lurdes de A Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the alterations in the glycogen content of tissues (digestive gland and cephalopedal mass) and glucose in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata BH strain infected with Schistosoma mansoni BH strain and exposed to the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii. A reduction in the glycogen deposits was observed in infected snails exposed and not exposed to latex. However, the exposure to latex caused a greater depletion of the glycogen levels in both sites analysed, espec...

  11. ANALISIS GEN PENYANDI Schistosoma japonicum Gluthation s Transferase (SJ26GST) DI DATARAN TINGGI LINDU, SULAWESI TENGAH INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Nurwidayati; Triwibowo A. Garjito; Phetisya Pamela Frederika Sumolang; Risti Risti

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSchistosomiasis is only found at Napu and Lindu highland, Central Sulawesi in Indonesia. Schistosomiasis still as a public health problem, with its prevalence increase every year. The large scale by mass drug treatment using praziquantel has done to reduce the prevalence since 1980. To look for the possibility evidence of the development of resistance in S. japonicumto praziquantel in endemic areas by analysis of Schistosoma japonicumGluthation S Transferase (Sj26gst) Coding Gene. Mol...

  12. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jianmei; Fu Zhiqiang; Feng Xingang; Shi Yaojun; Yuan Chunxiu; Liu Jinming; Hong Yang; Li Hao; Lu Ke; Lin Jiaojiao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information...

  13. Ultrastructural Observation and Gene Expression Profiling of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Two Natural Reservoir Hosts, Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jianmei Yang; Xingang Feng; Zhiqiang Fu; Chunxiu Yuan; Yang Hong; Yaojun Shi; Min Zhang; Jinming Liu; Hao Li; Ke Lu; Jiaojiao Lin

    2012-01-01

    Water buffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with water buffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression...

  14. Effect of Ketoconazole, a Cytochrome P450 Inhibitor, on the Efficacy of Quinine and Halofantrine against Schistosoma mansoni in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Seif el-Din, Sayed Hassan; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal; Hammam, Olfat Ali; El-Lakkany, Naglaa Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The fear that schistosomes will become resistant to praziquantel (PZQ) motivates the search for alternatives to treat schistosomiasis. The antimalarials quinine (QN) and halofantrine (HF) possess moderate antischistosomal properties. The major metabolic pathway of QN and HF is through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Accordingly, this study investigates the effects of CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole (KTZ), on the antischistosomal potential of these quinolines against Schistosoma mansoni infection by...

  15. Acetylcholinesterase of Schistosoma mansoni--functional correlates. Contributed in honor of Professor Hans Neurath's 90th birthday.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnon, R; Silman, I.; Tarrab-Hazdai, R

    1999-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme broadly distributed in many species, including parasites. It occurs in multiple molecular forms that differ in their quaternary structure and mode of anchoring to the cell surface. This review summarizes biochemical and immunological investigations carried out in our laboratories on AChE of the helmint, Schistosoma mansoni. AChE appears in S. mansoni in two principal molecular forms, both globular, with sedimentation coefficients of approximately 6.5 a...

  16. Candidate vaccine antigens identified by antibodies from mice vaccinated with 15- or 50-kilorad-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, D.; Harn, D A

    1993-01-01

    In murine schistosomiasis, the highest levels of resistance to cercarial challenge are obtained by vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae. To identify candidate vaccine antigens relevant to the vaccine model, we examined parasite antigens recognized by antibodies from mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. To optimize recognition of a wide spectrum of antigens, several factors that influence the level of protection in this model were varied; specifically, w...

  17. Penetration of human skin by the cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni: an investigation of the effect of multiple cercarial applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Rebecca; Bartlett, A; Brown, M. B.; C Marriott; Whitfield, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    It has previously been postulated that L-arginine emitted by penetrating Schistosoma mansoni cercariae serves as an intraspecific signal guiding other cercariae to the penetration site. It was suggested that penetrating in groups offers a selective advantage. If this hypothesis is correct and group penetration at one site on the host offers an advantage, it would follow that at such a site, successive groups of cercariae would be able to penetrate skin in either greater numbers or at a faster...

  18. Differences in Brazilian strains of Schistosoma mansoni evaluated by means of morphometric analysis of cercariae of both sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Silva José Roberto; Silva Cléber Hooper da; Pereira Mário José dos Santos; Oliveira Regina Maria Figueiredo de; Pinto Roberto Magalhães; Gomes Delir Corrêa

    2000-01-01

    Morphometrics of Brazilian strains (BH, SJ and CMO) of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were obtained with a computerized image analyzer (IMAGE PRO PLUS, MEDIA CYBERNETICS), considering the following characters: body area, tail, furcae, oral and ventral suckers and distance between them. For statistical analysis, the variance test (one-way Anova) was applied and significant differences of p< 0.05 were considered. All morphometric values in the BH strain were significantly higher (p< 0.05) than i...

  19. Immune Events Associated with High Level Protection against Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Pigs Immunized with UV-Attenuated Cercariae

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Fang; Lin, Dandan; Wu, Jingjiao; Gao, Yanan; Zhang, Donghui; Ji, Minjun; Wu, Guanling

    2010-01-01

    Background The vaccination of radiation-attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae can induce effective protection in artiodactyl, but the immune events related to protective immunity are not fully understood. To provide a paradigm for a human recombinant antigen vaccine, we have undertaken a vaccination and challenge experiment in pigs, which was recognized as an appropriate animal model in this type of study because of their similarity to human in immunology, and investigated the relative i...

  20. Cercarial Chaetotaxy and Sex Differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni Deriving from Humans and Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmondontinae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study was made between sympatric isolates of Schistosoma mansoni: one from a wild rodent (R) Nectomys squamipes and another one from humans (H) isolated from a low endemic schistosomiasis transmission area in Brazil. Our purpose was to detect differences between them concerning chaetotaxy (number and pattern of distribution of the argentophilic papillae) of the cercariae by means of silver impregnation. No significant difference (x > 0.05) between isolates was noted. Nevertheles...

  1. Structural changes in the jejunal mucosa of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni, fed low or high protein diets

    OpenAIRE

    Couto Janira Lúcia Assumpção; Ferreira Haroldo da Silva; Rocha Dinalva Bezerra da; Duarte Maria Eugênia Leite; Assunção Monica Lopes; Coutinho Eridan de Medeiros

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high and low-protein diets on the structure of the jejunal mucosa were studied in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice (morphology and histomorphometry). Weaning male albino mice were infected with 80 cercariae, fed with high (20%) or low-protein (5%) diets and compared to uninfected controls under the same conditions. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks after infection. Animals submitted to a low-protein diet showed lower weight curves, mainly when infected. In the jejunal mucosa, fing...

  2. Schistosoma haematobium Infection and CD4+ T-Cell Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study of Young South African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kleppa, Elisabeth; Klinge, Kari Furseth; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Holmen, Sigve; Lillebø, Kristine; Onsrud, Mathias; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Taylor, Myra; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma (S.) haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis and has been hypothesized to adversely impact HIV transmission and progression. On the other hand it has been hypothesized that HIV could influence the manifestations of schistosomiasis. In this cross-sectional study, we explored the association between urogenital S. haematobium infection and CD4 cell counts in 792 female high-school students from randomly selected schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We also investigated...

  3. An In-Depth Analysis of a Piece of Shit: Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie J Krauth; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Stefanie Knopp; Mahamadou Traoré; Eliézer K. N'Goran; Jürg Utzinger

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An accurate diagnosis of helminth infection is important to improve patient management. However, there is considerable intra- and inter-specimen variation of helminth egg counts in human feces. Homogenization of stool samples has been suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy, but there are no detailed investigations. Rapid disintegration of hookworm eggs constitutes another problem in epidemiological surveys. We studied the spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm ...

  4. Differential anti-glycan antibody responses in Schistosoma mansoni-infected children and adults studied by shotgun glycan microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela van Diepen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (bilharzia is a chronic and potentially deadly parasitic disease that affects millions of people in (subtropical areas. An important partial immunity to Schistosoma infections does develop in disease endemic areas, but this takes many years of exposure and maturation of the immune system. Therefore, children are far more susceptible to re-infection after treatment than older children and adults. This age-dependent immunity or susceptibility to re-infection has been shown to be associated with specific antibody and T cell responses. Many antibodies generated during Schistosoma infection are directed against the numerous glycans expressed by Schistosoma. The nature of glycan epitopes recognized by antibodies in natural schistosomiasis infection serum is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The binding of serum antibodies to glycans can be analyzed efficiently and quantitatively using glycan microarray approaches. Very small amounts of a large number of glycans are presented on a solid surface allowing binding properties of various glycan binding proteins to be tested. We have generated a so-called shotgun glycan microarray containing natural N-glycan and lipid-glycan fractions derived from 4 different life stages of S. mansoni and applied this array to the analysis of IgG and IgM antibodies in sera from children and adults living in an endemic area. This resulted in the identification of differential glycan recognition profiles characteristic for the two different age groups, possibly reflecting differences in age or differences in length of exposure or infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the shotgun glycan microarray approach to study antibody response profiles against schistosome-derived glycan elements, we have defined groups of infected individuals as well as glycan element clusters to which antibody responses are directed in S. mansoni infections. These findings are significant for further

  5. Activity of Artemether and Mefloquine against Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni in Athymic and Immunocompetent NMRI Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Jennifer; Vargas, Mireille; Doenhoff, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Immune effector mechanisms can enhance the activity of antischistosomal drugs. We examined the in vivo effect of single oral doses of the antimalarials artemether (400 mg/kg) and mefloquine (200 mg/kg), recently described to have promising antischistosomal properties, against juvenile and adult Schistosoma mansoni in T cell-deficient and in comparably infected age- and sex-matched immunologically intact control mice. Artemether and mefloquine are equally effective in athymic and immunocompete...

  6. Oxamniquine cures Schistosoma mansoni infection in a focus in which cure rates with praziquantel are unusually low

    OpenAIRE

    Stelma, F.F.; Sall, S.; Daff, B.; Sow, S; Niang, M; Gryseels, B.

    1997-01-01

    An outbreak of Schistosoma mansoni in northern Senegal was observed in 1988, and chemotherapy with praziquantel in this recently established focus resulted in very low parasitologic cure rates. Among other explanations, the emergence of a praziquantel-tolerant parasite strain was feared. To study this hypothesis further, 138 persons with endemic S. mansoni infection were randomly allocated to treatment with either 20 mg/kg oxamniquine or 40 mg/kg praziquantel. Parasitologic cure rates at 6 we...

  7. Praziquantel, Mefloquine-Praziquantel, and Mefloquine-Artesunate-Praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium: A Randomized, Exploratory, Open-Label Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, Jennifer; Silué, Kigbafori D; Adiossan, Lukas K.; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Monsan, N'Chou; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop additional therapeutics against schistosomiasis. The antimalarial drug mefloquine shows antischistosomal activity in animal models and clinical trials, which calls for further investigations. Methodology We comparatively assessed the efficacy and tolerability of the following treatments against Schistosoma haematobium in school-aged children in Côte d...

  8. Schistosoma mansoni Larvae Do Not Expand or Activate Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Their Migratory Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Redpath, Stephen A.; van der Werf, Nienke; MacDonald, Andrew S; Maizels, Rick M.; Taylor, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in suppression of immune responses during parasitic helminth infection, both by controlling damaging immunopathology and by inhibiting protective immunity. During the patent phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection, Foxp3+ Treg cells are activated and suppress egg-elicited Th2 responses, but little is known of their induction and role during the early prepatent larval stage of infection. We quantified Foxp3+ Treg cell responses during the first 3...

  9. Differences in immunogenicity and vaccine potential of peptides from .I.Schistosoma mansoni./I. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tallima, H.; Montash, M.; Vepřek, Pavel; Velek, Jiří; Ježek, Jan; El Ridi, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2003), s. 3290-3300. ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0690 Grant ostatní: ICGEB(IT) CRP/EGY98-03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : .I.Schistosoma mansoni./I. * glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase * synthetic peptide vaccine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2003

  10. Evaluating the potential impact of mass praziquantel administration for HIV prevention in schistosoma haematobium high-risk communities

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, Martial L Ndeffo; Gilbert, Jennifer A.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Epidemiological studies have observed that genital schistosomiasis is associated with an increased odd of HIV infection among women. We used mathematical modeling to explore the potential impact of mass preventive chemotherapy against schistosomiasis on HIV transmission in three sub-Saharan Africa countries: Angola, Kenya, and Zambia. We developed a model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) and HIV transmis...

  11. Sonographic screening for urinary tract abnormalities in patients with Schistosoma haematobium infection: pitfalls in examining pregnant women.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, J; Wagatsuma, Y; Aryeetey, M.; Feldmeier, H.

    1996-01-01

    In areas where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic, urinary schistosomiasis and pregnancy are frequently concomitant; however, both these conditions may produce similar urinary tract changes in ultrasound scans and hence their differential diagnosis may be difficult. In patients with urinary schistosomiasis, focal and/or diffuse urinary bladder wall changes are frequently detected ultrasonically. Dilatation of one or both ureters and progressive hydronephrosis may be observed in more severe ca...

