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Sample records for blood fluke schistosoma

  1. The genome of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni

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    Berriman, Matthew; Haas, Brian J.; LoVerde, Philip T.; Wilson, R. Alan; Dillon, Gary P.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Andrade, Luiza F.; Ashton, Peter D.; Aslett, Martin A.; Bartholomeu, Daniella C.; Blandin, Gaelle; Caffrey, Conor R.; Coghlan, Avril; Coulson, Richard; Day, Tim A.; Delcher, Art; DeMarco, Ricardo; Djikeng, Appoliniare; Eyre, Tina; Gamble, John A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Gu, Yong; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Hirai, Hirohisha; Hirai, Yuriko; Houston, Robin; Ivens, Alasdair; Johnston, David A.; Lacerda, Daniela; Macedo, Camila D.; McVeigh, Paul; Ning, Zemin; Oliveira, Guilherme; Overington, John P.; Parkhill, Julian; Pertea, Mihaela; Pierce, Raymond J.; Protasio, Anna V.; Quail, Michael A.; Rajandream, Marie-Adèle; Rogers, Jane; Sajid, Mohammed; Salzberg, Steven L.; Stanke, Mario; Tivey, Adrian R.; White, Owen; Williams, David L.; Wortman, Jennifer; Wu, Wenjie; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Barrell, Barclay G.; El-Sayed, Najib M.

    2009-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis that affects 210 million people in 76 countries. We report here analysis of the 363 megabase nuclear genome of the blood fluke. It encodes at least 11,809 genes, with an unusual intron size distribution, and novel families of micro-exon genes that undergo frequent alternate splicing. As the first sequenced flatworm, and a representative of the lophotrochozoa, it offers insights into early events in the evolution of the animals, including the development of a body pattern with bilateral symmetry, and the development of tissues into organs. Our analysis has been informed by the need to find new drug targets. The deficits in lipid metabolism that make schistosomes dependent on the host are revealed, while the identification of membrane receptors, ion channels and more than 300 proteases, provide new insights into the biology of the life cycle and novel targets. Bioinformatics approaches have identified metabolic chokepoints while a chemogenomic screen has pinpointed schistosome proteins for which existing drugs may be active. The information generated provides an invaluable resource for the research community to develop much needed new control tools for the treatment and eradication of this important and neglected disease. PMID:19606141

  2. SmCL3, a gastrodermal cysteine protease of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Jan Dvorák

    Full Text Available Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma are platyhelminth parasites that infect 200 million people worldwide. Digestion of nutrients from the host bloodstream is essential for parasite development and reproduction. A network of proteolytic enzymes (proteases facilitates hydrolysis of host hemoglobin and serum proteins.We identified a new cathepsin L termed SmCL3 using PCR strategies based on S. mansoni EST sequence data. An ortholog is present in Schistosoma japonicum. SmCL3 was heterologously expressed as an active enzyme in the yeast, Pichia pastoris. Recombinant SmCL3 has a broad pH activity range against peptidyl substrates and is inhibited by Clan CA protease inhibitors. Consistent with a function in degrading host proteins, SmCL3 hydrolyzes serum albumin and hemoglobin, is localized to the adult gastrodermis, and is expressed mainly in those life stages infecting the mammalian host. The predominant form of SmCL3 in the parasite exists as a zymogen, which is unusual for proteases. This zymogen includes an unusually long prodomain with alpha helical secondary structure motifs. The striking specificity of SmCL3 for amino acids with large aromatic side chains (Trp and Tyr at the P2 substrate position, as determined with positional scanning-synthetic combinatorial library, is consistent with a molecular model that shows a large and deep S2 pocket. A sequence similarity network (SSN view clusters SmCL3 and other cathepsins L in accordance with previous large-scale phylogenetic analyses that identify six super kingdoms.SmCL3 is a gut-associated cathepsin L that may contribute to the network of proteases involved in degrading host blood proteins as nutrients. Furthermore, this enzyme exhibits some unusual sequence and biophysical features that may result in additional functions. The visualization of network inter-relationships among cathepsins L suggests that these enzymes are suitable 'marker sequences' for inclusion in future phylogenetic analyses.

  3. Co-dispersal of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum and Homo sapiens in the Neolithic Age.

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    Yin, Mingbo; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Su, Jing; Feng, Zheng; McManus, Donald P; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jin, Li; Hu, Wei

    2015-12-21

    The global spread of human infectious diseases is of considerable public health and biomedical interest. Little is known about the relationship between the distribution of ancient parasites and that of their human hosts. Schistosoma japonicum is one of the three major species of schistosome blood flukes causing the disease of schistosomiasis in humans. The parasite is prevalent in East and Southeast Asia, including the People's Republic of China, the Philippines and Indonesia. We studied the co-expansion of S. japonicum and its human definitive host. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences showed that S. japonicum radiated from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to the mountainous areas of China, Japan and Southeast Asia. In addition, the parasite experienced two population expansions during the Neolithic agriculture era, coinciding with human migration and population growth. The data indicate that the advent of rice planting likely played a key role in the spread of schistosomiasis in Asia. Moreover, the presence of different subspecies of Oncomelania hupensis intermediate host snails in different localities in Asia allowed S. japonicum to survive in new rice-planting areas, and concurrently drove the intraspecies divergence of the parasite.

  4. Characterization of SR3 reveals abundance of non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE clade in the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni

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    Brindley Paul J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming apparent that perhaps as much as half of the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni is constituted of mobile genetic element-related sequences. Non-long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, related to the LINE elements of mammals, comprise much of this repetitive component of the schistosome genome. Of more than 12 recognized clades of non-LTR retrotransposons, only members of the CR1, RTE, and R2 clades have been reported from the schistosome genome. Results Inspection of the nucleotide sequence of bacterial artificial chromosome number 49_J_14 from chromosome 1 of the genome of Schistosoma mansoni (GenBank AC093105 revealed the likely presence of several RTE-like retrotransposons. Among these, a new non-LTR retrotransposon designated SR3 was identified and is characterized here. Analysis of gene structure and phylogenetic analysis of both the reverse transcriptase and endonuclease domains of the mobile element indicated that SR3 represented a new family of RTE-like non-LTR retrotransposons. Remarkably, two full-length copies of SR3-like elements were present in BAC 49-J-14, and one of 3,211 bp in length appeared to be intact, indicating SR3 to be an active non-LTR retrotransposon. Both were flanked by target site duplications of 10–12 bp. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated the presence of numerous copies (probably >1,000 of SR3 interspersed throughout the genome of S. mansoni. Bioinformatics analyses also revealed SR3 to be transcribed in both larval and adult developmental stages of S. mansoni and to be also present in the genomes of the other major schistosome parasites of humans, Schistosoma haematobium and S. japonicum. Conclusion Numerous copies of SR3, a novel non-LTR retrotransposon of the RTE clade are present in the genome of S. mansoni. Non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE clade including SR3 appear to have been remarkably successful in colonizing, and

  5. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

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    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  6. Proteomic analysis of human skin treated with larval schistosome peptidases reveals distinct invasion strategies among species of blood flukes.

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    Jessica Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin invasion is the initial step in infection of the human host by schistosome blood flukes. Schistosome larvae have the remarkable ability to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers present in skin in the absence of any mechanical trauma. While a serine peptidase with activity against insoluble elastin appears to be essential for this process in one species of schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, it is unknown whether other schistosome species use the same peptidase to facilitate entry into their hosts.Recent genome sequencing projects, together with a number of biochemical studies, identified alternative peptidases that Schistosoma japonicum or Trichobilharzia regenti could use to facilitate migration through skin. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis of human skin treated with purified cercarial elastase, the known invasive peptidase of S. mansoni, or S. mansoni cathespin B2, a close homolog of the putative invasive peptidase of S. japonicum, to identify substrates of either peptidase. Select skin proteins were then confirmed as substrates by in vitro digestion assays.This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human hosts.

  7. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  8. MOLECULAR APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF TREMATODE PARASITES : THE BLOOD FLUKE

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    Philip T. LoVerde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One important aspect of reproductive development in trematode parasites is the formation of a hardened eggshell which allows the zygote to develop into a miracidium in a hostile environment. The miracidium then can transfer the germline from the vertebrate host to snail intermediate host. Schistosome parasites, unlike other trematodes, have separate sexes and female reproductive development is known to depend on the presence of a male parasite. These facts make the blood flukes ideal material to study the mechanisms that underlie female reproductive development and eggshell formatian. We reasoned that the morphological and biochemical differences between the male and female must be reflected at the molecular level in the differential expression of sexually regulated genes. Radioactive single stranded cDNA was first transcribed from female RNA; and then sequences common to both male and female were removed by hybridization to an excess of male RNA. This probe was used to screen a cDNA library made from mRNA of adult worm paris. One hybridizing clone, pSMf 61-46, was shown to correspond to a 0.9 kilobase mRNA that is present only in mature female worms and is not detectable in female schistosomes from single-sex infections, in male worms or in eggs. Thus expression of the gene was female-specific. During normal bisexual infection this mRNA is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing and increases to a high level at 35 days postinfection, coinciding with egg production. Thus the temporal expression of the gene was dependent on paining with male worm. The nucleotide sequence of the gene shows an open reading frame that encodes a 16 kDA polypeptide that shows strong homology with eggshell proteins on insects. A second female-specific cDNA clone, F-4, represents a 1.6 kilobase mRNA whose expression is also correlated with worm pairing and subsequent egg production, encodes a different putative eggshell component of 44 kDA. The

  9. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

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    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  10. Characterization of microRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a neglected blood fluke of human and animal health significance.

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    Wang, Chun-Ren; Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a "directed mutation" pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

  11. Characterization of microRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a neglected blood fluke of human and animal health significance.

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    Chun-Ren Wang

    Full Text Available The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a "directed mutation" pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

  12. Cytokine/chemokine secretion and proteomic identification of upregulated annexin A1 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cocultured with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.

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    Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Intuyod, Kitti; Pinlaor, Porntip; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the cytokine/chemokine secretions and alteration of protein expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cocultured with adult liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini) for 6 to 24 h. PBMC-derived proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the cytokines/chemokines in the supernatant were assessed using a cytokine array. Exposure to O. viverrini induced increases in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, costimulating protein, adhesion molecules, and chemotactic chemokines relative to untreated controls. In contrast, secretion of the CD40 ligand, interleukin 16, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β decreased. Proteomic analysis revealed that expression of 48 proteins was significantly altered in PBMCs stimulated with O. viverrini. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) was selected for further study, and immunoblotting showed upregulation of ANXA1 expression in PBMCs after 12 and 24 h coculture with liver flukes. In an in vivo study, transcription and translation of ANXA1 significantly increased in livers of hamsters infected with O. viverrini at 21 days and from 3 months onwards compared to normal controls. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed that ANXA1 was present not only in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells but also in the cytoplasm of cholangiocytes, which are in close contact with the parasite and its excretory/secretory products in the biliary system. Expression of ANXA1 increased with time concomitant with bile duct enlargement, bile duct formation, and epithelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, several cytokines/chemokines secreted by PBMCs and upregulation of ANXA1 in PBMCs and biliary epithelial cells might have a role in host defense against O. viverrini infection and tissue resolution of inflammation.

  13. Biodiversity of flukes

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    Dreyfuss G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As many others parasites, speciation of flukes depends on the genetic characteristics and on ploidia. Ploidia of flukes can be different in a same species. In Asia, diploid, triploid and hybrid (2n/3n populations are encountered. The comparison of morphological parameters between diploid and triploid flukes showed that they were morphologically different. Nevertheless, a genetic relationship between parthenogenetic organisms would exist regardless of their ploidia. In the Fasciola genus, the main consequence of the high level of diversity is the frequent probability of development of resistance to anthelmintics and fast adaptation to climatic changes. In the Paragonimus genus, diversity can enhance different forms of pathogenicity, can also be related to the species of intermediate hosts, and to the definitive host. The strain of flukes plays a part in the visceral localization of P. westermani adults.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exploit an elastohydrodynamic coupling to swim efficiently

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    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Bhargava, Arjun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    The motility of many parasites is critical for the infection process of their host, as exemplified by the transmission cycle of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In their human infectious stage, immature, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect humans by penetrating through the skin. This infection causes Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that is comparable to malaria in its global socio-economic impact. Given that cercariae do not feed and hence have a finite lifetime of around 12 hours, efficient motility is crucial for the parasite's survival and transmission of Schistosomiasis. However, a first-principles understanding of how cercariae swim is lacking. Via a combined experimental, theoretical and robotics based approach, we demonstrate that cercariae propel themselves against gravity by exploiting a unique elastohydrodynamic coupling. We show that cercariae beat their tail in a periodic fashion while maintaining a fixed flexibility near their poster...

  15. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

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    José M Correia da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g. oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc. metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of Opisthorchis viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e. urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture.

  16. Immune reactivity in early life stages of sea-cage cultured Pacific bluefin tuna naturally infected with blood flukes from genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae).

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    Pennacchi, Ylenia; Shirakashi, Sho; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2016-11-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish. However, with the need to minimise therapeutic drug use in aquaculture it is hoped that immunoprophylaxis can provide a future alternative to protect the PBT juveniles against Cardicola infection. Currently, little is known of the host immune response to these parasites and of their infection dynamics. In this study, using real-time qPCR we aimed to quantitatively detect C. orientalis and C. opisthorchis DNA within the gills and heart of cultured PBT juveniles and to investigate the host immune response at the transcriptional level in the gills. The research focused mainly during early stages of infection soon after young PBT were transferred to culture cages (from 14 to 77 days post-transfer). An increase (up to 11-fold) of immune-related genes, namely IgM, MHC-I, TCR-β and IL-1β was observed in the PBT gills infected with Cardicola spp. (28-77 days post-transfer). Furthermore, IgM (19-fold increase) and MHC-I (11.5-fold increase) transcription was strongly up-regulated in gill samples of PBT infected with C. orientalis relative to uninfected fish but not in fish infected with C. opisthorchis. Cardicola-specific DNA was first detected in the host 14 days post-transfer (DPT) to sea-cages which was 55 days earlier than the first detection of parasite eggs and adults by microscopy. Oral administration of PZQ did not have an immediate effect

  17. Schistosoma mansoni

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    Friis, Henrik; Byskov, Jens

    1987-01-01

    Recent surveys in Ngamiland, Botswana, indicate increasing prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. With the introduction of a schistosomiasis control programme, 354 of 373 schoolchildren were examined quantitatively for eggs of S. mansoni, and 317 were examined clinically for hepato...

  18. Liver Flukes: the Malady Neglected

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    Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.

  19. Schistosoma mansoni and Host-Parasite Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M-C.A. de Walick (Saskia)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Blood-dwelling parasitic trematodes (flatworms) of the genus Schistosoma cause the disease schistosomiasis or Bilharzia. There are 5 different Schistosoma species that infect humans and many other infecting different mammals. Over 200 million people worldwide are infect

  20. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of epipelagic lamniforms: redescription of Hyperandrotrema cetorhini from basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and description of a new congener from shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) off Alabama.

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    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Ruiz, Carlos F; Curran, Stephen S; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    We emend the original generic diagnosis for Hyperandrotrema Maillard and Ktari, 1978 , and redescribe its type species Hyperandrotrema cetorhini Maillard and Ktari, 1978 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912), based on the holotype and 2 paratypes collected from the heart of basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). We also describe Hyperandrotrema walterboegeri Orélis-Ribeiro and Bullard n. sp. based on light and scanning electron microscopy of 6 adult specimens collected from the heart of a shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810) captured from Viosca Knoll (29°11.70'N, 88°33.32'W; 123 km southwest of Dauphin Island, Alabama), northern Gulf of Mexico. Hyperandrotrema spp. infect lamniforms and differ from all other nominal aporocotylids at least by having a ventrolateral field of robust C-shaped spines (rather than transverse rows of minute, shaft-like spines), an inverse U-shaped intestine with extremely elongate ceca terminating near the level of the excretory bladder, and a common genital pore that comprises the dorsal opening of a common genital atrium. Adults of the new species exceeded 12 mm in total length, making them the largest of the nominal fish blood flukes. The new species further differs from H. cetorhini by the combination of having an adult body that is 7-8 times longer than wide, large midbody tegumental spines measuring 25-38 μm long × 10-12 μm wide, a long vas deferens 4-5% of the body length, a testis 9-11 times longer than wide, and a large ootype 105-150 μm long × 85-105 μm wide. This is the first report of Hyperandrotrema from the Gulf of Mexico and the second aporocotylid species reported from an epipelagic elasmobranch. Our results demonstrate that ecologically related (epipelagic, marine) and phylogenetically related (Lamniformes) definitive hosts are infected by morphologically similar (congeneric) fish blood flukes.

  1. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

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    Gasser Robin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire transcriptome, and, presently, the largest sequence dataset for any species of liver fluke. Twenty percent of contigs were assigned GO classifications. Abundantly represented protein families included those involved in physiological functions that are essential to parasitism, such as anaerobic respiration, reproduction, detoxification, surface maintenance and feeding. GO assignments were well conserved in relation to other parasitic flukes, however, some categories were over-represented in O. viverrini, such as structural and motor proteins. An assessment of evolutionary relationships showed that O. viverrini was more similar to other parasitic (Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum than to free-living (Schmidtea mediterranea flatworms, and 105 sequences had close homologues in both parasitic species but not in S. mediterranea. A total of 164 O. viverrini contigs contained ORFs with signal sequences, many of which were platyhelminth-specific. Examples of convergent evolution between host and parasite secreted/membrane proteins were identified as were homologues of vaccine antigens from other helminths. Finally, ORFs representing secreted proteins with known roles in tumorigenesis were identified, and these might play roles in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini-induced CCA. Conclusion This gene discovery effort for O. viverrini should expedite molecular studies of cholangiocarcinogenesis and accelerate research focused on developing new interventions

  2. Developmental gene expression profiles of the human pathogen Schistosoma japonicum

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    McManus Donald P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The schistosome blood flukes are complex trematodes and cause a chronic parasitic disease of significant public health importance worldwide, schistosomiasis. Their life cycle is characterised by distinct parasitic and free-living phases involving mammalian and snail hosts and freshwater. Microarray analysis was used to profile developmental gene expression in the Asian species, Schistosoma japonicum. Total RNAs were isolated from the three distinct environmental phases of the lifecycle – aquatic/snail (eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae, juvenile (lung schistosomula and paired but pre-egg laying adults and adult (paired, mature males and egg-producing females, both examined separately. Advanced analyses including ANOVA, principal component analysis, and hierarchal clustering provided a global synopsis of gene expression relationships among the different developmental stages of the schistosome parasite. Results Gene expression profiles were linked to the major environmental settings through which the developmental stages of the fluke have to adapt during the course of its life cycle. Gene ontologies of the differentially expressed genes revealed a wide range of functions and processes. In addition, stage-specific, differentially expressed genes were identified that were involved in numerous biological pathways and functions including calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism and parasite defence. Conclusion The findings provide a comprehensive database of gene expression in an important human pathogen, including transcriptional changes in genes involved in evasion of the host immune response, nutrient acquisition, energy production, calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism, egg production and tegumental function during development. This resource should help facilitate the identification and prioritization of new anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets for the control of schistosomiasis.

  3. Insights into SCP/TAPS proteins of liver flukes based on large-scale bioinformatic analyses of sequence datasets.

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    Cinzia Cantacessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic helminths have been proposed to play key roles in fundamental biological processes linked to the invasion of and establishment in their mammalian host animals, such as the transition from free-living to parasitic stages and the modulation of host immune responses. Despite the evidence that SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic nematodes are involved in host-parasite interactions, there is a paucity of information on this protein family for parasitic trematodes of socio-economic importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first large-scale study of SCP/TAPS proteins of a range of parasitic trematodes of both human and veterinary importance (including the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica as well as the blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium. We mined all current transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets from public databases, predicted secondary structures of full-length protein sequences, undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses and investigated the differential transcription of SCP/TAPS genes in O. viverrini and F. hepatica, with an emphasis on those that are up-regulated in the developmental stages infecting the mammalian host. CONCLUSIONS: This work, which sheds new light on SCP/TAPS proteins, guides future structural and functional explorations of key SCP/TAPS molecules associated with diseases caused by flatworms. Future fundamental investigations of these molecules in parasites and the integration of structural and functional data could lead to new approaches for the control of parasitic diseases.

  4. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Ugandan Men Is Associated with Increased Abundance and Function of HIV Target Cells in Blood, but Not the Foreskin: A Cross-sectional Study.

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    Jessica L Prodger

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing.Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05, Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05, and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01 than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046. However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue.S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin.

  5. Diversity and ancestry of flatworms infecting blood of nontetrapod craniates "fishes".

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    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Arias, Cova R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    We herein review all published molecular studies (life history, taxonomy, and phylogeny) and summarize all GenBank sequences and primer sets for the "fish blood flukes". Further, by analysing new and all available sequence data for the partial D1-D2 domains of 28S from 83 blood fluke taxa, we explore the evolutionary expansion of flatworm parasitism in the blood of craniates. Based on this analysis, the blood flukes infecting marine bony fishes (Euteleostei) are monophyletic. The clade comprising the chondrichthyan blood fluke plus the marine euteleost blood flukes is the sister group to tetrapod blood flukes (spirorchiids and schistosomes). The innominate blood fluke cercariae from freshwater gastropods were monophyletic and sister to the clade comprising spirorchiids and schistosomes, but low nodal support indicated that they may represent a distinct blood fluke lineage with phylogenetic affinities also to fish blood flukes. Blood flukes that utilize gastropod intermediate hosts were monophyletic (unidentified gastropod cercariae+tetrapod blood flukes) and those utilizing bivalves and polychaetes were monophyletic (marine fish blood flukes). Low or no taxon sampling among blood flukes of basal fish lineages and primary division freshwater fish lineages are significant data gaps needing closure. We also note that no record of an infection exists in a hagfish (Myxiniformes), lamprey (Petromyzontiformes), or nontetrapod sarcopterygiian, i.e., coelacanth (Coelacanthimorpha) or lungfish (Dipnoi). The present phylogenetic analysis reiterated support for monophyly of Schistosomatidae and paraphyly of spirorchiids, with the blood flukes of freshwater turtles basal to those of marine turtles and schistosomes.

  6. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.

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    Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-09-09

    Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru.

  7. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

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    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  8. Changes in IgE- and Antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel

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    Kazibwe Francis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite-specific IgE levels correlate with human resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma spp. after chemotherapy. Although the role of eosinophils in schistosomiasis has been the focus of a great deal of important research, the involvement of other Fcε receptor-bearing cells, such as mast cells and basophils, has not been investigated in relation to human immunity to schistosomes. Chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ kills schistosomes living in an in vivo blood environment rich in IgE, eosinophils and basophils. This releases parasite Ags that have the potential to cross-link cell-bound IgE. However, systemic hypersensitivity reactions are not induced by treatment. Here, we describe the effects of schistosomiasis, and its treatment, on human basophil function by following changes in total cellular histamine and in vitro histamine-release induced by schistosome Ags or anti-IgE, in blood samples from infected Ugandan fishermen, who are continuously exposed to S. mansoni infection, before and 1-day and 21-days after PZQ treatment. Results There was a significant increase in the total cellular histamine in blood samples at 1-day post-treatment, followed by a very significant further increase by 21-days post-treatment. In vitro histamine-release induced by S. mansoni egg (SEA or worm (SWA Ags or anti-IgE antibody, was significantly reduced 1-day post-treatment. The degree of this reduction correlated with pre-treatment infection intensity. Twenty-1-days post-treatment, SEA-induced histamine-release was still significantly lower than at pretreatment. Histamine-release was not correlated to plasma concentrations of total or parasite-specific IgE, nor to specific IgG4 plasma concentrations. Conclusion The biology of human blood basophils is modulated by S. mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment. Infection intensity-dependent suppression of basophil histamine-release, histamine-dependent resistance to infection, and

  9. Vaccination with Enzymatically Cleaved GPI-Anchored Proteins from Schistosoma mansoni Induces Protection against Challenge Infection

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    Vicente P. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that occurs throughout the developing world. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization with an antischistosomiasis vaccine combined with drug treatment. In the search for potential vaccine candidates, numerous tegument antigens have been assessed. As the major interface between parasite and mammalian host, the tegument plays crucial roles in the establishment and further course of schistosomiasis. Herein, we evaluated the potential of a GPI fraction, containing representative molecules located on the outer surface of adult worms, as vaccine candidate. Immunization of mice with GPI-anchored proteins induced a mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response with production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and low levels of IL-5 into the supernatant of splenocyte cultures. The protection engendered by this vaccination protocol was confirmed by 42% reduction in worm burden, 45% reduction in eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, 29% reduction in the number of granulomas per area, and 53% reduction in the granuloma fibrosis. Taken together, the data herein support the potential of surface-exposed GPI-anchored antigens from the S. mansoni tegument as vaccine candidate.

  10. Development of Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice analyzed by bright field and confocal microscopy

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    Carla de Lamare Biolchini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood flukes of mammals (Digenea: Schistosomatidae are among trematodes unique whose adult worms have separeted sexes which are dissimilar in appearance. The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Schistosoma mansoni were studied in Swiss Webster mice by a digital system for image analysis and confocal microscopy. Data so far obtained showed two phases with significative morphological changes at 3-4 weeks post-infection, and a gradual similar development onwards in the reproductive system and tegument. Our male-dependent phase demonstrated that mating occurs before sexual maturing. At week three, the majority of male worms (59% had formed the gynaecophoric canal although testicular lobes and tegumental tubercles were absent. By this time, 33% females had an incipient ovary (without cellular differentiation. At week four, 77.2% males presented testicular lobes with few germinative cells while 26% had developing tegumental tubercles. The immature ovary was observed in 69% females. Suckers followed different pattern of growth between male and females. The size of oral and ventral suckers from six-week-old male worms grew abruptly (3.0 fold more than that of three-week-old. In female worms, maximum growth was attained at week four, reducing in size thereafter. From sixth week onwards, all specimens showed the fully developed reproductive system. Probably, these features are morphological traits which schistosome has experienced from hermaphrodite to dioecy.

  11. Structural parameters, molecular properties, and biological evaluation of some terpenes targeting Schistosoma mansoni parasite.

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    Mafud, Ana C; Silva, Marcos P N; Monteiro, Daniela C; Oliveira, Maria F; Resende, João G; Coelho, Mayara L; de Sousa, Damião P; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z; Pinto, Pedro L S; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; de Moraes, Josué

    2016-01-25

    The use of natural products has a long tradition in medicine, and they have proven to be an important source of lead compounds in the development of new drugs. Among the natural compounds, terpenoids present broad-spectrum activity against infective agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites. In this study, we report a biological screening of 38 chemically characterized terpenes from different classes, which have a hydroxyl group connected by hydrophobic chain or an acceptor site, against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the parasite responsible for schistosomiasis mansoni. In vitro bioassays revealed that 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol (dihydrocitronellol) (10) was the most active terpene (IC50 values of 13-52 μM) and, thus, we investigated its antischistosomal activity in greater detail. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that compound 10 induced severe tegumental damage in adult schistosomes and a correlation between viability and tegumental changes was observed. Furthermore, we compared all the inactive compounds with dihydrocitronellol structurally by using shape and charge modeling. Lipophilicity (miLogP) and other molecular properties (e.g. molecular polar surface area, molecular electrostatic potential) were also calculated. From the 38 terpenes studied, compound 10 is the one with the greatest flexibility, with a sufficient apolar region by which it may interact in a hydrophobic active site. In conclusion, the integration of biological and chemical analysis indicates the potential of the terpene dihydrocitronellol as an antiparasitic agent.

  12. Fecal Occult Blood and Fecal Calprotectin as Point-of-Care Markers of Intestinal Morbidity in Ugandan Children with Schistosoma mansoni Infection

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    Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Sousa-Figueiredo, José C.; Adriko, Moses; Betson, Martha; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Background Calprotectin is a calcium-binding cytoplasmic protein found in neutrophils and increasingly used as a marker of bowel inflammation. Fecal occult blood (FOB) is also a dependable indicator of bowel morbidity. The objective of our study was to determine the applicability of these tests as surrogate markers of Schistosoma mansoni intestinal morbidity before and after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Methods 216 children (ages 3–9 years old) from Buliisa District in Lake Albert, Uganda were examined and treated with PZQ at baseline in October 2012 with 211 of them re-examined 24 days later for S. mansoni and other soil transmitted helminths (STH). POC calprotectin and FOB assays were performed at both time points on a subset of children. Associations between the test results and infection were analysed by logistic regression. Results Fecal calprotectin concentrations of 150–300 µg/g were associated with S. mansoni egg patent infection both at baseline and follow up (OR: 12.5 P = 0.05; OR: 6.8 P = 0.02). FOB had a very strong association with baseline anemia (OR: 9.2 P = 0.03) and medium and high egg intensity schistosomiasis at follow up (OR: 6.6 P = 0.03; OR: 51.3 P = 0.003). Both tests were strongly associated with heavy intensity S. mansoni infections. There was a significant decrease in FOB and calprotectin test positivity after PZQ treatment in those children who had egg patent schistosomiasis at baseline. Conclusions Both FOB and calprotectin rapid assays were found to correlate positively and strongly with egg patent S. mansoni infection with a positive ameloriation response after PZQ treatment indicative of short term reversion of morbidity. Both tests were appropriate for use in the field with excellent operational performance and reliability. Due to its lower-cost which makes its scale-up of use affordable, FOB could be immediately adopted as a monitoring tool for PC campaigns for efficacy evaluation before and after

  13. Fecal occult blood and fecal calprotectin as point-of-care markers of intestinal morbidity in Ugandan children with Schistosoma mansoni infection.

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    Amaya L Bustinduy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding cytoplasmic protein found in neutrophils and increasingly used as a marker of bowel inflammation. Fecal occult blood (FOB is also a dependable indicator of bowel morbidity. The objective of our study was to determine the applicability of these tests as surrogate markers of Schistosoma mansoni intestinal morbidity before and after treatment with praziquantel (PZQ. METHODS: 216 children (ages 3-9 years old from Buliisa District in Lake Albert, Uganda were examined and treated with PZQ at baseline in October 2012 with 211 of them re-examined 24 days later for S. mansoni and other soil transmitted helminths (STH. POC calprotectin and FOB assays were performed at both time points on a subset of children. Associations between the test results and infection were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Fecal calprotectin concentrations of 150-300 µg/g were associated with S. mansoni egg patent infection both at baseline and follow up (OR: 12.5 P = 0.05; OR: 6.8 P = 0.02. FOB had a very strong association with baseline anemia (OR: 9.2 P = 0.03 and medium and high egg intensity schistosomiasis at follow up (OR: 6.6 P = 0.03; OR: 51.3 P = 0.003. Both tests were strongly associated with heavy intensity S. mansoni infections. There was a significant decrease in FOB and calprotectin test positivity after PZQ treatment in those children who had egg patent schistosomiasis at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Both FOB and calprotectin rapid assays were found to correlate positively and strongly with egg patent S. mansoni infection with a positive ameloriation response after PZQ treatment indicative of short term reversion of morbidity. Both tests were appropriate for use in the field with excellent operational performance and reliability. Due to its lower-cost which makes its scale-up of use affordable, FOB could be immediately adopted as a monitoring tool for PC campaigns for efficacy evaluation before and after treatment.

  14. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  15. Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Y; Doanh, P N; Thaenkham, U

    2015-03-01

    Recently, in the Journal of Helminthology (May 2013), Dao et al. reported that Opisthorchis viverrini-like flukes were found in the bile duct of domestic ducks in Vietnam. They stated that this is the first record of Opisthorchis sp. in birds in Vietnam. However, three Opisthorchis species--O. cheelis, O. longissimus and O. parageminus--in birds in Vietnam were described by Le in 2000. Amongst these, O. parageminus was first reported, by Oshmarin in 1970, as a new Opisthorchis species found in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in Vietnam. Morphologially O. viverrini-like flukes described by Dao et al. are much more similar to O. parageminus than to O. viverrini. The phylogenetic trees of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene sequences also showed that the O. viverrini-like liver flukes from domestic ducks were closer to O. lobatus than to O. viverrini. Therefore, O. viverrini-like liver flukes reported by Dao et al. (2013) are most likely to be O. parageminus.

  16. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

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    Mariya Y Pakharukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target.

  17. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Vavilin, Valentin A.; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach; Brindley, Paul J.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2015-01-01

    The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium) are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii) to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii) to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR) in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target. PMID:26625139

  18. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Di Liang

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs, a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  19. Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael A; Marcos, Luis A; Onen, Nur F; Demertzis, Lee M; Hayes, Ericka V; Davila, Samuel Z; Nurutdinova, Diana R; Bailey, Thomas C; Weil, Gary J

    2012-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission.

  20. Molecular characterization of a tetraspanin from the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

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    Supawadee Piratae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, is designated as a group 1 carcinogen, and is the major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in endemic countries throughout Southeast Asia. Proteins in the excretory-secretory products and tegumental surface membranes of the fluke have been proposed to play pivotal roles in parasite survival in the host, and subsequent pathogenesis. These macromolecules are therefore valid targets for the development of vaccines and new drugs to control the infection. Tetraspanins (TSP are prominent components of the tegument of blood flukes where they are essential for tegument formation, are directly exposed to the immune system, and are major targets for a schistosomiasis vaccine. We propose that similar molecules in the surface membranes of O. viverrini are integral to tegument biogenesis and will be efficacious vaccine antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cDNA sequence encoding O. viverrini tetraspanin-1 (Ov-TSP-1 was identified and cloned. The Ov-tsp-1gene was isolated from a cDNA library. Ov-tsp-1 mRNA was expressed most highly in metacercariae and eggs, and to a lesser extent in juvenile and adult worms. Immunolocalization with adult flukes confirmed that Ov-TSP-1 was expressed in the tegument and eggs in utero. Western blot analysis of rOv-TSP-1 probed with sera from O. viverrini-infected humans and hamsters indicated that both hosts raise antibody responses against the native TSP. Using RNA interference we silenced the expression level of Ov-tsp-1 mRNA in adult flukes by up to 72% by 10 days after delivery of dsRNA. Ultrastructural morphology of adult worms treated with Ov-tsp-1 dsRNA displayed a distinctly vacuolated and thinner tegument compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a tetraspanin from the tegument of a liver fluke. Our data imply that tetraspanins play important structural roles in the development of the tegument in the adult fluke

  1. Whole genome resequencing of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni reveals population history and effects of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellen, Thomas; Allan, Fiona; David, Sophia; Durrant, Caroline; Huckvale, Thomas; Holroyd, Nancy; Emery, Aidan M.; Rollinson, David; Aanensen, David M.; Berriman, Matthew; Webster, Joanne P.; Cotton, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic fluke that infects millions of people in the developing world. This study presents the first application of population genomics to S. mansoni based on high-coverage resequencing data from 10 global isolates and an isolate of the closely-related Schistosoma rodhaini, which infects rodents. Using population genetic tests, we document genes under directional and balancing selection in S. mansoni that may facilitate adaptation to the human host. Coalescence modeling reveals the speciation of S. mansoni and S. rodhaini as 107.5–147.6KYA, a period which overlaps with the earliest archaeological evidence for fishing in Africa. Our results indicate that S. mansoni originated in East Africa and experienced a decline in effective population size 20–90KYA, before dispersing across the continent during the Holocene. In addition, we find strong evidence that S. mansoni migrated to the New World with the 16–19th Century Atlantic Slave Trade. PMID:26879532

  2. Characterization and expression of a novel cystatin gene from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baohua; Cai, Guobin; Ni, Yonghui; Li, Ying; Zong, Hongying; He, Li

    2011-08-01

    Cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors that play a crucial role in the immune evasion from their host and in the adaptation to host defence. Here, we isolated a full-length cDNA sequence inferred to encode a novel cystatin gene from a blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum. The cDNA, designated SjCystatin, comprised an open reading frame (ORF) of 306 bp, and encoded 101 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 11.3 kDa. This predicted protein shared a significant degree of sequence identity with the type I cystatin (stefin) of Schistosoma mansoni and Homo sapiens. These proteins exhibited a typical cystatin topology, including the absence of disulfide bonds and three conserved catalytic motifs, Gly at the N-terminus (Gly(6)), Gln-X-Val-X-Gly motif (Q(49)VVAG(53)) and an LP pair at the C-terminus (L(76)P(77)). The SjCystatin gene spanned 376 bp and contained three exons. The positions of two introns were conserved between the cystatin genes of trematodes and their vertebrate hosts. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the transcription of SjCystatin in the egg, schistosomula and adult stages of S. japonicum. The encoding ORF region was cloned into pET-28a (+) prokaryotic expression vector. After purification, the recombinant protein SjCystatin (recSjCystatin), expressed in Escherichia coli, was used to immunize animals and produce its specific polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the native SjCystatin was expressed in the egg and adult stages. The enzyme activity assay of the recSjCystatin showed that it inhibited the proteolytic activity of papain. SjCystatin protein was mainly localized on the miracidium within eggs. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SjCystatin mainly localized in the epithelial cells lining the gut as well as the tegument on the surface of adult worms. The conserved genomic DNA structure among cystatin homologues of trematode and their vertebrate host emphasized the characteristics

  3. Cathepsin F cysteine protease of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

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    Porntip Pinlaor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships, immunolocalization, and functional characterization of the cathepsin F cysteine protease gene, here termed Ov-cf-1, from O. viverrini. The full length mRNA of 1020 nucleotides (nt encoded a 326 amino acid zymogen consisting of a predicted signal peptide (18 amino acids, aa, prosegment (95 aa, and mature protease (213 aa. BLAST analysis using the Ov-CF-1 protein as the query revealed that the protease shared identity with cathepsin F-like cysteine proteases of other trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis (81%, Paragonimus westermani (58%, Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum (52%, and with vertebrate cathepsin F (51%. Transcripts encoding the protease were detected in all developmental stages that parasitize the mammalian host. The Ov-cf-1 gene, of approximately 3 kb in length, included seven exons interrupted by six introns; the exons ranged from 69 to 267 bp in length, the introns from 43 to 1,060 bp. The six intron/exon boundaries of Ov-cf-1 were conserved with intron/exon boundaries in the human cathepsin F gene, although the gene structure of human cathepsin F is more complex. Unlike Ov-CF-1, human cathepsin F zymogen includes a cystatin domain in the prosegment region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fluke, human, and other cathepsin Fs branched together in a clade discrete from the cathepsin L cysteine proteases. A recombinant Ov-CF-1 zymogen that displayed low-level activity was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Although the recombinant

  4. Compounds Derived from the Bhutanese Daisy, Ajania nubigena, Demonstrate Dual Anthelmintic Activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Becker, Luke; Sotillo, Javier; Pickering, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Background Whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides. Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties. Encouraged by these findings, we screened four major compounds isolated from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we studied four major compounds derived from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties against the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris and the platyhelminth blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni using the xWORM assay technique. Of four compounds tested, two compounds—luteolin (3) and (3R,6R)-linalool oxide acetate (1)—showed dual anthelmintic activity against S. mansoni (IC50 range = 5.8–36.9 μg/mL) and T. muris (IC50 range = 9.7–20.4 μg/mL). Using scanning electron microscopy, we determined luteolin as the most efficacious compound against both parasites and additionally was found effective against the schistosomula, the infective stage of S. mansoni (IC50 = 13.3 μg/mL). Luteolin induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. Our in vivo assessment of luteolin (3) against T. muris infection at a single oral dosing of 100 mg/kg, despite being significantly (27.6%) better than the untreated control group, was markedly weaker than mebendazole (93.1%) in reducing the worm burden in mice. Conclusions/Significance Among the four compounds tested, luteolin demonstrated the best broad-spectrum activity against two different helminths—T. muris and S. mansoni—and was

  5. Development of Experimental Vaccines Against Liver Flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Huan Yong; Smooker, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of experimental vaccines have been developed against liver flukes in the past. However, there has yet to be the development of a commercial livestock vaccine. Reasons for this may be multiple, and include the lack of identification of the best antigen(s), or the immune response induced by those antigens not being appropriate in either magnitude or polarity (and therefore not protective). Cathepsin proteases are the major component of the excretory/secretory (ES) material of liver flukes in all stages of their life cycle in the definitive host and are the primary antigens of interest for the vaccine development in many studies. Hence, this chapter presents the methodologies of using cathepsin proteases as targeted antigens in recombinant protein and DNA vaccine development to engender protective immune responses against fasciolosis.First, the experimental vaccines developed in the past and the criteria of an effective vaccine for fasciolosis are briefly reviewed. Then flowcharts for recombinant protein vaccine and DNA vaccine development are presented, followed by the detailed materials and methodologies.