  12. The prolonged use of niclosamide as a molluscicide for the control of Schistosoma mansoni Uso prolongado da niclosamida como moluscicida para o controle do Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Coura-Filho

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Applications of niclosamide at three-monthly intervals were undertaken for 14 years in foci of Biomphalaria glabrata in the water sources of Peri-Peri (Capim Branco, MG. All the residents of the area were submitted to an annual fecal examination (Kato/Katz and those individuals eliminating Schistosoma mansoni eggs were treated with oxamniquine. A malacological survey was undertaken at three-monthly intervals by means of ten scoops with a perforated ladle each ten metres along the two banks of the ditches and streams of the region. Where snails were found, molluscicide was applied by means of dripping or aspersion using a 3 ppm aqueous suspension of niclosamide. Initially, a mean of 14.3% of snails in the region were found to be eliminating cercariae. Following the first four applications of molluscicide, this was reduced to 0.0% and maintained at about 1.5% throughout the program. Thus, there was a continued possibility of schistosomiasis transmission in the area and it was observed that the population of snails reestablished itself within three months of molluscicide application. The results obtained in this study do not encourage the continual use of niclosamide as the only method of control of schistosomiasis.Aplicações trimestrais de niclosamida foram realizadas catorze anos em focos de Biomphalaria glabrata nas coleções hídricas de Peri-Peri, (Capim Branco, MG. Anualmente, os residentes da área eram submetidos a um exame coproscópio (Kato-Katz e os que eliminavam ovos de Schistosoma mansoni nas fezes eram tratados com oxarnniquine. O levantamento malacológico trimestral foi realizado através de dez conchadas a cada dez metros nas duas margens das valas e córregos da região. Onde eram encontrados caramujos aplicava-se o moluscicida pela técnica de gotejamento ou aspersão de suspensão aquosa da niclosamida a 3 ppm. O índice médio de caramujos eliminando cercarias na região era de 14,3%. Após as quatro primeiras aplica

  13. Development of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata Desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni em Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea e Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the development of Schistosoma mansoni during the intra-molluscan phase was made by means of histological sections of Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea and B. glabrata from Brazil. Two hundred snails of each species were individually exposed to 50 miracidia of the S. mansoni, AL line. No larvae were observed in the snails fixed 72 h after exposure. In specimens shedding cercariae, 31 days after exposure tissue reactions encapsulating the larvae were seen in B. tenagophila and B. straminea, in the head-foot, mantle collar and renal ducts. No tissue reactions occurred in the digestive glands of these two species. In B. glabrata the presence of numerous sporocysts and cercariae without tissue reactions was observed in the digestive gland, and other organs. The levels of infection of the snails and the average numbers of cercariae shed per day were 32.6% and 79±90 respectively for B. tenagophila, 11.3% and 112±100 for B. straminea and 75.3% and 432±436 for B. glabrata. The lower levels of infection and average numbers of cercariae shed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea are thus related to their more potent internal defense systems.Foi feito estudo comparativo do desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni na fase intra-molusco, através de cortes histológicos, em Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea e B. glabrata. Duzentos moluscos de cada espécie foram expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios de S. mansoni da linhagem AL. Nenhuma larva foi observada nos exemplares fixados 72 horas após a exposição. Nos exemplares eliminando cercárías, 31 dias após a exposição, foram observadas reações teciduais de encapsulamento de larvas em B. tenagophila e B. straminea, na região cefalopodal, colar do manto e dutos renais. Nas glândulas digestivas das duas espécies não foram observadas reações. Em B. glabrata foi registrada a presença de numerosos esporocistos e cercárias sem reação tecidual na gl

  14. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... And be sure to drink plenty of water, milk, or other liquids. Before donating, you'll need to answer some questions about your medical history, and have your temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and ...

  15. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  16. Amylase - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  17. Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Byskov, Jens

    1987-01-01

    splenomegaly. 80.5% of the children examined parasitologically were found infected. Among these the arithmetric mean egg output was 744.7 and the geometric mean 307.3 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), 46.0% were excreting more than 400 epg. 23 children were found to have an enlarged liver, whereas none was found...... with enlarged spleen. 21 of these had schistosomiasis. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was highest among those excreting above 1600 epg. Also the mean size of the enlarged livers increased with intensity of infection....

  18. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  20. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  1. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Print A A A ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  2. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  3. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  4. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  5. 东方田鼠抗日本血吸虫病机制研究%Study on the Mechanism of Microtus fortis Against Schistosoma Japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金明; 刘瑞三; 林矫矫; 傅志强; 李浩; 魏梅雄; 孙军; 张亮; 何艳燕; 蒋守富

    2003-01-01

    This paper was about the study on the mechanism of Microtus fortis against Schistosoma japonicum. Firstly,we confirmed that Microtus fortis came from epidemic region (Dongting Lake beaches) and non-epidemic region (Qingtong Gorge in Ningxia province) were both resistant to Schistosoma japonicum infection after re-infection tests for several times. It seemed that their resistant ability was inheritable rather than acquired. Secondly, it was demonstrated by in vivo check-up and in vitro killing assay that there were some native antibodies of IgG3 subclass specifically to the schistosomula and adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum in Microtus fortis, which probably played an important role in resisting Schistosoma japonicum associated with complement. It was shown that macrophages and eosinophils in abdominal cavity of Microtus fortis had native ability of adhering to the schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum. Then, the adult worm cDNA library of Schistosoma japonicum was screened with sera from Microtus fortis. Five positive clones were obtained, four of which were identified as new genes. Full-length cDNA of the two new genes were isolated by RACE. DNA vaccine was constructed with one named EST-mfs-3. After the Kunming mice immunized with this vaccine, the worm reduction rate and the egg reduction rate were 28.4% and 21.73% compared with that in control group respectively. This kind of DNA-based EST-mfs-3 vaccine was highly expressed in E. coli and induecd strong immune response in challenged group.Finally, two groups of cDNA probes prepared from liver and lung of Microtusfortis with or without Schistosoma japonicum infection were hybridized to the eDNA chip prepared from rat respectively. 156 and 332 genes revealed differential expression in infectious group compared with normal group. In conclusion, there would be many factors contribute to the mechanism of Microtusfortis against Schistosoma japonicum. We should stress the essentials and make further research on

  6. The inhibitory effect against collagen-induced arthritis by Schistosoma japonicum infection is infection stage-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi FengLi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long-term existing schistosome infection can aid in maintaining immuno-homeostasis, thus providing protection against various types of autoimmune diseases to the infected host. Such benefits have often been associated with acute or egg stage infection and with the egg-induced Th2 response. However, since schistosome infection undergoes different stages, each associated with a specific induction of Th responses, the requirements for the ability of the different stages of schistosome infection to protect against autoimmune disease has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to study whether different stages of schistosome infection offer unique protection in collagen-induced arthritis and its mechanisms. Results Arthritis susceptible strain DBA/1 male mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum for either 2 weeks resulting in early stage infection or for 7 weeks resulting in acute or egg stage infection. Following Schistosoma japonicum infection, collagen II was administered to induce collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis. Infection by Schistosoma japonicum significantly reduced the severity and the incidence of experimental autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis. However, this beneficial effect can only be provided by a pre-established acute stage of infection but not by a pre-established early stage of the infection. The protection against collagen-induced arthritis correlated with reduced levels of anti-collagen II IgG, especially the subclass of IgG2a. Moreover, in protected mice increased levels of IL-4 were present at the time of collagen II injection together with sustained higher IL-4 levels during the course of arthritis development. In contrast, in unprotected mice minimal levels of IL-4 were present at the initial stage of collagen II challenge together with lack of IL-4 induction following Schistosoma japonicum infection. Conclusion The protective effect against

  7. Accumulation of miscoding etheno-DNA adducts and highly expressed DNA repair during liver fluke-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechakhamphu, Somkid; Pinlaor, Somchai; Sitthithaworn, Paiboon; Bartsch, Helmut; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2010-09-10

    Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) may act through chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO)-related damage and growth stimuli. 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (epsilondA), and 3,N4-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (epsilondC), markers for LPO-derived DNA damage were highly increased in white blood cell and urine of O. viverrini-infected Thai patients. In order to investigate tissue specificity etheno adducts were measured in a cholangiocarcinogenesis model, in O. viverrini-infected hamsters that had received N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, 12.5 ppm in dw) for 2 months. epsilondA- and epsilondC-levels were analyzed in paraffin-embedded liver sections by a novel immunohistochemical method, from 21 up to 180 days post-O. viverrini-infection. In inflamed areas of the liver, etheno adducts were localized in the nuclei of inflammatory cells and in the epithelial lining of the bile duct. Semi-quantitative image analysis showed higher adduct levels in the liver of O. viverrini-infected hamsters, treated with or w/o NDMA when compared with untreated controls. Levels were found highest in the liver of O. viverrini-infected plus NDMA-treated hamsters. Adducts increased in an age-dependent manner from O. viverrini-infection until CCA development. Increased adduct formation paralleled histopathological changes in plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, bile duct hyperplasia, dysplasia, precancerous lesions, and CCA appearance. Also elevated expression of alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), which excises 1,N6-ethenoadenine (epsilonA) was linked to higher adduct formation, suggesting imbalanced repair. Our results implicate accumulation of inflammation-related, promutagenic DNA damage in target tissue and possibly imbalanced repair in the onset of cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:20541562

  8. RESISTANCE TO OXAMNIQUINE OF A Schistosoma mansoni STRAIN ISOLATED FROM PATIENT SUBMITTED TO REPEATED TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. COELHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Schistosoma mansoni (R1 was isolated from patient previously submitted to four treatments with oxamniquine, and to another one with praziquantel. The results obtained with chemotherapeutic test, by using oxamniquine in mice infected with the strains R1 and LE (standard, showed an evident resistance to the drug in worms of the strain R1. Thus, at the dose of 250 mg/kg oxamniquine, all mice (17 infected with the LE strain did not show surviving worms, whereas 12 out of 17 mice infected with the R1 strain presented surviving worms. At the dose of 200 mg/kg, the LE strain showed recovery rates of 1.06% and 20.58%, whereas the R1 strain presented 18.57% and 61.14%, for male and female worms, respectively. At the dose of 100 mg/kg, the recovery of male worms was 2.6% for the LE strain, and 29.9% for the R1 strain. At the same dose, the recovery of females did not show statistically significant differences between the two strains (LE = 76.38%, R1 = 79.12%. Praziquantel showed similar antischistosomal activity against both studied strains, when administered at the dose of 500 mg/kgResistência ao oxamniquine de uma cepa de Schistosoma mansoni isolada de paciente submetido a repetidos tratamentos Uma cepa de Schistosoma mansoni (R1 foi isolada de paciente previamente submetido a quatro tratamentos com oxamniquine e a um outro com praziquantel. Os resultados obtidos com o teste quimioterapêutico, usando oxamniquine em camundongos infectados com as cepas R1 e LE (padrão mostraram resistência evidente à droga em vermes de cepa R1. Assim, com a dose de 250 mg/kg de oxamniquine, todos os camundongos (17 dos 17 camundongos infectados com a cepa R1 apresentaram vermes sobreviventes. Com a dosagem de 200 mg/kg a cepa LE mostrou taxas de recuperação de 1,06 e 20,58% enquanto a cepa R1 apresentou 18,57 e 61,14% para os vermes machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Com a dose de 100 mg/kg a recuperação de vermes machos foi de 2,6% para a Cepa LE e

  9. Genome-wide identification of Schistosoma japonicum microRNAs using a deep-sequencing approach.

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    Jian Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent and serious parasitic diseases worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum is one of important pathogens of this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs in a given organism is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and posttranscriptional regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced two small RNA libraries prepared from different stages of the life cycle of S. japonicum, immature schistosomula and mature pairing adults, through a deep DNA sequencing approach, which yielded approximately 12 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of approximately 2 million non-redundant tags. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we identified 176 new S. japonicum miRNAs, of which some exhibited a differential pattern of expression between the two stages. Although 21 S. japonicum miRNAs are orthologs of known miRNAs within the metazoans, some nucleotides at many positions of Schistosoma miRNAs, such as miR-8, let-7, miR-10, miR-31, miR-92, miR-124, and miR-125, are indeed significantly distinct from other bilaterian orthologs. In addition, both miR-71 and some miR-2 family members in tandem are found to be clustered in a reversal direction model on two genomic loci, and two pairs of novel S. japonicum miRNAs were derived from sense and antisense DNA strands at the same genomic loci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The collection of S. japonicum miRNAs could be used as a new platform to study the genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, evolutionary processes, development, and host-parasite interactions. Some S. japonicum miRNAs and their clusters could represent the ancestral forms of the conserved orthologues and a model for the genesis of novel miRNAs.

  10. Effect of maternal Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni infection and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.

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    Robert Tweyongyere

    Full Text Available Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years.Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4% had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not.We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have

  11. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Schistosomiasis and pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazwan Butrous

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the parasite Schistosoma, which is a flat-worm or fluke. The dominant species are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis is the third most common parasitic disease in the world after malaria and amoebiasis. It is endemic in more than 70 countries affecting about 200 million people worldwide, of whom 80% are in sub-Saharan Africa. There are pockets of infection in north-eastern Brazil, near the Yangtz...

  12. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to infections including those we develop from our vaccinations (such as poliovirus antibodies, which are made by ... the Transfusion Medicine Unit, Blood Bank, and Stem Cell Storage Facility University of Rochester Medical ... and health educators who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 9 pm ( ...

  13. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

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    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  14. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Manal A Hamed

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  15. Genetic markers between Biomphalaria glabrata snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    RGM Spada

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the genetic variability related to susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the vector of the genus Biomphalaria is important in terms of a better understanding of the epidemiology of schistosomiasis itself, the possible pathological implications of this interaction in vertebrate hosts, and the formulation of new strategies and approaches for disease control. In the present study, the genetic variability of B. glabrata strains found to be resistant or susceptible to S. mansoni infection was investigated using DNA amplification by random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR. The amplification products were analyzed on 8% polyacrylamide gel and stained with silver. We selected 10 primers, since they have previously been useful to detect polymorphism among B. glabrata and/or B. tenagophila. The results showed polymorphisms with 5 primers. Polymorphic bands observed only in the susceptible strain. The RAPD-PCR methodology represents an adequate approach for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. The understanding of the genetic polymorphisms associated to resistance may contribute to the future identification of genomic sequences related to the resistance/susceptibility of Biomphalaria to the larval forms of S. mansoni and to the development of new strategies for the control of schistosomiasis.

  16. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Coen M Adema

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide a novel resource for analysis of the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, members of the international Biomphalaria glabrata Genome Initiative (biology.unm.edu/biomphalaria-genome.html, working with the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI and supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI, produced a high quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library. The BB02 strain B. glabrata, a field isolate (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil that is susceptible to several strains of Schistosoma mansoni, was selfed for two generations to reduce haplotype diversity in the offspring. High molecular weight DNA was isolated from ovotestes of 40 snails, partially digested with HindIII, and ligated into pAGIBAC1 vector. The resulting B. glabrata BAC library (BG_BBa consists of 61824 clones (136.3 kb average insert size and provides 9.05 × coverage of the 931 Mb genome. Probing with single/low copy number genes from B. glabrata and fingerprinting of selected BAC clones indicated that the BAC library sufficiently represents the gene complement. BAC end sequence data (514 reads, 299860 nt indicated that the genome of B. glabrata contains ~ 63% AT, and disclosed several novel genes, transposable elements, and groups of high frequency sequence elements. This BG_BBa BAC library, available from AGI at cost to the research community, gains in relevance because BB02 strain B. glabrata is targeted whole genome sequencing by NHGRI.