  6. Development and validation of a quantitative, high-throughput, fluorescent-based bioassay to detect schistosoma viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, caused by infection with the blood fluke Schistosoma, is responsible for greater than 200,000 human deaths per annum. Objective high-throughput screens for detecting novel anti-schistosomal targets will drive 'genome to drug' lead translational science at an unprecedented rate. Current methods for detecting schistosome viability rely on qualitative microscopic criteria, which require an understanding of parasite morphology, and most importantly, must be subjectively interpreted. These limitations, in the current state of the art, have significantly impeded progress into whole schistosome screening for next generation chemotherapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here a microtiter plate-based method for reproducibly detecting schistosomula viability that takes advantage of the differential uptake of fluorophores (propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate by living organisms. We validate this high-throughput system in detecting schistosomula viability using auranofin (a known inhibitor of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, praziquantel and a range of small compounds with previously-described (gambogic acid, sodium salinomycin, ethinyl estradiol, fluoxetidine hydrochloride, miconazole nitrate, chlorpromazine hydrochloride, amphotericin b, niclosamide or suggested (bepridil, ciclopirox, rescinnamine, flucytosine, vinblastine and carbidopa anti-schistosomal activities. This developed method is sensitive (200 schistosomula/well can be assayed, relevant to industrial (384-well microtiter plate compatibility and academic (96-well microtiter plate compatibility settings, translatable to functional genomics screens and drug assays, does not require a priori knowledge of schistosome biology and is quantitative. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The wide-scale application of this fluorescence-based bioassay will greatly accelerate the objective identification of novel therapeutic lead targets/compounds to combat

  7. The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the model organism Schmidtea mediterranea

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    Zamanian Mostafa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute one of the largest groupings of eukaryotic proteins, and represent a particularly lucrative set of pharmaceutical targets. They play an important role in eukaryotic signal transduction and physiology, mediating cellular responses to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli. The phylum Platyhelminthes is of considerable medical and biological importance, housing major pathogens as well as established model organisms. The recent availability of genomic data for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and the model planarian Schmidtea mediterranea paves the way for the first comprehensive effort to identify and analyze GPCRs in this important phylum. Results Application of a novel transmembrane-oriented approach to receptor mining led to the discovery of 117 S. mansoni GPCRs, representing all of the major families; 105 Rhodopsin, 2 Glutamate, 3 Adhesion, 2 Secretin and 5 Frizzled. Similarly, 418 Rhodopsin, 9 Glutamate, 21 Adhesion, 1 Secretin and 11 Frizzled S. mediterranea receptors were identified. Among these, we report the identification of novel receptor groupings, including a large and highly-diverged Platyhelminth-specific Rhodopsin subfamily, a planarian-specific Adhesion-like family, and atypical Glutamate-like receptors. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out following extensive gene curation. Support vector machines (SVMs were trained and used for ligand-based classification of full-length Rhodopsin GPCRs, complementing phylogenetic and homology-based classification. Conclusions Genome-wide investigation of GPCRs in two platyhelminth genomes reveals an extensive and complex receptor signaling repertoire with many unique features. This work provides important sequence and functional leads for understanding basic flatworm receptor biology, and sheds light on a lucrative set of anthelmintic drug targets.

  8. Two new species of Elopicola (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis (Eastern Sea) and Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus (Gulf of Mexico) with a comment on monophyly of elopomorph blood flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Halanych, Kenneth M; Dang, Binh T; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-06-01

    Elopicola bristowi sp. n. infects the blood vascular system of Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis, in the Eastern Sea. It differs from the only nominal congener Elopicola nolancribbi by the combination of having rows of ventrolateral tegumental spines, a proportionally long oesophagus, anterior caeca, vasa efferentia coalescing ventral to the posterodextral margin of the testis, a post-testicular metraterm, a dextral common genital pore lateral to the oötype, and genitalia that are enantiomorphic relative to those of E. nolancribbi. Elopicola franksi sp. n. infects the heart and blood vascular system of Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus, in the Gulf of Mexico. It differs from its congeners by the combination of lacking ventrolateral tegumental spines and having an elongate body (6× longer than wide), a proportionally long oesophagus, a compact testis at level of the distal ends of the posterior caeca, and a post-testicular common genital pore at level of the oötype. Phylogenetic analyses based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S), large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S), and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) genes revealed considerable genetic differences between these taxa. The 18S+28S tree showed a monophyletic Elopicola sister to all aporocotylids infecting fishes of Euteleosteomorpha. The ITS2 tree showed Paracardicoloides yamagutii as the sister taxon to Elopicola spp.

  9. Identification of the Schistosoma mansoni Molecular Target for the Antimalarial Drug Artemether

    KAUST Repository

    Lepore, Rosalba

    2011-11-28

    Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansonii are the parasites responsible for most of the malaria and schistosomiasis cases in the world. Notwithstanding their many differences, the two agents have striking similarities in that they both are blood feeders and are targets of an overlapping set of drugs, including the well-known artemether molecule. Here we explore the possibility of using the known information about the mode of action of artemether in Plasmodium to identify the molecular target of the drug in Schistosoma and provide evidence that artemether binds to SmSERCA, a putative Ca2+-ATPase of Schistosoma. We also predict the putative binding mode of the molecule for both its Plasmodium and Schistosoma targets. Our analysis of the mode of binding of artemether to Ca2+-ATPases also provides an explanation for the apparent paradox that, although the molecule has no side effect in humans, it has been shown to possess antitumoral activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Schistosoma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=S...chistosoma+japonicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schist...osoma+japonicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  11. Amplification of D22S283 as a favorable prognostic indicator in liver fluke related cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongkonnee Thanasai; Temduang Limpaiboon; Patcharee Jearanaikoon; Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi; Narong Khuntikeo; Banchob Sripa; Masanao Miwa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the DNA copy number of target genes NF2, TIMP3, ST13, TOB2, BIK,, and TP and the reference microsatellite markers D22S283, D22S423, and D22S274 mapped on 22q12-qter in liver fluke related cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and define its correlation with clinical parameters.METHODS: Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was used for determining allelic imbalances in 65 liver fluke related CCA tissues. Statistical correlations between allelic imbalances and clinicopathological parameters, i.e. age,sex, tumor stage, histological type, blood vessel invasion,nerve invasion and lymphatic invasion were evaluated by means of the χ2 test. Cox regression analysis was used for determining patient's survival.RESULTS: Amplifications of the TP (22q13.33), TOB2(22q13.2-13.31), D22S283 (22q12.3), TIMP3 (22q12.3)and NF2 (22q12.2) were found in 35 (53.8%), 28(43.1%), 27 (41.5%), 24 (36.9%), and 24 (36.9%),respectively. Losses at the D22S423 (22q13.1-13.2)and BIK (22q13.31) were detected in 26 (40%) and 23 (35.4%), respectively. Significant correlations were observed between lymphatic invasion and allelic losses of BIK (P = 0.025) and D22S283 (P = 0.041). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed D22S283 amplification as an independent predictor of good prognosis (P = 0.006, death hazard ratio = 0.411,95% CI = 0.217-0.779) and blood vessel invasion as an independent poor prognostic factor (P = 0.042, death hazard ratio = 1.911, 95% CI = 1.022-3.571) in CCA patients.CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the involvement of gene amplification and deletion on chromosome 22q in liver fluke related CCA. This is the first report of D22S283 amplification as an independent indicator of favorable prognosis in liver fluke related CCA.

  12. A population growth trend analysis for Neotricula aperta, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mekongi, after construction of the Pak-Mun dam.

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    Stephen W Attwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work.

  13. Adult Opisthorchis felineus major protein fractions deduced from transcripts: comparison with liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaznoy, Mikhail; Tatkov, Sergey; Katokhin, Alexey; Afonnikov, Dmitry; Babenko, Vladimir; Furman, Dagmara; Brusentsov, Ilya; Belavin, Pavel; Najakshin, Alexandr; Guselnikov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Gennady; Sivkov, Anton; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiologically important liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis are of interest to health professionals, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. Recently the transcriptomes of the latter two species were intensively investigated. However our knowledge on molecular biology of O. felineus is scarce. We report the first results of the O. felineus transcriptome analysis. We isolated and annotated a total of 2560 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from adult O. felineus (deposited within the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST), under accession numbers GenBank: JK624271-JK626790, JK006511-JK006547, JK649790-JK649792). Clustering and analysis resulted in the detection of 267 contigs. Of the protein sequences deduced from these, 82% had homologs in the NCBI (nr) protein database and 63% contained conserved domains, allowing the functions to be interpreted using the Gene Ontology terms. Comprehensive analysis of Opisthorchiidae- and Trematoda-specific substitutions within amino acid sequences deduced for the proteins myoglobin, vitelline precursor protein, cathepsin F, and 28kDa glutathione transferase was carried out. The gene set of the 32 ribosomal proteins for the three Opisthorchiidae species with the addition of available Schistosoma and Fasciola orthologs was created and is provided in the supplementary. The orthologous gene set created was used for inferring phylogeny within the Trematoda with special attention to interrelations within the Opisthorchiidae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between C. sinensis and O. viverrini and some divergence of O. felineus from either O. viverrini or C. sinensis.

  14. Opisthorchis viverrini:The carcinogenic human liver fluke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa; Banchob Sripa

    2008-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia,including Thailand,Lao PDR,Vietnam and Cambodia.The infection is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases,including cholangitis,obstructive jaundice,hepatomegaly,cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.Multi-factorial etiology of cholangiocarcinoma,mechanical damage,parasite secretions,and immunopathology may enhance cholangiocarcinogenesis.Moreover,both experimental and epidemiological evidences strongly implicate liver fluke infection as the major risk factor in cholangiocarcinoma,cancer of the bile ducts.The liver fluke infection is induced by eating raw or uncooked fish products that is the tradition and popular in the northeastern and northern region,particularly in rural areas,of Thailand.The health education programs to prevent and control opisthorchiasis are still required in the high-risk areas.

  15. Calmodulin disruption impacts growth and motility in juvenile liver fluke

    OpenAIRE

    McCammick, Erin M.; McVeigh, Paul; McCusker, Paul; Timson, David J; Morphew, Russell M.; Brophy, Peter M.; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Maule, Aaron G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in effective flukicide options and growing issues with drug resistance make current strategies for liver fluke control unsustainable, thereby promoting the need to identify and validate new control targets in Fasciola spp. parasites. Calmodulins (CaMs) are small calcium-sensing proteins with ubiquitous expression in all eukaryotic organisms and generally use fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels to modulate cell signalling events. CaMs are essential for fundamen...

  16. Potential role of hares in the spread of liver fluke in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.M.; Johnston, C.; Hoey, E.M.; Fairweather, I.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Prodohl, P.A.; Trudgett, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hares (Lepus europeanus) sharing pasture with cattle from six locations in the Netherlands were examined for the presence of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and shown to have prevalences of infection ranging from 0 to 41%. The mitochondrial haplotypes of liver flukes present in the hare populations

  17. Examination of the three-dimensional geometry of cetacean flukes using computed tomography scans: hydrodynamic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank E; Beneski, John T; Ketten, Darlene R

    2007-06-01

    The flukes of cetaceans function in the hydrodynamic generation of forces for thrust, stability, and maneuverability. The three-dimensional geometry of flukes is associated with production of lift and drag. Data on fluke geometry were collected from 19 cetacean specimens representing eight odontocete genera (Delphinus, Globicephala, Grampus, Kogia, Lagenorhynchus, Phocoena, Stenella, Tursiops). Flukes were imaged as 1 mm thickness cross-sections using X-ray computer-assisted tomography. Fluke shapes were characterized quantitatively by dimensions of the chord, maximum thickness, and position of maximum thickness from the leading edge. Sections were symmetrical about the chordline and had a rounded leading edge and highly tapered trailing edge. The thickness ratio (maximum thickness/chord) among species increased from insertion on the tailstock to a maximum at 20% of span and then decreasing steadily to the tip. Thickness ratio ranged from 0.139 to 0.232. These low values indicate reduced drag while moving at high speed. The position of maximum thickness from the leading edge remained constant over the fluke span at an average for all species of 0.285 chord. The displacement of the maximum thickness reduces the tendency of the flow to separate from the fluke surface, potentially affecting stall patterns. Similarly, the relatively large leading edge radius allows greater lift generation and delays stall. Computational analysis of fluke profiles at 50% of span showed that flukes were generally comparable or better for lift generation than engineered foils. Tursiops had the highest lift coefficients, which were superior to engineered foils by 12-19%. Variation in the structure of cetacean flukes reflects different hydrodynamic characteristics that could influence swimming performance.

  18. Comparative evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma intercalatum, and Schistosoma haematobium alkaline phosphatase antigenicity by the alkaline phosphatase immunoassay (APIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, I M; Ballén, D E; Mendoza, L; Ferrer, A; Pointier, J-P; Kombila, M; Richard-Lenoble, D; Théron, A

    2014-04-01

    To know if alkaline phosphatase (AP) from schistosomes other than Schistosoma mansoni can be used as diagnostic marker for schistosomiasis in alkaline phosphatase immunocapture assay (APIA), we comparatively tested n-butanol extracts of adult worm membranes from a Venezuelan (JL) strain of S. mansoni (Ven/AWBE/Sm); a Cameroonian (EDEN) strain of Schistosoma intercalatum (Cam/AWBE/Si) and a Yemeni strain of Schistosoma haematobium (Yem/AWBE/Sh). APIA was evaluated with sera of patients from Venezuela, Senegal, and Gabon infected with S. mansoni, from Gabon infected with S. intercalatum or S. haematobium, from Chine infected with Schistosoma japonicum and from Cambodian patients infected with Schistosoma mekongi. Results indicate that 92.5% (37/40) of Venezuela sera, 75% (15/20) of Senegal sera, 39.5% (17/43) of S. haematobium sera, and 19.2% (5/26) S. intercalatum sera were APIA-positive with the Ven/AWBE/Sm preparation. APIA with the Cam/AWBE/Si preparation showed that 53.8% of S. intercalatum-positive sera had anti-AP antibodies, and 51.2% S. haematobium-positive sera cross-immunocapturing the S. intercalatum AP. APIA performed with Yem/AWBE/Sh showed that 55.8% S. haematobium sera were positive. Only two out of nine S. japonicum sera were APIA-positive with the Ven/AWBE/Sm and Cam/AWBE/Si, and no reaction was observed with Cambodian S. mekongi-positive sera. AP activity was shown to be present in all the schistosome species/strains studied. The use of APIA as a tool to explore the APs antigenicity and the presence of Schistosoma sp. infections through the detection of anti-Schistosoma sp. AP antibodies in a host, allowed us to demonstrate the antigenicity of APs of S. mansoni, S. intercalatum, and S. haematobium.

  19. Gene diversity and genetic variation in lung flukes (genus Paragonimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi; Mitreva, Makedonka; Doanh, Pham Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis caused by lung flukes (genus Paragonimus) is a neglected disease occurring in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The genus is species-rich, ancient and widespread. Genetic diversity is likely to be considerable, but investigation of this remains confined to a few populations of a few species. In recent years, studies of genetic diversity have moved from isoenzyme analysis to molecular phylogenetic analysis based on selected DNA sequences. The former offered better resolution of questions relating to allelic diversity and gene flow, whereas the latter is more suitable for questions relating to molecular taxonomy and phylogeny. A picture is emerging of a highly diverse taxon of parasites, with the greatest diversity found in eastern and southern Asia where ongoing speciation might be indicated by the presence of several species complexes. Diversity of lung flukes in Africa and the Americas is very poorly sampled. Functional molecules that might be of value for immunodiagnosis, or as targets for medical intervention, are of great interest. Characterisation of these from Paragonimus species has been ongoing for a number of years. However, the imminent release of genomic and transcriptomic data for several species of Paragonimus will dramatically increase the rate of discovery of such molecules, and illuminate their diversity within and between species.

  20. Sequences and gene organization of the mitochondrial genomes of the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X Q; Liu, G H; Song, H Q; Wu, C Y; Zou, F C; Yan, H K; Yuan, Z G; Lin, R Q; Zhu, X Q

    2012-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are important trematodes infecting humans and animals, belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae. In the present study, we sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA (mtDNA) sequences of O. viverrini from Laos, obtained the complete mtDNA sequences of C. sinensis from China and Korea, and revealed their gene annotations and genome organizations. The mtDNA sequences of O. viverrini, C. sinensis (China isolate), C. sinensis (Korea isolate) were 13,510, 13,879, and 13,877 bp in size, respectively. Each of the three mt genomes comprises 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes coding for proteins, two genes for rRNA, and 20 genes (O. viverrini) or 22 genes (C. sinensis) for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of Fasciola hepatica, and Paragonimus westermani, but distinct from Schistosoma spp. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in T. The contents of A + T of the mt genomes were 59.39% for O. viverrini, 60.03% for C. sinensis (China isolate), and 59.99% for C. sinensis (Korea isolate). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms [maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis], all revealed distinct groups with high statistical support, indicating that O. viverrini and C. sinensis represent sister taxa. These data provide additional novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of the two liver flukes and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in humans and animals.

  1. Developmental transcriptomic features of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gi Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development

  2. Invasion of Flukes of the Echinostomatidae Family in Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia var. domestica) Lofts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case.

  3. A salting out and resin procedure for extracting Schistosoma mansoni DNA from human urine samples

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    Rodrigues Nilton B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper a simple and cheap salting out and resin (InstaGene matrix® resin - BioRad DNA extraction method from urine for PCR assays is introduced. The DNA of the fluke Schistosoma mansoni was chosen as the target since schistosomiasis lacks a suitable diagnostic tool which is sensitive enough to detect low worm burden. It is well known that the PCR technique provides high sensitivity and specificity in detecting parasite DNA. Therefore it is of paramount importance to take advantage of its excellent performance by providing a simple to handle and reliable DNA extraction procedure, which permits the diagnosis of the disease in easily obtainable urine samples. Findings The description of the extraction procedure is given. This extraction procedure was tested for reproducibility and efficiency in artificially contaminated human urine samples. The reproducibility reached 100%, showing positive results in 5 assay repetitions of 5 tested samples each containing 20 ng DNA/5 ml. The efficiency of the extraction procedure was also evaluated in a serial dilution of the original 20 ng DNA/5 ml sample. Detectable DNA was extracted when it was at a concentration of 1.28 pg DNA/mL, revealing the high efficiency of this procedure. Conclusions This methodology represents a promising tool for schistosomiasis diagnosis utilizing a bio-molecular technique in urine samples which is now ready to be tested under field conditions and may be applicable to the diagnosis of other parasitic diseases.

  4. Simulating the Risk of Liver Fluke Infection using a Mechanistic Hydro-epidemiological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Ludovica; Dunne, Toby; Rose, Hannah; Walker, Josephine; Morgan, Eric; Vickerman, Peter; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite found in livestock and responsible for considerable economic losses throughout the world. Risk of infection is strongly influenced by climatic and hydrological conditions, which characterise the host environment for parasite development and transmission. Despite on-going control efforts, increases in fluke outbreaks have been reported in recent years in the UK, and have been often attributed to climate change. Currently used fluke risk models are based on empirical relationships derived between historical climate and incidence data. However, hydro-climate conditions are becoming increasingly non-stationary due to climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts such as land use change, making empirical models unsuitable for simulating future risk. In this study we introduce a mechanistic hydro-epidemiological model for Liver Fluke, which explicitly simulates habitat suitability for disease development in space and time, representing the parasite life cycle in connection with key environmental conditions. The model is used to assess patterns of Liver Fluke risk for two catchments in the UK under current and potential future climate conditions. Comparisons are made with a widely used empirical model employing different datasets, including data from regional veterinary laboratories. Results suggest that mechanistic models can achieve adequate predictive ability and support adaptive fluke control strategies under climate change scenarios.

  5. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework.

  6. SmTRC1, a novel Schistosoma mansoni DNA transposon, discloses new families of animal and fungi transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verjovski-Almeida Sergio

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CACTA (also called En/Spm superfamily of DNA-only transposons contain the core sequence CACTA in their Terminal Inverted Repeats (TIRs and so far have only been described in plants. Large transcriptome and genome sequence data have recently become publicly available for Schistosoma mansoni, a digenetic blood fluke that is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans, and have provided a comprehensive repository for the discovery of novel genes and repetitive elements. Despite the extensive description of retroelements in S. mansoni, just a single DNA-only transposon belonging to the Merlin family has so far been reported in this organism. Results We describe a novel S. mansoni transposon named SmTRC1, for S. mansoni Transposon Related to CACTA 1, an element that shares several characteristics with plant CACTA transposons. Southern blotting indicates approximately 30–300 copies of SmTRC1 in the S. mansoni genome. Using genomic PCR followed by cloning and sequencing, we amplified and characterized a full-length and a truncated copy of this element. RT-PCR using S. mansoni mRNA followed by cloning and sequencing revealed several alternatively spliced transcripts of this transposon, resulting in distinct ORFs coding for different proteins. Interestingly, a survey of complete genomes from animals and fungi revealed several other novel TRC elements, indicating new families of DNA transposons belonging to the CACTA superfamily that have not previously been reported in these kingdoms. The first three bases in the S. mansoni TIR are CCC and they are identical to those in the TIRs of the insects Aedes aegypti and Tribolium castaneum, suggesting that animal TRCs may display a CCC core sequence. Conclusion The DNA-only transposable element SmTRC1 from S. mansoni exhibits various characteristics, such as generation of multiple alternatively-spliced transcripts, the presence of terminal inverted repeats at the extremities of

  7. P53 and Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glycans Are Surrogate Markers of Cancerization of the Bladder Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luís; Tavares, Ana; Peixoto, Andreia; Parreira, Beatriz; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Brindley, Paul J.; Lopes, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%), cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn) and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex), involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed

  8. P53 and cancer-associated sialylated glycans are surrogate markers of cancerization of the bladder associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers.Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%, cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex, involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed in the healthy urothelium

  9. Observations on the biology, epidemiology and economic relevance of rumen flukes (Paramphistomidae) in cattle kept in a temperate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, Neil; Francis, Emily; Davison, Chloe; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian; Mazeri, Stella

    2016-03-30

    There is concern about the probable recent introduction, increased prevalence and potential economic impact of rumen fluke infection of United Kingdom cattle. A study of 339 cattle slaughtered in a Scottish red meat abattoir was undertaken with the aims of describing the prevalence and geographical distribution of rumen fluke infection, estimating its effect on production, and evaluating faecal egg counts (FECs) as a tool to diagnose infection in live animals and study the epidemiology of the disease. The overall proportion of cattle consigned to the abattoir from northern United Kingdom with rumen fluke infection in the forestomachs was 0.29. Rumen flukes were distributed predominantly in the cranial sac of the rumen and adjacent to the reticular groove. Overall, a mean of 213 and median of 44 rumen flukes was identified in the forestomachs of rumen fluke-positive cattle. The mean and median FECs of animals were 26.01 and 5.20 eggs per gram (epg), respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean FECs per rumen fluke of 0.08 and 0.13 epg during summer/autumn and winter sampling periods, respectively. The overall correlation between rumen fluke FECs and the number of flukes in the forestomach was high, albeit lower in the summer/autumn than in the winter period. The sensitivities of rumen fluke FECs for the identification of flukes in the forestomach during the summer/autumn and winter sampling periods were 0.65 and 0.85, respectively. These results will aid in the interpretation of rumen fluke FECs when monitoring cattle health and production and studying the parasite's epidemiology in a temperate environment, thereby informing rational, precise and sustainable disease control.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa; Chutigan Pilasri

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand.METHODS:A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters,knowledge,attitude,practice,and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection.RESULTS:A total of 1077 persons who were interviewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on Uver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%),public health officers (18.72%),televisions (14.38%),local heads of sub-districts (12.31%),doctors and nurses (9.18%),newspaper (5.72),internets (5.37%),and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness,participation,and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However,good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid's fish. Theresult also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns.CONCLUSION:The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However,improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish.

  11. OCCURRENCE OF THE LUNG FLUKE, PARAGONIMUS HETEROTREMUS IN MANIPUR, INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives.To determine the natural crustacean host,the Paragonimus species,and to investigate the potential host-parasite relationship between Manipur Paragonimus and some of the laboratory animals.Methods. The laboratory animals such as puppies,albino rats and Swiss mice were infected orally with metacercariae isolated from the fresh water crabs,Potamiscus manipurensis. The fecal specimens of the experimentally infected animals were examined microscopically for Paragonimus eggs at regular intervals. The animals were autopsied on days 35~328 after infection and the isolated worms were flattened between glass slides and fixed in 70% alcohol. The worms were stained with carmine and mounted with Canada balsam for morphological studies. The eggs were collected in 5% formol saline solution for microscopy. The flukes were classified into 4 developmental stages.Results. A total of 11 worms,5 mature,5 immature and 1 pre-adult were recovered. The morphological features of the metacercariae,worms and eggs were similar to those of Paragonimus heterotremus.Conclusion. Manipur is one of the rare areas in the world where Paragonimus heterotremus is prevalent and the puppies are ideal experimental animal host. This species may be one of the important causes of paragonimiasis in animals and humans in Manipur.

  12. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  13. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

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    Asressa Yeneneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39 and Fogera breed (n=345 of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83% followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%, and Schistosomosis (9.89%. The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97% than Fogera breed (44.35%. However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection.

  14. Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

    1979-01-01

    A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.

  15. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  16. The cercarial glycocalyx of Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Cercariae, the freshwater stage of Schistosoma mansoni infectious to man, are covered by a single unit membrane and an immunogenic glycocalyx. When cercariae penetrate the host skin, they transform to schistosomula by shedding tails, secreting mucous and enzymes, and forming microvilli over their surface. Here the loss of the glycocalyx from cercariae transforming in vitro was studied morphologically and biochemically. By scanning electron microscopy, the glycocalyx was a dense mesh composed ...

  17. Sm10.3, a member of the micro-exon gene 4 (MEG-4 family, induces erythrocyte agglutination in vitro and partially protects vaccinated mice against Schistosoma mansoni infection.

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    Vicente P Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke that causes schistosomiasis. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control disease is a combination of drug treatment and immunization with an anti-schistosome vaccine. Numerous antigens that are expressed at the interface between the parasite and the mammalian host have been assessed. Among the most promising molecules are the proteins present in the tegument and digestive tract of the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we evaluated the potential of Sm10.3, a member of the micro-exon gene 4 (MEG-4 family, for use as part of a recombinant vaccine. We confirmed by real-time PCR that Sm10.3 was expressed at all stages of the parasite life cycle. The localization of Sm10.3 on the surface and lumen of the esophageal and intestinal tract in adult worms and lung-stage schistosomula was confirmed by confocal microscopy. We also show preliminary evidence that rSm10.3 induces erythrocyte agglutination in vitro. Immunization of mice with rSm10.3 induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type response, as IFN-γ, TNF-α, and low levels of IL-5 were detected in the supernatant of cultured splenocytes. The protective effect conferred by vaccination with rSm10.3 was demonstrated by 25.5-32% reduction in the worm burden, 32.9-43.6% reduction in the number of eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, a 23.8% reduction in the number of granulomas, an 11.8% reduction in the area of the granulomas and a 39.8% reduction in granuloma fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Sm10.3 is a potential candidate for use in developing a multi-antigen vaccine to control schistosomiasis and provide the first evidence for a possible role for Sm10.3 in the blood feeding process.

  18. Experimental infection of liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna, in Bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, M L

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of American bison (Bison bison) to liver flukes, Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica. Six bison were each experimentally inoculated with 600 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna, and three were later treated with triclabendazole suspension at 40 mg/kg of body weight. Four additional bison were each experimentally inoculated with 600 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Five control bison were placebo controls. Two controls and all inoculated bison were euthanized 10 mo (Fascioloides magna) and 7 mo (Fasciola hepatica) after inoculation. None of the control bison or the bison inoculated with Fascioloides magna had flukes or lesions characteristic of fluke infection at necropsy. All four bison inoculated with Fasciola hepatica had characteristic liver fluke lesions at necropsy, and three of four bison contained four, 103, and 111 adult flukes, respectively. Fluke eggs were detected in feces of all Fasciola hepatica-inoculated bison during the experiment, but not from the Fascioloides magna-infected bison or control bison. Clinical signs of infection were not observed during the experiment, but hemoglobin and packed cell volumes were lower in the Fasciola hepatica bison when compared to controls, and eosinophil levels were increased. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight appeared to be safe in bison because no toxic reactions were observed. Results from this study indicated bison are susceptible to infection with Fasciola hepatica and are efficient definitive hosts. Because no Fascioloides magna were recovered, bison may have a decreased susceptibility or innate resistance to Fascioloides magna infection, which may account for a lack of reported infections in this host.

  19. Simple school questionnaires can map both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengeler, C; Makwala, J; Ngimbi, D; Utzinger, J

    2000-01-05

    The use of self-administered questionnaires has been shown in different African countries to be inexpensive and reliable for the rapid identification of communities at highest risk of urinary schistosomiasis. For intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni there is a clear need for a similar approach. We report the results from a large-scale study undertaken in the western part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, formerly Zaire). Within 4 weeks questionnaires were correctly completed in 136 out of 160 schools (85%). In 57 of these schools children were screened for infections with schistosomes and geohelminths. The prevalence of 'schistosomiasis' as reported in the questionnaires showed the best correlation with the prevalence of S. mansoni infections (r = 0.77, P schools with a high risk of intestinal schistosomiasis gave positive predictive values of 87 and 62%, and negative predictive values of 74 and 87% for moderate and high infection thresholds, respectively. Reported 'blood in stool' was another useful indicator for intestinal schistosomiasis. Reported 'blood in urine' showed the best correlation with urinary schistosomiasis (r = 0.75, P school children in DRC have a distinct perception of intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis and that questionnaires could be useful to identify high-risk schools for both parasites.

  20. Sero-prevalence of Schistosoma species in cattle in Maiduguri Metropolis and Jere Local Government Areas of Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Umar Hambali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the Sero-prevalence of Schistosoma species in cattle in Maiduguri Metropolis (MMC and Jere Local Government Areas (LGAs of Borno State, Nigeria. Materials and Method: Blood samples (n=200 from cattle were collected using a multistage sampling technique; 100 samples each were collected from MMC and Jere LGAs, respectively. The samples were subjected to screening for Schistosoma antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Age, sex, breed and location of cattle were recorded. Results: The overall prevalence of Schistosoma infection among cattle in MMC and Jere LGAs was 10%. Jere LGA had a prevalence rate of 14% and MMC had 6%. At the ward levels, Custom Area in Jere LGA had the highest number of Schistosoma positive (50%. Out of 103 female and 97 male cattle screened, the prevalence of Schistosoma infection in female and male were 9.71% (n=10/103 and 10.31% (n=10/103. Out of the 177 serum samples from cattle aging >1-year (adult examined, 16 (9.04% were positive, while only 4 (17.39% out of 23 serum samples from cattle aging <1-year (young were positive. Out of the eight (8 breeds screened, the highest number of cases was recorded in Kuri breed (16.22%. This was followed by Sokoto Gudali (10.9% breed. The prevalence in other breeds was as follows: Abore- 10%, Red Bororo- 5.26%, and White Fulani- 6.67%. Conclusion: It is concluded that schistosomiasis in cattle was prevalent in MMC and Jere LGAs of Borno State. A regular checking program is suggested to constantly check out whether the prevalence rate is increasing, so that effective control measures can be strenthened. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 56-61

  1. Behavioral Modification Regarding Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma with a Health Belief Model Using Integrated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatisena, Panida; Eaksanti, Tawatchai; Wichantuk, Pitsanee; Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to modify behavior regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention in Chumphuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand through integrated learning. A total of 180 participants were included through purposive selection of high-risk scores on verbal screening. Participants attended the health education program which applied the health belief model included family based, knowledge station based, academic merit based and community based learning. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of 4 parts: 1) personal information, 2) knowledge, 3) perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, 4) practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention. The result revealed that the majority were female (79.9%), age ≥60 years old (33.2%), primary school educational level (76.1%), and agricultural occupation (70.1%). The mean scores of knowledge, perception, and practice to liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, before participated the integrative learning were low, moderate, and low, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, and practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, were higher with statistical significance after participation in the integrated learning. This finding indicates that health education programs may successfully modify health behavior in the rural communities. Therefore they may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas.

  2. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, A.; Frankena, K.; Bodker, R.; Toft, N.; Thamsborg, S.M.; Enemark, H.L.; Halasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote a

  3. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.; Bodker, R.; Toft, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote a

  4. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  5. Notable seasonal variation observed in the morphology of the reindeer rumen fluke (Paramphistomum leydeni in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous Paramphistomum species have been described from the rumen and reticulum of domestic and wild ruminants, information about rumen flukes in reindeer is sparse and their nomenclature is somewhat conflicting. Rumen fluke of reindeer is usually referred to as P. cervi, but P. leydeni and Cotylophoron skriabini are also mentioned in the literature. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of rumen flukes from reindeer, as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and in histological sections under light microscopy, are presented. The aim of the study was to find morphological information to enable identification of rumen flukes in reindeer to species level. In addition, the morphology of rumen flukes collected in winter (winter flukes was compared with that of flukes collected in summer (summer flukes. Key morphological findings were as follows: the acetabulum of the rumen flukes was of paramphistomum type, the pharynx of liorchis type, and the genital atrium of leydeni type. Both winter and summer flukes shared these morphological features. Based on these findings, it was concluded that rumen flukes of reindeer in Finland belonged to the species P. leydeni. Significant morphological variation was observed when winter and summer flukes were compared. The winter fluke was smaller in size, possessed immature gonads (testes, ovary, uterus, and immature accessory genital glands (Mehlis’ gland, vitelline follicles, and had barely discernible tegumental papillae. These data indicate that winter rumen flukes represent an immature stage of P. leydeni and summer flukes the mature stage of the same species. Further, these findings suggest that the rumen flukes of reindeer during wintertime in Finland have a slowed or inhibited lifecycle.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Poron pötsimadon (Paramphistomum leydeni morfologiassa esiintyy selvää vuodenaikaisvaihtelua Pötsimatoja (Paramphistomum spp. löytyy monien villien ja kotiel

  6. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...

  7. Liver fluke prevention and control in the northeast of Thailand through action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongba, N; Thaewnongiew, K; Phathee, K; Laithavewat, L; Duangsong, R; Promthet, S; Tangsawad, S

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this action research was to enhance people's potential to prevent and control liver fluke infestation. The subjects were a total of 96 participants comprising 20 community leaders, 74 individuals handling and preparing food, and 2 officials from the Local Administration. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaire and the results of stool examination of the participants were recorded. The main methods used to collect qualitative data were focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. For qualitative data analysis, the researchers undertook a qualitative content analysis. For quantitative data, conventional descriptive statistics were used and the mean differences with the 95% CI before and after the study were compared. The results in the early stage found that the participants were not aware of the fact that eating raw fish might be the cause of developing cholangiocarcinoma. 94.8% of participants however knew that eating raw fish might be cause having liver fluke infection which can be treated be taking an antihelminthic drug. They perceived that it is way of life since their ancestors already consumed raw fish because they found it to be delicious. However, through participating in this study, it was realized how dangerous it is to get infected with the liver fluke. Participants also learned the life cycle of liver fluke. They talked about this within their families, and communicated as well as cooperated with others to strengthen a network of a club concentrating on not eating raw fish. The communities and the Sub-district Administrative Organization supported the project. In conclusion, it is advisable to improve the behavior of participants in villages so that they became aware how to prevent and control liver fluke infection and therefore the development of cholangiocarcinoma.

  8. Modeling and analysis of Schistosoma Argonaute protein molecular spatial conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Conclusions: The information relationship between the structure and function of the Argonaute protein can be initially established with bioinformatics tools and the internet server, and this provides the theoretical basis for further clarifying the function of Schistosoma Argonaute protein.

  9. Opisthorchis viverrini-like liver fluke in birds from Vietnam: morphological variability and rDNA/mtDNA sequence confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, T H; Nguyen, T G; Victor, B; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

    2014-12-01

    Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the 'bird' Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke.

  10. Gynecological manifestations, histopathological findings, and schistosoma-specific polymerase chain reaction results among women with Schistosoma haematobium infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma...