  17. Pathology associated with vaccination against Schistosoma mansoni in mice using cryopreserved radiation attenuated schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one mice were injected intramuscularly with 2000 Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula irradiated at 20 krad and cryopreserved; three mice were killed on each of day 0, 2, 5, 9, 19, 28 and 44 days after infection and muscle from the site of injection in the left hind leg, the lungs and livers removed for histological examination. Schistosomula were seen in sections from the leg muscle from days 0 to 19 inclusive, in the lungs from day 2 to day 28 inclusive and in the livers from days 9 to 28 inclusive. Most schistosomula were seen in sections of the leg muscle with considerably fewer parasites occurring in the lungs and especially the livers. Granulomatous reactions comprising eosinophils, polymorphs, plasma cells and macrophages were first seen in the leg muscle on day 2, in the lungs on day 5 and in the liver on day 19. The peak inflammatory reactions appeared to occur between days 5 and 9, 9 and 19 and 28 and 44 respectively in the three tissues. The pathology is discussed in relation to the dose of irradiation required to attenuate the schistosomula for optimal immunogenicity. (author)

  18. Development of a real time polymerase chain reaction for quantitation of Schistosoma mansoni DNA

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    Ana Lisa do Vale Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the development of a SYBR Green I based real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocol for detection on the ABI Prism 7000 instrument. Primers targeting the gene encoding the SSU rRNA were designed to amplify with high specificity DNA from Schistosoma mansoni, in a real time quantitative PCR system. The limit of detection of parasite DNA for the system was 10 fg of purified genomic DNA, that means less than the equivalent to one parasite cell (genome ~580 fg DNA. The efficiency was 0.99 and the correlation coefficient (R² was 0.97. When different copy numbers of the target amplicon were used as standards, the assay could detect at least 10 copies of the specific target. The primers used were designed to amplify a 106 bp DNA fragment (Tm 83ºC. The assay was highly specific for S. mansoni, and did not recognize DNA from closely related non-schistosome trematodes. The real time PCR allowed for accurate quantification of S. mansoni DNA and no time-consuming post-PCR detection of amplification products by gel electrophoresis was required. The assay is potentially able to quantify S. mansoni DNA (and indirectly parasite burden in a number of samples, such as snail tissue, serum and feces from patients, and cercaria infested water. Thus, these PCR protocols have potential to be used as tools for monitoring of schistosome transmission and quantitative diagnosis of human infection.

  19. Carcinogenesis associated with parasites other than Schistosoma, Opisthorchis and Clonorchis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicado, Claudia; Marcos, Luis A

    2016-06-15

    Only three helminths (Schistosoma haematobium, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis) are directly associated with carcinogenesis in humans whereas the role of other parasites in cancer remains unclear. This study aimed to perform a systematic review to identify recent insights in the role of other parasite infections in carcinogenesis. We conducted systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE on July 2015. Our primary outcome was the association between parasitic infections and carcinogenesis. Out of 1,266 studies, 19 were selected for detailed evaluation (eight for helminths and 11 for protozoa). The mechanisms of helminth-induced cancer included chronic inflammation, sustained proliferation, modulation of the host immune system, reprogramming of glucose metabolism and redox signaling, induction of genomic instability and destabilization of suppressor tumor proteins, stimulation of angiogenesis, resisting cell death, and activation of invasion and metastasis. In addition to the current knowledge, the following parasites were found in cancers or tumors: Echinococcus, Strongyloides, Fasciola, Heterakis, Platynosomum and Trichuris. Additional parasites were found in this systematic review that could potentially be associated with cancers or tumors but further evidence is needed to elaborate a cause-effect relationship. PMID:26840624

  20. Schistosoma mansoni: cambios ultraestructurales durante la transformación del miracidio in vitro

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    Emilia E. Barrios

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural changes were assessed during in vitro transformation ofmiracidia (M of Schistosoma mansoni. Morphological characteristics werebased on viability (protonefrigial integrity and uptake of trypan blue dye, larvalsize and degree of differentiation into mother sporocysts (MS during incubationin RPMI-1640 by 30 min followed by 7 days in Hansen medium. Lightmicroscopy showed that M first step of transformation occurs within 30 min,with loss of movement and ciliary epidermal plates. Transformed MS areextended, with worm-like movement and active flame cells; viability was 76% at5 days and 50% at 11 days, and increased three-fold in length reaching 300 µmduring the first 16 days. Transmission Electron Microscopy at 24 h of culturerevealed significant structural changes in tegumental composition anddistribution; free polysomes and microvilli were found in the external layer ofthe tegument. At day 7 the external membrane of MS was thin and interiorgerminative bags were observed, with electron-dense proteic granules. Theprotonefrigial system remained intact at 24 h of culture, constituted by flamecells with 11 pairs of peripheral microtubules. It is concluded that miracidialtransformation in cell-free culture results in surface alteration, and involvesultrastructural changes

  1. Spatial distribution of human Schistosoma japonicum infections in the Dongting Lake Region, China.

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    Giovanna Raso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to spatially model the effect of demographic, reservoir hosts and environmental factors on human Schistosoma japonicum infection prevalence in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China and to determine the potential of each indicator in targeting schistosomiasis control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional serological, coprological and demographic data were obtained from the 2004 nationwide periodic epidemiologic survey for Hunan Province. Environmental data were downloaded from the USGS EROS data centre. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed for spatial analysis of the infection prevalence among study participants. A total of 47,139 participants from 47 administrative villages were selected. Age, sex and occupation of residents and the presence of infected buffaloes and environmental factors, i.e. NDVI, distance to the lake and endemic type of setting, were significantly associated with S. japonicum infection prevalence. After taking into account spatial correlation, however, only demographic factors (age, sex and occupation and the presence of infected buffaloes remained significant indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long established demographic factors, as well presence of host reservoirs rather than environmental factors are driving human transmission. Findings of this work can be used for epidemiologic surveillance and for the future planning of interventions in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province.

  2. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:27228897

  3. The effects of gamma-irradiation on migration and survival of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infections with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni were established by intramuscular injection of mechanically transformed schistosomula. A dose of 2.3 krad. allowed persistence of a small proportion of worms to adulthood, and of these survivors the majority of the female worms were sexually sterile. However, a small proportion of 2.3 krad.-irradiated females and a larger proportion of similarly irradiated males were capable of pairing successfully with non-irradiated partners. Radiation in the range 2.3 to 10 krad. resulted in slightly reduced peak recoveries from the lungs while 20 krad. resulted in a much reduced and 40 krad. a virtual absence of survival to the lung stage. Increasing doses of radiation in the range 2.3 to 10 krad. resulted in successively fewer parasites reaching the liver. Thus, the major sites of the radiation-induced mortality appeared to be 2.3 krad., mainly in the liver; 4 krad., in the lungs and liver; 10 krad., mainly in the lungs; 20 krad., at the injection site and in the lungs and 40 krad., mainly at the injection site. These infections showed reduced survival following exposure to high doses of radiation compared with the infections, established as percutaneously applied cercariae, which have been reported elsewhere. (author)

  4. Factors Involved in Schistosoma mansoni Infection, in Rural Areas of Northeast Brazil

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    Coutinho Eridan M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two contiguous villages in Tracunhaém county (State of Pernambuco, endemic for schistosomiasis, were studied: Itapinassu (138 inhabitants and São Joaquim (91 inhabitants. Agriculture predominates in the former region while ceramics is the main activity in the latter. Although no statistical difference was found regarding prevalence, severe infection (>400 epg predominated in Itapinassu, probably related to the kind of occupation. No association was found between parasite burden and severity of disease, in spite of the high infection rates for Schistosoma mansoni in both communities (approx. 60%. Typical epidemiological features of schistosomiasis such as age-related prevalences and intensities of infection (high in children, low in adults were also mutual characteristics. Nutritional status determined through anthropometric evaluation was carried out by measuring specific anthropometric indicators. A deficit of energy intake, as well as vitamin A and riboflavin deficiencies were detected. The prevalence of moderate or severe undernutrition in patients under 18 years old was 21.9% in Itapinassu and 24.1% in São Joaquim. In this group an association was found between prevalence of schistosomiasis and chronic undernutrition. Similarly, for patients over 18 year old the prevalence of undernutrition was higher than 20%. However, in this case no association between nutritional status and either prevalence of schistosomiasis or parasite burden could be detected. The two communities had not been treated for eight years.

  5. Oral Vaccination Based on DNA-Chitosan Nanoparticles against Schistosoma mansoni Infection

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    Carolina R. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a vaccine would be essential for the control of schistosomiasis, which is recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. A new approach of oral vaccination with DNA-chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because of their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides chitosan immunostimulatory properties. Here we described that chitosan nanoparticles loaded with plasmid DNA encoding Rho1-GTPase protein of Schistosoma mansoni, prepared at different molar ratios of primary amines to DNA phosphate anion (N/P, were able to complex electrostatically with DNA and condense it into positively charged nanostructures. Nanoparticles were able to maintain zeta potential and size characteristics in media that simulate gastric (SGF and intestinal fluids (SIF. Further in vivo studies showed that oral immunization was not able to induce high levels of specific antibodies but induced high levels of the modulatory cytokine IL-10. This resulted in a significative reduce of liver pathology, although it could not protect mice of infection challenge with S. mansoni worms. Mice immunized only with chitosan nanoparticles presented 47% of protection against parasite infection, suggesting an important role of chitosan in inducing a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, which will be more explored in further studies.

  6. [Bilharziasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni in a traveler returning from Guinea: failure of serodiagnostic testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P; El Samad, Y; Chouaki, T; Borel, A; Agnamey, P; Totet, A; Schmit, J L

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case of febrile hypereosinophilic syndrome in a traveler three weeks after returning from a sightseeing trip to Guinea. Laboratory testing demonstrated an inflammatory response syndrome and hepatic cytolysis. Parasite serology led to suspicion of toxocariasis that was treated using albendazole. Follow-up tests at two months showed the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in stools despite negative standard serodiagnostic testing (hemagglutination). Secondarily Western blot testing of serum samples at one, two and 14 months after returning from Guinea continued to show only protein bands specific to toxocariasis with no bands specific to bilhariziasis. These findings provide further evidence of the limitations of serological testing for detection of bilharziasis in travelers and the difficulty of diagnosis. Guinea is a high-risk tourist destination. Intestinal and urinary bilharziasis are endemic over three-fourths of country. Travelers planning even short stays in areas where bilharziasis is endemic should be advised on preventive measures. PMID:17691438

  7. Therapy with bone marrow cells reduces liver alterations in mice chronically infected by Schistosoma mansoni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheilla Andrade Oliveira; Bruno Solano Freitas Souza; Cada Adriana Guimar(a)es-Ferreira; Elton Sá Barreto; Siane Campos Souza; Luiz Antonio Rodrigues Freitas; Ricardo Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MCs) in the regeneration of hepatic lesions induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S.mansoni) chronic infection.METHODS: Female mice chronically infected with S.mansoni were treated with BM-MCs obtained from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by intravenous or intralobular injections. Control mice received injections of saline in similar conditions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for GFP DNA, immunofluorescence and morphometric studies were performed.RESULTS: Transplanted GFP+ cells migrated to granuloma areas and reduced the percentage of liver fibrosis. The presence of donor-derived cells was confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for detection of cells bearing Y chromosome and by PCR analysis for detection of GFP DNA. The levels of TGF-β, a cytokine associated with fibrosis deposition, in liver fragments of mice submitted to therapy were reduced. The number of oval cells in liver sections of S.rnansoni-infected mice increased 3-4 fold after transplantation. A partial recovery in albumin expression, which is decreased upon infection with S.mansoni, was found in livers of infected mice after cellular therapy.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, transplanted BMCs migrate to and reduce the damage of chronic fibrotic liver lesions caused by S.mansoni.

  8. Activity Profile of an FDA-Approved Compound Library against Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Gordana Panic

    Full Text Available As plans to expand mass drug treatment campaigns to fight schistosomiasis form, worries about reliance on praziquantel as the sole available treatment motivate the investigation for novel antischistosomal compounds. Drug repurposing might be an inexpensive and effective source of novel antischistosomal leads.1600 FDA approved compounds were first assayed against Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula at a concentration of 10 µM. Active compounds identified from this screen were advanced to the adult worm screen at 33.33 µM, followed by hit characterization. Leads with complementary pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles were then selected for in vivo studies.The in vitro screen identified 121 and 36 compounds active against the schistosomula and adult stage, respectively. Further, in vitro characterization and comparison with already available pharmacokinetic and toxicity data identified 11 in vivo candidates. Doramectin (10 mg/kg and clofazimine (400 mg/kg were found to be active in vivo with worm burden reductions of 60.1% and 82.7%, respectively.The work presented here expands the knowledge of antischistosomal properties of already approved compounds and underscores variations observed between target-based and phenotypic approaches and among laboratories. The two in vivo-active drugs identified in this study, doramectin and clofazimine are widely available and present as novel drug classes as starting points for further investigation.

  9. Ultrasound monitoring of structural urinary tract disease in Schistosoma haematobium infection

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    King Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major advance in our understanding of the natural history of Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity has come through the introduction of the portable ultrasound machines for non-invasive examination of the kidneys and bladder. With the use of generators or battery packs to supply power in non-clinical field settings, and with the use of instant photography or miniaturized thermal printers to record permanent images, it is possible to examine scores of individuals in endemic communities every day. Broad-based ultrasound screening has allowed better definition of age-specific disease risks in urinary schistosomiasis. Results indicate that urinary tract abnormalities are common (18% overall prevalence in S. haematobium transmission areas, with a 2-4% risk of either severe bladder abnormality or advanced ureteral obstruction. In longitudinal surveys, ultrasound studies have shown that praziquantel and metrifonate therapy are rapidly effective in reversing urinary tract abnormalities among children. The benefits of treating adults are less well known, but research in progress should help to define this issue. Similarly, the prognosis of specific ultrasound findings needs to be clarified, and the ease of sonographic examination will make such long-term follow-up studies feasible. In summary, the painless, quick, and reproducible ultrasound examination has become an essential tool in the study of urinary schistosomiasis.

  10. Behavior of Schistosoma mansoni-induced histopathological lesions in Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

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    Azevedo Carine M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Present report demonstrates that repeated radiation of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata, totaling 15,000 rads, caused a sudden, albeit transient, suppression of cercarial shedding. Initially, sporocysts practically disappeared from the snail tissues. The more resistant developing cercariae presented nuclear clumping and vacuolation, before undergoing lysis. No host tissue reaction was evident at any time. Thirty-four days after the last irradiation, the snails resumed cercarial elimination. By that time numerous sporocysts and developing cercariae were detected, disseminated throughout snail tissues in a pattern similar to that of a highly malignant neoplasm, with no signs of host cellular reactions, which on the other hand were present in non-irradiated infected controls. The region of the ovo-testis was apparently destroyed after radiation, but returned to its normal appearance around 40 days after the last radiation. Ionizing radiation affected both host and parasite in S. mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata, but the resulting impressive changes were soon reversed.

  11. T cell derived cytokines in lung-phase immunity to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Wilson

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In C57Bl/6 strain mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni immune elimination of challenge parasites occurs in the lungs. Leococytes were recovered from the lungs of such mice by bronchoalveolar lavage and cultured in vitro with larval antigen; the profile of cytokines released was then analyzed. From 14 days after vaccination, BAL cultures contained infiltrating lymphocytes wich produced abundant quantitties of IFN-g and IL-3. Challenge of vaccinated mice resulted in a second influx of IFN-g nd IL-3- producing cells, earlier than after vaccination or in the appropriate contropls. Ablation studies revealed that CD4+ T cells were the source of IFN-g. The timing of cytokine production after vaccination, and challenge was coincident with the phases of macrophage activation previously reported. At no time could lymphocytes in BAL cultures to stimulated to proliferate with either larval Ag or mitogen, in contrast to splenocytes from the same mice. Furthermore, T cell growth factor activity was not detected in BAL cultures stimulated with Ag. We suggest that the lymphocytes recruited to the lungs are memory/effector cells, When Ag. released challenge schistosomula is presented to these cells, they respond by secreting cytokines wich mediate the formation of cellular aggregates around the parasites, blocking their onward migration.

  12. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni glycoproteins recognized by protective antibodies from mice immunized with irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.P.; Strand, M.; Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The humoral immune responses of mice patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni and of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae were compared by radioimmunoassays and one-and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses of radioimmunoprecipitates. Sera of vaccinated mice precipitated a restricted number of predominantly high m.w. glycoproteins of both schistosomula and adult worms metabolically labeled with (/sup 35/S) methinonine. Each of the glycoproteins of 36 hr in vitro-cultured schistosomula that was precipitated by the sera of vaccinated mice was also precipitated by sera of infected mice. In contrast, sera of vaccinated mice uniquely precipitated a 38,000 m.w. glycoprotein of schistosomula cultured for 5 days and a 94,000 m.w. glycoprotein of adult male worms. Although radiation-attenuated larvae do not reach the adult stage, mice vaccinated with these still elicit a strong immune response against egg glycoproteins. In particular, an egg glycoprotein of 85,000 to 70,000 and isoelectric point of 4.8 showed an enhanced reactivity with sera of vaccinated mice in comparison with infected mice. These results show that the antibody response in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated larvae differs qualitatively and quantitatively from that of infected mice.

  13. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PMID:27054062

  14. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni glycoproteins recognized by protective antibodies from mice immunized with irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.P.; Strand, M.; Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.

    1986-06-15

    The humoral immune response of mice patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni and of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae were compared by radioimmunoassays and one-and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses of radioimmunoprecipitates. The binding observed with antibodies of mice vaccinated twice with radiation-attenuated cercariae over a period of 7 to 11 wk was less than 50% of the binding observed with antibodies of mice patently infected for 20 wk, but three to four times greater than that obtained with antibodies of mice infected for 6 wk, irrespective of whether the test extracts were derived from schistosomula or adult worms. Sera of vaccinated mice precipitated a restricted number of predominantly high m.w. glycoproteins of both schistosomula and adult worms metabolically labeled with sulfur-35 methionine. Each of the glycoproteins of 36 hr in vitro-cultured schistosomula that was precipitated by the sera of vaccinated mice was also precipitated by the sera of infected mice. Although radiation-attenuated larvae do not reach the adult stage, mice vaccinated with these still elicit a strong immune response against egg glycoproteins. These results show that the antibody response in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated larvae differs qualitatively and quantitatively from that of infected mice.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni: the prophylactic and curative effect of propolis in experimentally mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of propolis, a natural bee product on lung and liver schistosomules as well on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni in immunosuppressed mice. All groups were infected with 100+-10 S. mansoni cercariae/mouse injected subcutaneously. Immunosuppression was induced by hydrocortisone hemisuccinate at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. intramusculary twice weekly for 8 weeks, starting 10 days before infection. Propolis was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, starting 5 days before infection and continued up to 45 days postinfection, to cover all stages of S. mansoni infection. Praziquantel (PZQ) was administered orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day, on the 5th and 6th and 45th and 46th days post-infection. The number of lung schistosomules showed a significant reduction of 59.22% with propolis and 98.89% with PZQ. The administration of propolis caused a marked reduction of egg counts in stool (61.8%) and tissues (49.9% and 45.8%). Propolis produced a significant reduction of 58.38% in adult worms. PZQ produced a reduction of 83.65% in adult worms and 98.38% in stool egg counts and (91.99% and 89.22% ) reductions in liver and intestine egg counts respectively. The effect of propolis when compared to PZQ is promising in immunosuppressed S. mansoni infected mice. (author)

  16. Schistosoma mansoni polypeptides immunogenic in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared the humoral immune response of mice protected against Schistosoma mansoni by vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae to that of patently infected mice, and we identified antigens that elicit a greater, or unique, immune response in the vaccinated mice. These comparisons were based upon radioimmunoprecipitations and immunodepletion of [35S]methionine-labeled schistosomular and adult worm polypeptides, followed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses. The humoral responses of patently infected mice and of mice vaccinated once were remarkably similar and were directed against schistosome glycoproteins ranging in molecular size from greater than 300 to less than 10 kDa. Exposing mice to a second vaccination resulted in a marked change in the immune response, to one predominantly directed toward high molecular size glycoproteins. Sequential immunodepletion techniques identified five schistosomular and seven adult worm antigens that showed a greater or unique immunogenicity in vaccinated mice as compared with patently infected mice. These adult worm antigens were purified by preparative sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and used to prepare a polyclonal antiserum, anti-irradiated vaccine. This antiserum bound to the surface of live newly transformed and lung-stage schistosomula, as assessed by immunofluorescence assays, and was reactive with a number of 125I-labeled schistosomular surface polypeptides, including a doublet of 150 kDa that was also recognized by sera of vaccinated mice but not by sera of patently infected mice

  17. The induction of specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of mice to ultraviolet attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice can be partially protected against Schistosoma japonicum by prior exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated infections which fail to survive to the adult stage and produce no overt pathology in the host. Optimum resistance was induced by parasites exposed to 40 seconds of UV, significantly lower levels of resistance being stimulated by both shorter and longer exposures. No consistent relationship between the degree of resistance induced and the number of irradiated cercariae given could be demonstrated and equivocal results were obtained when comparing the efficacy of single and multiple vaccinations. Vaccinations with UV-attenuated cercariae given intraperitoneally (i.p.) were as efficacious as those given percutaneously but mice were as or more resistant to challenges given by the i.p. route, the possible reasons are discussed. There was no observed delay in the migration of the challenge, vaccinated mice being as resistant when perfused 6 or 3.5 weeks after challenge. Vaccination was species specific since mice exposed to either UV-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae or gamma-attenuated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to homologous but not heterologous challenge. (author)

  18. Regional and splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses of mice exposed to normal or irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, F.A.; Wilson, E.M.

    1982-05-01

    Developing larvae of Schistosoma mansoni migrate through various tissues en route to the liver and mesenteric veins of their definitive host. Regional (lymph node) and systemic (spleen) blastogenic responses to cercarial, adult and egg antigens were measured in CBA/J mice at various times after exposure to normal or irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. Among the separate lymph node groups studied were those draining the tail, thoracic region, intestines, head and neck, and the pelvis. Blastogenic responses were assayed by a micromethod requiring 10(5) cells in 20 microliter volumes per culture. Up to 5 weeks post-cercarial exposure the pattern of responses in lymphoid tissues of infected mice coincided with the migratory route of the parasites. Following oviposition, cellular reactivity was pronounced in all lymph node groups. The reactivity of mice exposed to irradiated cercariae followed a pattern suggestive of a sustained antigenic stimulus only in the nodes draining the tail and lungs. Splenic (systemic) reactivity was roughly comparable between the two exposure groups. These data show the independence and vast differences in the host regional responses following normal or irradiated cercarial exposure.

  19. Schistosoma mansoni polypeptides immunogenic in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.P.; Strand, M.

    1987-10-01

    We compared the humoral immune response of mice protected against Schistosoma mansoni by vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae to that of patently infected mice, and we identified antigens that elicit a greater, or unique, immune response in the vaccinated mice. These comparisons were based upon radioimmunoprecipitations and immunodepletion of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled schistosomular and adult worm polypeptides, followed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses. The humoral responses of patently infected mice and of mice vaccinated once were remarkably similar and were directed against schistosome glycoproteins ranging in molecular size from greater than 300 to less than 10 kDa. Exposing mice to a second vaccination resulted in a marked change in the immune response, to one predominantly directed toward high molecular size glycoproteins. Sequential immunodepletion techniques identified five schistosomular and seven adult worm antigens that showed a greater or unique immunogenicity in vaccinated mice as compared with patently infected mice. These adult worm antigens were purified by preparative sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and used to prepare a polyclonal antiserum, anti-irradiated vaccine. This antiserum bound to the surface of live newly transformed and lung-stage schistosomula, as assessed by immunofluorescence assays, and was reactive with a number of /sup 125/I-labeled schistosomular surface polypeptides, including a doublet of 150 kDa that was also recognized by sera of vaccinated mice but not by sera of patently infected mice.

  20. Induction of specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of mice to ultraviolet attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloney, N.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Webbe, G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, St. Albans (UK). Winches Farm Field Station)

    1985-01-01

    Mice can be partially protected against Schistosoma japonicum by prior exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated infections which fail to survive to the adult stage and produce no overt pathology in the host. Optimum resistance was induced by parasites exposed to 40 seconds of UV, significantly lower levels of resistance being stimulated by both shorter and longer exposures. No consistent relationship between the degree of resistance induced and the number of irradiated cercariae given could be demonstrated and equivocal results were obtained when comparing the efficacy of single and multiple vaccinations. Vaccinations with UV-attenuated cercariae given intraperitoneally (i.p.) were as efficacious as those given percutaneously but mice were as or more resistant to challenges given by the i.p. route, the possible reasons are discussed. There was no observed delay in the migration of the challenge, vaccinated mice being as resistant when perfused 6 or 3.5 weeks after challenge. Vaccination was species specific since mice exposed to either UV-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae or gamma-attenuated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to homologous but not heterologous challenge.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni: quantification of skin penetration and early migration by differential external radioassay and autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, J.R. (New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca (USA))

    1982-04-01

    Eleven gamma-emitting radionuclides (/sup 49/Sc, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 75/Se (as selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate), /sup 109/Cd, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 203/Hg) were screened as labelling agents for Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by incubation of infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails in radioactive solution. Only (/sup 75/Se)methionine yielded satisfactorily labelled cercariae. Differential external radioassay, a new technique employing partial body shielding within a total body counter, permitted separate estimation of tail and body radioactivity of conscious mice previously exposed by tail immersion to /sup 75/Se-labelled cercariae, with measurements repeated as often as desired. Approximately 39% of the /sup 75/Se present in emergent cercariae was retained by schistosomula transformed in vitro but this was subject to considerable variation, especially in schistosomula transformed in vivo. Secreted or catabolized label from penetrant cercariae and schistosomula was rapidly removed from the skin by the bloodstream. Numbers of schistosomula in tail skin were directly proportional to the number of reduced silver foci counted on tail autoradiograms; only a very small fraction of tail radioactivity represented unbound ('spurious') label. Migration of schistosomula away from skin was 50% complete at 3.8-4.3 days, as determined by probit analysis of autoradiographic data.

  2. Immunization of rats against Schistosoma mansoni using irradiated cercariae, lung schistosomula and liver-stage worms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, St. Albans (UK). Winches Farm Field Station)

    1984-10-01

    In PVG rats a single immunizing infection with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exposed to 0 - 20 krad. gamma radiation failed to induce more than minimal resistance to challenge 4 weeks later, whereas 4 immunizations with 20 krad.-irradiated cercariae, over several months, induced substantial resistance. In contrast, significant protection was induced in Fischer rats by a single immunization with unirradiated cercariae or cercariae irradiated with up to 80 krad. Comparable resistance was induced by 2 - 20 krad.-irradiated cercariae and lower levels by 10 - 80 krad.-irradiated infections. Although the resistance induced by a single dose of 1000 20 krad.-irradiated cercariae could be boosted by a second, further immunizations failed to enhance this resistance. Comparison of the migration and survival of unirradiated and of 20 and 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae revealed dramatic differences in their fate: parasites exposed to 40 krad. remained in the skin, while the majority of 20 krad.-irradiated parasites died in the lungs after a sojourn of at least 14 days. The immunizing potential of older parasites was investigated by exposing rats to lung and liver-stage larvae injected into the tail and mesenteric veins, respectively.

  3. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni glycoproteins recognized by protective antibodies from mice immunized with irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The humoral immune responses of mice patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni and of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae were compared by radioimmunoassays and one-and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses of radioimmunoprecipitates. Sera of vaccinated mice precipitated a restricted number of predominantly high m.w. glycoproteins of both schistosomula and adult worms metabolically labeled with [35S] methinonine. Each of the glycoproteins of 36 hr in vitro-cultured schistosomula that was precipitated by the sera of vaccinated mice was also precipitated by sera of infected mice. In contrast, sera of vaccinated mice uniquely precipitated a 38,000 m.w. glycoprotein of schistosomula cultured for 5 days and a 94,000 m.w. glycoprotein of adult male worms. Although radiation-attenuated larvae do not reach the adult stage, mice vaccinated with these still elicit a strong immune response against egg glycoproteins. In particular, an egg glycoprotein of 85,000 to 70,000 and isoelectric point of 4.8 showed an enhanced reactivity with sera of vaccinated mice in comparison with infected mice. These results show that the antibody response in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated larvae differs qualitatively and quantitatively from that of infected mice

  4. Immunization of mice with gamma-irradiated intramuscularly injected schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters involved in the induction of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni by injection of irradiated, artificially transformed schistosomula were studied in mice. Single intramuscular injections of 500 schistosomula exposed to radiation doses in the range 2.3 to 160 krad. resulted in significant protection ( in the range 20 to 50% as assessed by reduced worm burdens) against a challenge infection administered at intervals from 3 to 24 weeks post-vaccination. However, schistosomular irradiated with 20 krad. consistently resulted in better protection than those exposed to either higher or lower radiation doses despite the persistence of stunted adults from the infections irradiated with 2.3 krad. Vaccination with 40 krad. schistosomula resulted in significant protection in terms of reduced worm and tissue egg burdens and increased survival following lethal challenge. Varying the number of irradiated schistosomula, the frequency and route of their administration, the site of challenge and the strain of host all failed to enhance the level of resistance. However, percutaneously applied, irradiated cercariae were found to be more effective in stimulating resistance (60%) than intramuscularly injected, irradiated schistosomula (40%). (author)

  5. Regional and splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses of mice exposed to normal or irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing larvae of Schistosoma mansoni migrate through various tissues en route to the liver and mesenteric veins of their definitive host. Regional (lymph node) and systemic (spleen) blastogenic responses to cercarial, adult and egg antigens were measured in CBA/J mice at various times after exposure to normal or irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. Among the separate lymph node groups studied were those draining the tail, thoracic region, intestines, head and neck, and the pelvis. Blastogenic responses were assayed by a micromethod requiring 10(5) cells in 20 microliter volumes per culture. Up to 5 weeks post-cercarial exposure the pattern of responses in lymphoid tissues of infected mice coincided with the migratory route of the parasites. Following oviposition, cellular reactivity was pronounced in all lymph node groups. The reactivity of mice exposed to irradiated cercariae followed a pattern suggestive of a sustained antigenic stimulus only in the nodes draining the tail and lungs. Splenic (systemic) reactivity was roughly comparable between the two exposure groups. These data show the independence and vast differences in the host regional responses following normal or irradiated cercarial exposure

  6. Schistosoma mansoni: vaccination of mice with 10-krad-irradiated, cryopreserved schistosomules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, F.A.; Stirewalt, M.A.; Leef, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    Protection against a Schistosoma mansoni cercarial challenge was evaluated in mice immunized with a vaccine composed of 10-krad-irradiated, cryopreserved schistosomules. The level of resistance induced in C57B1/6 or NMRI (CV) mice increased with the number of schistosomules injected. Up to 83% reduction in challenge worm burden was achieved when 5000 schistosomules were injected per mouse. Intramuscular injection of the vaccine was superior to subcutaneous. Multiple immunizations, up to 3 at 4-week intervals, did not increase the resistance induced by a single immunization. A high level of protection developed in as little as 2 weeks and was maintained through at least 12 weeks postimmunization. The vaccine irradiated with 10 krad from either a 60-cobalt or 137-cesium source induced equivalent levels of resistance, and no differences were found in the immunogenicity of vaccines comprised of organisms irradiated as cercariae or as 1- to 3-hr-old schistosomules. These findings are basic to the development of a cryopreserved, live vaccine against schistosomiasis of humans or domestic animals.