  11. Population dynamics and host reactions in young foxes following experimental infection with the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissen Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT including the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio, are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. However, little is known about the infection dynamics and clinical symptoms in the final hosts which include a range of animal species and man. We aimed to generate such information using an experimental model with H. pumilio in foxes. Method Eight commercially bred foxes were each orally infected with 2000 H. pumilio metacercariae. Another three foxes served as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly. The body weight was measured, standard haematological and biochemical analysis were performed regularly. All foxes were euthanized at day 56 post infection (p.i.. Adult worms were quantified and location in the small intestine noted. Results Anorexia was observed in all infected foxes starting day 12 p.i. and lasting for approximately a week. A weight loss was noticed in the infected group in weeks 3–6 p.i. Five of eight infected foxes excreted H. pumilio eggs day 9 p.i. onwards, the remaining three started on day 13 p.i. Mean (± SD faecal egg counts showed an initial peak at day 16–20 with a maximum of 1443 ± 1176 eggs per gram of faeces (epg, where after a stable egg output around 4–500 epg was seen. Worm burdens ranged between 116–2070 adult flukes with a mean (± SD worm recovery of 948 ± 666. The majority of worms were found in the lower part of the jejunum. Total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were significant lower in the infected group from first week p.i. onwards and throughout the study period. A significantly lower level of eosinophils was found in week 2 p.i. and transient anaemia was seen in week 2 and 4 p.i. Conclusion This study showed a short prepatency period, an initial peak in egg excretion, establishment of infection in all animals with predilection site in the lower jejunum and a marked but

  12. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data...... of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  13. Nutritional Status among Rural Community Elderly in the Risk Area of Liver Fluke, Surin Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai; Loyd, Ryan A; Churproong, Seekaow; Ueng-Arporn, Naporn; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Rujirakul, Ratana; Nimkhuntod, Porntip; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is becoming an aging society, this presenting as a serious problem situation especially regarding health. Chronic diseases found frequently in the elderly may be related to dietary intake and life style. Surin province has been reported as a risk area for liver fluke with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinma especially in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly in Surin province, northeast of Thailand. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 people aged 60 years and above, between September 2012 and July 2014. The participants were selected through a randomized systematic sampling method and completed a pre-designed questionnaire with general information, food recorded, weight, height, waist circumference, and behavior regarding to food consume related to liver fluke infection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The majority of participants was female (63.5%), age between 60-70 years old (75.6%), with elementary school education (96.6%), living with their (78.9%), and having underlying diseases (38.3%). Carbohydrate (95.3%) was need to improve the consumption. The participants demonstrated under-nutrition (24.4%), over-nutrition (16.4%), and obesity (15.4%). Elderly had a waist circumference as the higher than normal level (34.0%). Gender, female, age 71-80 years old, elementary school and underlying diseases were significantly associated with poor nutritional status. The majority of them had a high knowledge (43.0%), moderate attitude (44.4%), and moderate practice (46.2%) regarding food consumption related to liver fluke infection. In conclusion, these findings data indicated that elderly age group often have an under- or over-nutritional status. Carbohydrate consumption needs to be improved. Some elderly show behavior regarding food consumption that is related to liver fluke infection hat needs

  14. Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Secretes Extracellular Vesicles That Promote Cholangiocytes to Adopt a Tumorigenic Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the final version. It was first published by OUP at http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv291 Background.  Throughout Asia there is an unprecedented link between cholangiocarcinoma and infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Multiple processes including chronic inflammation and secretion of parasite proteins into the biliary epithelium drive infection towards cancer. Until now, the mechanism and effects of parasite protein entry into cholangiocytes was unknown. ...

  15. Three-Dimensional Geometry of the Narwhal (Monodon monoceros) Flukes in Relation to Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    sections resemble hydrofoils . For a hydrofoil to be effective, a large lift must be produced while drag is minimized; this, in turn, increases the thrust...the flukes. Cross-section profiles taken along the horizontal axis exhibit what is a typical streamlined hydrofoil profile with a rounded leading edge...Chopra and Kambe 1977, Fish 1998b). Aspect ratio (AR) measures the relationship between the span and planform area of a hydrofoil and is related to

  16. Reducing the future threat from (liver) fluke: realistic prospect or quixotic fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-08-04

    The liver fluke remains an economically significant parasite of livestock and is emerging as an important zoonotic infection of humans. The incidence of the disease has increased in the last few years, as a possible consequence of changes to the World's climate. Future predictions suggest that this trend is likely to continue. Allied to the changing pattern of disease, reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) have appeared in the literature, although they do not all represent genuine cases of resistance. Nevertheless, any reports of resistance are a concern, because triclabendazole is the only drug that has high activity against the migratory and damaging juvenile stages of infection. How to deal with the twin problems (of increasing incidence and drug resistance) is the overall theme of the session on "Trematodes: Fasciola hepatica epidemiology and control" and of this review to introduce the session. Greater knowledge of fluke epidemiology and population genetics will highlight those regions where surveillance is most required and indicate how quickly resistant populations of fluke may arise. Models of disease risk are becoming increasingly sophisticated and precise, with more refined data analysis programmes and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data. Recent improvements have been made in our understanding of the action of triclabendazole and the ways in which flukes have become resistant to it. While microtubules are the most likely target for drug action, tubulin mutations do not seem to be involved in the resistance mechanism. Rather, upregulation of drug uptake and metabolism processes appear to be more important and the data relating to them will be discussed. The information may help in the design of new treatment strategies or pinpoint potential molecular markers for monitoring fluke populations. Advances in the identification of novel targets for drugs and vaccines will be made by the various "-omics" technologies that are now being applied to

  17. RNAi dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver flukes reveals the persistence of gene silencing in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McVeigh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (dsRNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain, validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL and B (FheCatB cysteine proteases, and a σ-class glutathione transferase (FheσGST.Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200-320 nt dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (siRNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent and in all cases silencing persisted for ≥25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; FheσGST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively.In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control

  18. Blood Fluke Exploitation of Innate-Adaptive Immune Interactions to Facilitate Parasite Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    your hugs seem to make everything better. Most of all, I am eternally grateful to my husband, Douglas, for the support, patience, love and...Schaeffer, M. J. Sunshine , L. Gandhi, J. Annes, D. Petrzilka, A. Kupfer, P. L. Schwartzberg, and D. R. Littman. 2000. PKC-theta is required for TCR

  19. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (land use as wetland (X64), were correlated with the liver fluke disease distribution at 0.000, 0.034, and 0.006 levels, respectively. Multiple regression analysis, by equations OV=-0.599+0.005(population density (148-169 pop/km2); X73)+0.040 (human attitude (land used (wetland; X64), was used to predict the distribution of liver fluke. OV is the patients of liver fluke infection, R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures.

  20. Dicrocoelium chinensis and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Trematoda: Digenea) are distinct lancet fluke species based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Yan, Hong-Bin; Otranto, Domenico; Wang, Xing-Ye; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Jia, Wan-Zhong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-10-01

    Lancet flukes parasitize the bile ducts and gall bladder of a range of mammals, including humans, causing dicrocoeliosis. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes as well as the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2=ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of two lancet flukes, Dicrocoelium chinensis and D. dendriticum. Sequence comparison of a conserved mt gene and nuclear rDNA sequences among multiple individual lancet flukes revealed substantial nucleotide differences between the species but limited sequence variation within each of them. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid and multiple mt rrnS sequences using Bayesian inference supported the separation of D. chinensis and D. dendriticum into two distinct species-specific clades. Results of the present study support the proposal that D. dendriticum and D. chinensis represent two distinct lancet flukes. While providing the first mt genomes from members of the superfamily Plagiorchioidea, the novel mt markers described herein will be useful for further studies of the diagnosis, epidemiology and systematics of the lancet flukes and other trematodes of human and animal health significance.

  1. 日本血吸虫和斯氏并殖吸虫的rDNA-ITS2遗传多态性研究%Genetic polymorphism of rDNA-ITS2 of Schistosoma japonicum and Paragonimus skrjabini

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何谐; 张锡林; 牛靖萱; 陈琳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the genetic variation of rDNA-ITS2 of Schistosoma japonicum and Para-gonimus skrjabini in order to avoid the cross reactions in immune diagnosis between schistosomiasis and paragon-imiasis. Methods The 2 species of fluke were collected, and then the genomic DNA was extracted, to amplify the gene of rDNA-ITS2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then sequenced. Multiple sequences were aligned by Clusterx, the genetic distance was analyzed by MEGA4, and the phylogentic tree of rDNA-ITS2 genes of Schistosoma and Paragonimus constructed with MP and NJ method. The motifis of the rDNA-ITS2 gene sequences of Schistosoma and Paragonimus were analyzed with DNAsis. Results The results of phylogentic trees of rDNA-ITS2 genes of Schistosoma and Paragonimus were similar. The genetic distance between Schisto-soma japonicum and Paragonimus skrjabini was longer, though there was 42. 7% similarity between their rDNA-ITS2 gene. There were 3 same transcription factors in the sequences of Schistosoma japonicum as well as Para-gonimus skrjabini, AP_2_CS6, bHLH_CS and CAP_site. Conclusion Though there are obviously differences between the Schistosoma japonicum and Paragonimus skrjabini at the level of gene, they have significantly simi-larity in transcription factors of rDNA-ITS2 sequences. It may provide valuable theoretical information for studies on cross-reacting antigen between Schistosoma japonicum and Paragonimus skrjabini at gene level.%目的 分析日本血吸虫和斯氏并殖吸虫的核糖体DNA第二内转录间隔区(rDNA-ITS2)基因的遗传变异.方法 采集2种吸虫成虫标本,提取其基凶组DNA,PCR特异性扩增rDNA-ITS2基因并测序;Clusterx软件进行多序列对比;MEGA 4软件计算遗传距离,NJ法和MP法构建系统进化树;DNAsis软件对rDNA-ITS2序列片段进行模序分析.结果 2种方法构建的遗传系统进化树基本结构相似,日本血吸虫与斯氏并殖吸虫间存在较远的遗传距离,但二吸虫ITS2

  2. Congenital Transmission of Schistosoma japonicumin the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QianBao-zhen; H.O.Bogh; M.V.Johansen; WangPeng-peng

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen pregnant rabbits were each infected with 300 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum and divided into two groups.Group M (n =8)was infected during mid-gestation (the organogenetic stage)and group L (n=6)was infected during late-gestation (the post-organogenetic stage).Mother rabbits and rabbit kittens were killed 45-60 days after infection and perfused in order to obtain worm counts.Furthermore,faecal egg counts and tissue egg counts from livers were obtained from the mother rabbits as well as the rabbit kittens.All mother rabbits became infected harbouring 207.6+20.2 and 220.0+27.5 adult worms in group M and L,respectively.In groups M and L, 13.5%and 46.7% of the kittens were infected,respectively,In 12 of 14 litters at least one kitten was infected.Tne infected kittens harboured between one and three adult S.japonicum.The livers of the kittens infected with a worm pair displaced lesions,as a result of egg deposition.The results, therefore,show that congenital transmission of S.japonicum can occur in rabbits.The close anatomical resemblance between the rabbit and human placenta may be indicative of the presence of congenital transmssion of S.japomcum infection in humans.

  3. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an effort to enhance accuracy of diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, this study explores day-to-day variability and diagnostic performance of real-time PCR for detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA compared to other diagnostic tools in an endemic area before and after......, respectively. Based on the 'gold standard', PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic...... tool for detection of S. haematobium infections, with less day-to-day variation and higher sensitivity compared to microscopy. The superior performance of PCR before, and two and 18 months post-treatment provides a compelling argument for PCR as an accurate and reproducible tool for monitoring...

  4. The carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a reservoir for species of Helicobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Chomvarin, Chariya; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Chamgramol, Yaowalux; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-01-01

    There has been a strong, positive correlation between opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma and infection with Helicobacter. Here a rodent model of human infection with Opisthorchis viverrini was utilized to further investigate relationships of apparent co-infections with O. viverrini and H. pylori. A total of 150 hamsters were assigned to five groups: i) Control hamsters not infected with O. viverrini; ii) O. viverrini-infected hamsters; iii) non-O. viverrini infected hamsters treated with antibiotics (ABx); iv) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated with ABx; and v) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated both with ABx and praziquantel (PZQ). Stomach, gallbladder, liver, colonic tissue, colorectal feces and O. viverrini worms were collected and the presence of species of Helicobacter determined by PCR-based approaches. In addition, O. viverrini worms were cultured in vitro with and without ABx for four weeks, after which the presence of Helicobacter spp. was determined. In situ localization of H. pylori and Helicobacter-like species was performed using a combination of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in O. viverrini-infected hamsters was significantly higher than that of O. viverrini-uninfected hamsters (p≤0.001). Interestingly, O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated with ABx and PZQ (to remove the flukes) had a significantly lower frequency of H. pylori than either O. viverrini- infected hamsters treated only with ABx or O. viverrini-infected hamsters, respectively (p≤0.001). Quantitative RT-PCR strongly confirmed the correlation between intensity H. pylori infection and the presence of liver fluke infection. In vitro, H. pylori could be detected in the O. viverrini worms cultured with ABx over four weeks. In situ localization revealed H. pylori and other Helicobacter-like bacteria in worm gut. The findings indicate that the liver fluke O. viverrini in the biliary tree of the hamsters harbors H. pylori

  5. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the 1st record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  6. Fasciola hepatica: Histological changes in the somatic and reproductive tissues of liver fluke following closantel treatment of experimentally-infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, S; Hanna, R E B; Brennan, G P; Solana, H; Fairweather, I

    2016-01-15

    Lambs infected with the Cullompton isolate of Fasciola hepatica were treated orally or subcutaneously with 10mg/kg of closantel at 16 weeks post-infection. Adult flukes were recovered from the liver of individual animals at 12h, 24h, or 36h post-treatment. The flukes were processed for histological analysis. In general, degenerative changes in the reproductive and somatic tissues were progressive, and were most marked in flukes exposed to closantel in vivo for 36h. However, flukes from a 12h subcutaneously-treated lamb showed marked deterioration of the testis, possibly because a portion of the dose has been delivered intravenously. Fewer intact eggs were seen in the uterus of flukes exposed to closantel for longer times (whether administered subcutaneously or orally to the host). The most conspicuous closantel-induced effect in flukes from treated hosts was progressive damage to the tegumental syncytium. While the flukes from 24h-treated hosts showed relatively minor damage to limited areas of the syncytium, towards the posterior end, the flukes from 36h-treated hosts (and flukes from the lamb that putatively received intravenous dosage) had lost large areas of the surface syncytium from the posterior end and dorsal surface, although the syncytium over the anterior end and the anterior ventral surface was largely spared. In areas where the syncytium had sloughed, the underlying structures such as the vitelline follicles, gut profiles and testis profiles, showed marked degeneration and breakdown. Other changes included cell depletion and early stage apoptosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. This study establishes a model for histological changes in closantel-sensitive F. hepatica exposed to closantel in vivo. Histopathological studies could be complementary to the efficacy controlled test for for closantel resistance in fluke populations.

  7. Structural studies of Schistosoma mansoni adenylate kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, I.A. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Pereira, H.M.; Garrat, R.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-SC), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Parasitic diseases are a major cause of death in developing countries, however receive little or no attention from pharmaceutical companies for the development of novel therapies. In this respect, the Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CBME) of the Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos (IFSC / USP) has developed expertise in all stages of the development of active compounds against target enzymes from parasitic diseases. The present work focuses on the adenylate kinase enzymes (ADK's) from Schistosoma mansoni. These enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze the reaction of phosphoryl exchange between nucleotides in the reaction 2ADP to ATP + AMP, which is critical for the cells life cycle. Due to the particular property of the reaction catalyzed, the ADK's are recognized as reporters of the cells energetic state, translating small changes in the balance between ATP and ADP into a large change in concentration of AMP. The genome of S. mansoni was recently sequenced by the Sanger Center in England. On performing searches for genes encoding adenylate kinases we found two such genes. The corresponding gene products were named ADK1 (197 residues) and ADK2 (239 residues), and the two sequences share only 28 percent identity. Both have been cloned into the pET-28a(+)vector, expressed in E. coli and purified. Preliminary tests of activity have been performed only for ADK1 showing it to be catalytically active. Crystallization trials were performed for both proteins and thus far, crystals of ADK1 have been obtained which diffract to 2.05 at the LNLS beamline MX2 and the structure solved by molecular replacement. Understanding, at the atomic level, the function of these enzymes may help in the development of specific inhibitors and may provide tools for developing diagnostic tests for schistosomiasis. (author)

  8. A new rapid diagnostic test for detection of anti-Schistosoma mansoni and anti-Schistosoma haematobium antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Jean T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitological methods are widely used for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. However, they are insensitive, particularly in areas of low endemicity, and labour-intensive. Immunoassays based on detection of anti-schistosome antibodies have the merit of high sensitivity and recently a rapid diagnostic test (RDT, incorporating Schistosoma mansoni cercarial transformation fluid (SmCTF for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in blood has been developed. Here, we assessed the diagnostic performance of the SmCTF-RDT for S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections by comparing it with microscopy for egg detection. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Azaguié, south Côte d’Ivoire. 118 pre-school-aged children submitted two stool and two urine samples, which were subjected to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration methods for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium eggs, respectively. Urine was also subjected to a commercially available cassette test for S. mansoni, which detects circulating cathodic antigen. A finger-prick blood sample was used for the SmCTF-RDT for detection of anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium antibodies. Results The prevalence of both anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium antibodies was more than three times higher than the prevalence of infection estimated by egg detection under a microscope. Using quadruplicate Kato-Katz as the reference standard for the diagnosis of S. mansoni infection, the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV, and positive predictive value (PPV of the SmCTF-RDT was 75.0%, 84.2% and 22.5%, respectively. When two urine filtrations were considered as the reference standard for the diagnosis of S. haematobium infection, the sensitivity, NPV and PPV of SmCTF-RDT was 66.7%, 94.9% and 5.1%, respectively. The specificity of SmCTF-RDT, when using egg-detection as the reference standard, was estimated to be 34.4%. This low specificity may be a reflection of the

  9. Molecular expression and enzymatic characterization of thioredoxin from the carcinogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttiprapa, Sutas; Matchimakul, Pitchaya; Loukas, Alex; Laha, Thewarach; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for years. Defense against oxidative damage can be mediated through glutathione and/or thioredoxin utilizing systems. Here, we report the molecular expression and biochemical characterization of a thioredoxin (Trx) from O. viverrini. O. viverrini Trx cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 105 amino acid residues, of molecular mass 11.63 kDa. The predicted protein has similarity to previously characterized thioredoxins with 26-51% identity. Recombinant O. viverrini Trx (Ov-Trx-1) was expressed as soluble protein in E. coli. The recombinant protein showed insulin reduction activity and supported the enzymatic function of O. viverrini thioredoxin peroxidase. Expression of Ov-Trx-1 at mRNA and protein levels was observed in all obtainable developmental stages of the liver fluke. Ov-Trx-1 was also detected in excretory-secretory products released by adult O. viverrini. Immunohistochemistry, Ov-Trx-1 was expressed in nearly all parasite tissue excepted ovary and mature sperms. Interestingly, Ov-Trx-1 was observed in the infected biliary epithelium but not in normal bile ducts. These results suggest that Ov-Trx-1 is essential for the parasite throughout the life cycle. In the host-parasite interaction aspect, Ov-Trx-1 may support thioredoxin peroxidase in protecting the parasite against damage induced by reactive oxygen species from inflammation.

  10. Bovine and ovine rumen fluke in Ireland-Prevalence, risk factors and species identity based on passive veterinary surveillance and abattoir findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolan, Dónal P; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Sheehan, Maresa; Skuce, Philip J; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of rumen fluke, the incidence of clinical paramphistomosis and the trematode's species identity were studied in cattle and sheep in the Republic of Ireland using passive veterinary surveillance (faecal examination and necropsy results; 2010-2013) and abattoir data. Based on faecal examination, the prevalence of rumen fluke was higher in cattle than in sheep. Rumen fluke prevalence in cattle and sheep fluctuated over the year and in most years (2011-2013), prevalence was higher in winter (December-February) than in summer (June-August). For 3 of 4 years studied, there was no correlation between monthly prevalence of rumen fluke and prevalence of liver fluke as estimated by faecal examination. At sample level, joint occurrence of rumen fluke and liver fluke was 1.1-2.0 times more common than would be expected under the assumption of independence. Based on necropsy data, a spike in deaths attributed to paramphistomosis was observed in 2012, when rainfall was unusually high. This spike in mortality was not accompanied by a spike in faecal prevalence, emphasizing that the incidence of disease, which is due to high burdens of juvenile rumen fluke in the gut, is not correlated with prevalence of infection, which is measured by faecal examination and reflects presence of adult fluke in the rumen. At slaughter, 52% of 518 cattle from 101 herds were positive for rumen fluke, compared to 14% of 158 sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher than reported in most studies from mainland Europe and varied by animal category, age, sex, abattoir visit and location (county) of farm from which the animal was submitted for slaughter, but in multivariate analysis, only sampling month and county were significantly associated with detection of rumen fluke. The identity of rumen fluke in cattle and sheep was confirmed as Calicophoron daubneyi. Although C. daubneyi is thought to share an intermediate host snail with Fasciola hepatica, the differences in prevalence between host

  11. Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the Reproductive Organs and Differential Effects of Triclabendazole on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Fluke Isolates and on Flukes from Selected Field Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Robert

    2015-06-26

    This review summarises the findings of a series of studies in which the histological changes, induced in the reproductive system of Fasciola hepatica following treatment of the ovine host with the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ), were examined. A detailed description of the normal macroscopic arrangement and histological features of the testes, ovary, vitelline tissue, Mehlis' gland and uterus is provided to aid recognition of the drug-induced lesions, and to provide a basic model to inform similar toxicological studies on F. hepatica in the future. The production of spermatozoa and egg components represents the main energy consuming activity of the adult fluke. Thus the reproductive organs, with their high turnover of cells and secretory products, are uniquely sensitive to metabolic inhibition and sub-cellular disorganisation induced by extraneous toxic compounds. The flukes chosen for study were derived from TCBZ-sensitive (TCBZ-S) and TCBZ-resistant (TCBZ-R) isolates, the status of which had previously been proven in controlled clinical trials. For comparison, flukes collected from flocks where TCBZ resistance had been diagnosed by coprological methods, and from a dairy farm with no history of TCBZ use, were also examined. The macroscopic arrangement of the reproductive system in flukes was studied using catechol/carmine stained whole mounts, and the histology of the main organs was examined using conventional haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Validation of apoptosis in the fluke sections was carried out using an in situ hybridisation method designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks. In TCBZ-S flukes exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 24-96 h in vivo, but not in TCBZ-R flukes, those tissues where active meiosis and/or mitosis occurred (testis, ovary, and vitelline follicles), were found to display progressive loss of cell content. This was due to apparent failure of cell division to keep pace with expulsion of the mature or effete products

  12. Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the Reproductive Organs and Differential Effects of Triclabendazole on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Fluke Isolates and on Flukes from Selected Field Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarises the findings of a series of studies in which the histological changes, induced in the reproductive system of Fasciola hepatica following treatment of the ovine host with the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ, were examined. A detailed description of the normal macroscopic arrangement and histological features of the testes, ovary, vitelline tissue, Mehlis’ gland and uterus is provided to aid recognition of the drug-induced lesions, and to provide a basic model to inform similar toxicological studies on F. hepatica in the future. The production of spermatozoa and egg components represents the main energy consuming activity of the adult fluke. Thus the reproductive organs, with their high turnover of cells and secretory products, are uniquely sensitive to metabolic inhibition and sub-cellular disorganisation induced by extraneous toxic compounds. The flukes chosen for study were derived from TCBZ-sensitive (TCBZ-S and TCBZ-resistant (TCBZ-R isolates, the status of which had previously been proven in controlled clinical trials. For comparison, flukes collected from flocks where TCBZ resistance had been diagnosed by coprological methods, and from a dairy farm with no history of TCBZ use, were also examined. The macroscopic arrangement of the reproductive system in flukes was studied using catechol/carmine stained whole mounts, and the histology of the main organs was examined using conventional haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Validation of apoptosis in the fluke sections was carried out using an in situ hybridisation method designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks. In TCBZ-S flukes exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 24–96 h in vivo, but not in TCBZ-R flukes, those tissues where active meiosis and/or mitosis occurred (testis, ovary, and vitelline follicles, were found to display progressive loss of cell content. This was due to apparent failure of cell division to keep pace with expulsion of the mature or

  13. Bioactivity of miltefosine against aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium and their snail hosts, supported by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bardicy Samia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miltefosine, which is the first oral drug licensed for the treatment of leishmaniasis, was recently reported to be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel antischistosomal derivatives with potent activity in vivo against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. In this paper an in vitro study was carried out to investigate whether it has a biocidal activity against the aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail intermediate host, Biomphalaria alexandrina , thus being also a molluscicide. Additionally, to see whether miltefosine can have a broad spectrum antischistosomal activity, a similar in vitro study was carried out on the adult stage of Schistosoma haematobium, the second major human species, its larval stages and snail intermediate host, Bulinus truncutes. This was checked by scanning electron microscopy. Results Miltefosine proved to have in vitro ovicidal, schistolarvicidal and lethal activity on adult worms of both Schistosoma species and has considerable molluscicidal activity on their snail hosts. Scanning electron microscopy revealed several morphological changes on the different stages of the parasite and on the soft body of the snail, which further strengthens the current evidence of miltefosine's activity. This is the first report of mollusicidal activity of miltefosine and its in vitro schistosomicidal activity against S.haematobium. Conclusions This study highlights miltefosine not only as a potential promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel broad spectrum schistosomicidal derivatives, but also for molluscicidals.

  14. The formation of propionate and acetate as terminal processes in the energy metabolism of the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, F. van; Meer, P. van der; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. The formation of propionate from succinate occurs in the mitochondria of the adult common liver fluke essentially by a reversal of the pathway operating in mammalian mitochondria in the conversion of propionate into succinate. 2. 2. The conversion of succinate into its CoA ester is linked by

  15. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.

  16. The zoonotic, fish-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petney, Trevor N; Andrews, Ross H; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Wenz-Mücke, Alexandra; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-11-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini are the three most important liver flukes involved in human health, infecting more than 45 million people worldwide. Both C. sinensis and O. viverrini, and possibly O. felineus, can induce human cholangiocarcinoma as well as inducing other hepatobiliary pathology. Although the life cycles of all three species are similar, only that of O. felineus in Europe remains predominantly zoonotic, while O. felineus in Asia and C. sinensis have a stronger mixture of zoonotic and anthroponotic components in their life cycles. Opisthorchis viverrini from the Mekong area of southeastern Asia is predominantly anthroponotic. Here we discuss the comparative epidemiology of these three taxa comparing in detail the use of first, second and final animal hosts, and consider the potential role of humans in spreading these pathogens. In addition we discuss the genetic structure of all three species in relation to potentially cryptic species complexes.

  17. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of infections with liver flukes in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.;

    and the factors related to its occurrence and distribution are scarce in Denmark. A retrospective study was performed using liver inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle for the period 2011 to 2013. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore whether the data on F. hepatica infection was clustered...... in space as this could help understand whether or not the infection was driven by local environmental factors. Both global and local spatial autocorrelation techniques were used. Herd level and environmental risk factors were evaluated for their association with prevalence of F. hepatica infection using......Liver fluke infection, also known as fasciolosis, is a world-wide prevalent zoonotic parasitic disease infecting a wide range of host species and is caused by Fasciola hepatica. Despite of the substantial economic and animal welfare effects of the disease, knowledge on its prevalence...

  18. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    OpenAIRE

    Iman F Abou El Naga; Eissa, Maha M.; Shereen F Mossallam; Safaa I Abd El-Halim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails,...

  19. Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

    2007-12-01

    The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails.

  20. Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Xu, J.; Liang, P.; Mao, Q.; Huang, Y.; Lu, X.; Deng, C.; Liang, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Yu, X.

    2011-01-01

    Background Infections with the opisthorchid liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus cause severe health problems globally, particularly in Southeast Asia. Early identification of the infection is essential to provide timely and appropriate chemotherapy to patients.

  1. Schistosoma co-infection protects against brain pathology but does not prevent severe disease and death in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Kirsten; Dietz, Klaus; Lackner, Peter; Pasche, Bastian; Fendel, Rolf; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ben-Smith, Anne; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H

    2011-01-01

    Co-infections of helminths and malaria parasites are common in human populations in most endemic areas. It has been suggested that concomitant helminth infections inhibit the control of malaria parasitemia but down-modulate severe malarial disease. We tested this hypothesis using a murine co-infection model of schistosomiasis and cerebral malaria. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 8-9 weeks later, when Schistosoma infection was patent, mice were co-infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. We found that a concomitant Schistosoma infection increased parasitemia at the beginning of the P. berghei infection. It did not protect against P. berghei-induced weight loss and hypothermia, and P. berghei-mono-infected as well as S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals showed a high case fatality between days 6 and 8 of malarial infection. However, co-infection significantly reduced P. berghei-induced brain pathology. Over 40% of the S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals that died during this period were completely protected against haemorrhaging, plugging of blood vessels and infiltration, indicating that mortality in these animals was not related to cerebral disease. Schistosoma mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected mice had elevated plasma concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13 and on day 6 lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) than P. berghei-mono-infected mice. We conclude that in P. berghei infections, disease and early death are caused by distinct pathogenic mechanisms, which develop in parallel and are differentially influenced by the immune response to S. mansoni. This might explain why, in co-infected mice, death could be induced in the absence of brain pathology.

  2. [The influence of insulin on contamination of the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the monogenetic fluke Dactylogyrus vastator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikriakov, B P; Mikriakov, D B; Stepanova, M A

    2011-01-01

    The influence of insulin on the contamination of the carp Cyprinus carpio with the monogenetic fluke Dactylogyrus vastator is studied. Fishes reacted to the introduction of the hormon by the decrease in the degree of intensity of infection and by the increase in the number of lifeless parasites on gills, by contrast to control fishes and fishes processed with stress hormones (adrenaline and cortisol). We assume that the decrease in the abundance index in live monogenetic fluke and the increase in the number of lifeless oness is caused by the deficiency of nutrients accessible for the growth and development caused by activation of hormone-induced anabolic processes and stimulation of mechanisms of immune protection.

  3. Platynosomum fastosum (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae infection in a domestic cat in northeastern Brazil: high fluke burden and associated lesions

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    Roberta da Rocha Braga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platynosomum fastosum is a dicrocoeliid fluke that infects birds and mammals, especially wild and domestic cats. Case report: A middle-aged male domestic cat was euthanized and examined. Its clinical features had included apathy, emaciation, hepatomegaly and mild jaundice on the mucosae. At necropsy, we noticed enlarged liver and dilated gallbladder. After opening the gallbladder lengthwise, multiple whitish flattened ellipsoidal structures were observed and identified as P. fastosum. The larger parasites were found in gallbladder, with significant different size from cystic duct and intrahepatic biliary ducts (p<0.05. Histopathological analysis revealed fluke-induced suppurative cholecystitis and chronic cholangitis. Precursor lesions of cholangiocarcinoma were reported. Conclusion: This report was part of the first prevalence survey of P.fastosum in municipality of Maracanaú, state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares, Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A; Soares, Edson G; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Allegretti, Silmara M; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30-55%) and menthone (14-32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection.

  6. Fasciola hepatica - the pilot study of in vitro assessing immune response against native and recombinant antigens of the fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąska, Piotr; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Zdziarska, Anna M; Wasyl, Katarzyna; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Cywińska, Anna; Klockiewicz, Maciej; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a liver fluke that infects 2.4 million of people and causes great economical loss in animal production. To date a 100% effective vaccine has not been developed and the disease is controlled by drug therapy. Great efforts are put into development of effective vaccine against parasite what is difficult since Fasciola spp. (like other helmints) during evolutionary process has developed sophisticated and efficient methods to evade immune response. During preliminary experiments it is convenient to use cell lines which are relatively cheap and allow for reproducible comparison of results between laboratories. We stimulated BOMA (bovine monocyte/macrophage cell line) and BOMAC (bovine macrophage cell line) with native or recombinant antigens of Fasciola hepatica and assessed IFN-γ, IL-4 and TNF-α level upon stimulation. We observed diminished secretion of proinflammatory TNF-α in LPS activated BOMA cells stimulated with Excretory/Secretory products of adult fluke (Fh-ES). We also observed greater changes in gene expression in LPS activated BOMA cells than in non activated BOMA cells upon stimulation using Fh-ES. The results show possibility of using cell lines for in vitro research of bovine immune response against liver fluke, although this model still requires validation and further characterization.

  7. Fasciola hepatica: histological demonstration of apoptosis in the reproductive organs of flukes of triclabendazole-sensitive and triclabendazole-resistant isolates, and in field-derived flukes from triclabendazole-treated hosts, using in situ hybridisation to visualise endonuclease-generated DNA strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; Forster, F I; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2013-01-31

    Investigation of the triclabendazole (TCBZ) resistance status of populations of Fasciola hepatica in field cases of fasciolosis, where treatment failure has been reported, can be supported by histological examination of flukes collected from recently treated hosts. In TCBZ-sensitive flukes (TCBZ-S) exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 1-4days in vivo, but not in TCBZ-resistant flukes (TCBZ-R), morphological changes suggestive of apoptosis occur in cells undergoing meiosis or mitosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. In order to verify or refute the contention that efficacy of TCBZ treatment is associated with apoptosis in the reproductive organs of flukes, histological sections of TCBZ-S (Cullompton isolate) flukes and TCBZ-R (Sligo isolate) flukes were subjected to the TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling (TUNEL) in situ hybridisation method, a commercially available test specifically designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks associated with apoptosis. Additionally, sections of in vivo-treated and untreated flukes originating from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-S and TCBZ-R fasciolosis were labelled by the TUNEL method. It was found that in treated TCBZ-S flukes, strong positive labelling indicating apoptosis was associated with morphologically abnormal cells undergoing mitosis or meiosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. Background labelling in the positive testis sections was attributed to heterophagy of cell debris by the sustentacular tissue. The triggering of apoptosis was probably related to failure of spindle formation at cell division, supporting the contention that TCBZ inhibits microtubule formation. In treated TCBZ-R (Sligo Type 1) flukes, and in treated flukes from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-R fasciolosis, no significant labelling was observed, while sections of fluke derived from a field case of fasciolosis where TCBZ resistance was not suspected were heavily labelled. Light labelling was associated with the

  8. Cyclophilin A enhances cell proliferation and tumor growth of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma

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    Sawanyawisuth Kanlayanee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclophilin A (CypA expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in many cancers. However, the role and mechanisms of CypA in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA are not presently known. In this study, we investigated the expression of CypA in CCA tumor tissues and CCA cell lines as well as regulation mechanisms of CypA in tumor growth using CCA cell lines. Methods CypA expression was determined by real time RT-PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. CypA silence or overexpression in CCA cells was achieved using gene delivery techniques. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTS assay or Ki-67 staining. The effect of silencing CypA on CCA tumor growth was determined in nude mice. The effect of CypA knockdown on ERK1/2 activation was assessed by Western blot. Results CypA was upregulated in 68% of CCA tumor tissues. Silencing CypA significantly suppressed cell proliferation in several CCA cell lines. Likewise, inhibition of CypA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase activity using cyclosporin A (CsA decreased cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of CypA resulted in 30% to 35% increases in proliferation of CCA cell lines. Interestingly, neither silence nor overexpression of CypA affected cell proliferation of a non-tumor human cholangiocyte cell line, MMNK1. Suppression of CypA expression attenuated ERK1/2 activity in CCA M139 cells by using both transient and stable knockdown methods. In the in vivo study, there was a 43% reduction in weight of tumors derived from CypA-silenced CCA cell lines compared with control vector CCA tumors in mice; these tumors with stable CypA silencing showed a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions CypA is upregulated in majority of CCA patients' tissues and confers a significant growth advantage in CCA cells. Suppression of CypA expression decreases proliferation of CCA cell lines in vitro and reduces tumor growth in the nude mouse model. Inhibition of Cyp

  9. Chromosomes and karyotype analysis of a liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Choochote, Wej; Kanla, Pipatpong; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Wongkham, Sopit; Wongkham, Chaisiri

    2012-09-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, has been categorized as the carcinogenic organism according to the strong association with carcinogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The infection of this food-borne parasite is a major impact on the health of humans, especially CCA patients in the northeast of Thailand. Taxonomy, morphology, epidemiology and molecular study of O. viverrini have been publicized increasingly but the precise karyotypic study is still incomplete. In this study, the chromosomes of O. viverrini were prepared from the testes of adult worms retrieved from metacercariae infected-hamsters. The chromosomes of O. viverrini were identified in haploid (n=6) meiotic metaphase and in diploid (2n=12) mitotic metaphase by light microscopy. The chromosome number, length and nomenclature of each chromosome were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The six chromosomes consist of one large-sized metacentric, one medium-sized metacentric, two small-sized metacentric, one small-sized submetacentric and one small-sized acrocentric chromosomes with the lengths of 2.84±0.03, 2.12±0.10, 1.71±0.13, 1.44±0.04, 1.23±0.03 and 0.84±0.13 μm, respectively. This is the first karyotype analysis of O. viverrini with defined complete nomenclature.

  10. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T; Segel, Nicholas H; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-12-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs.

  11. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease

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    Sagan Friant

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs.

  12. MUC1 and MUC5AC mucin expression in liver fluke-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chanchai Boonla; Banchob Sripa; Peti Thuwajit; Ubon Cha-On; Anucha Puapairoj; Masanao Miwa; Sopit Wongkham

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of MUC1 and MUC5AC in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Association of expressions of mucins MUC1 and MUC5AC with clinical findings, metastasis, and survival of the liver fluke-associated ICC patients was determined.METHODS: The expressions of MUC1 and MUC5AC mucins were examined by immunohistochemical staining in 87cases of histologically-proven ICC. The expressions of mucins in relationship between clinicopathological significance and prognosis of the patients were evaluated.RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (60%) exhibited both MUC1 and MUC5AC expressions, whereas 31% expressed either MUC1or MUC5AC, and 9% expressed neither. High MUC1immunoreactivity displayed a significant correlation with tumor progression as reflected by vascular invasion (P<0.001),whereas high expression of MUC5AC significantly correlated with neural invasion (P = 0.022) and advanced ICC stage (P = 0.008). Patients with high expression of MUC1 had a significantly shorter survival (P = 0.0002). According to multivariate analyses, MUC1 reactivity (P = 0.026),histological grading and stage of tumor represented the least probability of survival.CONCLUSION: MUC1 is overexpressed in liver flukeassociated cholangiocarcinoma and relates to vascular invasion and poor prognosis, whereas MUC5AC mucin is neoexpressed and relates to neural invasion and advanced ICC stage. High MUC1 expression in tumor may be useful for predicting the poor outcome of ICC patients.

  13. Heterophysiasis, an intestinal fluke infection of man and vertebrates transmitted by euryhaline gastropods and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraschewski, H.

    1984-03-01

    Heterophyes heterophyes, agent of human heterophyiasis in the Near East, is transmitted in marine lagoons and saline inland waters, where the euryhaline intermediate hosts are abundant. In Egypt, mullets, the predominant second intermediate hosts, are customarily consumed raw; thus man becomes infected easily. Symptoms of human infections are usually considered mild. Mullets do not seem to be affected by the metacercariae encysted in the muscles, whereas the growth of the snail host Pirenella conica was found to be enhanced due to the infestation by the trematodes. In laboratory experiments, the flukes were found to be well developed in dogs, foxes and cats, but failed to reach sexual maturity in several other potentially piscivorous mammals and birds. In nature, dogs probably serve as the major reservoir hosts. Heterophyiasis is most prevalent in the Nile Delta, a huge brackish water area which is densely populated by humans and, consequently, also by dogs and cats. In the Far East, besides Heterophyes nocens, several other heterophysids with marine or fresh-water life-cycles are known to infect humans.

  14. Genetic and infective diversity of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Lounnas, M; Sánchez, J; Alba, A; Milesi, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present the first approach to exploration of the genetic diversity of Cuban Fasciola hepatica populations using microsatellite markers, coupled with observed prevalence in slaughterhouses. Nine populations of flukes recovered from cows and buffalos were studied in the central-western region of Cuba. The observed infection rates of definitive hosts (bovines) were 70-100% in most cases. An important amount of polymorphism was found in the four loci explored. However, no apparent genetic differences were found between populations from different provinces or bovine species. The absence of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests a high rate of cross-fertilization between F. hepatica individuals. This result was confirmed when all multilocus genotypes were tested for clonal reproduction and only four individuals differed statistically (P sex< 0.05). High values of expected heterozygosity coupled with highly probable mixing among strains make the metapopulation genetically diversified but similar in terms of certain alleles (low F ST values). These results suggest a close relationship between parasite diversity and cattle management in Cuba. Our findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary authorities to help mitigate fasciolosis transmission.

  15. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium by Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ngui, Romano; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chua, Kek Heng; Surin, Johari

    2015-07-16

    The present study describes a real-time PCR approach with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) assay developed for the detection and differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in fecal and urine samples collected from rural Yemen. The samples were screened by microscopy and PCR for the Schistosoma species infection. A pair of degenerate primers were designed targeting partial regions in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene of S. mansoni and S. haematobium using real-time PCR-HRM assay. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.8%; 23.8% of the participants were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. With regards to the intensity of infections, 22.1% and 77.9% of S. haematobium infections were of heavy and light intensities, respectively. Likewise, 8.1%, 40.5% and 51.4% of S. mansoni infections were of heavy, moderate and light intensities, respectively. The melting points were distinctive for S. mansoni and S. haematobium, categorized by peaks of 76.49 ± 0.25 °C and 75.43 ± 0.26 °C, respectively. HRM analysis showed high detection capability through the amplification of Schistosoma DNA with as low as 0.0001 ng/µL. Significant negative correlations were reported between the real-time PCR-HRM cycle threshold (Ct) values and microscopic egg counts for both S. mansoni in stool and S. haematobium in urine (p < 0.01). In conclusion, this closed-tube HRM protocol provides a potentially powerful screening molecular tool for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium. It is a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method. Hence, this method is a good alternative approach to probe-based PCR assays.

  16. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium by Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a real-time PCR approach with high resolution melting-curve (HRM assay developed for the detection and differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in fecal and urine samples collected from rural Yemen. The samples were screened by microscopy and PCR for the Schistosoma species infection. A pair of degenerate primers were designed targeting partial regions in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1 gene of S. mansoni and S. haematobium using real-time PCR-HRM assay. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.8%; 23.8% of the participants were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. With regards to the intensity of infections, 22.1% and 77.9% of S. haematobium infections were of heavy and light intensities, respectively. Likewise, 8.1%, 40.5% and 51.4% of S. mansoni infections were of heavy, moderate and light intensities, respectively. The melting points were distinctive for S. mansoni and S. haematobium, categorized by peaks of 76.49 ± 0.25 °C and 75.43 ± 0.26 °C, respectively. HRM analysis showed high detection capability through the amplification of Schistosoma DNA with as low as 0.0001 ng/µL. Significant negative correlations were reported between the real-time PCR-HRM cycle threshold (Ct values and microscopic egg counts for both S. mansoni in stool and S. haematobium in urine (p < 0.01. In conclusion, this closed-tube HRM protocol provides a potentially powerful screening molecular tool for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium. It is a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method. Hence, this method is a good alternative approach to probe-based PCR assays.

  17. Identification of Fasciola flukes in Thailand based on their spermatogenesis and nuclear ribosomal DNA, and their intraspecific relationships based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Ichikawa, Madoka; Sobhon, Prasert; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed 147 Fasciola flukes obtained from cattle in Thailand based on their spermatogenetic ability, and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes as molecular markers. One hundred twenty-eight flukes, which had abundant sperm in their seminal vesicles (spermic) and showed the PCR-RFLP pattern of F. gigantica in the ITS1, were accurately identified as F. gigantica. The other 19 flukes that had no sperm in their seminal vesicles were aspermic Fasciola sp. with the RFLP patterns identical to that of F. gigantica. Twenty-nine ND1 haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 2-30) were distinguished in the 128 F. gigantica flukes and were divided into haplotypes unique to Thailand and those common to other countries, suggesting the possibility that ancestral haplotypes were introduced into Thailand. Three haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 7, 9 and 27) appeared to be the major haplotypes found in F. gigantica from Thailand. Only one haplotype (Fg-ND1-Thai 1) was found in the 19 aspermic Fasciola sp. flukes obtained from geographical regions, and the nucleotide sequence of Fg-ND1-Thai 1 was identical to that of the aspermic Fasciola sp. from Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam and Myanmar, suggesting that they were descendants with a common provenance and expanded to these countries in the relatively recent past.

  18. In vitro killing assays of antisera antibody sheep post-infected with Fasciola gigantica with the presence of macrophages cells against homologous and heterologous liver flukes

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    S.E Estuningsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The previous artificial infection known that the Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep was resistance against the liver fluke of Fasciola gigantica, the resistances occurred in the early infection. In order to observe the immune resistance, some in vitro studies were undertaken in the laboratory, to assay the ability of the antisera antibody of ITT sheep post-infected with F. gigantica, with the presence of macrophages cells in killing the homologous and heterologous liver flukes. The viability of liver flukes were observed within 24-72 hours of incubation period by observing their motility (motile flukes were designated live and non-motile once were death. The results showed that after 72 hours incubation, the motilities of the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ of F. gigantica incubated with the presence of post-infected sera and macrophages cells solution were significantly lower (P0.05. It seems that the occurrence of homologous antibody to the antigens is very important in the development of killing mechanism. The absence of homologous antibody did not reduce the number of flukes or the ability of macrophages cells in killing F. hepatica was not apparent.

  19. Semen quality in Schistosoma haematobium infected men in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutscher, Peter D C; Høst, Erik; Reimert, Claus M

    2009-01-01

    The seminal vesicles and the prostate are frequently affected by egg-induced inflammation in Schistosoma haematobium infected men. The objective of this study was to assess the semen quality in men with male genital schistosomiasis (MGS). The examination of the semen samples was performed in men aged 15 to 49 years living an S. haematobium endemic area in Madagascar prior to anti-schistosoma treatment with praziquantel and five months later. Men from the high endemic Sirama sugarcane plantation with positive egg excretion in the urine and circulating anodic antigen (CAA) present in serum (n=85) were compared to men (without egg excretion and no CAA) from the neighbouring low-endemic Mataipako village (n=57). The proportion of men with egg excretion in semen was significantly higher in Sirama than in Mataipako (53% versus 4%), whereas the median ejaculate volume was significantly lower in Sirama (1.8 ml versus 2.4 ml). There was no statistical difference in median spermatocyte counts and in the proportions of men detected with azoospermia. The mean apoptotic rate was 7.8% in a subgroup of 30 men from Sirama. A positive correlation was found between apoptotic rate and seminal eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) level (rho=0.560; Pinfection is associated with sperm apoptosis and a reduced production of seminal fluid. Egg induced inflammation in the seminal vesicles and the prostate could be underlying mechanism for both observations.

  20. Non-equilibrium plasma prevention of Schistosoma japonicum transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Quan; Wang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2016-10-14

    Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatment. We investigated the use of physical non-equilibrium plasma generated at atmospheric pressure using custom-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor to kill S. japonicum cercariae. Survival rate decreased with treatment time and applied power. Plasmas generated in O2 and air gas discharges were more effective in killing S. japonicum cercariae than that generated in He, which is directly related to the mechanism by which cercariae are inactivated. Reactive oxygen species, such as O atoms, abundant in O2 plasma and NO in air plasma play a major role in killing of S. japonicum cercariae via oxidation mechanisms. Similar level of efficacy is also shown for a gliding arc discharge plasma jet generated in ambient air, a system that may be more appropriate for scale-up and integration into existing water treatment processes.

  1. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RECENT ISOLATES OF Schistosoma mansoni TO PRAZIQUANTEL

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    Adriana Maria B. MENDONÇA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ, but concerns over PZQ resistance have renewed interest in evaluating the in vitro susceptibility of recent isolates of Schistosoma mansoni to PZQ in comparison with well-established strains in the laboratory. Material and methods: The in vitro activity of PZQ (6.5-0.003 µg/mL was evaluated in terms of mortality, reduced motor activity and ultrastructural alterations against S. mansoni. Results: After 3 h of incubation, PZQ, at 6.5 µg/mL, caused 100% mortality of all adult worms in the three types of recent isolates, while PZQ was inactive at concentrations of 0.08-0.003 µg/mL after 3 h of incubation. The results show that the SLM and Sotave isolates basically presented the same pattern of susceptibility, differing only in the concentration of 6.5 µg/mL, where deaths occurred from the range of 1.5 h in Sotave and just in the 3 h range of SLM. Additionally, this article presents ultrastructural evidence of rapid severe PZQ-induced surface membrane damage in S. mansoni after treatment with the drug, such as disintegration, sloughing, and erosion of the surface. Conclusion: According to these results, PZQ is very effective to induce tegument destruction of recent isolates of S. mansoni.

  2. Non-equilibrium plasma prevention of Schistosoma japonicum transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Quan; Wang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2016-10-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatment. We investigated the use of physical non-equilibrium plasma generated at atmospheric pressure using custom-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor to kill S. japonicum cercariae. Survival rate decreased with treatment time and applied power. Plasmas generated in O2 and air gas discharges were more effective in killing S. japonicum cercariae than that generated in He, which is directly related to the mechanism by which cercariae are inactivated. Reactive oxygen species, such as O atoms, abundant in O2 plasma and NO in air plasma play a major role in killing of S. japonicum cercariae via oxidation mechanisms. Similar level of efficacy is also shown for a gliding arc discharge plasma jet generated in ambient air, a system that may be more appropriate for scale-up and integration into existing water treatment processes.

  3. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  4. Mechanisms of evasion of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula to the lethal activity of complement

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    F. Juarez Ramalho-Pinto

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni became resistant to antibody-dependent complement damage in vitro after pre-incubation with normal human erythrocytes (NHuE whatever the ABO or Rh blood group. Resistant parasites were shown to acquire host decay accelerating factor (DAF , a 70 kDa glycoprotein attached to the membrane of NHue by a GPI anchor. IgG2a mAb anti-human DAF (IA10 immunoprecipitated a 70 kDa molecule from 125I-labeled schistosomula pre-incubated with NHuE and inhibited their resistance to complement-dependent killing in vtro. Incubationof schistosomula with erytrocytes from patients with paroxsimal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNHE or SRBC, wich are DAF-deficient, did not protect the parasites from complement lesion. Supernatant of 100,000 x g collected from NHuE incubated for 24 h in defined medium was shown to contain a soluble form of DAF and to protect schistosomula from complement killing. Schistosomula treated with trypsin before incubation with NHuE ghosts did not become resistant to complement damage. On the other hand, pre-treatment with chymotrypsin did not interfere with the acquisition of resistance by the schistosomula. These results indicate that, in vitro, NHuE DAF can be transferred to schistosomula in a soluble form and that the binding of this molecule to the parasite surface is dependent upon trypsin-sensitive chymotrypsin-insensitive polipeptide(s present on the surface of the worm.

  5. Polymyxin B as inhibitor of LPS contamination of Schistosoma mansoni recombinant proteins in human cytokine analysis

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    Pacífico Lucila G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli vectors are generally contaminated with endotoxin. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Polymyxin B to neutralize the effect of LPS present as contaminant on Schistosoma mansoni recombinant proteins produced in E. coli in inducing TNF-α and IL-10. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals chronically infected with S. mansoni were stimulated in vitro with recombinant Sm22.6, Sm14 and P24 antigens (10 μg/mL in the presence of Polymyxin B (10 μg/mL. Results The levels of cytokines were measured using ELISA. There was greater than 90 % reduction (p S. mansoni recombinant proteins in the presence of Polymyxin B, a reduction in the levels of TNF-α and IL-10 was also observed. However, the percentage of reduction was lower when compared to the cultures stimulated with LPS, probably because these proteins are able to induce the production of these cytokines by themselves. Conclusion This study showed that Polymyxin B was able to neutralize the effect of endotoxin, as contaminant in S. mansoni recombinant antigens produced in E. coli, in inducing TNF-α and IL-10 production.

  6. Aristolochia gehrtiiinhibits liver toxicity and apoptosis inSchistosoma malayensis infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled M M Koriem; Razmy E Shahabudin; Rafiq Z Jamaludin

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate a protective effect ofAristolochia gehrtii(A. gehrtii) leaves to inhibit liver toxicity and apoptosis inSchistosoma malayensis(S. malayensis) infection.Methods:Forty male albino mice were divided into four equal groups: group1 control including non-infected healthy mice and groups2,3 &4 subcutaneously infected withS. malayensis cercariae where groups3 &4 pretreated withA. gehrtii leaves(200 mg/kg, bwt) & cinnamoylamide(250 mg/kg, bwt), respectively.Results:S. malayensis caused a significant increase in serumAST, ALT,ALP,MDA,NO, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol,LDL, triglycerides, andHDL levels.The pretreatment ofA. gehrtii leaves and cinnamoylamide significantly inhibited that increase.On the other hand,S. malayensis induced a significant decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, bloodSOD andGPx, whileA. gehrtii leaves and cinnamoylamide pretreatment increased the above parameters.Treatment withA. gehrtii leaves and cinnamoylamide toS. malayensis infected mice increased p53 expression but decreased bcl-2 expression.These results were supported by histopathological investigations.Conclusions:A. gehrtii inhibits liver toxicity and apoptosis inS. malayensis infection and this effect is associated with the major cinnamoylamide ingredient ofA. gehrtii leaves.

  7. Radiation-resistant acquired immunity of vaccinated mice to Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Dixon, B.; Wilson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    Vaccination of mice with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni induces specific acquired resistance to challenge infection. This resistance is immunologically-mediated, possibly via a delayed-type hypersensitivity. Studies of parasite migration have shown that the protective mechanism operates most effectively in the lungs of vaccinated mice. We have probed the mechanism by exposing mice to 500 rads of gamma radiation before challenge infection. Our results show that the effector mechanism operative against challenge larvae is resistant to radiation. In contrast, classical immune responses are markedly suppressed by the same treatment. While leukocyte populations in the blood fall dramatically after irradiation, numbers of cells recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage are unaffected. We suggest that vaccination with attenuated cercariae establishes populations of sensitized cells in the lungs which trigger the mechanism of resistance when challenge schistosomula migrate through pulmonary capillary beds. Although the cells may be partially disabled by irradiation, they remain responsive to worm antigens and thereby capable of initiating the elimination mechanism. This hypothesis would explain the radiation resistance of vaccine-induced immunity to S. mansoni.

  8. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, D Timothy J; Lockyer, Anne E; Webster, Bonnie L; Johnston, David A; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2006-05-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the schistosomes Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma. spindale have been characterized. S. haematobium is the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis in humans and S. spindale uses ruminants as its definitive host; both are transmitted by freshwater snail intermediate hosts. Results confirm a major gene order rearrangement among schistosomes in all traditional Schistosoma species groups other than Schistosoma japonicum; i.e., species groups S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. indicum. These data lend support to the 'out of Asia' (East and Southeast Asia) hypothesis for Schistosoma. The gene order change involves translocation of atp6-nad2-trnA and a rearrangement of nad3-nad1 relative to other parasitic flatworm mt genomes so far sequenced. Gene order and tRNA secondary structure changes (loss and acquisition of the DHU and/or TPsiC arms of trnC, trnF, and trnR) between mitochondrial genomes of these and other (digenean and cestode) flatworms were inferred by character mapping onto a phylogeny estimated from nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences of these same species, in order to find additional rare genomic changes suitable as synapomorphies. Denser and wider taxon sampling of mt genomes across the Platyhelminthes will validate these putative characters.

  10. The bladder carcinoma secondary to schistosoma mansoni infection: A case report with review of the literature

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    Murat Can Kiremit

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the increasing travels all around the world, clinicians should remember that Schistosoma infection is certainly a part of the differential diagnosis of bladder carcinoma, even if the patients are not from endemic regions.

  11. Identification and characterization of protein 14-3-3 in carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Alok; Puchadapirom, Pranom; Plumworasawat, Sirikanya; Dontumprai, Rieofarng; Chan-On, Waraporn; Buates, Sureemas; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas

    2016-10-27

    Protein 14-3-3s are abundant phospho-serine/threonine binding proteins, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Members of this protein family mediate metabolism and signal transduction networks through binding to hundreds of other protein partners. Protein 14-3-3s have been studied in other species of parasitic helminthes, but little is known about this protein in the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. In this study, we identified and characterized protein 14-3-3s of O. viverrini. Seven protein 14-3-3 encoded sequences were retrieved from the O. viverrini genome database. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Two isoforms (protein 14-3-3 zeta and protein 14-3-3 epsilon) that have been previously found in the excretory-secretory (ES) products of O. viverrini were produced as recombinant protein in E. coli and the proteins were then used to immunize mice to obtain specific antibodies. Western blot analysis showed that both proteins were detected in all obtainable developmental stages of O. viverrini and the ES products. Immunolocalization revealed that both isoforms were expressed throughout tissues and organs except the gut epithelium. The highest expression was observed in testes especially in developing spermatocytes, suggesting their role in spermatogenesis. Prominent expression was also detected on tegumental surface of the parasite and on epical surface of bile duct epithelium indicates their additional role in host-parasite interaction. These findings indicate that protein 14-3-3s play important role in the life cycle of the parasite and might be involved in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini infection.

  12. Comparative characterization of microRNAs from the liver flukes Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Ai, Lin; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Liu, Qing-You; Chen, Mu-Xin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcription level. The present study specifically explored and compared the miRNA expression profiles of F. gigantica and F. hepatica using an integrated sequencing and bioinformatics platform and quantitative real-time PCR. Nineteen and 16 miRNA candidates were identified from F. gigantica and F. hepatica, respectively. The two parasites shared 11 miRNAs, with 8 also showing similarity to miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum. Another 8 miRNAs were identified as F. gigantica-specific and 5 as F. hepatica-specific, most of which were novel. Predicted target analysis with 11465 mRNA and EST sequences of F. hepatica and F. gigantica revealed that all of the miRNAs had more than one target, ranging from 2 to 398 with an average of 51 targets. Some functions of the predicted targets were only found in F. gigantica, such as "transcription regulator", while some others were only found in F. hepatica, such as "reproduction" and "response to stimulus", indicating the different metabolism and gene regulation patterns of the two parasites. The present study represents the first global comparative characterization of miRNA expression profiles of F. gigantica and F. hepatica, which has provided novel valuable resources for a better understanding of the two zoonotic trematodes.

  13. A REVIEW OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN INDONESIA WITH REFERENCE TO SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM

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    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  14. Portal Doppler ultrasound evaluation in myelitis by Schistosoma mansoni Avaliação pela ultrassonografia com Doppler portal na mielite pelo Schistosoma mansoni

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    Claudio Henrique Fernandes Vidal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism for development of schistosomal myelitis has not yet been completely understood. Few publications have tried to establish a link between the general clinical presentation of the illness and its neurological manifestations. Objective: To evaluated the portal blood flow in patients with schistosomal myelitis and controls. Method: Forty-three individuals were evaluated using portal Doppler ultrasound. Group I consisted of 13 patients with the spinal form of schistosomiasis. Group II included 10 patients with intestinal and hepatointestinal forms of schistosomiasis, but no neurological symptoms; while group III involved 20 healthy controls. Results: Portal venous speed and portal venous flow were significantly elevated in group I (pA fisiopatogênese da mielopatia esquistossomótica não é completamente entendida, sendo escassas as publicações que tentam inferir a relação entre a forma clínica da esquistossomose e suas manifestações neurológicas. Objetivo: Avaliar o fluxo sanguíneo do sistema porta em pacientes com mielite esquistossomótica, contribuindo no entendimento dos mecanismos que favorecem a chegada dos parasitas e/ou seus derivados ao sistema nervoso. Método: Foram avaliados 43 indivíduos pela Dopplerfluxometria portal. O grupo I constou de 13 pacientes com esquistossomose medular, sendo o grupo II composto por 10 portadores de formas intestinal e hepatointestinal (sem doença neurológica, e o grupo III, por 20 controles sadios. Resultados: A velocidade venosa portal e o fluxo venoso portal foram significativamente elevados (p-valor<0,001 no grupo I. Conclusão: A Dopplerfluxometria demonstrou a presença de estados hiperdinâmicos do leito vascular porta em pacientes com mielite pelo Schistosoma mansoni.

  15. Schistosome syntenin partially protects vaccinated mice against Schistosoma mansoni infection.

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    Barbara C Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by several species of trematode of the genus Schistosoma. The disease affects more than 200 million people in the world and causes up to 280,000 deaths per year, besides having high morbidity due to chronic illness that damages internal organs. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control disease is a combination of drug treatment and immunization with an anti-schistosome vaccine. Among the most promising molecules as vaccine candidates are the proteins present in the tegument and digestive tract of the parasite.In this study, we describe for the first time Schistosoma mansoni syntenin (SmSynt and we evaluate its potential as a recombinant vaccine. We demonstrate by real-time PCR that syntenin is mainly expressed in intravascular life stages (schistosomula and adult worms of the parasite life cycle and, by confocal microscopy, we localize it in digestive epithelia in adult worms and schistosomula. Administration of siRNAs targeting SmSynt leads to the knock-down of syntenin gene and protein levels, but this has no demonstrable impact on parasite morphology or viability, suggesting that high SmSynt gene expression is not essential for the parasites in vitro. Mice immunization with rSmSynt, formulated with Freund's adjuvant, induces a Th1-type response, as suggested by the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by rSmSynt-stimulated cultured splenocytes. The protective effect conferred by vaccination with rSmSynt was demonstrated by 30-37% reduction of worm burden, 38-43% reduction in the number, and 35-37% reduction in the area, of liver granulomas.Our report is the first characterization of syntenin in Schistosoma mansoni and our data suggest that this protein is a potential candidate for the development of a multi-antigen vaccine to control schistosomiasis.

  16. Condiloma acuminado anal com ovos de Schistosoma mansoni em paciente HIV-positivo Condilomata acuminata with Schistosoma eggs in HIV-positive patient

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    Fabiana Pirani Carneiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Condiloma acuminado e ovos de Schistosoma são freqüentemente encontrados na região anal, mas não há nenhum caso descrito de associação dessas doenças nessa região. No colo uterino a associação de infecção por HPV (vírus do papiloma humano e ovos de Schistosoma em paciente HIV (vírus da imunodeficiência humana-positivo já foi relatada e há evidências de que essa associação possa alterar a história natural dessas doenças. Assim como no colo uterino, é possível que essa interação também ocorra na região anal. Nosso objetivo, portanto, é relatar um caso de condiloma anal em paciente HIV-positivo, que foi submetido a ressecção cirúrgica e que apresentou no exame histopatológico numerosos ovos de Schistosoma mansoni.Condilomata acuminata and Schistosoma eggs are frequently found in the anal region, but there is no report about the association of these diseases in this region. The association of HPV infection and Schistosoma eggs in an HIV-positive patient was found in uterine cervix and there is evidence suggesting that this association can alters the natural history of these diseases. Like in the cervix, it is possible that this interaction also occurs in the anal region. So, we report a case of anal Condilomata acuminata, in an HIV-positive patient, that was ressected and contained on histopathologic examination, multiple Schistosoma eggs.

  17. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  18. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  19. The effect of Zymomonas mobilis culture on experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection O efeito da cultura de Zymomonas mobilis na infecção experimental por Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Fátima Macedo Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available C57Bl/10 male mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni were distributed into mixed, prophylactic and curative groups. A culture of Zymomonas mobilis was orally administered to mice. A 61% protection from the infection was observed in the curative group (p Camundongos C57Bl/10 do sexo masculino, infectados com Schistosoma mansoni foram distribuídos nos grupos misto, profilático e curativo. Cultura de Zymomonas mobilis foi administrada oralmente aos camundongos. Uma proteção de 61% foi observada no grupo curativo (p<0,05. Os estudos histopatológicos dos fígados e intestinos mostraram resultados similares.

  20. Cercarial emergence pattern of Schistosoma haematobium from Libreville, Gabon

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    Mintsa-Nguéma Rodrigue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although schistosomiasis has been a public health issue in Gabon for nearly a century, little is known about its current transmission dynamics. We analyzed the chronobiology of 137 cercarial emission profiles of Schistosoma haematobium from Libreville, the capital of Gabon, located in an open area for schistosomiasis. We found that 88% of the cercariae were shed between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. and that the average pattern was of circadian type, with the average peak at 1 p.m., and representing 27% of the total number of cercariae of the day. The rhythms of emergence may be associated with environmental pressures on the parasite, especially those related to their definitive hosts.

  1. Cercarial emergence pattern of Schistosoma haematobium from Libreville, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintsa-Nguéma, Rodrigue; Moné, Hélène; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Mengué-Ngou-Milama, Krystina; Kombila, Maryvonne; Mouahid, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Although schistosomiasis has been a public health issue in Gabon for nearly a century, little is known about its current transmission dynamics. We analyzed the chronobiology of 137 cercarial emission profiles of Schistosoma haematobium from Libreville, the capital of Gabon, located in an open area for schistosomiasis. We found that 88% of the cercariae were shed between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. and that the average pattern was of circadian type, with the average peak at 1 p.m., and representing 27% of the total number of cercariae of the day. The rhythms of emergence may be associated with environmental pressures on the parasite, especially those related to their definitive hosts.

  2. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  3. A potential vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Uruguay Um vetor potencial do Schistosoma mansoni no Uruguai

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibily experiments were carried out with a Biomphalaria straminea-like planorbid snail (Biomphalaria aff. straminea, species inquirenda from Espinillar, near Salto (Uruguay, in the area of the Salto Grande reservoir, exposed individually to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ2 and BH2 strains. Of 130 snails exposed to the SJ2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria tenagophila, 30 became infected (23%. The prepatent (precercaria period ranged from 35 to 65 days. The cercarial output was irregular, following no definite pattern, varying from 138 to 76,075 per snail (daily average 4.3 to 447.5 and ending up with death. Three specimens that died, without having shed cercarie, on days 69 (2 and 80 after exposure to miracidia, had developing secondary sporocysts in their tissues, justifying the prospect of a longer precercarial period in these cases. In a control group of 120 B. teangophila, exposed to the SJ2 strain, 40 became infected, showing an infection rate (33.3% not significantly different from that of the Espinillar snail (X [raised to the power of] 2 = 3.26. No cercarie were produced by any of the Espinilar snails exposed to miracidia of the BH2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria glabrata. Four specimens showed each a primary sporocyst in one tentacle, which disappeared between 15 and 25 days post-exposure, and two others died with immature, very slender sporocysts in their tissues on days 36 and 54. In a control group of 100 B. glabrata exposed to BH2 miracidia, 94 shed cercariae (94% and 6 remained negative. Calculation of Frandsen's (1979a, b TCP/100 index shows that "Espinillar Biomphalaria-SJ2 S. mansoni" is a vector-parasite "compatible" combination. Seeing that tenagophila-borne schistosomiasis is prevalent in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states and has recently spread sothwards to Santa Catarina state, and the range of B. tenagophila overlaps taht of the Espinillar Biomphalaria, the possibility of

  4. Characterization of human heterophil hemolysins induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Munir Chamone

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterophil antibodies could be detected in sera from normal or from patient with chronic schistosomiasis. Their hemolytic activities depend on the integrity of the complement classic pathway. The heterophil antibodies from patient sera presented a higher specificity for Schistosoma mansoni antigen preparations than those detected in normal sera. Most of the hemolytic activity observed in normal sera can be destroyed at 56ºC for 4 min. On the other hand, about 80% of the sera from infected patients are partially or totally resistant to this heat-treatment. The hemolytic activities of sera were eluted from a gel filtration column in different fractions of the first peak.Anticorpos heterófilos foram detectados nos soros de pacientes normais ou com esquistossomose mansoni crônica. Suas atividades hemolíticas dependem da integridade da via clássica do sistema do complemento. Os anticorpos heterófilos dos pacientes esquistossomóticos apresentaram maior especificidade para antígenos de Schistosoma mansoni do que aqueles anticorpos detectados nos soros de pacientes normais. A atividade hemolítica do anticorpo nos soros normais podia ser destruída pelo aquecimento destes soros a 56ºC durante 4 minutos. Por outro lado, cerca de 80% dos soros de pacientes esquistossomóticos eram parcial ou totalmente resistentes ao mesmo tratamento. As atividades dos anticorpos heterófilos foram eluídas através da filtração em gel, em diferentes frações no primeiro pico.

  5. Comparative morphology of eggs of the Haplorchiinae (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) and some other medically important heterophyid and opisthorchiid flukes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, O; Giboda, M; Scholz, T; Beer, S A

    1992-01-01

    The egg morphology of the following medically important small flukes from Southeast Asia and Far East were studied: Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae), Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Stellantchasmus falcatus and Metagonimus sp. (Heterophydiae). This study revealed a great intraspecific variability and interspecific similarity in size and shape of eggs. The eggs shape does not seem to be suitable for species identification. On the other hand, biometrical analysis of egg size enabled us to divide eggs from the species studied into four distinct groups according to the Faust-Meleney index (FMI) characterizing egg size rather than the length and width of eggs. The surface structures of eggs, delineated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), appeared to be a suitable morphological feature for distinguishing some groups of small flukes. Eggs from the Haplorchiinae were typified by the characteristic filamentous mesh structure. The problems of identification of eggs in human stool samples and suitability of using morphological criteria such as shape and size of eggs are discussed herein.

  6. Molecular changes in Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian liver fluke during the transition from the juvenile to the adult stage.

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    Aaron R Jex

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini chronically infects and affects tens of millions of people in regions of Asia, leading to chronic illness and, importantly, inducing malignant cancer (= cholangiocarcinoma. In spite of this, little is known, at the molecular level, about the parasite itself, its interplay with its hosts or the mechanisms of disease and/or carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we generated extensive RNA-Seq data (Illumina representing adult and juvenile stages of O. viverrini, and combined these sequences with previously published transcriptomic data (454 technology for this species, yielding a combined assembly of significantly increased quality and allowing quantitative assessment of transcription in the juvenile and adult stage. CONCLUSIONS: This enhanced assembly reveals that, despite the substantial biological similarities between the human liver flukes, O. viverinni and Clonorchis sinensis, there are previously unrecognized differences in major aspects of their molecular biology. Most notable are differences among the C13 and cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases, which play key roles in tissue migration, immune evasion and feeding, and, thus, represent potential drug and/or vaccine targets. Furthermore, these data indicate that major lineages of cysteine peptidases of socioeconomically important trematodes have evolved through a process of gene loss rather than independent radiation, contrasting previous proposals.

  7. Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.

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    Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

  8. Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.

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    Ilja I Brusentsov

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia, Northern Asia (Siberia and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan. Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3 and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

  9. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) naturally infecting introduced European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in northern Patagonia: phenotype, prevalence and potential risk.

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    Cuervo, Pablo F; Cataldo, Sophia Di; Fantozzi, M Cecilia; Deis, Erika; Isenrath, Gabriela Diaz; Viberti, Gabriela; Artigas, Patricio; Peixoto, Raquel; Valero, M Adela; Sierra, Roberto Mera Y; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Fascioliasis has recently been included in the WHO list of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases. Besides being a major veterinary health problem, fascioliasis has large underdeveloping effects on the human communities affected. Though scarcely considered in fascioliasis epidemiology, it is well recognized that both native and introduced wildlife species may play a significant role as reservoirs of the disease. The objectives are to study the morphological characteristics of Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs in a population of Lepus europaeus, to assess liver fluke prevalence, and to analyze the potential reservoir role of the European brown hare in northern Patagonia, Argentina, where fascioliasis is endemic. Measures of F. hepatica found in L. europaeus from northern Patagonia demonstrate that the liver fluke is able to fully develop in wild hares and to shed normal eggs through their faeces. Egg shedding to the environment is close to the lower limit obtained for pigs, a domestic animal whose epidemiological importance in endemic areas has already been highlighted. The former, combined with the high prevalence found (14.28%), suggest an even more important role in the transmission cycle than previously considered. The results obtained do not only remark the extraordinary plasticity and adaptability of this trematode species to different host species, but also highlight the role of the European brown hare, and other NIS, as reservoirs capable for parasite spillback to domestic and native cycle, representing a potentially important, but hitherto neglected, cause of disease emergence.

  10. Enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses following Toll-like-receptor ligation in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from rural Gabon.

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    Lynn Meurs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma infection is thought to lead to down-regulation of the host's immune response. This has been shown for adaptive immune responses, but the effect on innate immunity, that initiates and shapes the adaptive response, has not been extensively studied. In a first study to characterize these responses, we investigated the effect of Schistosoma haematobium infection on cytokine responses of Gabonese schoolchildren to a number of Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands. METHODOLOGY: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were collected from S. haematobium-infected and uninfected schoolchildren from the rural area of Zilé in Gabon. PBMCs were incubated for 24 h and 72 h with various TLR ligands, as well as schistosomal egg antigen (SEA and adult worm antigen (AWA. Pro-inflammatory TNF-α and anti-inflammatory/regulatory IL-10 cytokine concentrations were determined in culture supernatants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infected children produced higher adaptive IL-10 responses than uninfected children against schistosomal antigens (72 h incubation. On the other hand, infected children had higher TNF-α responses than uninfected children and significantly higher TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to FSL-1 and Pam3, ligands of TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 respectively. A similar trend was observed for the TLR4 ligand LPS while Poly(I:C (Mda5/TLR3 ligand did not induce substantial cytokine responses (24 h incubation. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows that Schistosoma-infected children develop a more pro-inflammatory TLR2-mediated response in the face of a more anti-inflammatory adaptive immune response. This suggests that S. haematobium infection does not suppress the host's innate immune system in the context of single TLR ligation.

  11. Survey of transcripts expressed by the invasive juvenile stage of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

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    Alvarez-Valín Fernando

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is the agent of a zoonosis with significant economic consequences in livestock production worldwide, and increasing relevance to human health in developing countries. Although flukicidal drugs are available, re-infection and emerging resistance are demanding new efficient and inexpensive control strategies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the host-parasite interaction provide relevant clues in this search, while enlightening the physiological adaptations to parasitism. Genomics and transcriptomics are still in their infancy in F. hepatica, with very scarce information available from the invasive newly excysted juveniles (NEJ. Here we provide an initial glimpse to the transcriptomics of the NEJ, the first stage to interact with the mammalian host. Results We catalogued more than 500 clusters generated from the analysis of F. hepatica juvenile expressed sequence tags (EST, several of them not detected in the adult stage. A set of putative F. hepatica specific transcripts, and a group of sequences conserved exclusively in flatworms were identified. These novel sequences along with a set of parasite transcripts absent in the host genomes are putative new targets for future anti-parasitic drugs or vaccine development. Comparisons of the F. hepatica sequences with other metazoans genomes or EST databases were consistent with the basal positioning of flatworms in the bilaterian phylogeny. Notably, GC content, codon usage and amino acid frequencies are remarkably different in Schistosomes to F. hepatica and other trematodes. Functional annotation of predicted proteins showed a general representation of diverse biological functions. Besides proteases and antioxidant enzymes expected to participate in the early interaction with the host, various proteins involved in gene expression, protein synthesis, cell signaling and mitochondrial enzymes were identified. Differential

  12. Homology-based annotation of non-coding RNAs in the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum

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    Santana Clara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomes are trematode parasites of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are considered the most important of the human helminth parasites in terms of morbidity and mortality. Draft genome sequences are now available for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA plays a crucial role in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis, and pathogenesis. The genome-wide annotation of ncRNAs is a non-trivial task unless well-annotated genomes of closely related species are already available. Results A homology search for structured ncRNA in the genome of S. mansoni resulted in 23 types of ncRNAs with conserved primary and secondary structure. Among these, we identified rRNA, snRNA, SL RNA, SRP, tRNAs and RNase P, and also possibly MRP and 7SK RNAs. In addition, we confirmed five miRNAs that have recently been reported in S. japonicum and found two additional homologs of known miRNAs. The tRNA complement of S. mansoni is comparable to that of the free-living planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, although for some amino acids differences of more than a factor of two are observed: Leu, Ser, and His are overrepresented, while Cys, Meth, and Ile are underrepresented in S. mansoni. On the other hand, the number of tRNAs in the genome of S. japonicum is reduced by more than a factor of four. Both schistosomes have a complete set of minor spliceosomal snRNAs. Several ncRNAs that are expected to exist in the S. mansoni genome were not found, among them the telomerase RNA, vault RNAs, and Y RNAs. Conclusion The ncRNA sequences and structures presented here represent the most complete dataset of ncRNA from any lophotrochozoan reported so far. This data set provides an important reference for further analysis of the genomes of schistosomes and indeed eukaryotic genomes at large.

  13. Comparative histopathology of Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini in a hamster model: an implication of high pathogenicity of the European liver fluke.

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    Lvova, Maria N; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Balthaisong, Suwit; Katokhin, Alexey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    European liver fluke (Opisthorchis felineus) and Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) are similar in morphology but comparative pathology of the infections has not been described. We therefore did comparative histopathology of both parasites in an experimental animal model. The study was conducted in 3 groups of 105 Syrian golden hamsters; the first and second groups fed with 50 metacercariae of O. felineus (OF) or O. viverrini (OV) and the last group was uninfected controls. Five hamsters in each group were euthanized on weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 post-infection. The liver tissue was fixed and processed for routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry for proliferation markers (BrdU or PCNA). Overall, the liver histopathology of O. felineus and O. viverrini infection was generally similar. However, various histopathogical features including intense inflammation, fibrosis, biliary and goblet cell hyperplasia and dysplasia occurred earlier in the OF group. In addition, the existence of precancerous lesions such as cholangiofibrosis in a long-term infection was observed only in this group. O. felineus is larger in size than O. viverrini which, together with its excreted and secreted antigens, likely is crucial in the induction of liver fluke induced disease. The differences in nature and timing of the histopathological profile indicate that opisthorchiasis caused by the European liver fluke O. felineus is more pathogenic than its Asian relative O. viverrini.

  14. Molecular identification of Clonorchis sinensis and discrimination with other opisthorchid liver fluke species using multiple Ligation-depended Probe Amplification (MLPA

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    Liang Chi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with the opisthorchid liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus cause severe health problems globally, particularly in Southeast Asia. Early identification of the infection is essential to provide timely and appropriate chemotherapy to patients. Results In this study we evaluate a PCR-based molecular identification method, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, which allows rapid and specific detection of single nucleotide acid differences between Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and O. felineus. Three probe pairs were derived from the Internally Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 of three opisthorchid liver flukes using a systematic phylogenetic analysis. Specific loci were detected in all three species, yielding three amplicons with 198,172 and 152 bp, respectively, while no cross reactions were observed. A panel of 66 C. sinensis isolates was screened using MLPA. All species were positively identified, and no inhibition was observed. The detection limit was 103 copies of the ITS gene for the three liver flukes, or about 60 pg genomic DNA for Clonorchis sinensis. Amplification products can be detected by electrophoresis on agarose gel or in a capillary sequencer. In addition, genomic DNA of Clonorchis sinensis in fecal samples of infected rats was positively amplified by MLPA. Conclusion The flexibility and specificity make MLPA a potential tool for specific identification of infections by opisthorchid liver flukes in endemic areas.