  7. Evaluation of Protection against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice Vaccinated with Irradiated Cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Present study was designed to evaluate the biological changes in mice vaccinated with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae (40 krad) in comparison with infected non-vaccinated group. The degree of resistance was assessed by parasitological, biochemical, immunological, histopathological as well as scanning electron microscopy studies. The results of the present study revealed a significant reduction in worm burden and ova count in both liver and intestine of the immunized group. In addition, a moderate amelioration was recorded in the liver functions; gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine and aspartate transaminase (ALT and AST). Assessment of tissue nuclear factor-a (TNF-a) and Interleukin -10 (IL-IO) in sera of the experimental groups showed significant protection changes. Histopathological examination of vaccinated mice livers showed protection against parasite maturation and liver damage after challenged as compared to mice infected only without vaccination. Also, scanning electron microscopy of whole worm revealed severe degree of surface tegumental disruption and intensive stunted of the worms as well as loss of the dorsal tegumental spines, On the other hand, there were severe deformations in both the anterior and ventral suckers as a result of the immunization

  8. Schistosoma mansoni: quantification of skin penetration and early migration by differential external radioassay land autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven gamma-emitting radionuclides (49Sc, 54Mn, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se (as selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate), 109Cd, 125Sb, 133Ba, 137Cs and 203Hg) were screened as labelling agents for Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by incubation of infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails in radioactive solution. Only [75Se]methionine yielded satisfactorily labelled cercariae. Differential external radioassay, a new technique employing partial body shielding within a total body counter, permitted separate estimation of tail and body radioactivity of conscious mice previously exposed by tail immersion to 75Se-labelled cercariae, with measurements repeated as often as desired. Approximately 39% of the 75Se present in emergent cercariae was retained by schistosomula transformed in vitro but this was subject to considerable variation, especially in schistosomula transformed in vivo. Secreted or catabolized label from penetrant cercariae and schistosomula was rapidly removed from the skin by the bloodstream. Numbers of schistosomula in tail skin were directly proportional to the number of reduced silver foci counted on tail autoradiograms; only a very small fraction of tail radioactivity represented unbound ('spurious') label. Migration of schistosomula away from skin was 50% complete at 3.8-4.3 days, as determined by probit analysis of autoradiographic data. (author)

  9. Sensory Protein Kinase Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae: Host Location and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressurreição, Margarida; Kirk, Ruth S; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Page, Nigel M; Walker, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    Schistosoma mansoni cercariae display specific behavioral responses to abiotic/biotic stimuli enabling them to locate and infect the definitive human host. Here we report the effect of such stimulants on signaling pathways of cercariae in relation to host finding and invasion. Cercariae exposed to various light/temperature regimens displayed modulated protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activities, with distinct responses at 37 °C and intense light/dark, when compared to 24 °C under normal light. Kinase activities were localized to regions including the oral sensory papillae, acetabular ducts, tegument, acetabular glands, and nervous system. Furthermore, linoleic acid modulated PKC and ERK activities concurrent with the temporal release of acetabular gland components. Attenuation of PKC, ERK, and p38 MAPK activities significantly reduced gland component release, particularly in response to linoleic acid, demonstrating the importance of these signaling pathways to host penetration mechanisms. PMID:26401028

  10. Ultrastructural and biochemical detection of biotin and biotinylated polypeptides in Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos P.R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotinylation is proposed for the identification of surface proteins in Schistosoma mansoni using the streptavidin-HRP conjugate for the detection of labeled polypeptides. However, control samples also showed several endogenous biotinylated polypeptides. In an attempt to determine the possibility of nonspecific binding between the streptavidin-HRP conjugate and polypeptides from S. mansoni, the conjugate was blocked with biotinamidecaproate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BcapNHS before biotin-streptavidin blotting. No bands were detected on the nitrocellulose sheet, demonstrating the specific recognition of biotin by the streptavidin present in the conjugate. Whole cercariae and cercarial bodies and tails showed several endogenous biotinylated polypeptides. The biotin concentration was 13 µg/190,000 cercariae. Adult worms presented less endogenous biotinylated polypeptides than cercariae. These results may be due to changes in the environment from aerobic to anaerobic conditions when cercarial bodies (schistosomula are transformed into adult worms and a decrease in CO2 production may occur. Cercariae, cercarial bodies and adult male worms were examined by transmission electron microscopy employing an avidin-colloidal gold conjugate for the detection of endogenous biotin. Gold particles were distributed mainly on the muscle fibers, but dispersed granules were observed in the tegument, mitochondria and cytosol. The discovery of endogenous biotin in S. mansoni should be investigated in order to clarify the function of this vitamin in the parasite

  11. Protection against heterologous infection by using cross antigenicity between schistosoma mansoni and fasciola hepatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in many areas in America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. There is an urgent need for improved methods to control the parasite's transmission. The present study is parasitological, immunological (interleukine-1β and interleukine-6) and histopathological investigations on the immunizing effect of cross antigenicity between S. mansoni and F. hepatica against schistosomiasis and fasciolosis in mice. Parasitological study showed that vaccination with irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni or vaccination by F. hepatica whole worm extract (FhWWE) before challenged with encysted metacercariae of F. hepatica or cercariae of S. mansoni played a significant control on the parasitic infection manifested by a remarkable reduction in the means of worm count. Assessment of IL-1β and IL-6 in sera of the experimental groups showed that there are cross reactivity between fasciola / schistosoma and its relation to cross protection. Histopathological examination of vaccinated mice livers showed protection against parasite maturation and liver damage after challenged, as compared to mice infected only without vaccination

  12. Immunization of rats against Schistosoma mansoni using irradiated cercariae, lung schistosomula and liver-stage worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In PVG rats a single immunizing infection with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exposed to 0 - 20 krad. gamma radiation failed to induce more than minimal resistance to challenge 4 weeks later, whereas 4 immunizations with 20 krad.-irradiated cercariae, over several months, induced substantial resistance. In contrast, significant protection was induced in Fischer rats by a single immunization with unirradiated cercariae or cercariae irradiated with up to 80 krad. Comparable resistance was induced by 2 - 20 krad.-irradiated cercariae and lower levels by 10 - 80 krad.-irradiated infections. Although the resistance induced by a single dose of 1000 20 krad.-irradiated cercariae could be boosted by a second, further immunizations failed to enhance this resistance. Comparison of the migration and survival of unirradiated and of 20 and 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae revealed dramatic differences in their fate: parasites exposed to 40 krad. remained in the skin, while the majority of 20 krad.-irradiated parasites died in the lungs after a sojourn of at least 14 days. The immunizing potential of older parasites was investigated by exposing rats to lung and liver-stage larvae injected into the tail and mesenteric veins, respectively. (author)

  13. Collagen arrangement in hepatic granuloma in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni: dependence on fiber radiation centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Lenzi

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The collagen structure of isolated and in situ liver granuloma from Swiss Webster mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni was sequentially and three-dimensionally analyzed during different times of infection (early acute, acute, transitional acute-chronic, and chronic phases by laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron scanning variable vacuum microscopy. The initial granuloma structure is characterized by vascular collagen residues and by anchorage points (or fiber radiation centers, from where collagenous fibers are angularly shed and self-assembled. During the exudative-productive stage, the self-assembly of these fibers minimizes energy and mass through continuous tension and focal compression. The curvature or angles between collagen fibers probably depends on the fibroblastic or myofibroblastic organization of stress fibers. Gradually, the loose unstable lattice of the exudative-productive stage transforms into a highly packed and stable architecture as a result of progressive compactness. The three-dimensional architecture of granulomas provides increased tissue integrity, efficient distribution of soluble compounds and a haptotactic background to the cells.

  14. An Isochore-Like Structure in the Genome of the Flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamolle, Guillermo; Protasio, Anna V; Iriarte, Andrés; Jara, Eugenio; Simón, Diego; Musto, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are compositionally heterogeneous, that is, composed by regions that differ in guanine-cytosine (GC) content (isochores). The most well documented case is that of vertebrates (mainly mammals) although it has been also noted among unicellular eukaryotes and invertebrates. In the human genome, regarded as a typical mammal, this heterogeneity is associated with several features. Specifically, genes located in GC-richest regions are the GC3-richest, display CpG islands and have shorter introns. Furthermore, these genes are more heavily expressed and tend to be located at the extremes of the chromosomes. Although the compositional heterogeneity seems to be widespread among eukaryotes, the associated properties noted in the human genome and other mammals have not been investigated in depth in other taxa Here we provide evidence that the genome of the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is compositionally heterogeneous and exhibits an isochore-like structure, displaying some features associated, until now, only with the human and other vertebrate genomes, with the exception of gene concentration. PMID:27435793

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  16. Exposure to Hycanthone alters chromatin structure around specific gene functions and specific repeats in Schistosoma mansoni

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    David eRoquis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic plathyhelminth responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis, a disease affecting 67 million people worldwide and causing an important economic burden. The schistosomicides hycanthone, and its later proxy oxamniquine, were widely used for treatments in endemic areas during the 20th century. Recently, the mechanism of action, as well as the genetic origin of a stably and Mendelian inherited resistance for both drugs was elucidated in two strains. However, several observations suggested early on that alternative mechanisms might exist, by which resistance could be induced for these two drugs in sensitive lines of schistosomes. This induced resistance appeared rapidly, within the first generation, but was metastable (not stably inherited. Epigenetic inheritance could explain such a phenomenon and we therefore re-analyzed the historical data with our current knowledge of epigenetics. In addition, we performed new experiments such as ChIP-seq on hycanthone treated worms. We found distinct chromatin structure changes between sensitive worms and induced resistant worms from the same strain. No specific pathway was discovered, but genes in which chromatin structure modification were observed are mostly associated with transport and catabolism, which makes sense in the context of the elimination of the drug. Specific differences were observed in the repetitive compartment of the genome. We finally describe what types of experiments are needed to understand the complexity of heritability that can be based on genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms for drug resistance in schistosomes.

  17. Effect of bee venom or proplis on molecular and parasitological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

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    Mohamed, Azza H; Hassab El-Nabi, Sobhy E; Bayomi, Asmaa E; Abdelaal, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the efficacy of Apis mellifera L bee venom (BV) or proplis (200 mg/kg orally for three consecutive days) on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. The results recorded reduction in the total worm burden, numbers of immature eggs and the ova count in hepatic tissue in BV (sting or injection) or proplis treated groups as compared to the infected group. Histological examination illustrated a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the diameter of hepatic granuloma in BV treated groups (272.78 and 266.9, respectively) and a significant decrease in proplis treated mice (229.35) compared with the infected group (260.67). Electrophoretic pattern of RNA showed a decrease in mean of maximal optical density in liver and intestine of S. mansoni infected mice treated with bee venom (sting or injection) as compared with infected group. Flow cytometry analyses of RNA or apoptotic percentage of worms recovered from BV sting (19 and 49 % respectively); BV injected (20.5 and 51.17 %, respectively) and proplis (35 and 23.93 %, respectively) groups were compared with S. mansoni infected group (37.87 and 39.21 %, respectively). It can be concluded that administration of bee venom or proplis are effective in case of S. mansoni infection. Although bee venom cause increase of granuloma diameter and this might be due to venom concentration and further studies are required to avoid such harmful effect. PMID:27413311

  18. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

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    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  19. Schistosoma mansoni: interactive effects of irradiation and cryopreservation on parasite maturation and immunization of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, E.R.; Dobinson, A.R.

    1984-06-01

    Mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were irradiated with levels of 60Co irradiation between 2.5 and 54 krad, cryopreserved by the two-step addition of ethanediol and rapid cooling technique, and were injected intramuscularly into groups of mice which were perfused 40 days later. The schistosomula were either irradiated and then cryopreserved (IC) or cryopreserved and then irradiated in the frozen state (CI). Development into adult worms was prevented with 4 krad for IC schistosomula, but for CI schistosomula a small number of worms (1.6%) was recovered using 8.8 krad. A dose of 4 krad was sufficient to prevent development of unfrozen controls (I), but for schistosomula irradiated while exposed to ethanediol (EI), a dose of 7 krad was required. Using the different protocols, the peak levels of protection against a challenge infection were achieved with 9 (IC) and 16 krad (CI), compared to 20 krad for unfrozen schistosomula (I) reported previously. The highest level of protection (65%) was achieved with CI schistosomula. Possible interactions between the radioprotective and damaging effects of cryopreservation are discussed.