  15. Development of a Health Education Modification Program Regarding Liver Flukes and Cholangiocarcinoma in High Risk Areas of Nakhon Ratchasima Province Using Self-Efficacy and Motivation Theory.

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    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Benjaoran, Fuangfa; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to develop a health education modification program based on self-efficacy and motivation regarding liver flukes and cholangiocarcinoma development in Keang Sanam Nang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. A total of 36 individuals were invited to participate in the program and were screened for population at risk of liver fluke infection and cholangiocarcinoma using SUT-OV-001 and SUT-CCA-001. Development of health education modification program regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention included 3 steps: (1) preparation, (2) health education program, and (3) follow-up and evaluation. The study was implemented for 10 weeks. Pre-and-post-test knowledge was measured with questionnaires, Kuder-Richardson-20: KR-20 = 0.718,and Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient = 0.724 and 0.716 for perception and outcome expectation questionnaires. Paired and independent t-tests were applied for data analysis. The majority of the participants were female (55.6%), aged between ≤50 and 60 years old (36.1%), married (86.1%), education level of primary school (63.9%), agricultural occupation (80.6%), and income <4,000 Baht (44.4%). The results revealed that after the health education program, the experimental group had a mean score of knowledge, perception, and outcome expectation regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention significantly higher than before participation and in the control group. In conclusion, this successful health education modification program for liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma, therefore may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas.

  16. Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy due to Schistosoma mansoni: Report on 17 cases from an endemic area

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    Badr Hatem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After malaria, schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent tropical disease. The prevalence of oviposition in CNS of infected persons varies from 0.3 to 30%. The conus medullaris is a primary site of schistosomiasis, either granulomatous or acute necrotizing myelitis. Objective: To report the clinical, radiological, and laboratory results of spinal cord schistosomiasis (SCS and to design proper therapeutic regimens. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients (13 males and four females with SCS were enrolled between 1994 and 2009 at Mansoura University Hospitals. Their median age at diagnosis was 19 years (13-30 years. Independent neurological, radiological, and laboratory assessments were performed for both groups, excluding pathological confirmation that was done earlier in eight patients (Group 1. In the group 2 (nine patients, indirect hemagglutination (IHA test for bilharziasis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was performed. Higher positive titer in CSF than serum indicated SCS plus induction of antibilharzial and corticosteroid protocols for 12 months with a three-year follow-up. Results: Rate of neurological symptoms of granulomatous intramedullary cord lesion was assessed independently in 16 cases and acute paraparesis in one case. All patients in group 2 had positive IHA against Schistosoma mansoni with median CSF and serum ranges 1/640 and 1/320, respectively. Seven patients (41.18% had complete recovery, eight patients (47.06% showed partial recovery, and no response was reported in two patients (11.76% (P = 0.005. There was no recorded mortality in the current registry. Conclusions: Rapid diagnosis of SCS with early medical therapies for 12 months is a crucial tool to complete recovery.

  17. Genetic manipulation of Schistosoma haematobium, the neglected schistosome.

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    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minimal information on the genome and proteome of Schistosoma haematobium is available, in marked contrast to the situation with the other major species of human schistosomes for which draft genome sequences have been reported. Accordingly, little is known about functional genomics in S. haematobium, including the utility or not of RNA interference techniques that, if available, promise to guide development of new interventions for schistosomiasis haematobia. METHODS/FINDINGS: Here we isolated and cultured developmental stages of S. haematobium, derived from experimentally infected hamsters. Targeting different developmental stages, we investigated the utility of soaking and/or square wave electroporation in order to transfect S. haematobium with nucleic acid reporters including Cy3-labeled small RNAs, messenger RNA encoding firefly luciferase, and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Three hours after incubation of S. haematobium eggs in 50 ng/µl Cy3-labeled siRNA, fluorescent foci were evident indicating that labeled siRNA had penetrated into miracidia developing within the egg shell. Firefly luciferase activity was detected three hours after square wave electroporation of the schistosome eggs and adult worms in 150 ng/µl of mRNA. RNA interference knockdown (silencing of reporter luciferase activity was seen following the introduction of dsRNA specific for luciferase mRNA in eggs, schistosomules and mixed sex adults. Moreover, introduction of an endogenous gene-specific siRNA into adult schistosomes silenced transcription of tetraspanin 2 (Sh-tsp-2, the apparent orthologue of the Schistosoma mansoni gene Sm-tsp-2 which encodes the surface localized structural and signaling protein Sm-TSP-2. Together, knockdown of reporter luciferase and Sh-tsp-2 indicated the presence of an intact RNAi pathway in S. haematobium. Also, we employed laser scanning confocal microscopy to view the adult stages of S. haematobium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings

  18. [Historical aspects of the risk factors of Schistosoma intercalatum schistosomiasis].

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    Jusot, J F; Simarro, P; De Muynck, A

    1996-01-01

    Bilharziosis is a considerable public health problem. It is caused by many species of schistosoma, four of which have wide geographical distribution: Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. intercalatum. The recently discovered S. intercalatum is limited to central and west Africa. Its spread is progressive and its pathogenicity is not completely known. S. intercalatum bilharziosis is usually manifested in the form of dysentery. The physiopathologic explanation of this clinical manifestation is less clear. Immunopathologically, the formation of an inflammatory granuloma constitutes the origin of its symptoms. This is due to many biological factors including delayed hypersensitivity reactions. All cellular immunity changes will facilitate the appearance of symptoms. Our aim has been to show the importance of malnutrition as a pathogenic factor of S. intercalatum bilharziosis. The initial research hypothesis was as follows: malnutrition plays a role in the evolution of a patient from an asymptomatic state of infection to a symptomatic state of illness. We carried out the study in the suburbs of Bata, in Equatorial Guinea. The inhabitants of Ncolombong, essentially rural immigrants, comprised our study population. Following their consent, we recruited individuals less than 45 years of age who had not taken praziquantel during the last 12 months. We included a total of 297 patients. Our study was a case-control, matching on sex and age. A case was defined as an infected patient with acute or chronic diarrhea occurring within the last month' preceding the stool sample analysis. All cases were retained after exhaustive screening of the study population. Each case (group 1) was matched with one or several asymptomatic infected patients (group 2) and two or several asymptomatic noninfected patients chosen at random (group 3). The definition of malnutrition was as follows: weight/height endemic area (OR = 0.14, CI 95%: 0.03-0.76) and a poor or average

  19. Schistosoma mansoni antigenic extracts obtained by different extraction procedures

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    Miriam Tendler

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Solubilization of Schistosoma mansoni antigens was obtained by agitation of adult worms in a 3M KCl solution. The protein contents of the KCl extrats varied from 0.35 to 0.96 mg/ml. Sera from 97 patients with hepatointestinal shistosomiasis and viable eggs in stools from a Brazilian endemic area were studied by immunoelectroomophoresis and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods with the KCl extract and with another antigen, obtained by homogenization of adult schistosomes in saline. The rate of positiveness of immunoprecipitation deterctions by immunoelectroomophoresis with the KCl extract was 53.5%. A correlation was verified between methods of detection and extration procedures, resulting in a better association of the extract obtained by agitation in 3M KCl and immunoelectroomophoresis.Foi obtida a solubilização de antígenos do Schistosoma mansoni por agitação de vermes adultos em solução de KCl 3M. O teor protéico dos extratos de KCl variou de 0,35 a 0,96mg/ ml. Foram testados pelos métodos de imunoeletroosmoforese (IEOP e dupla imunodifusão (Ouchterlony, 97 soros de doentes de area endêmica brasileira de esquistossomose, forma clínica hepatointestinal e com exames coprológicos positivos para S. mansoni, com o extrato de KCl e outro antígeno obtido pela homogenização de vermes adultos em salina. A taxa de positividade das reações de imunoprecipitação por IEOP com o antígeno extraído pela ação do KCl 3M foi 53,5%. Foi verificada a correlação entre os métodos de detecção e de extração resultando numa melhor associação entre o extrato obtido por agitação no KCl 3M e a IEOP.

  20. Molecular characterization of the North American lung fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its development in Mongolian gerbils.

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    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2011-06-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3-8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15-49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis.

  1. Recent advances in the diagnosis of Schistosoma infection: the detection of parasite DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, Ana; Pontes, Luís André; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2002-01-01

    As Schistosoma sp. control programs are chiefly based on treatment of infected population, adequate case finding has a crucial role. The available diagnostic methods are far from ideal, since the search for eggs in stools and the detection of circulating antigens lack sensitivity in low prevalence and post-treatment situations and antibody detection lacks specificity. In most endemic foci, repeated treatment of infected people leaves a number of non-diagnosed and consequently non-treated persons, enough to maintain a persistent residue of 5 to 10% prevalence. In an attempt to surpass these diagnostic limitations we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Schistosoma sp. in feces that, in a first population study, has shown to be more sensitive than three-repeated stool Kato-Katz examination. The PCR may constitute a valuable tool for the diagnosis of the Schistosoma sp. infection in special situations, when high sensitivity and specificity are required and infrastructure is available.

  2. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.

  3. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

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    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Biochemical changes after subchronic and chronic interaction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Swiss albino mice with two specific compounds.

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    Hanna, Laila S; Medhat, Amina M; Abdel-Menem, Hanan A

    2003-04-01

    In Egypt, infection with Schistosoma mansoni (S.m.) and residues of pesticides have been considered as major environmental pollutants that adversely affect health. Effects of diazinon (DZN) and/or praziquantel (PZQ) on the levels of plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), activities of brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in addition to blood reduced glutathione (GSH) in healthy and S.m. infected mice were investigated after 9 and 17 weeks of either infection or intoxication with DZN. Triiodothyronine showed significant differences among the different treatments. The group of mice treated with PZQ showed the highest levels of T3 at both time intervals. Thyroxine level showed significant differences between the two time intervals. The lowest levels of T4 were observed in the infected-PZQ group at week 17. The maximum inhibition of brain AchE activity was noticed in DZN-PZQ treated group after 9 and 17 weeks. The different treatments significantly reduced the activities of liver ALT. The highest decrease was recorded in the infected-DZN-PZQ group at week 9. All treatments significantly lowered the levels of blood GSH after 9 weeks.

  5. Retrotransposon OV-RTE-1 from the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini: potential target for DNA-based diagnosis.

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    Thi Phung, Luyen; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach

    2014-01-01

    Infections by the fish-borne liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis can lead to bile duct cancer. These neglected tropical disease pathogens occur in East Asia, with O. viverrini primarily in Thailand and Laos and C. sinensis in Cambodia, Vietnam, and China. Genomic information about these pathogens holds the potential to improve disease treatment and control. Transcriptome analysis indicates that mobile genetic elements are active in O. viverrini, including a novel non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposon. A consensus sequence of this element, termed OV-RTE-1, was assembled from expressed sequence tags and PCR amplified genomic DNA. OV-RTE-1 was 3330 bp in length, encoded 1101 amino acid residues and exhibited hallmark structures and sequences of non-LTR retrotransposons including a single open reading frame encoding apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease (EN) and reverse transcriptase (RT). Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that OV-RTE-1 was member of the RTE clade of non-LTR retrotransposons. OV-RTE-1 is the first non-LTR retrotransposon characterized from the trematode family Opisthorchiidae. Sequences of OV-RTE-1 were targeted to develop a diagnostic tool for detection of infection by O. viverrini. PCR specific primers for detection of O. viverrini DNA showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of as little as 5 fg of O. viverrini DNA whereas the PCR based approach showed 62% sensitivity and 100% specificity with clinical stool samples. The OV-RTE-1 specific PCR could be developed as a molecular diagnostic for Opisthorchis infection targeting parasite eggs in stool samples, especially in regions of mixed infection of O. viverrini and/or C. sinensis and minute intestinal flukes.

  6. A granulin-like growth factor secreted by the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, promotes proliferation of host cells.

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    Michael J Smout

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, infects millions of people throughout south-east Asia and is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma, or cancer of the bile ducts. The mechanisms by which chronic infection with O. viverrini results in cholangiocarcinogenesis are multi-factorial, but one such mechanism is the secretion of parasite proteins with mitogenic properties into the bile ducts, driving cell proliferation and creating a tumorigenic environment. Using a proteomic approach, we identified a homologue of human granulin, a potent growth factor involved in cell proliferation and wound healing, in the excretory/secretory (ES products of the parasite. O. viverrini granulin, termed Ov-GRN-1, was expressed in most parasite tissues, particularly the gut and tegument. Furthermore, Ov-GRN-1 was detected in situ on the surface of biliary epithelial cells of hamsters experimentally infected with O. viverrini. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 was expressed in E. coli and refolded from inclusion bodies. Refolded protein stimulated proliferation of murine fibroblasts at nanomolar concentrations, and proliferation was inhibited by the MAPK kinase inhibitor, U0126. Antibodies raised to recombinant Ov-GRN-1 inhibited the ability of O. viverrini ES products to induce proliferation of murine fibroblasts and a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line in vitro, indicating that Ov-GRN-1 is the major growth factor present in O. viverrini ES products. This is the first report of a secreted growth factor from a parasitic worm that induces proliferation of host cells, and supports a role for this fluke protein in establishment of a tumorigenic environment that may ultimately manifest as cholangiocarcinoma.

  7. Preliminary analysis of miRNA pathway in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus S; Cabral, Fernanda J; Jannotti-Passos, Liana K; Carvalho, Omar; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Baba, Elio H; Sá, Renata G

    2009-03-01

    RNA silencing refers to a series of nuclear and cytoplasmatic processes involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), either by sequence-specific mRNA degradation or by translational arrest. The best characterized small RNAs are microRNAs (miRNAs), which predominantly perform gene silencing through post-transcriptional mechanisms. In this work we used bioinformatic approaches to identify the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni sequences that are similar to enzymes involved in the post-transcriptional gene silencing mediated by miRNA pathway. We used amino acid sequences of well-known proteins involved in the miRNA pathway against S. mansoni genome and transcriptome databases identifying a total of 13 putative proteins in the parasite. In addition, the transcript levels of SmDicer1 and SmAgo2/3/4 were identified by qRT-PCR using cercariae, adult worms, eggs and in vitro cultivated schistosomula. Our results showed that the SmDicer1 and SmAgo2/3/4 are differentially expressed during schistosomula development, suggesting that the miRNA pathway is regulated at the transcript level and therefore may control gene expression during the life cycle of S. mansoni.

  8. Modeling and analysis of Schistosoma Argonaute protein molecular spatial conformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Zhang; Zhigang Shang; Xiaohui Zhang; Yuntao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the amino acid sequence composition, secondary structure, the spatial conformation of its domain and other characteristics of Argonaute protein. Methods:Bioinformatics tools and the internet server were used. Firstly, the amino acid sequence composition features of the Argonaute protein were analyzed, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Secondly, Argonaute protein’s distribution of secondary structure and its physicochemical properties were predicted. Lastly, the protein functional expression form of the domain group was established through the Phyre-based analysis on the spatial conformation of Argonaute protein domains. Results: 593 amino acids were encoded by Argonaute protein, the phylogenetic tree was constructed, and Argonaute protein’s distribution of secondary structure and its physicochemical properties were obtained through analysis. In addition, the functional expression form which comprised the N-terminal PAZ domain and C-terminal Piwi domain for the Argonaute protein was obtained with Phyre. Conclusions: The information relationship between the structure and function of the Argonaute protein can be initially established with bioinformatics tools and the internet server, and this provides the theoretical basis for further clarifying the function of Schistosoma Argonaute protein.

  9. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, V R; Tchuenté, L A; Théron, A; Jourdane, J; Ly, A; Moncrieff, C B; Gryseels, B

    2000-11-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maximum production of cercariae for 1 day was 4892 observed in a snail from the MDI group at day 43 post-infection. The mean longevity of snails was higher in group MD1 (88 days p.i.) than in group MD5 (65 days p.i.). The chronobiological emergence pattern revealed a circadian rhythm with one shedding peak at mid-day. Comparisons are made with the vectorial capacity of the sympatric combination of B. pfeifferi Senegal/S. mansoni Senegal.

  10. Uncovering Notch pathway in the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lizandra G; Morais, Enyara R; Machado, Carla B; Gomes, Matheus S; Cabral, Fernanda J; Souza, Julia M; Soares, Cláudia S; Sá, Renata G; Castro-Borges, William; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-10-01

    Several signaling molecules that govern development in higher animals have been identified in the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, including the transforming growth factor β, protein tyrosine kinases, nuclear hormone receptors, among others. The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling mechanism which is involved in a wide variety of developmental processes including embryogenesis and oogenesis in worms and flies. Here we aimed to provide the molecular reconstitution of the Notch pathway in S. mansoni using the available transcriptome and genome databases. Our results also revealed the presence of the transcripts coded for SmNotch, SmSu(H), SmHes, and the gamma-secretase complex (SmNicastrin, SmAph-1, and SmPen-2), throughout all the life stages analyzed. Besides, it was observed that the viability and separation of adult worm pairs were not affected by treatment with N-[N(3,5)-difluorophenacetyl)-L-Alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a Notch pathway inhibitor. Moreover, DAPT treatment decreased the production of phenotypically normal eggs and arrested their development in culture. Our results also showed a significant decrease in SmHes transcript levels in both adult worms and eggs treated with DAPT. These results provide, for the first time, functional validation of the Notch pathway in S. mansoni and suggest its involvement in parasite oogenesis and embryogenesis. Given the complexity of the Notch pathway, further experiments shall highlight the full repertoire of Notch-mediated cellular processes throughout the S. mansoni life cycle.

  11. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

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    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  12. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

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    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  13. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

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    Iman F Abou El Naga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails, Group II contained 30 resistant snails, Group III contained 15 susceptible and 15 resistant snails, Group IV contained 27 susceptible and three resistant snails and Group V contained three susceptible and 27 resistant snails. The percentage of resistant snails in the resulting progeny varied according to the ratio of susceptible and resistant parents per group; they are 7%, 100%, 68%, 45% and 97% from Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. On increasing the percentage of resistant parent snails, the percentage of resistant progeny increased, while cercarial production in their susceptible progeny decreased.

  14. UVB-induced immune suppression and infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, F.P.; Lewis, F.A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). School of Medicine]|[Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) causes a systematic immunosuppression of cell-mediated immunity. The question of whether UV immunosuppression modulates the course of infectious diseases is important because UVB levels in sunlight are sufficient to predict significant UV-induced immunosuppression at most latitudes. We have investigated the effect of immunosuppressive doses of UVB on the disease caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated once or three times weekly over 60-80 days with UV from a bank of FS40 sunlamps. Each UV treatment consisted of an immunosuppressive UV dose, as determined by suppression of contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene, corresponding to about 15-30 min of noonday tropical sunlight exposure under ideal clear sky conditions. Cumulative UV doses were between 80 and 170 kJ/m{sup 2}. Worm and egg burdens, liver granuloma diameters and liver fibrosis showed minimal changes (< 20%) compared with parameters in unirradiated animals. Ultraviolet irradiation (a total of 55 kJ/m{sup 2} administered in six treatments) did not impair the resistance to rechallenge conferred by vaccination with {sup 60}Co-irradiated cercariae. We have observed a dichotomy between UV immnosuppression and both disease and vaccination in this helminth infection, in contrast to the effects of UVB shown in other infectious diseases. (author).

  15. The susceptibility of rodents to schistosome infection, with special reference to Schistosoma haematobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, J H; Davis, D H; Pitchford, R J

    1966-01-01

    In this investigation the susceptibility of several species of rodents-Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis, Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus, Aethomys chrysophilus, Tatera brantsi and the white mouse (SAIMR 200 strain)-to Schistosoma haematobium was determined and the pathology studied. From the results it is clear that these rodents are susceptible to infection with Schistosoma haematobium. For various reasons, notably adaptability to laboratory conditions, the most suitable as laboratory animals for the study of bilharziasis are Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus and Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis. These three species breed readily in the laboratory and show a high susceptibility to S. haematobium, with characteristic lesions involving several organs, including the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas and intestine.

  16. An integrated pipeline for next generation sequencing and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant intestinal fluke, Fasciolopsis buski (Lankester, 1857) Looss, 1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Ghatani, Sudeep; Shylla, Jollin A; Sahu, Ranjana; Mullapudi, Nandita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Helminths include both parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and platyhelminths (trematode and cestode flatworms) that are abundant, and are of clinical importance. The genetic characterization of parasitic flatworms using advanced molecular tools is central to the diagnosis and control of infections. Although the nuclear genome houses suitable genetic markers (e.g., in ribosomal (r) DNA) for species identification and molecular characterization, the mitochondrial (mt) genome consistently provides a rich source of novel markers for informative systematics and epidemiological studies. In the last decade, there have been some important advances in mtDNA genomics of helminths, especially lung flukes, liver flukes and intestinal flukes. Fasciolopsis buski, often called the giant intestinal fluke, is one of the largest digenean trematodes infecting humans and found primarily in Asia, in particular the Indian subcontinent. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies now provide opportunities for high throughput sequencing, assembly and annotation within a short span of time. Herein, we describe a high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics pipeline for mt genomics for F. buski that emphasizes the utility of short read NGS platforms such as Ion Torrent and Illumina in successfully sequencing and assembling the mt genome using innovative approaches for PCR primer design as well as assembly. We took advantage of our NGS whole genome sequence data (unpublished so far) for F. buski and its comparison with available data for the Fasciola hepatica mtDNA as the reference genome for design of precise and specific primers for amplification of mt genome sequences from F. buski. A long-range PCR was carried out to create an NGS library enriched in mt DNA sequences. Two different NGS platforms were employed for complete sequencing, assembly and annotation of the F. buski mt genome. The complete mt genome sequences of the intestinal fluke comprise 14,118 bp and is thus the shortest

  17. An integrated pipeline for next generation sequencing and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant intestinal fluke, Fasciolopsis buski (Lankester, 1857 Looss, 1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar Biswal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminths include both parasitic nematodes (roundworms and platyhelminths (trematode and cestode flatworms that are abundant, and are of clinical importance. The genetic characterization of parasitic flatworms using advanced molecular tools is central to the diagnosis and control of infections. Although the nuclear genome houses suitable genetic markers (e.g., in ribosomal (r DNA for species identification and molecular characterization, the mitochondrial (mt genome consistently provides a rich source of novel markers for informative systematics and epidemiological studies. In the last decade, there have been some important advances in mtDNA genomics of helminths, especially lung flukes, liver flukes and intestinal flukes. Fasciolopsis buski, often called the giant intestinal fluke, is one of the largest digenean trematodes infecting humans and found primarily in Asia, in particular the Indian subcontinent. Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies now provide opportunities for high throughput sequencing, assembly and annotation within a short span of time. Herein, we describe a high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics pipeline for mt genomics for F. buski that emphasizes the utility of short read NGS platforms such as Ion Torrent and Illumina in successfully sequencing and assembling the mt genome using innovative approaches for PCR primer design as well as assembly. We took advantage of our NGS whole genome sequence data (unpublished so far for F. buski and its comparison with available data for the Fasciola hepatica mtDNA as the reference genome for design of precise and specific primers for amplification of mt genome sequences from F. buski. A long-range PCR was carried out to create an NGS library enriched in mt DNA sequences. Two different NGS platforms were employed for complete sequencing, assembly and annotation of the F. buski mt genome. The complete mt genome sequences of the intestinal fluke comprise 14,118 bp and is thus the

  18. Caracterização de cepas de Schistosoma mansoni por morfometria de vermes adultos provenientes de infecção unissexual Characterization of Schistosoma mansoni strains by morphometry of adult worms derived from single-sex infection

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    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos foram infectados com cercárias, de um único sexo, de cepas simpátricas do Schistosoma mansoni. Nos vermes adultos, foram encontradas diferenças significativas (pMice were infected with only one sex cercaria derived from sympatric strains of Schistosoma mansoni. Adult worms presented significative differences (p<0.05 regarding suckers, testicular lobes, ovary and thickness of the tegument. Data show that morphometric study of unisexual infection worms can be also used for characterization of Schistosoma mansoni strains.

  19. A single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) approach for investigating genetic interactions of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis in Loum, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, B L; Tchuem Tchuenté, L A; Southgate, V R

    2007-03-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA provides a molecular tool for the identification of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma guineensis and the hybrids of these two species. This molecular tool was utilized to provide a detailed analysis of the interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in hybrid zones of Loum, Littoral Province, Cameroon. Individual hybrid schistosomes were identified within the natural populations collected from Loum in 1990, 1999 and 2000, which would have been misidentified as S. haematobium using solely morphological and sequence criteria. This study indicates the complexities of the hybridization between S. haematobium and S. guineensis and emphasizes the importance of assessing morphological, biological and molecular data to gain insights into the interaction of these two species over time.

  20. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  1. First report of an outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis & Leger 1910, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus in Zimbabwe

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    S. Mukaratirwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 17 commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus from Msengi farm, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, observed with swollen eyes, severe conjunctivitis and constant lacrimation accompanied by a purulent exudate, were restrained for further clinical examination. Some of the birds were semi-blind with severe loss of body condition. When examined, tiny organisms were observed attached to the nictitating membranes and the conjuctival sacs of both eyes. The organisms were identified as Philophthalmus gralli, the "oriental eye-fluke" and Melanoides tuberculata, a prosobranch snail, was confirmed as the intermediate host through natural and experimental infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of the oriental eye-fluke infection in birds in Zimbabwe and Africa and extends its known geographical range.

  2. Morphology and viability of adult Fasciola gigantica(giant liver flukes) from Philippine carabaos(Bubalus bubalis) upon in vitro exposure to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aimee; Caye; G.; Chang; Mary; Jane; C.; Flores

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of lead in the morphology and viability of Fasciola gigantica(F. gigantica)(giant liver fluke) isolated from infected livers of carabaos in vitro using the following concentrations of lead: 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L. Methods: In vitro viability and motility assay was conducted to evaluate the ef ects of lead using 1% methylene blue as the vital dye for assessment of the l ukes’ viability. Results: Results indicate that F. gigantica can tolerate lead exposure as high as 200 mg/L with visible morphological variations. Upon exposure to lead, liver l ukes tend to curl and excrete black precipitates as a sign of physiological stress response. Furthermore, the lethal concentration(LC50) of lead against F. gigantica in vitro was 160 mg/L. Conclusions: In conclusion, tolerance of liver flukes to high levels of lead suggests its potential as a possible biomarker of environmental pollution.

  3. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  4. Characterization of the phytochelatin synthase of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Debalina Ray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for schistosomiasis, which is responsible for more than 280,000 deaths annually, depends exclusively on the use of praziquantel. Millions of people are treated annually with praziquantel and drug resistant parasites are likely to evolve. In order to identify novel drug targets the Schistosoma mansoni sequence databases were queried for proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. One potential target identified was phytochelatin synthase (PCS. Phytochelatins are oligopeptides synthesized enzymatically from glutathione by PCS that sequester toxic heavy metals in many organisms. However, humans do not have a PCS gene and do not synthesize phytochelatins. In this study we have characterized the PCS of S. mansoni (SmPCS. The conserved catalytic triad of cysteine-histidine-aspartate found in PCS proteins and cysteine proteases is also found in SmPCS, as are several cysteine residues thought to be involved in heavy metal binding and enzyme activation. The SmPCS open reading frame is considerably extended at both the N- and C-termini compared to PCS from other organisms. Multiple PCS transcripts are produced from the single encoded gene by alternative splicing, resulting in both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein variants. Expression of SmPCS in yeast increased cadmium tolerance from less than 50 µM to more than 1,000 µM. We confirmed the function of SmPCS by identifying PCs in yeast cell extracts using HPLC-mass spectrometry. SmPCS was found to be expressed in all mammalian stages of worm development investigated. Increases in SmPCS expression were seen in ex vivo worms cultured in the presence of iron, copper, cadmium, or zinc. Collectively, these results indicate that SmPCS plays an important role in schistosome response to heavy metals and that PCS is a potential drug target for schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first characterization of a PCS from a parasitic organism.

  5. Praziquantel treatment decreases Schistosoma mansoni genetic diversity in experimental infections.

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    Regina Coeli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ. Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. METHODOLOGY: Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3 × 300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. CONCLUSIONS: The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions.

  6. Schistosoma japonicum-associated morbidity and its mechanisms among children and young adults in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutinho, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents results from a longitudinal study in Schistosoma japonicum infected children, adolescents and young adults, carried out in the Philippines. The aim of this thesis was to describe nutritional morbidity and hepatic fibrosis in the context of S. japonicum infection and reinfection

  7. Impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the trophic interactions of molluscivores and Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary With a global disease burden of 240 million infected people, of which 90% live in sub-Saharan Africa, schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases affecting people in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Schistosoma parasites are th

  8. Partial molecular characterization of Sm8, a tegumental antigen of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Frederico GC Abath

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm8 is a major tegumental antigen of Schistosoma mansoni. The partial cDNA was isolated and analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed transmembrane compatible hydrophobic domains and a putative leucine zipper pattern. The mRNA and the protein are predominantly expressed in adult worms.

  9. Schistosoma mansoni antigens alter activation markers and cytokine profile in lymphocytes of patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Tarcísio Vila Verde Santana; Fernandes, Jamille Souza; Lopes, Diego Mota; Andrade, Lorena Santana; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Carvalho, Edgar M; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cruz, Álvaro A; Cardoso, Luciana Santos

    2017-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation, obstruction and hyperresponsiveness. Severe asthma affects a small proportion of subjects but results in most of the morbidity, costs and mortality associated with the disease. Studies have suggested that Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces the severity of asthma and prevent atopy.

  10. Update of the Gene Discovery Program in Schistosoma mansoni with the Expressed Sequence Tag Approach

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    Élida ML Rabelo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuing the Schistosoma mansoni Genome Project 363 new templates were sequenced generating 205 more ESTs corresponding to 91 genes. Seventy four of these genes (81% had not previously been described in S. mansoni. Among the newly discovered genes there are several of significant biological interest such as synaptophysin, NIFs-like and rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor

  11. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1987-01-01

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  12. Increased prevalence of leukocytes and elevated cytokine levels in semen from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutscher, Peter D C; Pedersen, Mette; Raharisolo, Clairette

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the seminal inflammatory response to egg infestation of the urogenital organs in 240 semen-donating men aged 15-49 years living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of Madagascar. In 29 subjects (12%) with excretion of > or =5 ova/ejaculate, leukocytospermia (>...

  13. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untrea

  14. The effect of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, H; Byskov, Jens

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy of all infected individuals, using praziquantel 40 mg/kg in a single dose, was the initial component of the recently introduced control programme against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Ngamiland, Botswana. To evaluate the effect of praziquantel in Ngamiland, 81 children were...

  15. Binding of von Willebrand factor and plasma proteins to the eggshell of Schistosoma mansoni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewalick, Saskia; Hensbergen, Paul J; Bexkens, Michiel L; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; Hokke, Cornelis H; Deelder, André M; de Groot, Philip G; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Hellemond, Jaap J

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni eggs have to cross the endothelium and intestinal wall to leave the host and continue the life cycle. Mechanisms involved in this essential step are largely unknown. Here we describe direct binding to the S. mansoni eggshell of von Willebrand factor and other plasma proteins invo

  16. C-type lectin interactions with Schistosoma mansoni SEA : Molecular basis and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liempt, van P.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Outline of this thesis The studies described in this thesis have been performed to gain more insight in the recognition of Schistosoma mansoni glycans by C-type lectins and the consequences for dendritic cell mediated immune responses. As a first approach to understand the molecular interactions o

  17. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E

    2015-06-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host-parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identified 2448 potential microsatellites from 83 Mb of F. hepatica genome sequence using msatfinder. Thirty-five loci were developed and optimised for microsatellite PCR, resulting in a panel of 15 polymorphic loci, with a range of three to 15 alleles. This panel was validated on genomic DNA from 46 adult F. hepatica; 38 liver flukes sourced from a Northwest abattoir, UK and 8 liver flukes from an established isolate (Shrewsbury; Ridgeway Research). Evidence for null alleles was found at four loci (Fh_1, Fh_8, Fh_13 and Fh_14), which showed markedly higher levels of homozygosity than the remaining 11 loci. Of the 38 liver flukes isolated from cattle livers (n=10) at the abattoir, 37 genotypes were identified. Using a multiplex approach all 15 loci could be amplified from several life cycle stages that typically yield low amounts of DNA, including metacercariae, the infective life cycle stage present on pasture, highlighting the utility of this multiplex microsatellite panel. This study reports the largest panel of microsatellite markers available to date for population studies of F. hepatica and the first multiplex panel of microsatellite markers that can be used for several life cycle stages.

  18. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J.; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host–parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identified 2448 potential microsatellites from 83 Mb of F. hepatica genome sequence using msatfinder. Thirty-five loci were developed and optimised for microsatellite PCR, resulting in a panel of 15 polymorphic loci, with a range of three to 15 alleles. This panel was validated on genomic DNA from 46 adult F. hepatica; 38 liver flukes sourced from a Northwest abattoir, UK and 8 liver flukes from an established isolate (Shrewsbury; Ridgeway Research). Evidence for null alleles was found at four loci (Fh_1, Fh_8, Fh_13 and Fh_14), which showed markedly higher levels of homozygosity than the remaining 11 loci. Of the 38 liver flukes isolated from cattle livers (n = 10) at the abattoir, 37 genotypes were identified. Using a multiplex approach all 15 loci could be amplified from several life cycle stages that typically yield low amounts of DNA, including metacercariae, the infective life cycle stage present on pasture, highlighting the utility of this multiplex microsatellite panel. This study reports the largest panel of microsatellite markers available to date for population studies of F. hepatica and the first multiplex panel of microsatellite markers that can be used for several life cycle stages. PMID:25796359

  19. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pcontrol strategy.

  20. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  1. Pharmacological and morphological characteristics of the muscular system of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna - Bassi 1875).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, Saša M; Marinković, Darko; Trailović, Jelena Nedeljković; Milovanović, Mirjana; Marjanović, Djordje S; Aničić, Milan R

    2015-12-01

    Motility is required for feeding, reproduction and maintenance of the fluke in the host's liver. According to that, the neuromuscular system can be an attractive drugable target for chemotherapy. Musculature of the Fascioloides magna is organized into three layers, an outer circular layer, beneath this layer the longitudinal layer, and third, the oblique, or diagonal layer underlies the longitudinal layer. In our study, the administration of atropine or caffeine did not cause classic muscle contractions of F. magna muscle strips. However, the Electrical Field Stimulation (EFS) induced stable and repeatable contractions, which enabled us to examine their sensitivity to the various substances. Acetylcholine (ACh) (300 μM and 1 mM), caused only a slight relaxation, without affecting the amplitude of spontaneous contractions or the amplitude of contractions induced by EFS. Contrary to that, atropine (100 μM) caused a significant increase in the basal tone and an increase of EFS-induced contractions. If acetylcholine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in trematodes, the described effects of atropine are achieved by the blockade of inhibitory neurotransmission. On the other hand, with respect to the process of excitation-contraction coupling, the plant alkaloid ryanodine (30 μM) significantly reduced the basal tone, as well as EFS-induced contractions of F. magna muscle strips. Ryanodine inhibited the potentiating effect of atropine on the basal tone and contractions caused by EFS, which indicates that the contractile effect of atropine is dependent on Ca(++) release from intracellular stores. Caffeine (500 μM) caused relaxation of fluke muscle strips and at the same time significantly enhanced the EFS-induced contractions. Both effects of caffeine can be explained by entry of extracellular Ca(++) into muscle cells. The muscle contractility of F. magna depends both on the entry of extracellular calcium, and calcium release from intracellular stores, which are

  2. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death.

  3. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion.

  4. Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichmann Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute schistosomiasis constitutes a rare but serious condition in individuals experiencing their first prepatent Schistosoma infection. To circumvent costly and time-consuming diagnostics, an early and rapid diagnosis is required. So far, classic diagnostic tools such as parasite microscopy or serology lack considerable sensitivity at this early stage of Schistosoma infection. To validate the use of a blood based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR test for the detection of Schistosoma DNA in patients with acute schistosomiasis who acquired their infection in various endemic regions we conducted a European-wide prospective study in 11 centres specialized in travel medicine and tropical medicine. Methods Patients with a history of recent travelling to schistosomiasis endemic regions and freshwater contacts, an episode of fever (body temperature ≥38.5°C and an absolute or relative eosinophil count of ≥700/μl or 10%, were eligible for participation. PCR testing with DNA extracted from serum was compared with results from serology and microscopy. Results Of the 38 patients with acute schistosomiasis included into the study, PCR detected Schistosoma DNA in 35 patients at initial presentation (sensitivity 92%. In contrast, sensitivity of serology (enzyme immunoassay and/or immunofluorescence assay or parasite microscopy was only 70% and 24%, respectively. Conclusion For the early diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis, real-time PCR for the detection of schistosoma DNA in serum is more sensitive than classic diagnostic tools such as serology or microscopy, irrespective of the region of infection. Generalization of the results to all Schistosoma species may be difficult as in the study presented here only eggs of S. mansoni were detected by microscopy. A minimum amount of two millilitre of serum is required for sufficient diagnostic accuracy.

  5. Evidence for high genetic diversity of NAD1 and COX1 mitochondrial haplotypes among triclabendazole resistant and susceptible populations and field isolates of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T; Muller, A; Brockwell, Y; Murphy, N; Grillo, V; Toet, H M; Anderson, G; Sangster, N; Spithill, T W

    2014-02-24

    In recent years, the global incidence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) infections exhibiting resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) has increased, resulting in increased economic losses for livestock producers and threatening future control. The development of TCBZ resistance and the worldwide discovery of F. hepatica population diversity has emphasized the need to further understand the genetic structure of drug susceptible and resistant Fasciola populations within Australia. In this study, the genetic diversity of liver flukes was estimated by sequencing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding the NAD1 (530 bp) and COX1 (420 bp) genes of 208 liver flukes (F. hepatica) collected from three populations: field isolates obtained from abattoirs from New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (Vic); three TCBZ-resistant fluke populations from NSW and Victoria; and the well-established TCBZ-susceptible Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Overall nucleotide diversity for all flukes analysed of 0.00516 and 0.00336 was estimated for the NAD1 and COX1 genes respectively. Eighteen distinct haplotypes were established for the NAD1 gene and six haplotypes for the COX1 gene, resulting in haplotype diversity levels of 0.832 and 0.482, respectively. One field isolate showed a similar low level of haplotype diversity as seen in the Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Analysis of TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from 3 individual cattle grazing one property revealed considerable sequence parasite diversity between cattle. Analysis of parasite TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from sheep and cattle revealed haplotypes unique to each host, but no significant difference between parasite populations. Fst analysis of fluke populations revealed little differentiation between the resistant and field populations. This study has revealed a high level of diversity in field and drug resistant flukes in South-Eastern Australia.