  20. Congenital infection of rabbits with Schistosoma japonicum and protective immunity of offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI You-en 石佑恩; Abdel-Moneim M Salim 沙里模; NING Chang-xiu 宁长修; GAN Yan 甘燕; ZHU Xiao-hua 朱晓华; PU Ling-yi 卜玲毅

    2004-01-01

    Background Recently congenital infection with Schistosoma japonicum (S. Japonicum) has been domonstrated in pigs, rabbits, mice and dogs. We explored the rabbit as an animal model for the congenital infection of schistosomiasis japonica and assessed the effect of a congenital S. Japonicum infection on the resistance of rabbit kittens to a postnatal challenge infection.Methods Sixteen pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were infected with a single dose of S. Japonicum cercariae. The exposed animals were divided into three groups according to the gestation age at the time of infection. Diagnosis of prenatally acquired S. Japonicum infection in the rabbit kittens was primarily based on serological tests in combination with parasitological and histopathological findings. Congenitally infected kittens were challenged percutaneously with 100 S. Japonicum cercariae to assess the effect of a congenital S. Japonicum infection on kitten resistance to a postnatal challenge infection.Conclusions This study demonstrates the possibility of congenital infection of S. Japonicum in rabbits and the resistance of congenitally infected kittens to a postnatal challenge infection. These results have important implications not only for epidemiological investigations, but also in designing government control programs for schistosomiasis.

  1. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

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    Yan-Rong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  2. The prolonged use of niclosamide as a molluscicide for the control of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura-Filho, P; Mendes, N M; de Souza, C P; Pereira, J P

    1992-01-01

    Applications of niclosamide at three-monthly intervals were undertaken for 14 years in foci of Biomphalaria glabrata in the water sources of Peri-Peri (Capim Branco, MG). All the residents of the area were submitted to an annual fecal examination (Kato/Katz) and those individuals eliminating Schistosoma mansoni eggs were treated with oxamniquine. A malacological survey was undertaken at three-monthly intervals by means of ten scoops with a perforated ladle each ten metres along the two banks of the ditches and streams of the region. Where snails were found, molluscicide was applied by means of dripping or aspersion using a 3 ppm aqueous suspension of niclosamide. Initially, a mean of 14.3% of snails in the region were found to be eliminating cercariae. Following the first four applications of molluscicide, this was reduced to 0.0% and maintained at about 1.5% throughout the program. Thus, there was a continued possibility of schistosomiasis transmission in the area and it was observed that the population of snails reestablished itself within three months of molluscicide application. The results obtained in this study do not encourage the continual use of niclosamide as the only method of control of schistosomiasis. PMID:1342106

  3. In silico analysis and developmental expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcela P; Oliveira, Victor F; Pereira, Roberta V; de Abreu, Fabiano C P; Jannotti-Passos, Liana K; Borges, William C; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (Ub-E2) perform the second step of ubiquitination and, consequently, are essential for regulating proteolysis and for modulating protein function, interactions and trafficking. Previously, our group demonstrated the crucial role of ubiquitination and the Ub-proteasome pathway during the Schistosoma mansoni life cycle. In the present investigation, we used a homology-based genome-wide bioinformatics approach to identify and molecularly characterise the Ub-E2 enzymes in S. mansoni. The putative functions were further investigated through molecular phylogenetic and expression profile analyses using cercariae, adult worms, eggs and mechanically transformed schistosomula (MTS) cultured in vitro for 3.5 h or 1 or 3 days. We identified, via in silico analysis, 17 Ub-E2 enzymes with conserved structural characteristics: the beta-sheet and the helix-2 form a central core bordered by helix-1 at one side and helix-3 and helix-4 at the other. The observed quantitative differences in the steady-state transcript levels between the cercariae and adult worms may contribute to the differential protein ubiquitination observed during the parasite's life cycle. This study is the first to identify and characterise the E2 ubiquitin conjugation family in S. mansoni and provides fundamental information regarding their molecular phylogenetics and developmental expression during intra-mammalian stages. PMID:25663106

  4. Identification of Antigenic Glycans from Schistosoma mansoni by Using a Shotgun Egg Glycan Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickum, Megan L; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Song, Xuezheng; Dorabawila, Nelum; Mandalasi, Msano; Lasanajak, Yi; Luyai, Anthony; Secor, W Evan; Wilkins, Patricia P; Van Die, Irma; Smith, David F; Nyame, A Kwame; Cummings, Richard D; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Infection of mammals by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni induces antibodies to glycan antigens in worms and eggs, but the differential nature of the immune response among infected mammals is poorly understood. To better define these responses, we used a shotgun glycomics approach in which N-glycans from schistosome egg glycoproteins were prepared, derivatized, separated, and used to generate an egg shotgun glycan microarray. This array was interrogated with sera from infected mice, rhesus monkeys, and humans and with glycan-binding proteins and antibodies to gather information about the structures of antigenic glycans, which also were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A major glycan antigen targeted by IgG from different infected species is the FLDNF epitope [Fucα3GalNAcβ4(Fucα3)GlcNAc-R], which is also recognized by the IgG monoclonal antibody F2D2. The FLDNF antigen is expressed by all life stages of the parasite in mammalian hosts, and F2D2 can kill schistosomula in vitro in a complement-dependent manner. Different antisera also recognized other glycan determinants, including core β-xylose and highly fucosylated glycans. Thus, the natural shotgun glycan microarray of schistosome eggs is useful in identifying antigenic glycans and in developing new anti-glycan reagents that may have diagnostic applications and contribute to developing new vaccines against schistosomiasis. PMID:26883596

  5. Role of berberine in ameliorating Schistosoma mansoni-induced hepatic injury in mice

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    Mohamed A Dkhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. Berberine chloride (BER, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has been used in vivo for its antiparasitic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this study, the protective effect of BER and praziquantel has been compared for the extent of schistosomiasis-induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue of mice. RESULTS: S. mansoni was able to induce inflammation and injury to the liver, evidenced (i by an increase in inflammatory cellular infiltrations, dilated sinusoids and vacuolated hepatocytes, (ii by decreased levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase in the liver homogenate, (iii by increased production of nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and (iv by lowered glutathione levels and decreased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during BER treatment. In particular, berberine counteracted the S. mansoni-induced loss of glutathione and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it is concluded that berberine could ameliorate pre-existing liver damage and oxidative stress conditions due to schistosomiasis.

  6. Response of drug resistant isolates of Schistosoma mansoni to antischistosomal agents

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    Kristen M. Drescher

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of four isolates of Schistosoma mansoni (BH, MAP, MPR-1 and K to four multiple doses of anti-schistosomal agents (hycanthone, niridazole, oxamniquire, and praziquantel were evaluated in infected female Swiss albino mice. These schistosomal isolates had been maintained in the laboratory without further drug pressure for 20 to 30 generations. Multiple dosage regimens were used for each drug against each isolate of S. mansoni to generate ED50 (effective dose 50% values. Results demonstrated that the K isolate is resistant to niridazole, the MPR-1 isolate to oxamniquine, and the MAP isolate to both hycanthone and oxamniquine. The BH isolate was susceptible to all drugs and was used as the reference isolate. All isolates were susceptible to praziquantel. The significance of the difference in response of the MPR-1 and MAP isolates is discussed. These results confirm the resistance of these isolates of S. mansoni of three schistosomicides and demonstrate that the resistance of these isolates are stable over long periods of time without exposure to drugs.

  7. A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula

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    Rong Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05. We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05 in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis.

  8. Schistosomicidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae against Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

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    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Ac-EO against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni is reported in this paper. Concerning this activity, Ac-EO was considered to be active, but less effective than the positive control (praziquantel, PZQ in terms of separation of coupled pairs, mortality, decrease in motor activity, and tegumental alterations. However, Ac-EO caused an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of eggs of S. mansoni. Precocene I (74.30% and (E-caryophyllene (14.23% were identified as the two major constituents of Ac-EO. These compounds were tested individually and were found to be much less effective than Ac-EO and PZQ. A mixture of the two major compounds in a ratio similar to that found in the Ac-EO was also less effective than Ac-EO, thus revealing that there are no synergistic effects between these components. These results suggest that the essential oil of A. conyzoides is very promising for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  9. Impact of Antifibrotic Treatment on the Course of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Murine Model

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    Giboda Michal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of an antifibrotic agent as an adjunct to antihelmintic treatment with the objective of morbidity reduction was investigated in the murine schistosomiasis mansoni model. Antifibrotic, ß-aminopropionitrile treatment has a profound effect on the cellular matrix composition of the liver granuloma of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice when given alone, resulting in increase macrophage infiltration. These macrophages, in response to stimulation with soluble egg antigen or lipopolysaccharide produced elevated levels of nitric oxide but low levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha compared to untreated infected mice. This also correlated with reduced liver granuloma size. In spite of low numbers of eggs in the liver, mice receiving a combine treatment had a high level of resistance to a challenge infection compared with mice receiving only praziquantel. Those mice also exhibited a reduced lymphocyte proliferative response, similar to that of infected untreated mice. Antifibrotic treatment has an impact on the dynamic of the cellular nature of granulomas and impacts on the host immunity to infection

  10. Cerebral Schistosomiasis Caused by Schistosoma mansoni: a Case Report with Clinical Analysis

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    M Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCentral nervous system involvement arising from schistosomiasis is uncommon. It may be produced most fre­quently by Schistosoma japonicum infection, but reports of S. mansoni presenting as an intracerebral mass lesion are particularly rare. The authors describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a 3-month history of partial epilep­tic seizures and head­aches. She immigrated to Egypt 4 years ago and had worked in Iraq for 2 years after the immigration. The patient's gen­eral physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed an enhanc­ing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. A stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. S. mansoni was identified by stool examination. Prednisone (1 mg/kg per day for 1 week, with gradual with­drawal during the following 3 weeks and praziquantel (2 doses at 20 mg/kg per day therapy was initiated. The patient's symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MR imaging yielded normal findings. This case is the rare imported case of cerebral schistosomiasis in China and the neuroschistosomiasis should be considered as the patient lived in a region in which this disease is endemic.

  11. La queratotaxia cercariana en la diferenciacion de sexos de schistosoma mansoni

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    Luz Arelis Pino

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available El número de papilas argirófilas superficiales y su modelo de disposición en el tegumento de las cercarias (quetotaxia de Schistosoma mansoni nos permitió diferenciar los sexos a nivel del mencionado estadío larvario, mediante los siguientes critérios: - Mayor homogeneidad en las cercarias machos, en cuanto al número total de papilas ventrales y dorsales a nivel de cuerpo y cola cercarianos (C.V. = 4,1%, que en las cercarias hembras (C. V. = 18,3% (P < 0,001. - Presencia en el 80% de las cercarias machos de cuatro papilas en los cuadrantes "C" ó "D" inferior-izquierdo e inferior-derecho, respectivamente ventrales, mientras que dicho caracter sólo está presente en el 40% de las cercarias hembras (P < 0,001. - Diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P < 0,001 entre el número total promedio de papilas corporales centrales de las cercarias hembras (X = 11,9 ± 0,2 y el de las cercarias machos (X = 11,1 ± 0,3. - Diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P < 0,05 para la mayor distancia promedio entre las papilas AIL y AIIL, de cada cercaria, en relación con el sexo (femenino = 25,5 µm ± 0,33; masculino = 27,3 µm ± 0,26.

  12. The characteristics of NK cells in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mouse spleens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Cha, Hefei; Yu, Xiuxue; Xie, Hongyan; Wu, Changyou; Dong, Nuo; Huang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are classic innate immune cells that play roles in many types of infectious disease. Recently, some new characteristics of NK cells were discovered. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum for 5-6 weeks and lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen to detect some of the NK cell characteristics by multiparametric flow cytometry. The results revealed that the S. japonicum infection induced a large amount of NK cells, although the percentage of NK cells was not increased significantly. At the same time, the results showed that infected mouse splenic NK cells expressed increased levels of CD25 and CD69 and produced more IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17 and less IFN-γ after stimulation with PMA and ionomycin. This meant that NK cells played a role in S. japonicum infection. Moreover, decreased NKG2A/C/E (CD94) expression levels were detected on the surface of NK cells from infected mouse spleens, which might serve as a NK cell activation mechanism. Additionally, high levels of IL-10, but not PD-1, were expressed on the infected mouse NK cells, which implied that functional exhaustion might exist in the splenic NK cells from S. japonicum-infected mice. Collectively, our results suggest that NK cells play important roles in the course of S. japonicum infection. PMID:26319521

  13. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

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    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  14. Differential gene expression in haemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A N; Raghavan, N; FitzGerald, P C; Lewis, F A; Knight, M

    2001-05-15

    Parasite encapsulation and destruction in Biomphalaria glabrata has been shown to involve the cellular component of the snail's internal defence system, the haemocytes. To identify genes involved in the immunobiology of these cells, we used the method of differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) to investigate differential gene regulation in haemocytes isolated from Schistosoma mansoni exposed and unexposed snails. RNA isolated from circulating haemocytes from resistant snails (BS-90 stock), previously exposed to S. mansoni, was analysed using 12 different arbitrary primers in conjunction with an anchored Oligo d(T(11)CG) primer. Transcription profiles between haemocytes of parasite exposed and unexposed snails were compared and a total of 87 differentially regulated bands were identified and isolated. Of these, 65 bands were cloned and used as probes in Southern blots to show the presence of corresponding sequences in the snail genome. RT-PCR was performed to verify the regulation of these transcripts. DNA sequence analysis showed that the majority of the cloned sequences were novel, although a few showed a high degree of sequence similarity to other sequences in the DNA and protein databases. One of these included a differentially expressed transcript that showed a significant degree of sequence identity to E. coli transposase Tn5, an enzyme whose activity is normally associated with generating mobility and instability in the genome. PMID:11336750

  15. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

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    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  16. Schistosoma mansoni: vaccination of mice with 10-krad-irradiated, cryopreserved schistosomules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection against a Schistosoma mansoni cercarial challenge was evaluated in mice immunized with a vaccine composed of 10-krad-irradiated, cryopreserved schistosomules. The level of resistance induced in C57B1/6 or NMRI (CV) mice increased with the number of schistosomules injected. Up to 83% reduction in challenge worm burden was achieved when 5000 schistosomules were injected per mouse. Intramuscular injection of the vaccine was superior to subcutaneous. Multiple immunizations, up to 3 at 4-week intervals, did not increase the resistance induced by a single immunization. A high level of protection developed in as little as 2 weeks and was maintained through at least 12 weeks postimmunization. The vaccine irradiated with 10 krad from either a 60-cobalt or 137-cesium source induced equivalent levels of resistance, and no differences were found in the immunogenicity of vaccines comprised of organisms irradiated as cercariae or as 1- to 3-hr-old schistosomules. These findings are basic to the development of a cryopreserved, live vaccine against schistosomiasis of humans or domestic animals

  17. The temperature--dependent expression of GST of Schistosoma japonicum (Philippine strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Z H; Song, G C; Xu, Y X; Liu, S X

    1993-03-01

    Obtained from pSj5, the cDNA gene encoding GST antigen of Schistosoma japonicum (Philippine strain) was ligated with efficient temperature-dependent PBV220 vector which was constructed in CAPM, and then introduced into host bacterium-DH5 alpha (E. coli) by transformation. Transformants were selected by ampicillin and recombinant clones were identified by restriction mapping. The result showed that recombinant clone 43 was the one carrying recombinant plasmid PBV 220 with the correct insertion of the gene fragment. The GST expression ability of clone 43 was investigated by GST enzymic activity assay and SDS-PAGE. A relatively high level of GST enzymic activity was expressed by this clone under the temperature-dependent condition, that is, cultured at 30 degrees C and expressed at 42 degrees C. A more strongly stained 26 kDa protein band was identified by SDS-PAGE. The result indicated that GST of S. japonicum (Philippine strain) could be expressed not only by IPTG induction, but also by the temperature-dependent method. PMID:8362308

  18. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

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    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  19. Increase of malaria attacks among children presenting concomitant infection by Schistosoma mansoni in Senegal

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    Diop Mamadou

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminthic infections concomitant with malaria are common in inter-tropical areas. A recent study showed that mice co-infected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium chabaudi develop higher P. chabaudi parasitaemia and had a higher mortality rate. This important observation deserved to be further investigated among human populations. Malaria attacks were recorded in 512 children aged 6–15 years living in Richard Toll (Northern Senegal among whom 336 were infected by S. mansoni, and 175 were not. The incidence rate of malaria attacks was significantly higher among S. mansoni-infected individuals, particularly those carrying the highest worm loads, as compared to uninfected subjects (26.6% versus 16,4 %. In contrast, the rate of malaria attacks was lower, without reaching significance, in medium grade S. mansoni infections. Thus, infection by S. mansoni affects susceptibility to malaria, but this can vary according to the intensity of parasite load. The immunological mechanisms underlying this dual effect need to be further explored.