  6. Activity of tribendimidine and praziquantel combination therapy against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, J; Adelfio, R; Vargas, M; Odermatt, P; Tesana, S

    2013-06-01

    Opisthorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode, is an important public health problem; however, only a single drug, praziquantel is available. We investigated tribendimidine-praziquantel combinations against O. viverrini in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of 0.16 μg/ml and 0.05 μg/ml were determined for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively, against adult O. viverrini in vitro. When O. viverrini was exposed to both drugs simultaneously (using a drug ratio based on the IC50 (1:3.2)) a synergistic effect was calculated (combination index (CI) at the IC50= 0.7). A similar result was observed when drug addition in vitro was spaced by the respective half-lives of the drugs (a CI of 0.78 at the IC50 for tribendimidine followed by praziquantel and a CI of 0.47 at the IC50 for praziquantel followed by tribendimidine). In vivo median-effect dose (ED50) values of 191 mg/kg and 147 mg/kg were calculated for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively. Low to moderate worm burden reductions (38-62%) were observed in O. viverrini infected hamsters when both drugs were administered simultaneously or on subsequent days, pointing to antagonistic effects in vivo. Further studies are necessary to understand the striking differences between the in vitro and in vivo observations using combinations of praziquantel and tribendimidine on O. viverrini.

  7. Description of a new lung fluke species, Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi; Le, Nguyen Thi

    2007-11-01

    Based on morphology of metacercariae and adult worms together with molecular data from our previous study, we describe herein a new lung fluke species named Paragonimus vietnamensis sp. nov. Metacercariae of this new species is round and extremely large in size (nearly 800 mum in diameter) having a fragile outer cyst of variable thickness and a thin fragile inner cyst. There are little or no space between metacercaria and the inner cyst wall. These and other morphological features of metacercariae of P. vietnamensis sp. nov. are not completely identical with but have some similarities with those of P. microrchis, P. proliferus, or P. menglaensis. On the other hand, adult worms obtained by experimental infection of these large metacercariae are oval in shape, having a ventral sucker slightly larger than the oral one, and having singly arranged relatively short cuticular spines. These morphological features of adult worms are partly similar to but not identical with those of P. microrchis, P. skrjabini, P. yunnanenis, P. xiangshanensis, or P. harinasutai. Taken these morphological data and our previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adult worms together, P. vietnamensis sp. nov. is different from any other known Paragonimus spp.

  8. Distribution and habitats of the snail Lymnaea truncatula, intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. de Kock

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of Lymnaea truncatula, the intermediate, snail host of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, as reflected by the 723 samples in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection, Potchefstroom, South Africa. The 221 different loci (1/16-degree squares on record reflect an extensive but discontinuous distribution, except in Lesotho and in parts of the Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Although recorded from 12 different types of waterbody, it was mostly (42.0 % recovered from swamps. Most samples (45.8 % were collected in habitats with slow-flowing water. A muddy substratum was recorded for 62.5 % of the samples. Most samples (86.3 % were collected in habitats with a mean annual air temperature of 10-20 o C, and more than 69 % came from localities with a mean annual rainfall of 600-900mm. An integrated decision tree constructed from the data indicated that temperature and types of waterbody play a decisive role in determining the presence of L. truncatula in a given area. A temperature index calculated for all mollusc species ranked L. truncatula second in a total of 53 species according to its association with low temperatures. It remains to be established whether its distribution is indeed discontinuous, and whether its preference for a particular habitat, amphibious habits and ability to aestivate could have resulted in some populations having been overlooked during surveys.

  9. Cloning and characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomes depend for growth and development on host hormonal signals, which may include the insulin signalling pathway. We cloned and assessed the function of two insulin receptors from Schistosoma japonicum in order to shed light on their role in schistosome biology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated, from S. japonicum, insulin receptors 1 (SjIR-1 and 2 (SjIR-2 sharing close sequence identity to their S. mansoni homologues (SmIR-1 and SmIR-2. SjIR-1 is located on the tegument basal membrane and the internal epithelium of adult worms, whereas SjIR-2 is located in the parenchyma of males and the vitelline tissue of females. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SjIR-2 and SmIR-2 are close to Echinococcus multilocularis insulin receptor (EmIR, suggesting that SjIR-2, SmIR-2 and EmIR share similar roles in growth and development in the three taxa. Structure homology modelling recovered the conserved structure between the SjIRs and Homo sapiens IR (HIR implying a common predicted binding mechanism in the ligand domain and the same downstream signal transduction processing in the tyrosine kinase domain as in HIR. Two-hybrid analysis was used to confirm that the ligand domains of SjIR-1 and SjIR-2 contain the insulin binding site. Incubation of adult worms in vitro, both with a specific insulin receptor inhibitor and anti-SjIRs antibodies, resulted in a significant decrease in worm glucose levels, suggesting again the same function for SjIRs in regulating glucose uptake as described for mammalian cells. CONCLUSIONS: Adult worms of S. japonicum possess insulin receptors that can specifically bind to insulin, indicating that the parasite can utilize host insulin for development and growth by sharing the same pathway as mammalian cells in regulating glucose uptake. A complete understanding of the role of SjIRs in the biology of S. japonicum may result in their use as new targets for drug and vaccine development against

  10. Immunization against Egyptian Schistosoma mansoni infection by multivalent DNA vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud H Romeih; Hanem M Hassan; Tarek S Abou Shousha; Mohamed A Saber

    2008-01-01

    The development of multivalent vaccines consisting of several antigens is a novel approach to creating broad-range protection against different parasite strains and parasite life cycle stages. We have previously confirmed that the schistosome Sm21.7 and SmFimbrin (SmFim) proteins could induce protection in mice. Therefore, this study aimed to construct the multivalent DNA vaccine Sm21.7-SmFim/pBudCE4.1 and evaluate its immune efficacy. The open reading frames of two Schistosoma mansoni genes, Sm21.7 and SmFim, were inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pBudCE4.1 designed for the independent expression of two genes in mammalian cells. To evaluate the in vitro expression of the multivalent Sm21.7-SmFim/pBudCE4.1 DNA vaccine and its immunological effect in mice, the recombinant plasmid Sm21.7-SmFim/pBudCE4.1 was used to transfect 293T cells, and the expression of mRNA and proteins was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Then the ability of Sm21.7.SmFim/pBudCE4.1 to protect against S. mansoni challenge infections was analyzed according to worm burden and egg reduction rates after vaccination of mice. Vaccinated mice showed a significant level of protection (56%), and a decrease in the number and size, and change in the cellular profile, of granulomas. Egg reduction in liver and intestine was 41.53% and 55.63%,respectively, as determined relative to mice that received the empty vector only. In addition to reductions in worm viability,worm fecundity and egg hatching ability were observed following challenge infection in the immunized group.Results showed that Sm21.7-SmFim/pBudCE4.1 could express Sm 21.7 and SmFim mRN A and proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis indicated that immunized mice generated specific immunoglobulin G against Sm21.7-SmFim/pBudCE4.1. These results suggest that vaccination with multivalent S. mansoni DNA vaccine (SmFim-Sm21.7/pBudCE4.1) not only induces a

  11. Identification and characterization of endogenous viral elements for the three key schistosomes of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Quhuan

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are widely distributed throughout eukaryotic genomes, and their evolution and potential function have attracted a lot of interest. Draft genome sequences for Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium are now available; however, information about EVEs in blood flukes of the genus schistosoma is scanty. Here, genome-wide survey into the putative EVE sequences of the three key schistosome genomes were present. Totally 4, 117 gene sequences were identified, including retrovirus-like gypsy elements, RNA viruses and dsDNA viruses. Compared with S. japonicum and S. haematobium, S. mansoni appeared to greatly out numbered by gypsy members. Phylogenetic analysis revealed one novel endogenous retrovirus element in S. mansoni. This initial characterization of schistosomes showed that schistosomes harbour distinct EVEs that may have played an important evolutionary role. Studies of schistosomes' endogenous viruses helped us to glance at an earlier viral event in the class Trematoda, greatly broadening the field of palaeovirology.

  12. Curse of schistosomiasis on Egyptian liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by a trematode blood fluke of the genus schistosoma that belongs to the schistosomatidae family.The ancient Egyptians contracted the disease more than 4 000 years ago.It was recognized through haematuria,the main sign of urinary bilharziasis was recorded in the Kahun papyrus 1900 B.C.as"a-a-a" disease[1].

  13. Does multiple hosts mean multiple parasites? Population genetic structure of Schistosoma japonicum between definitive host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T P; Shrivastava, J; Johansen, M V; Zhang, S Q; Wang, F F; Webster, J P

    2006-10-01

    Multi-host parasites, those capable of infecting more than one species of host, are responsible for the majority of all zoonotic, emerging or persistent human and animal diseases and are considered one of the major challenges for the biomedical sciences in the 21st century. We characterized the population structure of the multi-host parasite Schistosoma japonicum in relation to its definitive host species by genotyping miracidia collected from humans and domestic animals across five villages around the Yangtze River in Anhui Province, mainland China, using microsatellite markers. High levels of polymorphisms were observed and two main genetic clusters were identified which separated water buffalo, cattle and humans from goats, pigs, dogs and cats. We thereby believe that we present the first evidence of definitive host-based genetic variation in Schistosoma japonicum which has important epidemiological, evolutionary, medical and veterinary implications.

  14. Recent advances in the diagnosis of Schistosoma infection: the detection of parasite DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Rabello Ana; Pontes Luís André; Dias-Neto Emmanuel

    2002-01-01

    As Schistosoma sp. control programs are chiefly based on treatment of infected population, adequate case finding has a crucial role. The available diagnostic methods are far from ideal, since the search for eggs in stools and the detection of circulating antigens lack sensitivity in low prevalence and post-treatment situations and antibody detection lacks specificity. In most endemic foci, repeated treatment of infected people leaves a number of non-diagnosed and consequently non-treated pers...

  15. Detection of Urinary Tract Pathology in Some Schistosoma haematobium Infected Nigerian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Onile, O. S.; Awobode, H. O.; Oladele, V. S.; A. M. Agunloye; Anumudu, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Screening for Schistosoma haematobium infection and its possible morbidity was carried out in 257 adult participants in Eggua community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Parasitological assessment for the presence of ova of S. haematobium in urine and abdominopelvic ultrasonographic examination for bladder and secondary kidney pathology were carried out. S. haematobium prevalence of 25.68% (66/257) was recorded among the participants. There was a significantly higher prevalence of 69.2% of urinary schist...

  16. Analysis of regulatory protease sequences identified through bioinformatic data mining of the Schistosoma mansoni genome

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    Minchella Dennis J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New chemotherapeutic agents against Schistosoma mansoni, an etiological agent of human schistosomiasis, are a priority due to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drug treatments to prevent reinfection. Proteases have been under scrutiny as targets of immunological or chemotherapeutic anti-Schistosoma agents because of their vital role in many stages of the parasitic life cycle. Function has been established for only a handful of identified S. mansoni proteases, and the vast majority of these are the digestive proteases; very few of the conserved classes of regulatory proteases have been identified from Schistosoma species, despite their vital role in numerous cellular processes. To that end, we identified protease protein coding genes from the S. mansoni genome project and EST library. Results We identified 255 protease sequences from five catalytic classes using predicted proteins of the S. mansoni genome. The vast majority of these show significant similarity to proteins in KEGG and the Conserved Domain Database. Proteases include calpains, caspases, cytosolic and mitochondrial signal peptidases, proteases that interact with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules, and proteases that perform regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Comparative analysis of classes of important regulatory proteases find conserved active site domains, and where appropriate, signal peptides and transmembrane helices. Phylogenetic analysis provides support for inferring functional divergence among regulatory aspartic, cysteine, and serine proteases. Conclusion Numerous proteases are identified for the first time in S. mansoni. We characterized important regulatory proteases and focus analysis on these proteases to complement the growing knowledge base of digestive proteases. This work provides a foundation for expanding knowledge of proteases in Schistosoma species and examining their diverse function and potential as targets

  17. Developmental expression analysis and immunolocalization of a biogenic amine receptor in Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shehabi, Fouad; Vermeire, Jon J.; Yoshino, Timothy P.; Ribeiro, Paula

    2009-01-01

    A Schistosoma mansoni G-protein coupled receptor (SmGPCR) was previously cloned and shown to be activated by the biogenic amine, histamine. Here we report a first investigation of the receptor’s subunit organization, tissue distribution and expression levels in different stages of the parasite. A polyclonal antibody was produced in rabbits against the recombinant third intracellular loop (il3) of SmGPCR. Western blot studies of the native receptor and recombinant protein expressed in HEK293 c...

  18. Biology and Control of Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in The People's Republic of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Z.J.; Ge, J; Dai, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a severe parasitic disease in The People's Republic of China and imposed considerable burden on human and domestic animal health and socioeconomic development. The significant achievement in schistosomiasis control has been made in last 60years. ....... Oncomelania hupensis as the only intermediate host of S. japonicum plays a key role in disease transmission. The habitat complexity of the snails challenges to effective control. In this review we share the experiences in control and research of O. hupensis....

  19. Schistosoma mansoni proteins attenuate gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathalie; E; Ruyssers; Benedicte; Y; De; Winter; Joris; G; De; Man; Natacha; D; Ruyssers; Ann; J; Van; Gils; Alex; Loukas; Mark; S; Pearson; Joel; V; Weinstock; Paul; A; Pelckmans; Tom; G; Moreels

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the therapeutic effect of Schistosoma mansoni(S.mansoni) soluble worm proteins on gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice. METHODS:Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphate(TNBS) and 6 h later,mice were treated ip with S.mansoni proteins.Experiments were performed 5 d after TNBS injection.Inflammationwas quantified using validated inflammation parameters. Gastric emptying and geometric center were measured to assess in vivo...

  20. Modeling impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannatrai, A; Pratumchart, K; Suwannatrai, K; Thinkhamrop, K; Chaiyos, J; Kim, C S; Suwanweerakamtorn, R; Boonmars, T; Wongsaroj, T; Sripa, B

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change is now regarded as imposing a significant threat of enhancing transmission of parasitic diseases. Maximum entropy species distribution modeling (MaxEnt) was used to explore how projected climate change could affect the potential distribution of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, in Thailand. A range of climate variables was used: the Hadley Global Environment Model 2-Earth System (HadGEM2-ES) climate change model and also the IPCC scenarios A2a for 2050 and 2070. Occurrence data from surveys conducted in 2009 and 2014 were obtained from the Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. The MaxEnt model performed better than random for O. viverrini with training AUC values greater than 0.8 under current and future climatic conditions. The current distribution of O. viverrini is significantly affected by precipitation and minimum temperature. According to current conditions, parts of Thailand climatically suitable for O. viverrini are mostly in the northeast and north, but the parasite is largely absent from southern Thailand. Under future climate change scenarios, the distribution of O. viverrini in 2050 should be significantly affected by precipitation, maximum temperature, and mean temperature of the wettest quarter, whereas in 2070, significant factors are likely to be precipitation during the coldest quarter, maximum, and minimum temperatures. Maps of predicted future distribution revealed a drastic decrease in presence of O. viverrini in the northeast region. The information gained from this study should be a useful reference for implementing long-term prevention and control strategies for O. viverrini in Thailand.

  1. The role and immunophenotypic characteristics of myofibroblasts in liver of sheep naturally infected with the lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolj, V; Aleksić-Kovačević, S; Katić-Radivojević, S; Knežević, Dj; Jovanović, M

    2015-03-15

    The main objective of our research was to examine the role and immunophenotypic characteristics of myofibroblasts in sheep liver naturally infected by the lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum). In the reported study we analyzed liver samples from 20 adult sheep, 14 infected animals and 6 controls. The liver samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and routinely processed and stained using hematoxylin eosin, the periodic acid-Schiff and Masson-Goldner trichrome methods. The immunohistochemical examination was carried out by the streptavidin biotin (LSAB2) method, using antibodies for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin and vimentin. The histopathological examination revealed liver fibrosis in 6 out of 14 (42.9%) analyzed samples, while different forms of cholangitis were observed in the remaining 8 out of 14 (57.1%). The expression of α-SMA was proven in perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells, portal/septal myofibroblasts, and interface myofibroblasts. The degree of α-SMA expression and the number of α-SMA immunopositive cells were the most intensive in the liver with fibrosis. Desmin expression in all liver samples of infected sheep was confirmed in hepatic stellate cells and smooth muscle cells. The hepatic stellate cells, portal/septal myofibroblasts, and interface myofibroblasts reacted as vimentin positive cells. In the liver without fibrotic changes hepatic stellate cells and smooth muscle cells were desmin positive. The obtained results suggest that all populations of myofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells, play an important role in the increased extracellular matrix formation during parasitic liver fibrosis in sheep naturally infected with D. dendriticum.

  2. UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica: biochemical characterization of the enzyme and identification of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Veronika L; Lindert, Steffen; Banford, Samantha; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Leloir pathway enzyme uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose 4'-epimerase from the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (FhGALE) was identified and characterized. The enzyme can be expressed in, and purified from, Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme is active: the K(m) (470 μM) is higher than the corresponding human enzyme (HsGALE), whereas the k(cat) (2.3 s(-1)) is substantially lower. FhGALE binds NAD(+) and has shown to be dimeric by analytical gel filtration. Like the human and yeast GALEs, FhGALE is stabilized by the substrate UDP-galactose. Molecular modelling predicted that FhGALE adopts a similar overall fold to HsGALE and that tyrosine 155 is likely to be the catalytically critical residue in the active site. In silico screening of the National Cancer Institute Developmental Therapeutics Program library identified 40 potential inhibitors of FhGALE which were tested in vitro. Of these, 6 showed concentration-dependent inhibition of FhGALE, some with nanomolar IC50 values. Two inhibitors (5-fluoroorotate and N-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]leucyltryptophan) demonstrated selectivity for FhGALE over HsGALE. These compounds also thermally destabilized FhGALE in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, the selectivity of 5-fluoroorotate was not shown by orotic acid, which differs in structure by 1 fluorine atom. These results demonstrate that, despite the structural and biochemical similarities of FhGALE and HsGALE, it is possible to discover compounds which preferentially inhibit FhGALE.

  3. Development of mitochondrial loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the small liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchiidae; Trematoda; Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Truong, Nam Hai; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-LAMP) because multiple copies occur in every cell. Four LAMP primers [F3, FIP(F1c+F2), BIP(B1c+B2), and B3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of Opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-OvLAMP) to distinguish DNA of O. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (Clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes (Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica). Conventional PCR was applied using F3/B3 primer pairs to verify the specificity of the primers for O. viverrini DNA templates. All LAMP-positive samples could be detected with the naked eye in sunlight, by gel electrophoresis (stained with ethidium bromide), and by addition of SYBR green I to the product in sunlight or under UV light. Only DNA from O. viverrini yielded amplification products by LAMP (and by PCR verification), and the LAMP limit of detection was as little as 100 fg (10(-4) ng DNA), indicating that this assay is 10 to 100 times more sensitive than PCR. Field testing was done using representative egg and metacercarial samples collected from localities where the fluke is endemic. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness, mito-OvLAMP is a good tool for molecular detection and epidemiology studies in regions or countries where O. viverrini is endemic, which can lead to more effective control of opisthorchiasis and trematodiasis.

  4. Recent advances in the diagnosis of Schistosoma infection: the detection of parasite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabello Ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As Schistosoma sp. control programs are chiefly based on treatment of infected population, adequate case finding has a crucial role. The available diagnostic methods are far from ideal, since the search for eggs in stools and the detection of circulating antigens lack sensitivity in low prevalence and post-treatment situations and antibody detection lacks specificity. In most endemic foci, repeated treatment of infected people leaves a number of non-diagnosed and consequently non-treated persons, enough to maintain a persistent residue of 5 to 10% prevalence. In an attempt to surpass these diagnostic limitations we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of Schistosoma sp. in feces that, in a first population study, has shown to be more sensitive than three-repeated stool Kato-Katz examination. The PCR may constitute a valuable tool for the diagnosis of the Schistosoma sp. infection in special situations, when high sensitivity and specificity are required and infrastructure is available.

  5. Two sequential PCR amplifications for detection of Schistosoma mansoni in stool samples with low parasite load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Carvalho do Espírito-Santo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million individuals infected worldwide and 700 million people living in risk areas. In Brazil there are areas of high, medium and low endemicity. Studies have shown that in endemic areas with a low prevalence of Schistosoma infection the sensitivity of parasitological methods is clearly reduced. Consequently diagnosis is often impeded due to the presence of false-negative results. The aim of this study is to present the PCR reamplification (Re-PCR protocol for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni in samples with low parasite load (with less than 100 eggs per gram (epg of feces. Three methods were used for the lysis of the envelopes of the S. mansoni eggs and two techniques of DNA extraction were carried out. Extracted DNA was quantified, and the results suggested that the extraction technique, which mixed glass beads with a guanidine isothiocyanate/phenol/chloroform (GT solution, produced good results. PCR reamplification was conducted and detection sensitivity was found to be five eggs per 500 mg of artificially marked feces. The results achieved using these methods suggest that they are potentially viable for the detection of Schistosoma infection with low parasite load.

  6. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  7. Genetic variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nassery, Suzanne M F; Abou-El-Naga, Iman F; Allam, Sonia R; Shaat, Eman A; Mady, Rasha F M

    2013-01-01

    Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers) random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  8. [New occurrences of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) eye flukes of fish from the Paraná Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Fábio Hideki; Moreira, Luis Henrique De A; Ceschini, Tiago L; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar

    2008-01-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) eye flukes of several species of fishes. The presence of this parasite, in extreme cases, can cause swelling of the eyelids, displacement of the retina, opacity of the crystalline lens and blindness or even death. The present study it registers new occurrences of this metacercariae infecting the eyes of four new hosts of fish, Serrasalmus maculatus collected in the Rosana reservoir in the Paranapanema river and Hypostomus regani, Schizodon borellii and Auchenipterus osteomystax collected in the the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

  9. Use of monoclonal antibodies prepared against Schistosoma mansoni hatching fluid antigens for demonstration of Schistosoma haematobium circulating egg antigens in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, H A; Kahama, A I; Van Zeyl, R J; Deelder, A M

    1998-05-01

    A panel of 17 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Schistosoma soluble egg antigens (SEAs) was produced from BALB/c mice immunized with antigens secreted/excreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. In this study, we demonstrate that 16 MAbs were reactive with S. haematobium SEA in addition to S. mansoni SEA. The MAbs were tested as potential immunodiagnostic reagents in a homologous sandwich ELISA format to detect circulating soluble egg antigens (CSEAs) in serum and urine samples of S. mansoni- or S. haematobium-infected individuals. When samples of S. mansoni-infected individuals were tested, none of these MAbs performed as good as the previously described S. mansoni-specific 114-5B1-A and 114-4D12-A MAbs. However, 11 MAbs (of the IgM isotype) detected CSEA in urine samples of S. haematobium-infected individuals. Three MAbs, 290-2E6-A, 291-3D5-A, and 291-5D5-A, were selected for a pilot study with 47 urine samples of S. haematobium-infected individuals from Kenya. The CSEA levels detected with each of these ELISAs showed a significant correlation with urinary egg counts (Spearman rho > 0.37, P 0.74, P < 0.001). Based on the 92% specificity and 90% sensitivity of the assay, the ELISA using MAb 290-2E6-A was found to be the most promising assay for immunodiagnosis of S. haematobium infections.

  10. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  11. Performance of a dipstick dye immunoassay for rapid screening of Schistosoma japonicum infection in areas of low endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeling Rosanna W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dipstick dye immunoassay (DDIA, recently commercially available in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, is a rapid and simple test to detect human antibodies against Schistosoma Japonicum. Its performance and utility for screening schistosome infection in low endemic areas is little known. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional survey in seven villages with low endemicity of schistosomiasis in P.R. China and assessed the performance and utility of DDIA for diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz method and the miracidium hatching technique. Serum samples, separated from whole blood of participants, were tested by DDIA. Results 6285 individuals aged 6-65 years old participated in this study, with a prevalence of schistosomiasis of 4.20%. Using stool examination as a gold reference standard, DDIA performed with a high overall sensitivity of 91.29% (95% CI: 87.89-94.69% and also a high negative predictive value, with a mean value of 99.29% (95% CI: 98.99-99.58%. The specificity of DDIA was only moderate (53.08%, 95% CI: 51.82-54.34%. Multivariate analysis indicated that age, occupation and history of schistosome infection were significantly associated with the false positive results of DDIA. Conclusions DDIA is a sensitive, rapid, simple and portable diagnostic assay and can be used as a primary approach for screening schistosome infection in areas of low endemicity. However, more sensitive and specific confirmatory assays need to be developed and combined with DDIA for targeting chemotherapy accurately.

  12. Schistosoma mansoni Infections, Undernutrition and Anaemia among Primary Schoolchildren in Two Onshore Villages in Rorya District, North-Western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and anaemia remains to be a major public health problem in many developing countries, where they mostly affect children. Intestinal parasitic infections are known to affect both growth and haemoglobin levels. Much has been reported on the impact of geohelminths on anaemia and undernutrition, leaving that of Schistosoma mansoni not well studied. Therefore this study intended to determine the association between S.mansoni infections, anaemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Rorya district, Northwestern Tanzania. Methodology A cross-sectional study was carried among schoolchildren in two onshore villages namely Busanga and Kibuyi in Rorya district. Single stool specimens were collected from 513 randomly selected schoolchildren and processed for microscopic examination using the Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometry. Blood samples were also collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels using the Giemsa stain and HaemoCue methods, respectively. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and malaria was 84.02% and 9.16%, respectively. Other parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%) and Hookworm (1.36%). The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 38.21% and 14.42%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 29.43%, whereby 0.58% had severe anaemia. S. mansoni infection was not found to be associated with undernutrition or anaemia (p>0.05). The risk of stunting and wasting increased with increasing age (p<0.001). Anaemia was associated with age, sex and village of residence (p<0.05). Conclusions S.mansoni, undernutrition and anaemia are highly prevalent in the study area. The observed rates of undernutrition and anaemia were seen not to be associated with S.mansoni infection suggesting possibly being a result of poor dietary nutrients. This study suggests that policy makers should

  13. Immunization and challenge shown by hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini following exposure to gamma-irradiated metacercariae of this carcinogenic liver fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatpremsiri, A; Junpue, P; Loukas, A; Brindley, P J; Bethony, J M; Sripa, B; Laha, T

    2016-01-01

    Here we report findings to optimize and standardize conditions to attenuate metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini by ionizing radiation to elicit protective immune responses to challenge infection. Metacercariae were gamma-irradiated and the ability of irradiated metacercariae to prevent patent infection of challenge metacercariae in hamsters was determined, as well as their ability to induce a host antibody response. Metacercariae irradiated in a dose-dependent manner, with 3, 5, 10, 12, 20, 25 and 50 Gray, were used to infect Syrian golden hamsters by stomach gavage to ascertain the effect of irradiation on ability of the worms to establish infection. In addition, other hamsters were infected with metacercariae irradiated with 20-50 Gray, followed by challenge with intact/wild-type (non-irradiated) metacercariae to determine the protective effect as established by the numbers of adult flukes, eggs of O. viverrini in hamster faeces and anti-O. viverrini antibody titres. Significantly fewer worms were recovered from hamsters immunized with metacercariae irradiated at 20, 25 and 50 Gray than from control hamsters infected with intact metacercariae or 0 Gray, and the worms showed damaged reproductive organs. Faecal egg numbers were decreased significantly in hamsters immunized with 25 and 50 Gray metacercariae of O. viverrini. Moreover, hamsters administered metacercariae that were protected elicited a robust, specific anti-fluke immunoglobulin G response compared to control hamsters, suggesting a role for antibody in protection elicited by radiation-attenuated metacercariae.

  14. Clonning and sequence analysis of the 26 kDa glutathiones-transferase gene of Schistosoma mekongi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichasri-Grams, S; Grams, R; Korge, G; Viyanant, V; Upatham, E S

    1997-09-01

    The number of genomic DNA or cDNA sequences of Schistosoma mekongi accessible in Genbank or EMBL is very limited up to now. Recently, two reports have appeared on the molecular phylogeny of Schistosoma species inferred from partial sequence data of rRNA genes; no further sequence data of S. mekongi is available yet. Knowledge of the molecular structure of protein coding genes of S. mekongi will provide a better understanding of gene function in the genus Schistosoma. A cDNA library of S. mekongi adult male was constructed and a cDNA encoding the 26 kDa glutathione S-transferase protein of this species was cloned. Sequence analysis of this cDNA confirmed the close phylogenetic relationship of S. mekongi to S. japonicum.

  15. [A Study On The Fine Structure Of Clonorchis Sinensis, A Liver Fluke: II. The Alimentary Tract And The Excretory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kye Heon; Rim, Han Jong; Kim, Woo Kap; Kim, Chang Whan; Yang, He Young

    1980-06-01

    A morphological study on the ultrastructures of the alimentary tract and the excretory system of Clonorchis sinensis was conducted. The liver flukes were collected from rabbit liver six months after the experimental infection The worms were washed with 0.85% saline solution and immediately moved to cold 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The materials were dissected and fixed for two hours. The blocks were post-fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide. The blocks were embedded in Epon 812. Ultra thin sections were cut with Sovall MT-2 ultramicrotome and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Sections were then observed with Hitachi HS-7S electron microscope. The following results were obtained in a series of observations. The walls of oral cavity and esophagus comprised tegumental syncytium, basement membrane, loose connective tissue, muscular layer and parenchymal cells. The apical surface and the base of the syncytium were covered with a protoplasmic membrane for each forming numerous invaginations. Granular endoplasmic reticulum was developed in the epithelium of the oesophagus. The gastrodermis of Clonorchis sinensis comprised two types of cells in general. The first cell type was numerous one forming a single continuous layer of epithelial cells. Each of the cells had outfolded cytoplasm into the caecal lumen and lamellae along the cell surface. Among the above epithelial cells, no considerable differences in structure reflecting their functional states were identified. The second cell type was less differentiated in nature and lay within the gastrodermis above the basement membrane but not in contact with the caecal lumen, being overlapped by neighboring gastrodermal cells of the type described above. At this portion the gastrodermis seemed to be a pseudostratified epithelium. There were well-developed lamellae along the surface of epithelia of all canals or duct concerning evacuation. The excretory pore was 7.5 micrometer in diameter and dorso

  16. Fluke egg characteristics for the diagnosis of human and animal fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Periago, M Victoria; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2009-08-01

    In trematodiases, shape and size of the fluke eggs shed with faeces are crucial diagnostic features because of their typically reduced intraspecific variability. In fascioliasis, the usual diagnosis during the biliary stage of infection is based on the classification of eggs found in stools, duodenal contents or bile. The aim of the present study is to validate the identification of Fasciola species based on the shape and size of eggs shed by humans, characterizing their morphometric traits using a computer image analysis system (CIAS). The influence of both the geographical location and of the host (human and livestock) has been analysed. Coprological studies were carried out in fascioliasis human endemic areas, where only F. hepatica is present (the northern Bolivian Altiplano and the Cajamarca valley in Peru), and where F. hepatica and F. gigantica coexist (the Kutaisi region of Georgia, the Nile Delta in Egypt, and the Quy Nhon province in Vietnam). Classically, it is considered that at the abopercular end of the shell of Fasciola eggs there is often a roughened or irregular area. Nevertheless, results show that the frequency of the presence of this feature in F. hepatica is population-dependent, and therefore is not a pathognomonic criterion in diagnosis. The study reveals that eggs shed by humans show morphological traits different from eggs shed by animals. In humans, F. hepatica eggs are bigger and F. gigantica eggs are smaller than reported to date from livestock, and their measurements overlap when compared. The material analysed in this study shows that the size of eggs shed by humans from Georgia and Egypt corresponds to the F. hepatica morph, while the size of eggs shed by humans from Vietnam corresponds to the F. gigantica morph. Measurements of F. hepatica and F. gigantica eggs originating from humans and animals from sympatric areas overlap, and, therefore, they do not allow differential diagnosis when within this overlapping range. In this sense

  17. Development and evaluation of a sensitive PCR-ELISA system for detection of schistosoma infection in feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Inácia Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA was developed to overcome the need for sensitive techniques for the efficient diagnosis of Schistosoma infection in endemic settings with low parasitic burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This system amplifies a 121-base pair tandem repeat DNA sequence, immobilizes the resultant 5' biotinylated product on streptavidin-coated strip-well microplates and uses anti-fluorescein antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the hybridized fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The detection limit of the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA system was determined to be 1.3 fg of S. mansoni genomic DNA (less than the amount found in a single cell and estimated to be 0.15 S. mansoni eggs per gram of feces (fractions of an egg. The system showed good precision and genus specificity since the DNA target was found in seven Schistosoma DNA samples: S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. magrebowiei and S. rhodaini. By evaluating 206 patients living in an endemic area in Brazil, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection was determined to be 18% by examining 12 Kato-Katz slides (41.7 mg/smear, 500 mg total of a single fecal sample from each person, while the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA identified a 30% rate of infection using 500-mg of the same fecal sample. When considering the Kato-Katz method as the reference test, artificial sensitivity and specificity rates of the PCR-ELISA system were 97.4% and 85.1%, respectively. The potential for estimating parasitic load by DNA detection in feces was assessed by comparing absorbance values and eggs per gram of feces, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.700 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the development and field evaluation of a sensitive Schistosoma PCR-ELISA, a system that may serve as an alternative for diagnosing Schistosoma infection.

  18. 日本血吸虫间接血凝法抗体检测试剂盒稀释液的改进%Alternative diluent used for the commercial IHA assay kit for detection of Schistosoma japonicum anti-body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章乐生; 王恩木; 张世清; 汪奇志; 呼明闯; 司武敏; 杨荣笙

    2014-01-01

    目的:确定一种适用于安徽安吉医药科技有限公司新包装试剂盒的稀释液,替代原包装中的冻干致敏红细胞稀释液(生理盐水)和血清标本稀释液(蒸馏水)。方法以pH7.2磷酸盐缓冲液作为稀释液制备新包装试剂盒替代原包装,比较新包装试剂盒与原包装的敏感性和特异性以及与肝吸虫、肺吸虫、姜片虫和钩虫等病人血清交叉反应情况;比较各试剂盒的最低检出量,观察凝集反应模式。结果新包装试剂盒与原包装敏感性分别为95%和94.2%,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.000,P=1.000);特异性分别为96.9%和95.8%,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.000,P=1.000);约登指数分别为0.92和0.9;最低检出量均为1:1280,磷酸盐缓冲液组凝集模式较好;与肝吸虫、姜片虫和钩虫病人的血清交叉反应率均为0,与肺吸虫的交叉反应率均为19.4%。结论确定磷酸盐缓冲液作为日本血吸虫间接血凝法抗体检测试剂盒新包装的稀释液,替代原包装中的致敏红细胞稀释液和标本稀释液。%Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a new diluent as a substitute for the original ones (sa⁃line used for diluting the lyophilized sensitized red cells, and distilled water for diluting the serum specimen) packaged in the commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA)assay kit manufactured by Anhui Anji Pharmaceu⁃tical Technology Co., Ltd. Methods Phosphate buffered solution(PBS, pH7.2)was used to replace the diluent in the original kit, and two preparations were compared regarding the sensitivity and specificity in detection of Schistosoma japonicum as well as the cross-reactivity with liver fluke, lung fluke, giant intestinal fluke and hook⁃worm. The minimal quantification and the agglutination pattern in each group were also observed. Results The sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 96.9% for the modified kit, 94.2% and 95.8% for the original one

  19. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  20. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  1. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  2. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  3. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    described as permanent, standing, fresh and clear. Although the highest percentage of samples of all three species was reported from loci that fell within the interval ranging from 16-20°C, a significant number of samples of L. truncatula came from loci falling with in the 11-15°C interval. In view of the fact that Lymnaea species are well known as intermediate hosts for liver fluke in South Africa and elsewhere in the world, the widespread occurrence of these snails could have considerable health and economic consequences. Lymnaea natalenis is the most important and probably the only intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica, the most common liver fluke in Africa but F. gigantica has been reliably reported only from Lesotho where its traditional intermediate host, L. truncatula is widespread. However, the epidemiology of fasciolosis in South Africa has been complicated by the invasion of many water-bodies by L. columella because this species has proved to be a successful host for F. hepatica where it had been introduced elsewhere in the world. To our knowledge its role in South Africa in this respect has not yet been evaluated. Due to the fact that no statistics are available in print, the results of positive serological tests on cattle herds all over South Africa were used to compile a map depicting the possible occurrence of Fasciola species in livestock in this country. Although human infections with Fasciola in Africa was considered as very rare in 1975 the situation has changed. It is considered an underrated and underreported disease in humans in Ethiopia and in Egypt an increase in cases of fasciolosis and prevalence’s as high as 12.8% in humans have also recently been reported. To our knowledge the only cases of human fasciolosis reported in literature for South Africa were from northern KwaZulu-Natal where F. hepatica infections were found in 22 out of 7 569 school children examined in 1981. Efforts to obtain recent statisticson human infections from various

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of miltefosine-induced surface membrane damage in adult Schistosoma mansoni BH strain worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertão, Humberto Gonçalves; da Silva, Renata Alexandre Ramos; Padilha, Rafael José R; de Azevedo Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessôa; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2012-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious parasitic disease caused by helminths from the genus Schistosoma; it affects over 200 million people globally and is endemic in 70 countries. In Brazil, 6 million individuals are infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Furthermore, as the prevalence of S. mansoni infections is increasing, approximately 26 million citizens in 19 Brazilian states are at risk for infection. Schistosomiasis disease control involves predominately the administration of a single drug, praziquantel. Although praziquantel exhibits chemotherapeutic efficacy and safety, its massive use in endemic zones, the possibility of the emergence of drug-resistant Schistosoma parasites, and the lack of another efficacious antischistosomal drug demand the discovery of new schistosomicidal compounds. First developed as anti-tumor drug, miltefosine is an alkylphospholipid derivative that exhibits bioactivity against Leishmania and Trypanosoma parasites, free-living protozoa, bacteria, and fungi. With its anti-parasite activity, miltefosine was the first orally administered drug against visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis approved. Previously, by means of the MTT cytotoxic assay and a DNA fragmentation test, we verified that, at doses of 100 and 200 μM (40 and 80 μg/mL), miltefosine exhibited in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms. Here, we present ultrastructural evidence of rapid, severe miltefosine-induced surface membrane damage in S. mansoni following drug treatment. The number of dead parasites was concentration- and time-dependent following miltefosine treatment. At a miltefosine concentration of 200 μM (∼80 μg/mL), in vitro parasite killing was initiated as early as 3 h post-incubation, and it was maximal after 24 h of treatment. The parasite death was preceded by progressive surface membrane damage, characterized by tegument peeling, spine reduction and erosion, blister formation and rupture, and the emergence of holes. According to our

  5. Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: comparative morphologica studies of some Brazilian strains Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: estudos comparativos da morfologia de algumas cepas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms from three strains which have been maintained in albino mice for several generations, was compared to a strain that has been isolated from the natural host Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia: Muridae captured in Sumidouro (Rio de Janeiro State and have been maintained in the same sylvatic rodent under laboratory conditions. Total length of specimens, distance between suckers, the number of testes and extention of testes grouping were the taxonomic characters analysed. The worms recovered from N. squamipes showed expressive differences (pA morfologia de vermes adultos machos de tres cepas de Schistosoma mansoni, mantidas por várias gerações em camundongos albinos, foi comparada com uma cepa isolada do hospedeiro natural Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia: Muridae e mantida, em laboratório, neste mesmo roedor silvestre. Como caracteres taxonômicos foram analisados o comprimento total, o numero de testículos, a distância entre as ventosas e a distância ocupada pelos testículos nos espécimes. Os vermes recuperados de N. squamipes apresentaram diferenças significativas (p<0,01 em relação às outras cepas para quaisquer caracteres morfológicos estudados. As cepas mantidas em camundongos apresentaram diferença estatística em vários caracteres (p<0,01. Alguns vermes adultos além da disposição normal dos testículos, apresentavam também uma localização atípica destas glândulas sexuais. Conclui-se que a morfologia dos vermes adultos pode ser utilizada para caracterizar cepas de S. mansoni e que as passagens sucessivas de uma cepa em camundongos não induzem a alterações morfológicas nos vermes adultos.

  6. Structure-based study of natural products with anti-Schistosoma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akachukwu, Ibezim; Olubiyi, Olujide Oludayo; Kosisochukwu, Ata; John, Mbah Chika; Justina, Nwodo Ngozi

    2017-01-19

    Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic protozoal disease caused by flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Although the disease threatens millions of lives, it is still at the top list of neglected tropical diseases and praziquantel, the only common schistosocidal drug in use, has records of decreasing efficiency and cases of resistance. Also, reports revealed that people in the rural areas, who are most affected, rely mostly on traditional herbal medicines because of limited access to modern healthcare. The use of computers in drug development has become a routine practice because they are cost and time effective.

  7. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.Camundongos infectados com 60 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni tomaram-se mais resistentes ao sarcoma 180 na forma de tumor ascítico. A inoculação das células tumorais foi feita no 50º dia de infecção e a evolução do tumor foi acompanhada através dapesagem dos animais com intervalos de 48 horas. Nos camundongos infectados o ganho de peso (formação da ascite começou mais tarde e foi menor do que nos controles não infectados. Também o número de células tumorais na cavidade peritoneal 72 horas após a implantação do tumor foi menor no grupo infectado. Este aumento de resistência a um tumor transplantávelpossivelmente está relacionado ao efeito de endotoxinas sobre a atividade tumoricida dos macrofagos ativados pela infecção. A imunossupressão induzida pela infecção favorece a proliferação de bactérias da flora endógena aumentando a quantidade de endotoxinas absorvidas pelo intestino.

  8. Sequential histological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata during the course of Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli Teixeira Lemos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata, highly susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni, were seen to shed less and less cercariae along the time of infection. Histological examination kept a close correlation with this changing pattern of cercarial shedding, turning an initial picture of no-reaction (tolerance gradually into one of hemocyte proliferation with formation of focal encapsulating lesions around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae, a change that became disseminated toward the 142nd day post miracidial exposure. Findings were suggestive of a gradual installation of acquired immunity in snails infected with S. mansoni.

  9. Constructing the recombinant plasmid-pLXSN-SjYF-of Yolk Ferritin gene of Schistosoma japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJunmei; YuXinbing; WuZhongdao; ZhengYinan; LiYan

    1999-01-01

    TO construct the recotabinant plasmid —— pLXSN-SjYF to prepare for expression and DNA vaccine of Schistosoma japonicum gene. Methods :Mnpliffing DNA fragment coding yolk fereltin from a female adult Sehistosoma japonicum DNAs by PCR. The fragment was inseted into pLXSN retrovirus vector by digesting with restrictive enzymes and linking reactions. The positive clone was screened on LB plates contmaining amplcillin asld identified by restrictive enzymes digestion and PCR amplification, Resttlts The specific DNA fragmem SjYF was amplified from the female adult SjDNAs. IaLXSN-SjYF was constructed successfully and the further research will be carried out.

  10. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.;

    1996-01-01

    The present work comprises a longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyper-exposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of chemotherapy on humoral immune parameters. The study groups included chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 19), newly recruited canal...... was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection...

  11. Cistitis por schistosoma haematobium, presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    No es frecuente en nuestro medio la infección por Schistosoma. haematobium, pero existen todos los elementos de la triada ecológica para su transmisión. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, de raza mestiza, con 46 años de edad y procedencia rural, que refiere dolores lumbares al orinar, disuria, tenesmo vesical y polaquiuria durante el último año. Al examen físico se encontró el abdomen discretamente doloroso a la palpación superficial y profunda en hipogastrio y fosas lumbares. Se t...

  12. Schistosoma mansoni: effects of anesthetics and antimonial drugs on worm shift in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni were injected with sodium thiopental or sodium antimonyl gluconate (Triostib R, or submitted to halothane inhalation, with or without a previous injection of thiopental. Data obtained showed that halothane and thiopental induce worm shift to the liver (99 and 76%, respectively. Sodium gluconate and antimonium (Triostib R shifted 52% of worms towards the liver. These results seem to indicate that the use of antimonium would be unnecessary, when surgical removal of schistosomules is carried out through the extracorporeal filtration technique, in patients with portal hypertension.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878, the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K. Biswal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps

  14. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  15. The feasibility of MS and advanced data processing for monitoring Schistosoma mansoni infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Crina I.A.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Derks, Rico J.

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and the evaluation of chemotherapeutic interventions are of prime importance for the improvement of control and prevention strategies for Schistosomiasis. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers of Schistosoma mansoni infec...

  16. Suppression of basophil histamine release and other IgE-dependent responses in childhood Schistosoma mansoni/hookworm coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Jones, Frances M;

    2014-01-01

    in Ugandan schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. METHODS: Skin prick test (SPT) sensitivity to house dust mite allergen (HDM) and current wheeze were assessed pre-anthelmintic treatment. Nonspecific (anti-IgE), helminth-specific, and HDM-allergen-specific basophil histamine release...

  17. Phenotypic characterization of Schistosoma mansoni adult wormsrecovered from undernourished mice: a morphometric study focusing on the reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphometric study focusing on some features of the reproductive system of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms was performed, aiming to complete previously reported data concerning the effects of undernourishment of the host on the parasites. Male worms were significantly affected (p<0.05 regarding the testicular lobes.

  18. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  19. Papain-Based Vaccination Modulates Schistosoma mansoni Infection-Induced Cytokine Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, N; Tallima, H; Hafez, E A; El Ridi, R

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that immunization of outbred rodents with cysteine peptidases-based vaccine elicited type 2-biased immune responses associated with consistent and reproducible protection against challenge Schistosoma mansoni. We herein start to elucidate the molecular basis of C57BL/6 mouse resistance to S. mansoni following treatment with the cysteine peptidase, papain. We evaluated the early cytokine signals delivered by epidermal, dermal, and draining lymph node cells of naïve, and S. mansoni -infected mice treated 1 day earlier with 0 or 50 μg papain, or immunized twice with papain only (10 μg/mouse), papain-free recombinant S. mansoni glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin peptide (10 and 15 μg/mouse, respectively = antigen Mix), or papain-adjuvanted antigen Mix. Schistosoma mansoni infection induced epidermal and lymph node cells to release type 1, type 2 and type 17 cytokines, known to counteract each other. Expectedly, humoral immune responses were negligible until patency. Papain pretreatment or papain-based vaccination diminished or shut off S. mansoni infection early induction of type 1, type 17 and type 2 cytokines except for thymic stromal lymphopoietin and programmed the immune system towards a polarized type 2 immune milieu, associated with highly significant (P < 0.005 - <0.0001) resistance to S. mansoni infection.

  20. Mefloquine interferes with glycolysis in schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni via inhibition of enolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manneck, Theresia; Keiser, Jennifer; Müller, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    The antimalarial drug mefloquine has promising antischistosomal properties killing haematophagous adult schistosomes as well as schistosomula. The mode of action and involved drug targets of mefloquine in Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula are unknown. In order to identify mefloquine-binding proteins and thus potential drug targets, mefloquine affinity chromatography with S. mansoni schistosomula crude extracts was performed. We found one specific mefloquine-binding protein that was identified by mass spectrometry as the glycolytic enzyme enolase (Q27877). Enolase activity assays were performed on schistosomula crude extracts and on the recombinant enolase Q27877 expressed in Escherichia coli. In schistosomula crude extracts enolase activity was inhibited by mefloquine and by the enolase inhibitor sodium fluoride, while activity of the recombinant enolase was not affected. In contrast to enolase from crude extracts, recombinant Q27877 did not bind to mefloquine-agarose. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we next investigated the metabolic inhibition of mefloquine and 3 known glycolytic inhibitors in Schistosoma spp., namely sodium fluoride, 3-bromopyruvate and menadione on schistosomula in the presence or absence of glucose. We found that in the presence of glucose, schistosomula were less affected by mefloquine, sodium fluoride and 3-bromopyruvate, whereas glucose had no protective effect when schistosomula had been exposed to menadione. These results suggest a potential role of mefloquine as an inhibitor of glycolysis, at least in stages where other targets like haem degradation are not relevant.

  1. Cistitis por schistosoma haematobium, presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Zaragoza Durañona

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No es frecuente en nuestro medio la infección por Schistosoma. haematobium, pero existen todos los elementos de la triada ecológica para su transmisión. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, de raza mestiza, con 46 años de edad y procedencia rural, que refiere dolores lumbares al orinar, disuria, tenesmo vesical y polaquiuria durante el último año. Al examen físico se encontró el abdomen discretamente doloroso a la palpación superficial y profunda en hipogastrio y fosas lumbares. Se trató como una infección urinaria sin mejoría. Los complementarios arrojaron discreta eosinofilia y reflujo vesicoureteral grado IV en la uretrocistografía retrógrada y miccional. La cistoscopia videoasistida reportó, a nivel del trígono, la mucosa vesical enrojecida con estructuras en forma de granos de arroz de aspecto puntiforme; la biopsia informó huevos de esquistosomas y cambios metaplásicos en el epitelio vesical. Se trató con praziquantel y desaparecieron los síntomas. A los seis meses los complementarios resultaron normales y el paciente está asintomático. Se concluye en la importancia de considerar la infección por Schistosoma haematobium entre los diagnósticos de la infección urinaria refractaria al tratamiento

  2. The schistosoma-specific antibody response after treatment in non-immune travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, Liv Marie; Christensen, Anders Vittrup; Navntoft, Dorte; Tarp, Britta; Nielsen, Henrik V; Petersen, Eskild

    2009-01-01

    Egg detection is the gold standard in diagnosing and controlling treatment in schistosomiasis, but sensitivity is poor in lightly infected individuals, whereas Schistosoma-specific antibodies are more sensitive. The purpose of the study was to evaluate use of Gut Associated Antigen (GAA) and Membrane Bound Antigen (MBA) assays in assessment of treatment efficacy and number of treated non-immune individuals with signs of treatment failure. In a retrospective study, residents in Denmark diagnosed with positive Schistosoma antibodies in the period 1987 - 2004 were offered follow-up including analyses for GAA, MBA, IgE and eosinophil count. Among 98 patients with positive antibody at time of diagnosis, 73 were examined for eggs and 27% had detectable eggs. 15% still had detectable living eggs after 1 course of treatment. At follow-up it was demonstrated that antibodies continued to increase for up to 6 months after treatment and average duration of positive GAA antibody was approximately 10 y. The study confirms that the GAA- and MBA-IFAT are not suitable in monitoring results of therapy. Treatment failure in 15% of non-immune patients indicates that studies are needed to define the correct dose of praziquantel in those individuals or to evaluate if resistance to praziquantel is a growing problem.

  3. New perspectives on host-parasite interplay by comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  4. New Perspectives on Host-Parasite Interplay by Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Edible and Ornamental Pomegranate Ethanolic Extracts against Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa A. Yones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of praziquantel (PZQ schistosomes resistant strains, the discovery of new antischistosomal agents is of high priority in research. This work reported the in vitro and in vivo effects of the edible and ornamental pomegranate extracts against Schistosoma mansoni. Leaves and stem bark ethanolic extracts of both dried pomegranates were prepared at 100, 300, and 500 μg/mL for in vitro and 600 and 800 mg/kg for in vivo. Adult worms Schistosoma mansoni in RPMI-1640 medium for in vitro and S. mansoni infected mice for in vivo tests were obtained from Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. In vitro activity was manifested by significant coupled worms separation, reduction of motor activity, lethality, and ultrastructural tegumental alterations in adult worms. In vivo activity was manifested revealed by significant reduction of hepatic granulomas number and diameter, decreased number of bilharzial eggs in liver tissues, lowered liver inflammatory infiltration, decreased hepatic fibrosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. Ethanolic stem bark extract of edible pomegranate exhibited highest antischistosomal activities both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, pomegranate showed a good potential to be used as a promising new candidate for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  6. Spatially explicit Schistosoma infection risk in eastern Africa using Bayesian geostatistical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spat......Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions...... in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ensemble of georeferenced survey data derived from an open-access neglected tropical diseases database to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium for a total of 13 countries of eastern...... Africa. Bayesian geostatistical models based on climatic and other environmental data were used to account for potential spatial clustering in spatially structured exposures. Geostatistical variable selection was employed to reduce the set of covariates. Alignment factors were implemented to combine...

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair genes: A screening tool for predicting mutator phenotype in liver fluke infection-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Upama Liengswangwong; Anant Karalak; Yukio Morishita; Masayuki Noguchi; Thiravud Khuhaprema; Petcharin Srivatanakul; Masanao Miwa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify possible contributions of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in carcinogenesis of liver fluke infection-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) by using immunohistochemical assay.METHODS: A total of 29 ICC samples, which had been assessed for genomic instability by a PCR-based method, were used for study. They were examined immunohistochemically to demonstrate protein expression of two MMR genes, hMSH2 and hMLH1.Results obtained were compared with their mutator phenotype assessed previously.RESULTS: Either hMSH2or hMLH1 protein was obviously expressed in 28 of 29 (96.6%) ICC samples.Positive nuclear localization of hMSH2 or hMLH1 protein was observed in 86.2% (25/29) or 93.1% (27/29) ICC cases, respectively, while their negative nuclear reactivity was only detected in 13.8% (4/29) or 6.9% (2/29) ICC cases analyzed, respectively.CONCLUSION: Our study, probably for the first time,showed through immunohistochemical detection of hMSH2 and hMLH1 gene that DNA MMR system does not play a prominent role in liver fluke infection-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis. These results confirm previous findings on mutational status of these genes assessed through a PCR-based method. The immunohistochemical analysis has proven to be an effective and sensitive approach for screening MMR deficiency regardless of somatic inactivation or promoter hypermethylation of hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 gene. Furthermore,immunohistochemistry is more advantageous compared to mutator phenotyping assay in terms of simplicity,less time consuming and cost effectiveness for screening possible involvements of target MMR genes in tumorigenesis.

  8. Deep sequencing-based identification of pathogen-specific microRNAs in the plasma of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guofeng; Luo, Rong; Hu, Chao; Cao, Jie; Jin, Youxin

    2013-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have received considerable attention as a novel class of biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancer and as signalling molecules in mediating intercellular communication. Schistosomes, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, live in the blood vessels of a mammalian host in the adult stage. In the present study, we characterized schistosome-specific small RNA populations in the plasma of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) using a deep sequencing method and then identified five schistosome-specific miRNAs, including four known miRNAs (Bantam, miR-3479, miR-10 and miR-3096), and one novel miRNA (miR-0001, miRBase ID: sja-miR-8185). Four of the five schistosome-specific miRNAs were also detected by real-time RT-PCR in the plasma of S. japonicum-infected mice. In addition, our study indicated that schistosome Argonaute 2/3 may be an excretory-secretory (ES) protein. In summary, our findings are expected to provide useful information for further development of novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and also for deeper understanding of the mechanism of host-parasite interaction.

  9. A long-term intake of a protein hydrolysate seems to increase the risk of encephalopathy in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo S Ferreira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations showed that Schistosoma mansoni infection aggravates protein malabsorption in undernourished mice and this can be reverted by administration of casein hydrolysate. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ingestion of casein hydrolysate for long periods. Albino Swiss mice were divided into eight groups. Diets contained 5% (undernourished or 20% (controls casein levels. For each group there were sub-groups ingesting whole or hydrolysed casein for 12 weeks. Infection with S. mansoni developed in half of the animals under each diet. All undernourished mice developed malabsorption. Low albuminemia was detected in infected animals independently of the protein level in the diet. However, albuminemia was lower in infected controls than in undernourished non-infected mice, suggesting a deficient liver protein synthesis. Infected mice fed on a 20% protein hydrolysed diet exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rates. On the other hand, non-infected mice ingesting the same diet had the highest body weights. We are investigating the hypothesis that infected mice, even when fed normal diets, are unable to metabolise large amounts of amino acids due to the liver lesions related to schistosomiasis and as a result die of hepatic coma. In some of them, the excessive accumulation of ammonia in the blood enhances the outcome of an encephalopathy.

  10. Effect of Schistosoma mansoni Infection on Innate and HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1-Infected Ugandan Fisher Folk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuku, Andrew Ekii; Asiki, Gershim; Abaasa, Andrew; Ssonko, Isaac; Harari, Alexandre; van Dam, Govert J; Corstjens, Paul L; Joloba, Moses; Ding, Song; Mpendo, Juliet; Nielsen, Leslie; Kamali, Anatoli; Elliott, Alison M; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Pala, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    In Uganda, fisher folk have HIV prevalence rates, about four times higher than the national average, and are often coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni. We hypothesized that innate immune responses and HIV-specific Th1 immune responses might be downmodulated in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals compared with HIV+/S. mansoni-negative individuals. We stimulated whole blood with innate receptor agonists and analyzed supernatant cytokines by Luminex. We evaluated HIV-specific responses by intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α. We found that the plasma viral load and CD4 count were similar between the HIV+SM+ and HIV+SM- individuals. In addition, the TNF-α response to the imidazoquinoline compound CL097 and β-1, 3-glucan (curdlan), was significantly higher in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals compared with HIV only-infected individuals. The frequency of HIV-specific IFN-γ+IL-2-TNF-α- CD8 T cells and IFN-γ+IL-2-TNF-α+ CD4 T cells was significantly higher in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals compared with HIV only-infected individuals. These findings do not support the hypothesis that S. mansoni downmodulates innate or HIV-specific Th1 responses in HIV/S. mansoni-coinfected individuals.

  11. Possible role of Schistosoma mansoni infection in male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A H; Abdelbaky, A; Osman, A M; Abdallah, K F; Salem, D

    1999-08-01

    Schistosomiasis has been suggested to decrease the reproductive potential or castrate both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Furthermore, schistosomiasis may cause anatomic anomalies of the reproductive organs responsible for permanent or reversible infertility. To specify the effect of schistosomiasis on gonadal functions, production of testosterone (TS), leutinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) in Egyptian men infected with schistosomiasis were studied. All participants were tested for the following parameters: Clinical examination and diagnostic, semen, haematological and liver function tests and blood level of IL-2. The mean TS levels were at the lowest limit of normal range for liver cirrhotic patients. Mean E2 levels were increased in all patients, but patients with liver cirrhosis-related schistosomiasis had higher E2 levels. Linear regression analysis showed that the sex hormone levels correlated best with the patient's liver function parameters. The present data suggest that a sex hormone imbalance plays a role in patients with liver cirrhosis due to the inhibitory effects of schistosomiasis on gonadal functions.

  12. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  13. Decline in infection-related morbidities following drug-mediated reductions in the intensity of Schistosoma infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gisele; Bertsch, David J.; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Background Since 1984, WHO has endorsed drug treatment to reduce Schistosoma infection and its consequent morbidity. Cross-sectional studies suggest pre-treatment correlation between infection intensity and risk for Schistosoma-related pathology. However, evidence also suggests that post-treatment reduction in intensity may not reverse morbidity because some morbidities occur at all levels of infection, and some reflect permanent tissue damage. The aim of this project was to systematically review evidence on drug-based control of schistosomiasis and to develop a quantitative estimate of the impact of post-treatment reductions in infection intensity on prevalence of infection-associated morbidity. Methodology/Principal findings This review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42015026080). Studies that evaluated morbidity before and after treatment were identified by online searches and searches of private archives. Post-treatment odds ratios or standardized mean differences were calculated for each outcome, and these were correlated to treatment-related egg count reduction ratios (ERRs) by meta-regression. A greater ERR correlated with greater reduction in odds of most morbidities. Random effects meta-analysis was used to derive summary estimates: after treatment of S. mansoni and S. japonicum, left-sided hepatomegaly was reduced by 54%, right-sided hepatomegaly by 47%, splenomegaly by 37%, periportal fibrosis by 52%, diarrhea by 53%, and blood in stools by 75%. For S. haematobium, hematuria was reduced by 92%, proteinuria by 90%, bladder lesions by 86%, and upper urinary tract lesions by 72%. There were no consistent changes in portal dilation or hemoglobin levels. In sub-group analysis, age, infection status, region, parasite species, and interval to follow-up were associated with meaningful differences in outcome. Conclusion/Significance While there are challenges to implementing therapy for schistosomiasis, and praziquantel therapy is not fully

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SCREENING OF EGG MIMOTOPE OF SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM%日本血吸虫模拟虫卵抗原的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱旻; 白艳军; 章平; 吴自荣; 严自助

    2000-01-01

    @@ The egg of Schistosoma japonicum is a chief pathogenic factor. The preparation of egg antigen is a troublesome work, and needs a large number of experimental animals. In order to explore and develop an egg mimotope that can be used in the study of diagnostic reagents and vaccines, we employed the phage display random 15-peptides library to mimic the antigen epitope recognized by mAb 6B12 which is specific to egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum.

  15. "In vivo" leukocyte chemotaxis in experimental mice Schistosoma mansoni infection Quimiotaxia de leucócitos "in vivo" na infecção experimental por Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirte Maria Teixeira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The "in vivo" chemotaxis was studied in C57B1/10 mice 10, 30, 50 and 60 days after a Schistosoma mansoni infection in comparison to a control group (uninfected mice. Staphylococcal protein A was injected into a connective tissue air pouch of control and experimental mice and the leukocyte chemotaxis was counted. A decrease in polymorphonuclear (PMN leukocyte response was found in infected mice in comparison to the control group (pA quimiotaxia de leucócitos "in vivo" foi avaliada em camundongos da linhagem C57B1/10 e estudada 10, 30, 50 e 60 dias após a infecção por Schistosoma mansoni. A proteína A foi utilizada como quimiotático e injetada no tecido conjuntivo no dorso dos camundongos dos grupos experimentais e controle. Nos grupos experimentais foi observado uma diminuição na resposta dos leucócitos polimorfonucleares (PMN em comparação com o grupo controle (p<0.05. Os camundongos estudados 10 dias após a infecção, mostraram uma diminuição na resposta quimiotática de leucócitos PMN, comparando com o grupo controle (p<0.05 e este dado tornou-se mais evidente nos grupos experimentais estudados 30 e 50 dias após a infecção. Apesar da resposta quimiotática dos leucócitos PMN nos camundongos estudados 60 dias após a infecção aumentarem em comparação aos animais analisados 50 dias após a infecção, este aumento foi bem menor em relação ao grupo controle. A resposta quimiotática dos mononucleares não apresentou diferença significativa entre camundongos experimentais e controles

  16. Tegumental Ca-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms Atividade da adenosina trifosfatase estimulada pelo Ca no tegumento de vermes adultos de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo M. Cesari

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A Ca-stimulated ATPase activity (pH 9.5 associated with the tegumental membrane enriched (TME fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adults was partially inhibited by NAP-taurine or by increasing concentrations of chlorpromazine; endogenous calmodulin was found associated with the TME fraction. A similar activity (pH 8.6 was histochemically visualized whithin the tegument of fixed worms on the cytoplasmic leaflet of both the doubel surface membrane and the basement membrane; this reaction was inhibited by 1 µM chloropromazine and it was also observed on the inner side of double membrane vesicles present in the TME fraction. No ATPase activity could be seen at alkaline pH with added Mg or Na/K ions. Without ATP, the addition of external Ca to the fixed worms induced the appearance of lead precipitates on the tegumental discoid bodies; this reaction was inhibited by molybdate and not by chlorpromazine. The intrategumentary regulation of calcium by the systems described and the possible use of phenothiazines against schistosimes are discussed.A atividade ATPse (pH 9.5 estimulada por ions de Ca associados a uma fração enriquecida de membranas do tegumento (fração EMT de vermes adultos de Schistosoma mansoni, foi inibida pro NAP-taurina ou por concentrações crescentes de clorpromacina. Foi encontrada calmodulina enfogena associada principlamente a esta fração. Em vermes adultos fixados com glutaraldeido se detectou histoquimicamente uma atividade ATPase similar (pH 8.6 na face citoplasmática da dupla membrana de superfície e da membrana por 1 µM de clorpromacina e foi também observada na face interna de vesículas de dupla membrana presentes na fração EMT. Não se pôde detectar atividade ATpase em pH alcalino na presença de ions de Mg ou Na/K. A adição externa de Ca, sem ATP, aos vermes fixados induz ao aparecimento de precipitados nos corpos discóides do tegumento; esta reação foi inibida. Os resultados são discutidos em relação a

  17. Oogram studies in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with dexamethasone Oograma em camundongos infectados com Schistosoma mansoni e tratados com dexametasona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Victor Hermeto

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with about 90 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain were treated during five consecutive days with dexamethasone (50 mg/Kg, subcutaneously, starting on the 42th day of infection. Groups of five mice were then daily sacrificed from the first day after onset of treatment until the first day after. The perfusion of the portal system was performed and a piece of the intestine was processed for qualitative and quantitative oograms. This treatment carries to larger numbers of eggs in the tissues of treated mice, when compared with untreated groups. No changes were observed in the kinetics of oviposition, as all stages of viable eggs were observed in the tissues of treated and control mice. These data reinforce the hypothesis of a partial blockade of the egg excretion in immunossupressed mice.Camundongos infectados com cerca de 90 cercárias da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados durante 5 dias consecutivos com dexametasona (50mg/ Kg, subcutaneamente a partir do 42º dia de infecção. Grupos de cinco camundongos foram sacrificados diariamente após o primeiro dia do início do tratamento até o primeiro dia após o término. A perfusão do sistema porta foi feita e fragmentos do intestino foram processados para a realização de oogramas qualitativos e quantitativos. O tratamento leva a um maior número de ovos nos tecidos dos camundongos tratados, se comparado com os grupos não tratados. Nenhuma mudança foi observada na cinética de oviposição, e ovos viáveis em todos os estádios evolutivos foram observados nos tecidos de camundongos tratados e controles. Estes dados reforçam a hipótese de um bloqueio parcial na saída de ovos dos tecidos do intestino para o lúmem intestinal em camundongos imunossuprimidos.

  18. Functional expression and characterization of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B and its trans-activation by an endogenous asparaginyl endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Mohammed; McKerrow, James H; Hansell, Elizabeth; Mathieu, Mary A; Lucas, Kimberley D; Hsieh, Ivy; Greenbaum, Doron; Bogyo, Matthew; Salter, Jason P; Lim, Kee C; Franklin, Christopher; Kim, Jea-Hyoun; Caffrey, Conor R

    2003-09-01

    Peptidases are essential for the establishment and survival of the medically important parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. This helminth expresses a number of gut-associated peptidases that degrade host blood proteins, including hemoglobin, as a means of nutrition. Using irreversible affinity probes, we demonstrate that S. mansoni cathepsin B-like endopeptidase 1 (SmCB1) is the most abundant papain family cysteine peptidase in both the parasite gut and somatic extracts. SmCB1 zymogen (SmCB1pm) was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris (4-11mgl(-1)). Monospecific and immunoselected antibodies raised against SmCB1pm localized the enzyme exclusively to the gut lumen and surrounding gastrodermis of adult worms. Recombinant SmCB1pm was unable to catalyze its activation, even at low pH. However, recombinant S. mansoni asparaginyl endopeptidase (SmAE), another gut-associated cysteine peptidase, processed and activated SmCB1pm in trans. Consistent with the known specificity of AEs, processing occurred on the carboxyl side of an asparagine residue, two residues upstream of the start of the mature SmCB1 sequence. The remaining pro-region dipeptide was removed by rat cathepsin C (dipeptidyl-peptidase I)-an action conceivably performed by an endogenous cathepsin C in vivo. The activated recombinant SmCB1 is biochemically identical to the native enzyme with respect to dipeptidyl substrate kinetics and pH profiles. Also, the serum proteins, hemoglobin, serum albumin, IgG, and alpha-2 macroglobulin were efficiently degraded. Further, a novel application of an assay to measure the peptidyl carboxypeptidase activity of SmCB1 and other cathepsins B was developed using the synthetic substrate benzoyl-glycinyl-histidinyl-leucine (Bz-Gly-His-Leu). This study characterizes the major digestive cysteine peptidase in schistosomes and defines novel trans-processing events required to activate the SmCB1 zymogen in vitro which may facilitate the digestive process in vivo.

  19. Utility of Schistosoma bovis Adult Worm Antigens for Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Electroimmunotransfer Blot Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, J.; Carranza, C.; Turrientes, M. C.; Arellano, J. L. Pérez; Vélez, R. López; Ramajo, V.; Muro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive. PMID:15539523

  20. Effect of breath-hold on blood gas analysis in captive Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Fumio; Ohizumi, Hiroshi; Ohshita, Isao

    2010-09-01

    The effect of a breath-hold on blood gas was evaluated in captive Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). Serial blood collections were performed from a vessel on the ventral surface of the flukes during breath-hold. In total, 178 blood samples were taken from three dolphins for five trials in each animal. During a breath-hold, partial pressure of oxygen (Po₂) decreased from 152.5 to 21.8 mmHg and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Po₂) conversely increased from 31.8 to 83.6 mmHg. The range of pH was 7.54 to 7.25, suggesting drastic change from alkalemia to acidemia. These wide ranges of blood gas imply a considerable change of oxygen affinity caused by the Bohr effect during breath-hold, which enable effective uptake and distribution of oxygen to metabolizing tissues.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegumental surface of adult Schistosoma spindale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruatrachue, M; Riengrojpitak, S; Upatham, E S; Sahaphong, S

    1983-09-01

    The tegumental surfaces of adult male and female of Schistosoma spindale were studied by scanning electron microscopy. In general, the body surface of the male appears to be fairly uniform from anterior end to posterior end. It is characterized by the presence of transverse ridges and papillae of various types. These papillae are distributed fairly regularly over the whole body surface of the worm. The tegument lining the gynecophoral canal of the male worm is covered with numerous spines interspersed with papillae, some without cilia and some with crater-like holes in the centres and apical cilia. The tegument of the female worm is covered with smooth and perforated ridges and sensory bulbs with apical nodules.

  2. Acute Appendicitis and Pneumatosis in a Duplicated Appendix With Schistosoma Remnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Bisseret, Damien; Dragoescu, Ema

    2016-02-01

    Appendiceal pneumatosis is rare, reported either in the context of acute appendicitis or enterocolitis. Here, we report the case of an elderly adult in whom the acute appendicitis was associated with pneumatosis and occurred in the context of a malformed appendix with pathogenic organism remnants. A 72-year-old man presented with abdominal pain 3 weeks after posttraumatic dorsolumbar surgery. The computed tomography scan showed acute appendicitis and 2 diverticula. On microscopy, the appendix showed acute appendicitis along with a Cave-Wallbridge type A duplication. In addition, several optically clear spaces were observed in the entire appendiceal wall consistent with pneumatosis of the appendix. Focally, calcified structures suggesting pathogenic organisms such as Schistosoma were noted as well. In conclusion, we report a case of appendiceal pneumatosis occurring in the context of acute appendicitis in a duplicated appendix, with presence of calcified structures suggestive of pathogenic organisms.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of 44.6 kDa Protein from Schistosoma japonicum Male Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欲晓; 易新元; 曾宪芳; 袁仕善; 张顺科; LarryMCREYNOLDS

    2004-01-01

    Soluble male worm antigen of Schistosoma japonicurn (Sj) was investigated for development of new vaccine candidate. SDS--PAGE and Western blotting were performed to compare the difference between soluble antigens from worms of different sex. Mice vaccination with the testing purified protein was followed by Sj cereariae challenge to detect the protective effect against Sj. Sixteen bands were seen for the soluble male worm antigen and 12 for the female worm. In addition, a distinct band of 44.6 kDa from the male worm antigen was observed, and its antigenicity was demonstrated by Western blotting. This 44.6 kDa protein could induce significant worm and egg reduction rate in mice (39.31%, 41.98%, P < 0.001). Inthis study a 44.6 kDa protein was isolated and partially characterized. Its antigenicity, immunogenicity and the partial immune protection suggest its potential vaccine candidte against Sj.

  4. Immunostimulatory effects of extract of Pulicaria crispa before and after Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, Amany S; Shalaby, Nagwa; Abd-Alla, Howida I; Ahmed, Samia A; Khaled, Hussein M; Bahgat, Mahmoud M

    2010-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of methanolic extract from Pulicaria crispa were investigated in mice before and after infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Mice were subjected for daily intra-peritoneal injection by the extract (33 ng/mouse) for 10 successive days followed by infecting every mouse with 100 S. mansoni cercariae. Treatment with the extract induced significant increase (p < 0.05) in sera-IL-2 before and after infection. Upon using soluble worm antigen preparation or cancer bladder homogenates as antigens in ELISA, the detected levels of IgG were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sera from treated-infected mice than untreated P. crispa infected mice. Using crude Escherichia coli lysate as an antigen in ELISA, it was detected a significant (p < 0.05) increase in IgG levels in sera from the extract-treated mice before and after infection.

  5. Construction and characterization of a Schistosoma mansoni bacterial artificial chromosome library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Paslier, M C; Pierce, R J; Merlin, F; Hirai, H; Wu, W; Williams, D L; Johnston, D; LoVerde, P T; Le Paslier, D

    2000-04-15

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been established from genomic DNA isolated from the trematode parasite of human, Schistosoma mansoni. This library consists of more than 21,000 recombinant clones carrying inserts in the pBeloBAC11 vector. The mean insert size was 100 kb, representing an approximate 7.95-fold genome coverage. Library screening with eight chromosome-specific or single-copy gene probes yielded between 1 and 9 positive clones, and none of those tested was absent from the library. End sequences were obtained for 93 randomly selected clones, and 37 showed sequence identity to S. mansoni sequences (ESTs, genes, or repetitive sequences). A preliminary analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization localized 8 clones on schistosome chromosomes 1 (2 clones), 2, 3, 5, Z, and W (3 clones). This library provides a new resource for the physical mapping and sequencing of the genome of this important human pathogen.

  6. Purification and characterization of an elastinolytic proteinase secreted by cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerrow, J H; Pino-Heiss, S; Lindquist, R; Werb, Z

    1985-03-25

    An elastinolytic proteinase secreted by tissue-invasive larvae of Schistosoma mansoni has been purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and chromatofocusing were used to purify the enzyme 18-fold from crude larval secretions. The native enzyme has a molecular weight of 30,000, a pI of 8, a pH optimum of 9, and a calcium dependence of 2 mM. A second Mr 17,000 form of the enzyme was present in crude secretions and appears to be an autoproteolysis product. The enzyme is a serine proteinase that preferentially binds tetrapeptide inhibitors or substrates with an aromatic or hydrophobic residue at the P-1 site. In addition to being active against elastin, the enzyme degrades Azocoll, gelatin, laminin, fibronectin, keratin, and type IV collagen.

  7. The growth and development of Schistosoma mansoni in mice exposed to sublethal doses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, R.; Wilson, R.A. (Univ. of York, Heslington (England))

    1989-12-01

    The maturation of Schistosoma mansoni was studied in mice exposed to various sublethal doses of radiation. Although the treatment of mice with 500 rads of radiation prior to infection did not alter parasite maturation, doses in excess of 500 rads led to a reduction in worm burden. This could not be attributed to a delay in the arrival of parasites in the hepatic portal system. Worms developing in mice treated with 800 rads commenced egg-laying about 1 wk later than worms in intact mice, and the rate of egg deposition appeared to be lower in irradiated hosts. The data demonstrate that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to doses of radiation in excess of 500 rads impairs their ability to carry infections of S. mansoni. The findings do not support the hypothesis that primary worm burdens in the mouse are controlled by a host immune response.

  8. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  9. Immunization of pigs against infection with Schistosoma japonicum using ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.-E.; Jiang, C.-F.; Han, J.-J.; Li, Y.-L. (Tongji Medical Univ., Wuhan (China). Dept. of Parasitology); Ruppel, A. (Institute for Tropical Hygiene, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1993-06-01

    Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10 000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 [mu]Watt.min/cm[sup 2]). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2.5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0.01% of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pig's health. (Author).

  10. Delayed tail loss during the invasion of mouse skin by cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Fang, Zheng-Ming; Lei, Jia-Hui; Guan, Fei; Liu, Wen-Qi; Bartlett, Ann; Whitfield, Phil; Li, Yong-Long

    2012-02-01

    A traditional assumption is that schistosome cercariae lose their tails at the onset of penetration. It has, however, recently been demonstrated that, for Schistosoma mansoni, cercarial tails were not invariably being shed as penetration took place and a high proportion of tails entered human skin under experimental conditions. This phenomenon was termed delayed tail loss (DTL). In this paper, we report that DTL also happens with S. japonicum cercariae during penetration of mouse skin. It occurred at all cercarial densities tested, from as few as 10 cercariae/2·25 cm(2) of mouse skin up to 200 cercariae. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that there was a density-dependent increase in DTL as cercarial densities increased. No such density-dependent enhancement was shown for percentage attachment over the same cercarial density range.

  11. Antischistosomal activity of N,N'-arylurea analogs against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Houzong; Liu, Fengyou; Chen, Jinglei; Li, Yan; Cui, Jinhao; Qiao, Chunhua

    2016-03-01

    Although the antischistosomal activities of N,N'-arylurea analogs were reported, systematic structure-activity relationships have not been conducted. In this Letter, we reported the design, synthesis and evaluation of 45 N,N'-arylurea analogs. Among these prepared compounds, 13 compounds were urea linker modified and 32 were N,N'-arylurea derivatives. The activity evaluation revealed 12 analogs exhibited IC50 values lower than 22.6μM, and 7 of them had IC50 less than 10μM against the juvenile Schistosoma japonicum in vitro. Their worm killing potency was even higher against adult worm. Unfortunately, low to moderate worm burden reduction of 0-33.4% was recorded after administration of a single oral dose of 200mg/kg or 400mg/kg to mice harboring S. japonicum.