  20. Increase of malaria attacks among children presenting concomitant infection by Schistosoma mansoni in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhna, Cheikh; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves; Mbaye, Pape A; Akiana, Jean; Camara, Pape; Diop, Mamadou; Ly, Abdoulaye; Druilhe, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Helminthic infections concomitant with malaria are common in inter-tropical areas. A recent study showed that mice co-infected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium chabaudi develop higher P. chabaudi parasitaemia and had a higher mortality rate. This important observation deserved to be further investigated among human populations. Malaria attacks were recorded in 512 children aged 6–15 years living in Richard Toll (Northern Senegal) among whom 336 were infected by S. mansoni, and 175 were not. The incidence rate of malaria attacks was significantly higher among S. mansoni-infected individuals, particularly those carrying the highest worm loads, as compared to uninfected subjects (26.6% versus 16,4 %). In contrast, the rate of malaria attacks was lower, without reaching significance, in medium grade S. mansoni infections. Thus, infection by S. mansoni affects susceptibility to malaria, but this can vary according to the intensity of parasite load. The immunological mechanisms underlying this dual effect need to be further explored. PMID:15544703

  1. Helminth Protein Vaccine Induced Follicular T Helper Cell for Enhancement of Humoral Immunity against Schistosoma japonicum

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    Jingyao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.

  2. Immobilized purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Schistosoma mansoni for specific inhibition studies.

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    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Cardoso, Carmen L; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-05-01

    The parasite Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) depends exclusively on the salvage pathway for its purine requirements. The enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is, therefore, a promising target for development of antischistosomal agents and an assay for screening of inhibitors. To enable this, immobilized SmPNP reactors were produced. By quantification of hypoxanthine by liquid chromatography, kinetic constants (K M) for the substrate inosine were determined for the free and immobilized enzyme as 110 ± 6.90 μmol L (-1) and 164 ± 13.4 μmol L (-1), respectively, indicating that immobilization did not affect enzyme activity. Furthermore, the enzyme retained 25 % of its activity after four months. Non-Michaelis kinetics for the phosphate substrate, and capacity for Pi-independent hydrolysis were also demonstrated, despite the low rate of enzymatic catalysis. Use of an SmPNP immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) for inhibitor-screening assays was demonstrated with a small library of 9-deazaguanine analogues. The method had high selectivity and specificity compared with screening by use of the free enzyme by the Kalckar method, and furnished results without the need for verification of the absence of false positives. PMID:23535739

  3. Discovery of new inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni PNP by pharmacophore-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo, Matheus P; Guido, Rafael V C; Oliva, Glaucius; Castilho, Marcelo S; da R Pitta, Ivan; de Albuquerque, Julianna F C; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2010-09-27

    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most important tropical parasitic disease, with severe socioeconomic consequences for millions of people worldwide. Schistosoma mansoni , one of the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, is unable to synthesize purine nucleotides de novo, which makes the enzymes of the purine salvage pathway important targets for antischistosomal drug development. In the present work, we describe the development of a pharmacophore model for ligands of S. mansoni purine nucleoside phosphorylase (SmPNP) as well as a pharmacophore-based virtual screening approach, which resulted in the identification of three thioxothiazolidinones (1-3) with substantial in vitro inhibitory activity against SmPNP. Synthesis, biochemical evaluation, and structure-activity relationship investigations led to the successful development of a small set of thioxothiazolidinone derivatives harboring a novel chemical scaffold as new competitive inhibitors of SmPNP at the low-micromolar range. Seven compounds were identified with IC(50) values below 100 μM. The most potent inhibitors 7, 10, and 17 with IC(50) of 2, 18, and 38 μM, respectively, could represent new potential lead compounds for further development of the therapy of schistosomiasis. PMID:20695479

  4. The extracellular release of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 nuclear protein is mediated by acetylation

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    Coutinho Carneiro, Vitor; Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Isabel; Furtado Madeira da Costa, Rodrigo [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Neto Paiva, Claudia; Torres Bozza, Marcelo [Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Rosado Fantappie, Marcelo, E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2009-12-25

    Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) was revealed to be a substrate for the parasite histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. We found that full-length SmHMGB1, as well as its HMG-box B (but not HMG-box A) were acetylated in vitro by SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. However, SmCBP1 was able to acetylate both substrates more efficiently than SmGCN5. Interestingly, the removal of the C-terminal acidic tail of SmHMGB1 (SmHMGB1{Delta}C) resulted in increased acetylation of the protein. We showed by mammalian cell transfection assays that SmHMGB1 and SmHMGB1{Delta}C were transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment. Importantly, after NaB treatment, SmHMGB1 was also present outside the cell. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of SmHMGB1 plays a role in cellular trafficking, culminating with its secretion to the extracellular milieu. The possible role of SmHMGB1 acetylation in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is discussed.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni: respuesta celular hepática de ratones Balb/c infectados unisexualmente

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    Wolfan Araque

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The granulomatous response in animals infected with Schistosoma mansoni is attributed to the host reaction against the eggs, although the role of the adult worm is still controversial. The hepatic inflammatory response was studied in BALB/c mice unisexually (UNI infected with cercariae of S. mansoni by histopatology, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectronmicroscopy. The size of inflammatory infiltrate in liver of UNI infected mice, mean ± SD (33,9 ± 18, 86 µm2, the cells present included macrophages, lymphocytes, plasmocytes and few eosinophils. CD4+ and CD8+ cells in UNI infected mice were observed ( 2 to 4 cells/µm2 close to the worms and two patterns, either diffuse or in clusters in distant zones, in UNI and bisexual infections (BIS. The activated macrophages were observed close to worms and to schistosomal pigment. The results suggest that the adult worm is capable of inducing hepatic inflammatory response without granuloma formation, which elicit a significant in vivo macrophage and lymphocyte infiltrate, with probable implications in the pathogenesis of the murine schistosomiasis

  6. Hybridism between Biomphalaria cousini and Biomphalaria amazonica and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni

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    Tatiana Maria Teodoro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques can aid in the classification of Biomphalaria species because morphological differentiation between these species is difficult. Previous studies using phylogeny, morphological and molecular taxonomy showed that some populations studied were Biomphalaria cousini instead of Biomphalaria amazonica. Three different molecular profiles were observed that enabled the separation of B. amazonica from B. cousini. The third profile showed an association between the two and suggested the possibility of hybrids between them. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the hybridism between B. cousini and B. amazonica and to verify if the hybrids are susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni. Crosses using the albinism factor as a genetic marker were performed, with pigmented B. cousini and albino B. amazonica snails identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. This procedure was conducted using B. cousini and B. amazonica of the type locality accordingly to Paraense, 1966. In addition, susceptibility studies were performed using snails obtained from the crosses (hybrids and three S. mansoni strains (LE, SJ, AL. The crosses between B. amazonica and B. cousini confirmed the occurrence of hybrids. Moreover, hybrids can be considered potential hosts of S. mansoni because they are susceptible to LE, SJ and AL strains (4.4%, 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively. These results indicate that there is a risk of introducing schistosomiasis mansoni into new areas.

  7. Construction of a recombinant plasmid pGEX-Sj26GST of Schistosoma japonicum and expression in Escherichia coli BL21( DE3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct and express a recombinant plasmid pGEX-Sj26GST of Schistosoma japonicum(Sj)in Escherichia coli(E.coli)BL21(DE3).Methods Total RNA was extracted from Sj adult worms by RNeasy Mini kit,26 kilodalton glutathione-S-transferases of Schistosoma japonicum(Sj26GST)antigen gene was amplified by real-time PCR(RT-PCR)from the total RNA,then cloned into a prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-1λT and transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3)to construct pGEX-Sj26GST;BL21(pGEX-

  8. Blood Culture (For Parents)

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    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  10. Blood Pressure Quiz

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    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  11. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  12. Blood pressure measurement

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    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  13. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

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    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Transfusions Print A ... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood As blood moves throughout the body, it carries ...

  14. Blood Count Tests

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    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Programs Newsroom facebook twitter youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda ... View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  17. Effect of skin colour and selected physical characteristics on Schistosoma mansoni dependent morbidity Efeito da cor da pele e certas características físicas na morbidade dependente de Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    C. B. Cançado; J. O. A. Firmo; Fernandes, S C; Rocha, R. S.; M. F. F. Lima e Costa

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the colour group on the morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni was examined in two endemic areas situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Of the 2773 eligible inhabitants, 1971 (71.1%) participated in the study: 545 (27.6%) were classified as white, 719 (36.5%) as intermediate and 707 (35.9%) as black. For each colour group, signs and symptoms of individuals who eliminated S.mansoni eggs (cases) were compared to those who did not present eggs in the faeces (controls). The od...

  18. Effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium infection on Plasmodium berghei multiplications in imprinting control region mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; Amoani; Elvis; Ofori; Ameyaw; Du-Bois; Asante; Francis; Ackah; Armah; James; Prah; Collins; Paa; Kwesi; Botchey; Johnson; Nyarko; Boampong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium(S. haematobium) infection on malaria disease severity.Methods: The study involved the use of twenty-i ve imprinting control region mice, i fteen of which were initially infected with S. haematobium. Five of the remaining ten schistouninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei(P. berghei) after four weeks(acute stage) of schistosoma infection. The remaining i ve schisto-uninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were also infected with P. berghei after seven weeks(chronic stage) of schistosoma infection. The last i ve schistoinfected mice were used as control group. They were then monitored for changes in P. berghei parasitaemia on Days 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 post-infection. Records on their survivability were also taken.Results: The co-infected mice had signii cantly higher malaria parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice during acute S. haematobium infection. In contrast, the co-infected mice had signii cantly lower malaria parasitaemia during chronic S. haematobium infection and a higher survival rate.Conclusions: Co-infection of mice with P. berghei during acute S. haematobium infection resulted in rapid P. berghei development and increased malaria parasitaemia. However, the co-infection resulted in slower P. berghei development and decreased malaria parasitaemia with enhanced survivability of the mice during chronic S. haematobium infection. Therefore, pre-existing chronic S. haematobium infection may provide some protection to the host by reducing parasitaemia.

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism alterations in Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni and exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex

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    Clélia Christina Mello-Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the alterations in the glycogen content of tissues (digestive gland and cephalopedal mass and glucose in the haemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata BH strain infected with Schistosoma mansoni BH strain and exposed to the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii. A reduction in the glycogen deposits was observed in infected snails exposed and not exposed to latex. However, the exposure to latex caused a greater depletion of the glycogen levels in both sites analysed, especially from the third week onward. The utilisation of latex as a molluscicide to control the population of infected B. glabrata selectively is proposed.

  20. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

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    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined at monthly intervals from November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Snails collected at the same time were individually examined for shedding of cercariae of S. mattheei and Schistosoma haematobium. A total of 16 264 (5 418 calves, 5 461 weaners and 5 385 adults faecal samples were collected during the entire period of study and 734 (4.5 % were positive for S. mattheei eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, calves compared to adult cattle (P < 0.01 and the wet season compared to the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from October/ November to March / April for both years of the study. Bulinus globosus, the snail intermediate host of S. mattheei was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snails than the lowveld (P < 0.01. Monthly densities of B. globosus did not show a clearcut pattern although there were peaks between March / May and September / November. The mean num ber of snails collected was positively correlated with the water plants Nymphaea caerulea and

  1. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

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    JANNOTTI-PASSOS Liana Konovaloff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine Schistosoma mansoni infection rates in Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. straminea, low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR technique was used as a complementary method to light exposure technique. LS-PCR has already been standardized in our laboratory to detect the trematode DNA in B. glabrata. Higher S. mansoni infection rates were detected using conventional method and LS-PCR. The parasite DNA profile was detected in both species after 7-day exposure to miracidia, using LS-PCR. This technique enables early detection of schistosomiasis transmission focuses, in endemic areas, before the beginning of cercariae shedding.

  2. Induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

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    Moloney, N.A.; Webbe, G.; Hinchcliffe, P.

    1987-02-01

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts.

  3. The induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts. (author)

  4. Comparative biochemical analysis of three members of the Schistosoma mansoni TAL family: Differences in ion and drug binding properties

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Charlotte M.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Dunne, David W.; Timson, David J

    2015-01-01

    The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisa...

  5. The Sensitivity of Schistosoma japonicum to Praziquantel: A Field Evaluation in Areas with Low Endemicity of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Jian-Rong; LI, HONG-JUN; Shen, Xue-Hui; Liang, You-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility of Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in low endemic foci of China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a total of 43 of 1,242 subjects were identified as being infected with the parasite using parasitological stool examinations in two low-endemicity areas of China, with a prevalence rate of 3.46%. All stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg or 30 m...