  12. Development of -omics research in Schistosoma spp. and omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel (PZQ based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those -omics researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal omics researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by omics researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by omics studies.

  13. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator-Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator-prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan concentrations between 0.03 and 1.0 µg/L were used. Predation was significantly greater (p snails using fish may be affected in endosulfan-polluted aquatic systems of Southern Africa because it has been found present at concentrations that are indicated to cause lethal effects on the evaluated hybrid catfish and to inhibit the predation of snails by this hybrid catfish.

  14. Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J.; Tinkitina, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non......-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin...... is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all...

  15. The schistosoma-specific antibody response after treatment in non-immune travellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Liv Marie; Christensen, Anders Vittrup; Navntoft, Dorte;

    2009-01-01

    ) and Membrane Bound Antigen (MBA) assays in assessment of treatment efficacy and number of treated non-immune individuals with signs of treatment failure. In a retrospective study, residents in Denmark diagnosed with positive Schistosoma antibodies in the period 1987 - 2004 were offered follow-up including...... analyses for GAA, MBA, IgE and eosinophil count. Among 98 patients with positive antibody at time of diagnosis, 73 were examined for eggs and 27% had detectable eggs. 15% still had detectable living eggs after 1 course of treatment. At follow-up it was demonstrated that antibodies continued to increase...... for up to 6 months after treatment and average duration of positive GAA antibody was approximately 10 y. The study confirms that the GAA- and MBA-IFAT are not suitable in monitoring results of therapy. Treatment failure in 15% of non-immune patients indicates that studies are needed to define the correct...

  16. Garlic attenuates histological and histochemical alterations in livers of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Riad, N H; Taha, H

    2016-08-01

    Interest in screening for new anti-schistosomal agents is growing because of increased concerns about resistance to and safety of praziquantel. We investigated the anti-schistosomal action of prophylactic and therapeutic doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical alterations caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Livers of infected mice were characterized by granulomas, periportal inflammation and fibrosis, hepatocyte vacuolation, fatty degeneration and necrosis, and hypertrophy and pigmentation of Kupffer cells. Significant depletion of carbohydrates and increased lipid vacuoles also were observed. All garlic regimens caused suppression of granuloma formation and amelioration of histological and histochemical changes; the continuous treatment protocol produced the best results. Garlic appears to be a safe and economical anti-schistosomal adjuvant for attenuating the pathogenicity of schistosomiasis.

  17. Evidentiation of Paramyosin (Sm-97 as a Modulating Antigen on Granulomatous Hypersensitivity to Schistosoma mansoni Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Cristine

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A Schistosoma mansoni adult worm anionic fraction (PIII has previously been shown to protect mice against challenge infection and to reduce pulmonary and hepatic granulomatous hypersensitivity. Serum from PIII-immunized rabbit was used to screen a lgt11 cDNA library from S. mansoni adult worm in order to identify antigens capable of modulating granulomatous hypersensitivity. We obtained four clones with 400 (Sm-III.11, 900 (Sm-III.16, 1100 (Sm-III.10 and 1300 (Sm-III.12 bp of length. All clone-specific antibodies were able to recognize most of the PIII components. The sequence analysis showed that these clones presented high homology with S. mansoni paramyosin (Sm-97. These findings ascribe a new function to this antigen with an important role in modulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity to S. mansoni eggs

  18. Cytokine mRNA profiles in pigs exposed prenatally and postnatally to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, Michala E.; Johansen, Maria V.; Aasted, Bent;

    2007-01-01

    The pig is a natural host for Schistosoma japonicum and a useful animal model of human infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences between the cytokine profiles in prenatally or postnatally S. japonicum exposed pigs. Seven prenatally exposed pigs, 7 postnatally exposed...... pigs and 4 uninfected control pigs were compared 27 weeks post exposure. Variables included worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and mRNA levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta 1 and IFN-gamma in the liver and the caecum, assessed by RT-PCR. Infection intensity and level...... of septal fibrosis were significantly higher in the postnatal group compared to the prenatal group (P TNF-alpha (P

  19. Morfologia e desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 em infecções unissexuais experimentalmente produzidas no camundongo Morphology and development of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in unisexual infections produced experimentally in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Zanotti

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni em infecções unissexuais no camundongo. Os esquistossomos fêmeos apresentaram-se menos desenvolvidos do que os machos. Houve correlação entre o comprimento dos machos e o número de testículos. Verificou-se que o isolamento sexual é prejudicial aos dois sexos, principalmente à fêmea.The Schistosoma mansoni development in mice submitted to unisexual infections was studied. The single female worms developed less than the single males. There was correlation between the male's length and the number of his tests. It was verified that sexual isolation of the schistosomes is prejudicial to both sexes, mainly for the female.

  20. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections.

  1. Therapeutic effect of Arctium lappa in Schistosoma haematobium associated kidney disturbance: biochemical and molecular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Idris, Zulzamri H; Haron, Hasniza F; Omar, Nurulhuda A; Lazain, Halita S

    2016-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) infection has been found to be strongly associated with bladder cancer, which necessitates for discover of a natural new therapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Arctium lappa seed extract in S. haematobium associated kidney disturbance. Forty male albino mice were used and divided into four equal groups; group 1 control includes non-infected healthy mice, groups 2, 3 and 4 subcutaneous infected with S. haematobium cercariae. Groups 3 co-treated daily with oral dose of A. lappa seed extract (300 mg/kg, bwt) for 15 days in the same time of S. haematobium infection. Groups 4 post-treated daily for 15 days with oral dose of A. lappa seed extract (300 mg/kg, bwt) after 15 days of S. haematobium infection. The results obtained revealed that S. haematobium significantly decreased kidney weight and serum sodium, potassium and chloride, but increased urinary volume, urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, serum urea, creatinine and uric acid. Schistosoma haematobium also significantly decreased kidney superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels while increased kidney lipid peroxidation level. Co- and post-treatment with A. lappa seed extract restore all the above parameters to approach the normal values. These results were supported with histopathological examinations. In conclusion, A. lappa seed extract has therapeutic effect in kidney disturbance caused by S. haematobium where co-treatment of A. lappa seed extract was more effective than post-treatment of the extract.

  2. Local Antiglycan Antibody Responses to Skin Stage and Migratory Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Cornelis H; Kies, Christiaan L; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Meeusen, Els N T; Hokke, Cornelis H; van Diepen, Angela

    2015-10-12

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research. We used antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes to characterize local antiglycan antibody responses against migrating Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula in different tissues of rats. Analysis by shotgun Schistosoma glycan microarray resulted in the identification of antiglycan antibody response patterns that reflected the migratory pathway of schistosomula. Antibodies raised by skin lymph node (LN) ASC probes mainly targeted N-glycans with terminal mannose residues, Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc) and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX). Also, responses to antigenic and schistosome-specific glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans containing highly fucosylated GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcβ1)n stretches that are believed to be present at the parasite's surface constitutively upon transformation were found. Antibody targets recognized by lung LN ASC probes were mainly N-glycans presenting GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN) and GlcNAc motifs. Surprisingly, antibodies against highly antigenic multifucosylated motifs of GSL glycans were not observed in lung LN ASC probes, indicating that these antigens are not expressed in lung stage schistosomula or are not appropriately exposed to induce immune responses locally. The local antiglycan responses observed in this study highlight the stage- and tissue-specific expression of antigenic parasite glycans and provide insights into glycan targets possibly involved in resistance to S. japonicum infection.

  3. Screening and Primary Characterization of New Antigen Genes of Schistosoma Japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 易新元; 李先平; 曾宪芳; 章洁

    2004-01-01

    To find Schistosoma japonicum(S.j) new antigen gene thus provide more useful vaccine candidates, the cDNA library of S. j adult worm was screened with sera of rabbits immtmized with the membrane antigens of Schistosoma japonicum hepato-portal schistosomula (SjHmAg). The positive clones were amplified by PCR and sequenced, then the sequences of clones were compared with all sequences in GenBank database using Blast process. The new clones were submitted to GenBank for accession numbers. Fifteen positive clones were obtained after three rounds of i mmunoscreening. The size of S. j cDNA fragments in positive clones ranged from 0.7 kb-3.0 kb after automatically excised with the helper phage. Sequence analysis revealed that partial sequence of clone M5 had significant homology with S.j mitochondria rnRNA, the other positive clones were new S.j genes. M2 clone sequence (GenBank accession number AF502579) was 730 bp long it had a 117 bp open reading frame (ORF). The sequence of M15 (GenBank accession number AF502582) has no transmembrane region and encodes 92 amino acids, and its protein contains a ferredoxins iron-sulfur binding region signature and two VWFC signal regions. The size of M1 ,M8, M9, M12( GenBank accession numbers: AF502578, AF502580, AF500622, AF502581 ) ranges from 402 bp to 766 bp. It concluded that the sera from rabbit immunized with SjHmAg could recognize S. j specific antigens molecules, and these antigens may induce the protective immunity against S.j infection.

  4. Dynamic Observation of Liver Fibrosis in Mice Infected with Schistosoma japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The expression of TNF-α in the liver at different periods post Schistosoma japonica infection and the effect on liver fibrosis after supplementary injection of these eytokines were investigated. The mice infected with schistosome cercariae were divided into 3 groups: normal control group, TNF-α-untreated infection group and TNF-α-treated infection group. ABC immunohistochemistry and pathologic image multimedia quantification system were applied to dynamically detect the activity of TNF-α. The results showed that the levels of TNF-α in the liver in TNF-α-untreated infection group were slowly decreased with prolongation of infection time (from 8th, 11th, 14th to 18th week), while in the TNF-α-treated infection group, those were increased significantly after intraperitoneal injection of TNF-α at 6th week after infection. At first to 8th week after the final injection of TNF-α, the intrahepatic TNF-α levels in the TNF-α-treated infection group were significantly higher than in the other two groups (P<0.01), and the granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in the liver were also milder in the normal control group. It was concluded that at the early stage of Schistosoma japonica infection mouse liver mainly released Th1 cytokine and TNF-α from Th1 activated macrophages. Six weeks after infection (post egg deposition), exogenous supplement with intraperitoneal injection of TNF-α could induce the enhanced expression of Th1 cytokines and alleviate the liver granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis.

  5. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  6. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  7. Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on intensity of infection and antibody responses to schistosome antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweyongyere, Robert; Mawa, Patrice A.; Emojong, Nicholas O.;

    2009-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy, compared with treatment after delivery. Methods A nested cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni infected women was recruited within a larger trial of de-worming during pregnancy. Women were randomised to receive praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. All women were treated...... after delivery. Infection intensity after treatment was assessed by a single Kato-Katz examination of stool samples with duplicate slides and categorised as undetected, light (1-99 eggs per gram (epg)), moderate (100-399 epg) or heavy (=400 epg). Antibodies against S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were...... infection (median (IQR) epg: 749 (521, 1169)) with S. mansoni. At six weeks after praziquantel treatment during pregnancy S. mansoni infection was not detectable in 81.9% of the women and prevalence and intensity had decreased to 11.8% light, 4.7% moderate and 1.6% heavy a similar reduction when compared...

  8. Differential anti-glycan antibody responses in Schistosoma mansoni-infected children and adults studied by shotgun glycan microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela van Diepen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (bilharzia is a chronic and potentially deadly parasitic disease that affects millions of people in (subtropical areas. An important partial immunity to Schistosoma infections does develop in disease endemic areas, but this takes many years of exposure and maturation of the immune system. Therefore, children are far more susceptible to re-infection after treatment than older children and adults. This age-dependent immunity or susceptibility to re-infection has been shown to be associated with specific antibody and T cell responses. Many antibodies generated during Schistosoma infection are directed against the numerous glycans expressed by Schistosoma. The nature of glycan epitopes recognized by antibodies in natural schistosomiasis infection serum is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The binding of serum antibodies to glycans can be analyzed efficiently and quantitatively using glycan microarray approaches. Very small amounts of a large number of glycans are presented on a solid surface allowing binding properties of various glycan binding proteins to be tested. We have generated a so-called shotgun glycan microarray containing natural N-glycan and lipid-glycan fractions derived from 4 different life stages of S. mansoni and applied this array to the analysis of IgG and IgM antibodies in sera from children and adults living in an endemic area. This resulted in the identification of differential glycan recognition profiles characteristic for the two different age groups, possibly reflecting differences in age or differences in length of exposure or infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the shotgun glycan microarray approach to study antibody response profiles against schistosome-derived glycan elements, we have defined groups of infected individuals as well as glycan element clusters to which antibody responses are directed in S. mansoni infections. These findings are significant for further

  9. Suppression of Basophil Histamine Release and Other IgE-dependent Responses in Childhood Schistosoma mansoni/hookworm Coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Frances M Jones; Wilson, Shona; Cahen, Pierre; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Mpairwe, Harriet; Mwatha, Joseph K; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Skov, Per S.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Dunne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  The poor correlation between allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (asIgE) and clinical signs of allergy in helminth infected populations suggests that helminth infections could protect against allergy by uncoupling asIgE from its effector mechanisms. We investigated this hypothesis in Ugandan schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. Methods.  Skin prick test (SPT) sensitivity to house dust mite allergen (HDM) and current wheeze were assessed pre-anthelmintic...

  10. Neuroschistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni: a review of pathogenesis, clinical syndromes and diagnostic approaches Neuroesquistossomose devido a Schistosoma mansoni: revisão da patogênese, síndromes clínicas e manejo diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroschistosomiasis (NS is the second most common form of presentation of infection by the trematode, Schistosoma mansoni. Granulomatous inflammatory reaction occurs as a result of schistosome eggs being transmitted to spinal cord or brain via the vascular system, or by inadvertent adult worm migration to these organs. The two main clinical syndromes are spinal cord neuroschistosomiasis (acute or subacute myelopathy and localized cerebral or cerebellar neuroschistosomiasis (focal CNS impairment, seizures, increased intracranial pressure. Presumptive diagnosis of NS requires confirming the presence of S. mansoni infection by stool microscopy or rectal biopsy for trematode eggs, and serologic testing of blood and spinal fluid. The localized lesions are identified by signs and symptoms, and confirmed by imaging techniques (contrast myelography, CT and MRI. Algorithms are presented to allow a stepwise approach to diagnosis.Neuroesquistossomose (NS é a segunda forma mais freqüente de apresentação da infecção causada pelo trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni. A inflamação do tipo granulomatosa ocorre como resultado da presença de ovos do S. mansoni que atingiram a medula espinhal ou o encéfalo via o sistema vascular ou pela migração inadvertida de vermes adultos para estes órgãos. Duas síndromes clínicas principais podem ser identificadas: a mielopatia esquistossomótica (aguda ou subaguda e a neuroesquistossomose cerebral ou cerebelar localizada (comprometimento focal do Sistema Nervoso Central, convulsões, hipertensão intracraniana. O diagnóstico presumido da NS requer a confirmação da presença da infecção por exame microscópico de fezes ou pela biópsia retal em busca de ovos de trematódeo e testes sorológicos no sangue e no líquor. As lesões localizadas são identificadas por sinais e sintomas, e confirmadas por exames de imagem (mielografia contrastada, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. Algoritmos s

  11. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  12. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  13. Crystal Structure of Schistosoma mansoni Adenosine Phosphorylase/5’-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase and Its Importance on Adenosine Salvage Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torini, Juliana Roberta; Brandão-Neto, José; DeMarco, Ricardo; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni do not have de novo purine pathways and rely on purine salvage for their purine supply. It has been demonstrated that, unlike humans, the S. mansoni is able to produce adenine directly from adenosine, although the enzyme responsible for this activity was unknown. In the present work we show that S. mansoni 5´-deoxy-5´-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP, E.C. 2.4.2.28) is capable of use adenosine as a substrate to the production of adenine. Through kinetics assays, we show that the Schistosoma mansoni MTAP (SmMTAP), unlike the mammalian MTAP, uses adenosine substrate with the same efficiency as MTA phosphorolysis, which suggests that this enzyme is part of the purine pathway salvage in S. mansoni and could be a promising target for anti-schistosoma therapies. Here, we present 13 SmMTAP structures from the wild type (WT), including three single and one double mutant, and generate a solid structural framework for structure description. These crystal structures of SmMTAP reveal that the active site contains three substitutions within and near the active site when compared to it mammalian counterpart, thus opening up the possibility of developing specific inhibitors to the parasite MTAP. The structural and kinetic data for 5 substrates reveal the structural basis for this interaction, providing substract for inteligent design of new compounds for block this enzyme activity. PMID:27935959

  14. An atlas for Schistosoma mansoni organs and life-cycle stages using cell type-specific markers and confocal microscopy.

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    James J Collins

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis (bilharzia is a tropical disease caused by trematode parasites (Schistosoma that affects hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. Currently only a single drug (praziquantel is available to treat this disease, highlighting the importance of developing new techniques to study Schistosoma. While molecular advances, including RNA interference and the availability of complete genome sequences for two Schistosoma species, will help to revolutionize studies of these animals, an array of tools for visualizing the consequences of experimental perturbations on tissue integrity and development needs to be made widely available. To this end, we screened a battery of commercially available stains, antibodies and fluorescently labeled lectins, many of which have not been described previously for analyzing schistosomes, for their ability to label various cell and tissue types in the cercarial stage of S. mansoni. This analysis uncovered more than 20 new markers that label most cercarial tissues, including the tegument, the musculature, the protonephridia, the secretory system and the nervous system. Using these markers we present a high-resolution visual depiction of cercarial anatomy. Examining the effectiveness of a subset of these markers in S. mansoni adults and miracidia, we demonstrate the value of these tools for labeling tissues in a variety of life-cycle stages. The methodologies described here will facilitate functional analyses aimed at understanding fundamental biological processes in these parasites.

  15. Development of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata Desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni em Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea e Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the development of Schistosoma mansoni during the intra-molluscan phase was made by means of histological sections of Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea and B. glabrata from Brazil. Two hundred snails of each species were individually exposed to 50 miracidia of the S. mansoni, AL line. No larvae were observed in the snails fixed 72 h after exposure. In specimens shedding cercariae, 31 days after exposure tissue reactions encapsulating the larvae were seen in B. tenagophila and B. straminea, in the head-foot, mantle collar and renal ducts. No tissue reactions occurred in the digestive glands of these two species. In B. glabrata the presence of numerous sporocysts and cercariae without tissue reactions was observed in the digestive gland, and other organs. The levels of infection of the snails and the average numbers of cercariae shed per day were 32.6% and 79±90 respectively for B. tenagophila, 11.3% and 112±100 for B. straminea and 75.3% and 432±436 for B. glabrata. The lower levels of infection and average numbers of cercariae shed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea are thus related to their more potent internal defense systems.Foi feito estudo comparativo do desenvolvimento do Schistosoma mansoni na fase intra-molusco, através de cortes histológicos, em Biomphalaria tenagophila, B. straminea e B. glabrata. Duzentos moluscos de cada espécie foram expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios de S. mansoni da linhagem AL. Nenhuma larva foi observada nos exemplares fixados 72 horas após a exposição. Nos exemplares eliminando cercárías, 31 dias após a exposição, foram observadas reações teciduais de encapsulamento de larvas em B. tenagophila e B. straminea, na região cefalopodal, colar do manto e dutos renais. Nas glândulas digestivas das duas espécies não foram observadas reações. Em B. glabrata foi registrada a presença de numerosos esporocistos e cercárias sem reação tecidual na gl

  16. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  17. Immune responses in rats and sheep induced by a DNA vaccine containing the phosphoglycerate kinase gene of Fasciola hepatica and liver fluke infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Pyziel, Anna M; Zygner, Wojciech; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Immune responses of rats and sheep following vaccination with cDNA encoding phosphoglycerate kinase of Fasciola hepatica (cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV) and F. hepatica infection were investigated in the present study. cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated female Sprague-Dawley rats were better protected by vaccination than their male counterparts - 48% reduction in fluke burden for females and no protection for males when compared with appropriate infection control groups. Moreover, male rats developed marked leukocytosis during the study with higher neutrophil, eosinophil and monocyte responses than females. Additionally, dynamics of eosinophil and monocyte responses varied between sexes. Increased titres of anti-FhPGK IgG1 and IgG2a correlated with the protective effect of vaccination that was observed among female rats. In the case of male sheep, no differences in worm burdens and in the course of the immune response were observed following vaccination. Titres of specific antibodies detected were low, and cellular responses were not significant. Apparently, sheep immune responses induced by cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccination are not effective at controlling F. hepatica infection. Poor immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in large animals is still a major obstacle of this technology that has to be overcome.

  18. Pakistan’s Accumulation of Foreign Exchange Reserves during 2001-2006: Benign or Hostile! Excessive or Moderate! Intent or Fluke!

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    Syed Kumail Abbas Rizvi (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of foreign exchange reserves has emerged as an incredible monetary tool particularly after the East Asian crisis of 1997 which somehow seems able not only to stimulate economy but also to stabilize most vulnerable variables like exchange rate, debts and deficits. However there is a dire need to investigate the impacts of this strategy on the financial and economic performance of a country.We analyze the economy of Pakistan during the period of 2001-2006 with reference to the probable use of reserves accumulation as a monetary tool and find convincing evidences that reserves were being accumulated excessively in that period and impacted successfully in stimulating GDP’s, Exports’ and Imports’ growth; stabilizing exchangerate; and reducing debt burdens and deficits. However, it is not evident that this strategy was designed and implemented intentionally by the monetary authorities following in thefootsteps of other economies of the region. It rather seems to be a spontaneous policy or a fluke generated as an aftermath of 9/11 attacks that actually led to the strong capital inflows in the country by way of remittances and net foreign factor income.

  19. Expression, refolding and purification of Ov-GRN-1, a granulin-like growth factor from the carcinogenic liver fluke, that causes proliferation of mammalian host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Michael J; Mulvenna, Jason P; Jones, Malcolm K; Loukas, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Granulins (GRNs) are potent growth factors that are upregulated in many aggressive cancers from a wide range of organs. GRNs form tight, disulphide bonded, beta hairpin stacks, making them difficult to express in recombinant form. We recently described Ov-GRN-1, a GRN family member secreted by the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini, and showed that recombinant Ov-GRN-1 expressed and refolded from Escherichia coli caused proliferation of mammalian cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. We now report on an optimized method to express and purify monomeric Ov-GRN-1 in E. coli using a straightforward and scalable purification and refolding process. Purified monomeric protein caused proliferation at nanomolar concentrations of cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines derived from human bile duct tissue. The expression and purification method we describe herein will serve as a backbone upon which to develop expression and purification processes for recombinant GRNs from other organisms, accelerating research on this intriguing family of proteins.

  20. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Skuce, Philip J.; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K.; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W.; Taggart, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson’s R = 0.89, p hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer. PMID:27598003

  1. Influence of levamisole and Freund's adjuvant on mouse immunisation with antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sanchez, Maria de Los Angeles; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Trejo-Castro, Lauro; Montenegro-Cristino, Natividad; Almanza-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; de la Rosa-Arana, Jorge Luis

    2015-08-28

    We have studied the influence of both levamisole (AL) and Freund's adjuvant (AF) on the immunisation of mice with the secretory antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758. Total IgG antibodies were detected in all groups where the F. hepatica antigen was administered, been levels of IgG1 increased respect to IgG2a antibodies. During immunisation, IL-4 and IFN-γ were only detected in AL and AF groups, but after infection, IL-4 boosted in all groups. IFN-γ increased two fold in AF and AL groups compared to the saline solution (AS) group. Worm recovering was of 32-35% in groups administered without antigen whereas in AS, AL and AF groups recovering was of 25%, 12% and 8%, respectively. Macroscopical lesions in the liver were scarce in AL and AF groups. Our data suggest that immunisation of mice with antigens of F. hepatica enhances the immune response avoiding both liver damage and worm establishment after challenge infection. The murine model of fasciolosis has appeared to be useful to elucidate the mechanism by which the parasite modulates immune responses toward a Th2 type but also the development of Th1 type-inducing vaccines.

  2. Cord Blood

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    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  3. The use of bivariate spatial modeling of questionnaire and parasitology data to predict the distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in Coastal Kenya.

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    Hugh J W Sturrock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Questionnaires of reported blood in urine (BIU distributed through the existing school system provide a rapid and reliable method to classify schools according to the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, thereby helping in the targeting of schistosomiasis control. However, not all schools return questionnaires and it is unclear whether treatment is warranted in such schools. This study investigates the use of bivariate spatial modelling of available and multiple data sources to predict the prevalence of S. haematobium at every school along the Kenyan coast. METHODOLOGY: Data from a questionnaire survey conducted by the Kenya Ministry of Education in Coast Province in 2009 were combined with available parasitological and environmental data in a Bayesian bivariate spatial model. This modeled the relationship between BIU data and environmental covariates, as well as the relationship between BIU and S. haematobium infection prevalence, to predict S. haematobium infection prevalence at all schools in the study region. Validation procedures were implemented to assess the predictive accuracy of endemicity classification. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of BIU was negatively correlated with distance to nearest river and there was considerable residual spatial correlation at small (~15 km spatial scales. There was a predictable relationship between the prevalence of reported BIU and S. haematobium infection. The final model exhibited excellent sensitivity (0.94 but moderate specificity (0.69 in identifying low (<10% prevalence schools, and had poor performance in differentiating between moderate and high prevalence schools (sensitivity 0.5, specificity 1. CONCLUSIONS: Schistosomiasis is highly focal and there is a need to target treatment on a school-by-school basis. The use of bivariate spatial modelling can supplement questionnaire data to identify schools requiring mass treatment, but is unable to distinguish between moderate and high

  4. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J; Campbell, Carl H; King, Charles H; Colley, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(-)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10-15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(-) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a "lesser" POC-CCA "level of positivity." The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to elimination of

  5. Genome-wide identification of Schistosoma japonicum microRNAs using a deep-sequencing approach.

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    Jian Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent and serious parasitic diseases worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum is one of important pathogens of this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs in a given organism is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and posttranscriptional regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced two small RNA libraries prepared from different stages of the life cycle of S. japonicum, immature schistosomula and mature pairing adults, through a deep DNA sequencing approach, which yielded approximately 12 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of approximately 2 million non-redundant tags. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we identified 176 new S. japonicum miRNAs, of which some exhibited a differential pattern of expression between the two stages. Although 21 S. japonicum miRNAs are orthologs of known miRNAs within the metazoans, some nucleotides at many positions of Schistosoma miRNAs, such as miR-8, let-7, miR-10, miR-31, miR-92, miR-124, and miR-125, are indeed significantly distinct from other bilaterian orthologs. In addition, both miR-71 and some miR-2 family members in tandem are found to be clustered in a reversal direction model on two genomic loci, and two pairs of novel S. japonicum miRNAs were derived from sense and antisense DNA strands at the same genomic loci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The collection of S. japonicum miRNAs could be used as a new platform to study the genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, evolutionary processes, development, and host-parasite interactions. Some S. japonicum miRNAs and their clusters could represent the ancestral forms of the conserved orthologues and a model for the genesis of novel miRNAs.

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  7. Effect of maternal Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni infection and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tweyongyere

    Full Text Available Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years.Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4% had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not.We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have

  8. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  9. Identification and Characterization of Peptides Mimicking the Epitopes of Metalloprotease of Schistosoma Japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianfei Tang; Yuxiao Chen; Linqian Wang; Shunke Zhang; Xianfang Zeng; Xinyuan Yi

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to isolate and characterize peptides mimicking epitopes of metalloprotease and explore their immunological protection against Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum), polyclonal anti-metalloprotease sera was prepared to screen a 12-mer random peptide library to isolate phages binding specially to antisera IgG. Then,phage ELISA, animal immunization, DNA sequencing, Western blotting and enzymatic activity neutralizing analysis were used to characterize the selected phage clones. All of ten randomly picked clones were shown to be positive. Five peptides of different amino acid sequences deduced from DNA sequences were obtained and two of them (peptides 2 and 3) could induce significant reduction (31.0% and 31.8%, respectively) in worm burden and high reduction (52.6% and 54.9%, respectively) in liver eggs per gram (LEPG), while, unexpectedly, others (peptides 1, 4 and 5) could not elicit enough protection against infection of S. japonicum. Peptides 2 and 3 could be recognized by S. japonicum infected mouse sera (IMS) and could elicit neutralizing Abs. The results show that peptides 2 and 3 are antigenic and immunogenic. They are true mimics of epitopes of metalloprotease and useful as novel vaccine candidates against S. japonicum.

  10. A circular analysis of chronobiology of Schistosoma japonicum cercarial emergence from hilly areas of Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Lu, Da-Bing

    2013-10-01

    About 46 mammal species have been suspected as reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum and therefore the track of the target parasites, in relation to definitive host species, may be of great importance in terms of theoretical and practical implications. The circadian rhythm of cercariae emergence, a genetically controlled behavior for parasites to adapt to their definitive hosts, may seem to be a perfect biological marker for S. japonicum. In this study, a late (or nocturnal) cercarial emergence pattern was observed on the parasites from one hilly region in Anhui of China, where rodents serve as reservoirs, and on the first generation of the parasites. Moreover, by using the circular statistics, the homogeneity of parasites in such trait was also demonstrated. All these provide evidence for the genetically controlled biological trait, which seems essential in the investigation of macro- or micro-dynamics of parasite transmission of interest. This is particularly true in the case of S. japonicum when multiple parasite isolates or strains are more likely to exist.

  11. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

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    Xiaojun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  12. Parasitological characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni infection in swiss mice with underlying malnutrition

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    Simões Carla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a protein-restricted diet (8% protein, 81% carbohydrate and 11% lipids on Schistosoma mansoni infectivity, fecal egg excretion and intestinal egg distribution in Swiss (SW mice were studied. Pregnant mice received a deficient diet from the middle of gestation until delivery. Seven-days-old mice were exposed to 50 cercariae (BH strain, Brazil. Offspring mice had a free access to the deficient diet since lactation until adulthood. The controls were fed with a commercial mice diet. A parasitological examination was performed between six and eight weeks post-infection while both groups were necropsied one week later. Mice on the experimental diet showed a significant loss in body weight. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in pre-patent period, kinetics of egg excretion and worm recovery from mice on either diet. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found concerning to the percentage of deposited eggs in the distal segment of the small intestine from hosts on the experimental diet.Our data suggest that experimental malnutrition induced for a long term has no detrimental effect on the acute schistosomiais infection in SW mice.

  13. Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Philip T LoVerde

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, lives in a hostile environment in close contact with host humoral and cellular cytotoxic factors. To establish itself in the host, the parasite has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the expression of antioxidant enzymes is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels present in the adult worm, the stage least susceptible to immune elimination, and the lowest levels in the larval stages, the most susceptible to immune elimination. Vaccination of mice with naked DNA constructs containing Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase (CT-SOD, signal-peptide containing SOD or glutathione peroxidase (GPX showed significant levels of protection compared to a control group. We have further shown that vaccination with SmCT-SOD but not SmGPX results in elimination of adult worms. Anti-oxidant enzyme vaccine candidates offer an advance over existing vaccine strategies that all seem to target the larval developmental stages in that they target adult worms and thus may have therapeutic as well as prophylactic value. To eliminate the potential for cross-reactivity of SmCT-SOD with human superoxide dismutase, we identified parasite-specific epitope-containing peptides. Our results serve as a basis for developing a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  14. Ultrasound monitoring of structural urinary tract disease in Schistosoma haematobium infection

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    King Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major advance in our understanding of the natural history of Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity has come through the introduction of the portable ultrasound machines for non-invasive examination of the kidneys and bladder. With the use of generators or battery packs to supply power in non-clinical field settings, and with the use of instant photography or miniaturized thermal printers to record permanent images, it is possible to examine scores of individuals in endemic communities every day. Broad-based ultrasound screening has allowed better definition of age-specific disease risks in urinary schistosomiasis. Results indicate that urinary tract abnormalities are common (18% overall prevalence in S. haematobium transmission areas, with a 2-4% risk of either severe bladder abnormality or advanced ureteral obstruction. In longitudinal surveys, ultrasound studies have shown that praziquantel and metrifonate therapy are rapidly effective in reversing urinary tract abnormalities among children. The benefits of treating adults are less well known, but research in progress should help to define this issue. Similarly, the prognosis of specific ultrasound findings needs to be clarified, and the ease of sonographic examination will make such long-term follow-up studies feasible. In summary, the painless, quick, and reproducible ultrasound examination has become an essential tool in the study of urinary schistosomiasis.

  15. Detection of Urinary Tract Pathology in Some Schistosoma haematobium Infected Nigerian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onile, O S; Awobode, H O; Oladele, V S; Agunloye, A M; Anumudu, C I

    2016-01-01

    Screening for Schistosoma haematobium infection and its possible morbidity was carried out in 257 adult participants in Eggua community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Parasitological assessment for the presence of ova of S. haematobium in urine and abdominopelvic ultrasonographic examination for bladder and secondary kidney pathology were carried out. S. haematobium prevalence of 25.68% (66/257) was recorded among the participants. There was a significantly higher prevalence of 69.2% of urinary schistosomiasis in the females than the prevalence of 31.8% in males (P = 0.902). The intensity of infections was mostly light (55) (21.8%) compared to heavy (10) (3.9%) with the mean intensity of 16.7 eggs/10 mL urine. Structural bladder pathology prevalence among participants was 33.9%. The bladder and kidney pathologies observed by ultrasound in subjects with S. haematobium infections included abnormal bladder wall thickness (59%), abnormal bladder shape (15.2%), bladder wall irregularities (15.2%), bladder masses (1.5%), bladder calcification (1.5%), and hydronephrosis (3%). Infection with S. haematobium was associated with bladder pathology. Higher frequencies of bladder abnormalities were observed more in the participants with light intensity of S. haematobium infection than in those with heavy infection. More bladder pathology was also seen in women than in men, although this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is evidence that the development of bladder pathology may be associated with S. haematobium infection.

  16. Circulating anodic antigen for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morshedy, H; Kinosien, B; Barakat, R; Omer, E; Khamis, N; Deelder, A M; Phillips, M

    1996-02-01

    We evaluated the ability of circulating anodic antigen (CAA) to identify infection with Schistosoma mansoni in a prospective cohort study of 257 Egyptian men, 147 with infection diagnosed by repeated Kato thick smears, and 110 without detectable infection. The CAA levels were obtained and the stool examinations were performed two weeks and one, two, four, and six months after praziquantel therapy for infected men. A CAA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was repeated twice on subjects who were otherwise negative for schistosomiasis. Circulating anodic antigen was detected in 117 cases, with an overall test sensitivity before treatment of 0.8. Sensitivity was related to the intensity of infection, ranging from 1.00 with > 400 eggs per gram (epg) of feces to 0.60 for those with or = 4. We conclude that CAA has moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity when used to identify infection with schistosomiasis, as well as to monitor the results of therapy after at least one month after treatment.

  17. Increased prevalence of leukocytes and elevated cytokine levels in semen from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutscher, Peter D C; Pedersen, Mette; Raharisolo, Clairette; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Hoffmann, Steen; Lisse, Ida; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Reimert, Claus M; Mauclere, Philippe; Ullum, Henrik

    2005-05-15

    In this study, we investigated the seminal inflammatory response to egg infestation of the urogenital organs in 240 semen-donating men aged 15-49 years living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of Madagascar. In 29 subjects (12%) with excretion of > or =5 ova/ejaculate, leukocytospermia (>10(6) leukocytes/mL) and the presence of seminal lymphocytes and eosinophil leukocytes were each significantly more prevalent than in 74 subjects (31%) who were S. haematobium negative (Pinfection-negative subjects (Pinfection (STI) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis did not act as a confounding factor for the observed associations. At follow-up, 6 months after systematic antischistosomiasis and STI syndrome treatment at baseline, the prevalence of seminal leukocytes decreased significantly among the previously seminal egg-positive subjects. The same tendency was observed for the posttreatment levels of cytokines. Numerous studies have already shown an association between STI-associated genital inflammation and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) propagation. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that male urogenital schistosomiasis may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission, as a result of egg-induced inflammation in the semen-producing pelvic organs.

  18. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

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    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  19. Schistosoma japonicum:Isolation and Identification of Peptides Mimicking Ferritin Epitopes from Phage Display Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Fei TANG; Xin-Yuan YI; Xian-Fang ZENG; Lin-Qian WANG; Shun-Ke ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to isolate and identify the antigenic epitopes on ferritin of Schistosoma japonicum(SjFer)and to test their protective potentiality against Schistosomajaponicum(S.j),polyclonal antisera against SjFer was prepared to screen a 12-mer random peptide library.Three rounds of biopanning were performed and resulted in an enrichment.Six peptides selected randomly from the third elute were all found to be positive by evaluating the binding to anti-SjFer sera by ELISA and Western blotting.Three amino acid sequences were deduced from the six phage clones by sequencing.When they were used to vaccinate mice,the three peptides could induce significant reduction in adult worms(26.7% ,20.4%,and 25.9%)as well as in liver eggs per gram(LEPG)(40.0%,38.2%,and 40.8%).This result showed that three mimotopes on SjFer were obtained and they could induce significant protective efficacy against S.j.

  20. The extracellular release of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 nuclear protein is mediated by acetylation

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    Coutinho Carneiro, Vitor; Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Isabel; Furtado Madeira da Costa, Rodrigo [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Neto Paiva, Claudia; Torres Bozza, Marcelo [Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Rosado Fantappie, Marcelo, E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biotecnologia e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2009-12-25

    Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) was revealed to be a substrate for the parasite histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. We found that full-length SmHMGB1, as well as its HMG-box B (but not HMG-box A) were acetylated in vitro by SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. However, SmCBP1 was able to acetylate both substrates more efficiently than SmGCN5. Interestingly, the removal of the C-terminal acidic tail of SmHMGB1 (SmHMGB1{Delta}C) resulted in increased acetylation of the protein. We showed by mammalian cell transfection assays that SmHMGB1 and SmHMGB1{Delta}C were transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment. Importantly, after NaB treatment, SmHMGB1 was also present outside the cell. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of SmHMGB1 plays a role in cellular trafficking, culminating with its secretion to the extracellular milieu. The possible role of SmHMGB1 acetylation in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is discussed.

  1. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tegumental surface of adult Schistosoma sinensium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S; Sahaphong, S; Tongthong, T; Khunborivan, V

    1983-12-01

    The SEM study of tegumental surface of adult Schistosoma sinensium reveals that the male tegument lacks tubercles or bosses; instead it is corrugated with small pits or perforated ridges. On the dorsal surface, spines are present whose number and size progressively increase towards the posterior end of the body. In addition, there are three types of papillae interspersed among the ridges and spines. The first type of papillae has crater-like holes surrounded by a circular doughnut-shaped elevation; some are ciliated and others are non-ciliated. They are generally found on the dorsal and ventral