  6. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  7. Characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase SmcGK1 of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Silke Leutner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are trematode parasites and of worldwide medical importance for humans and animals. Growth and development of these parasites require a specific host environment, but also permanent communication processes between the two genders. Accumulating molecular evidence indicates that the responsible interactions are mediated by signal transduction processes. Conserved signaling molecules were identified, and first approaches made for their characterization. However, no representative of the conserved family of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs has been described in this parasite yet. Within the Schistosoma mansoni genome data-set we identified cGK homologs, of which one was investigated in more detail in this study. We present the cloning of SmcGK1, whose sequence shows homology to cGKs of higher eukaryotes. SmcGK1 was found to be gender-independently transcribed in adult schistosomes. The occurrence of SmcGK1 sense and antisense transcripts suggests that the expression of this gene is controlled at the post-transcriptional level. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrated a gonad-preferential expression profile in both genders indicating a role of SmcGK1, at least during sexual development of schistosomes. Using a cGK-specific inhibitor to treat adult schistosomes in vitro finally resulted in a multifaceted phenotype including slow motion, oocyte congestion, and reduced egg production.Esquistossomos são parasitas trematodos de importância médica em todo o mundo para o homem e os animais. O crescimento e o desenvolvimento destes parasitas requerem um ambiente específico do hospedeiro, mas também um processo de comunicação permanente entre parasitas dos dois sexos. Evidência molecular tem se acumulado e indica que as interações são mediadas por processos de transdução de sinal. Moléculas sinalizadoras conservadas foram identificadas, e as primeiras abordagens têm sido feitas para sua caracterização. Contudo, não foi

  8. Decay of antibody isotypes against early developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni after treatment of schistosomiasis patients

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    Herminia Yohko KANAMURA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to a number of parasite antigens are found in schistosomiasis patients, and antibodies to early developmental stages were demonstrated to be efficient immunologic markers for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. In the present study, decay patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies against cercariae and schistosomula were investigated, in comparison to antibodies against worms and eggs in schistosomiasis patients after chemotherapy, for an investigation of seroepidemiologic aspects. Data obtained in the study of 359 serum samples from patients with Schistosoma mansoni infection, noninfected individuals, and patients followed-up for a period of 12 to 15 months after treatment provided the basis to postulate a general pattern for the kinetics of antibody decay. Before treatment, the antibody pattern was represented by a unimodal curve, which shifted to a bimodal curve after treatment, and ended with a unimodal curve similar to that for the noninfected group. Different types of antibodies were classified into four categories according to their decay features, and anti-schistosomulum IgM was classified into the moderate-decay caterogy, whereas other antibodies to early parasite stages were classified into the slow-decay category. The present methodology permits the identification of the most suitable antibodies to be detected in field control programs for schistosomiasis or other parasitosesEm pacientes com esquistossomose, são encontrados anticorpos contra grande número de antígenos parasitários, e aqueles contra formas evolutivas jovens do parasita demonstraram que eram eficientes marcadores imunológicos para o diagnóstico da esquistossomose. Padrões de queda de anticorpos IgM e IgG contra cercária e esquistossômulo foram aqui estudados, comparativamente aos dos anticorpos contra verme e ovo, em pacientes esquistossomóticos após quimioterapia, abordando aspectos soroepidemiológicos. Dados obtidos no estudo de 359 amostras de soros

  9. A strategy for emergency treatment of Schistosoma japonicum-infested water

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    Li Hong-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by contact with Schistosoma japonicum cercaria-infested water when washing, bathing or production, remains a major public-health concern in China. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a suspension concentrate of niclosamide (SCN on killing cercaria of S. japonicum that float on the water surface, and its toxicity to fish, so as to establish an emergency-treatment intervention for rapidly killing cercaria and eliminating water infectivity. Results At 30 min after spraying 100 mg/L SCN, with niclosamide dosages of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 g/m2, the water infectivity reduced significantly and no infectivity was found at 60 min after spraying SCN. The surface of static water was sprayed with 100 mg/L SCN, the peak concentration was found at 0 min, and the solution diffused to site with a water depth of 10 cm after 10 min. 30 min later, SCN diffused to the whole water body, and distributed evenly. After spraying 100 mg/L SCN onto the surface of the water with a volume of(3.14 × 202×50cm3, with niclosamide dosages of 0.02 g/m2, 96 h later, no death of zebra fish was observed. Conclusions By spraying 100 mg/L SCN, with a niclosamide dosage of 0.02 g/m2 onto the surface of S. japonicum-infested water, infectivity of the water can be eliminated after 30-60 min, and there is no evident toxicity to fish. This cercaria-killing method, as an emergency-treatment intervention for infested water, can be applied in those forecasting and early warning systems for schistosomiasis.

  10. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

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    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  11. Satellite climatology and the environmental risk of Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia and east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J B; Yilma, J M; McCarroll, J C; Erko, B; Mukaratirwa, S; Zhou, X

    2001-04-27

    Annual and seasonal composite maps prepared from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and earth surface maximum temperature (T(max)) satellite data from the archives of the Global land 1-km program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were studied for. their potential value, using geographic information system (GIS) methods, as surrogates of climate data in the development of environmental risk models for schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Annual, wet season and dry season models were developed and iteratively analyzed for relationships with Schistosoma mansoni distribution and infection prevalence rates. Model-predicted endemic area overlays that best fit the distribution of sites with over 5% prevalence corresponded to values of NDVI 125-145 and T(max) 20-33 degrees C in the annual composite map, NDVI 125-145 and T(max) 18-29 degrees C for the wet season map, and NDVI 125-140 and T(max) 22-37 degrees C for the dry season map. The model-predicted endemic area was similar to that of a prior model developed using an independent agroecologic zone data set from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Results were consistent with field and laboratory data on the preferences and limits of tolerance of the S. mansoni-Biomphalaria pfeifferi system. Results suggest that Global 1-km NDVI and T(max), when used together, can be used as surrogate climate data for development of GIS risk assessment models for schistosomiasis. The model developed for Ethiopia based on global 1-km satellite data was extrapolated to a broader area of East Africa. When used with FAO agroecologic zone climate data limits of evapotranspiration) of <-1300 mm, the model accurately represented the regional distribution of the S. mansoni-B. pfeifferi system in the East Africa extrapolation area. PMID:11378142

  12. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  13. Screening diagnostic candidates for schistosomiasis from tegument proteins of adult Schistosoma japonicum using an immunoproteomic approach.

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    Min Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the world's most prevalent zoonotic diseases and a serious worldwide public health problem. Since the tegument (TG of Schistosoma japonicum is in direct contact with the host and induces a host immune response against infection, the identification of immune response target molecules in the schistosome TG is crucial for screening diagnostic antigens for this disease.In this study, an immunoproteomics approach used TG proteins as screening antigens to identify potential diagnostic molecules of S. japonicum. Ten spots corresponding to six proteins were identified that immunoreacted with sera from S. japonicum-infected rabbits but not sera from uninfected rabbits and their specific IgG antibody levels declined quickly after praziquantel treatment. Recombinant phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM and UV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog B (RAD23 proteins were expressed and their diagnostic potential for schistosomiasis was evaluated and compared with schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA using ELISA. The results showed high sensitivity and specificity and low crossreactivity when rSjPGM-ELISA and rSjRAD23-ELISA were used to detect water buffalo schistosomiasis. Moreover, antibodies to rSjPGM and rSjRAD23 might be short-lived since they declined quickly after chemotherapy.Therefore, the two schistosome TG proteins SjPGM and SjRAD23 were identified as potential diagnostic markers for the disease. The two recombinant proteins might have the potential to evaluate the effectiveness of drug treatments and for distinguishing between current and past infection.

  14. Molecular approach for detecting early prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Adel; Saleh, Ayman A; Mahdy, Soad; Abd El-Khalik, Dalia; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Salama, Marwa A

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in early prepatent period and to compare between it and the ordinary detection methods (shedding and crushing). Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni. DNA was extracted from infected snails in addition to non-infected "negative control" (to optimized the efficiency of PCR reaction) and subjected to PCR using primers specific to a partial sequence of S. mansoni fructose-1,6-bus phosphate aldolase (SMALDO). SMALDO gene was detected in the infected laboratory snails with 70, 85, and 100 % positivity at the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day of infection, respectively. In contrast, the ordinary method was not sensitive enough in detection of early prepatent infection even after 7 days of infection which showed only 25 % positivity. By comparing the sensitivity of the three methods, it was found that the average sensitivity of shedding method compared to PCR was 23.8 % and the average sensitivity of crushing method compared to PCR was 46.4 % while the sensitivity of PCR was 100 %. We conclude that PCR is superior to the conventional methods and can detect positive cases that were negative when examined by shedding or crushing methods. This can help in detection of the areas and times of high transmission which in turn will be very beneficial in planning of the exact timing of the proper control strategy. PMID:27605788

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell free circulating Schistosoma mansoni DNA: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; Aly, Nagwa Shaban Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Searching for a more sensitive and accurate marker for schistosomiasis diagnosis and treatment follow up is a potential necessity. Hereby, we evaluated usefulness of circulating free DNA as a marker for schistosomiasis diagnosis, assessing drug efficacy and monitoring the control interventions impact using SYBR green real-time PCR. A batch of mice were infected by 90 ± 10 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Starting from the 2nd day post infection (p.i.), groups of 2 or 3 mice were sacrificed every 3 days until 30 days p.i. The remaining animals were treated by a single dose of 400 mg/kg mefloquine and sacrificed in group at 5, 10, 21 days post treatment (35, 40, 51 days p.i.). Using SYBR green real time qPCR, pooled sera DNA were extracted and amplified. The results showed that, circulating free S. mansoni DNA was detected from the 2nd day post infection (p.i.) onwards with gradual decrease in the cycle threshold value Ct which indicates the gradual elevation of the DNA level (Log quantity was 2.6-3.1 IU/ml), As the infection progressed, DNA quantity was increased(Log quantity was 6.29 IU/ml). Initial increase of circulating free DNA was observed 10 days post treatment (40 days p.i.) (Log quantity was 7.38 IU/ml). That was followed by a progressive decrease in DNA level by the end of 21st day, post treatment (51 p.i.) (Log quantity 4.35 IU/ml). In conclusion, circulating free S. mansoni DNA is a reliable marker in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and for assessing drug efficacy and monitoring the impact of control interventions. PMID:27605830

  16. Altered Response of Strain of Schistosoma mansoni to Oxamniquine and Praziquantel

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    Patrícia Ivana Pires Bonesso-Sabadini

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of a fourth generation Ouh strain (Paranapanema Valley, São Paulo, Brazil of Schistosoma mansoni to oxamniquine (OXA and praziquantel (PZQ was studied. Ten groups of 13 female albino mice each were infected with 70 cercariae per animal. These mice were medicated orally on the 50th day after infection. Five groups were given OXA doses of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg (single doses and the rest were treated with PZQ doses of 0, 100, 200, and 250 mg/kg/5 days. Each group was sub-divided: 8 animals underwent perfusion after 15 days treatment, 5 mice followed up for oviposition and their feces were tested every 15 days for miracidia hatching. The efficacy of the OXA doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was 66% and 91.4%, respectively and for the 100 mg/kg PZQ dose it was 90.1%. The follow-up groups with 100 and 200 mg/kg of OXA and PZQ, 100 and 150 mg/kg, showed that they re-established the oviposition after a period of 60 to 75 days of treatment. The ED50 was 69.6mg/kg OXA and 39.4 mg/kg PZQ. The results show the tolerance of the Ouh strain to a dose of 100 mg with both drugs and they appoint the need for a dose review during the follow up of the oviposition and in monitoring phenomena in the field.

  17. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel. PMID:26148816

  18. Toxicity of cadmium to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: effects on vitality and developmental ability in white mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliman, R.B. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg); Esham, L.P.

    1977-09-29

    Time-until-death studies were run on cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in 8 concentrations of cadmium (from cadmium sulfate) ranging from 100 ppM to 0.0001 ppM. All concentrations used were found to be toxic, and at 10 ppM all cercariae were dead within 4 hours, which coincides with their period of maximum infectability following emergence from the snail host. At 2 ppM, all cercariae died within 8 hours, and at 1 ppM all died within 16 hours. In addition, groups of cercariae were exposed to cadmium concentrations of 10, 1, and 0.1 ppM for periods of 30, 20, and 10 minutes. Thereafter, cercariae from these groups were allowed to penetrate the tails of white mice or were injected subcutaneously into mice. After 8 weeks, these mice were autopsied and the adult worms collected by perfusion. Maturation of cercariae from both methods of invasion was seriously impaired. Statistical analysis using a 3 x 4 x 2 factoral design for analysis of variance showed both time of exposure and concentration of cadmium ion to be significant factors in determining number of worms developing at p = 0.01. A significant interaction between time of exposure and concentration was found to exist. The two methods of infection did not have a significant effect on the number of worms recovered. Therefore, it appears that those toxicant-exposed cercariae capable of maturing do not need assistance in transversing the skin barrier but can penetrate and migrate to reach the mesenteric venules for maturation.

  19. Protective Effect of Chronic Schistosomiasis in Baboons Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakundi, Ruth K; Nyamongo, Onkoba; Maamun, Jeneby; Akinyi, Mercy; Mulei, Isaac; Farah, Idle O; Blankenship, D'Arbra; Grimberg, Brian; Hau, Jann; Malhotra, Indu; Ozwara, Hastings; King, Christopher L; Kariuki, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Malaria and schistosomiasis coinfections are common, and chronic schistosomiasis has been implicated in affecting the severity of acute malaria. However, whether it enhances or attenuates malaria has been controversial due the lack of appropriately controlled human studies and relevant animal models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection. Four weeks later, the two groups plus a new malaria control group (n = 8) were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) Plasmodium knowlesi parasites and monitored daily for development of severe malaria. A total of 81% of baboons exposed to chronic S. mansoni infection with or without praziquantel treatment survived malaria, compared to only 25% of animals infected with P. knowlesi only (P = 0.01). Schistosome-infected animals also had significantly lower parasite burdens (P = 0.004) than the baboons in the P. knowlesi-only group and were protected from severe anemia. Coinfection was associated with increased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), suggesting an enhanced innate immune response, whereas animals infected with P. knowlesi alone failed to develop mitogen-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10, indicating the inability to generate adequate protective and balancing immunoregulatory responses. These results indicate that chronic S. mansoni attenuates the severity of P. knowlesi coinfection in baboons by mechanisms that may enhance innate immunity to malaria. PMID:26883586

  20. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

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    Nadia S. Metwally

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day. Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm burden and ova count. Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT , ­ glutamyltransferase (GGT , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP, acid phosphatase (AP, while a decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL and LDL, triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase and phosphofructokinase (PFK enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count. Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities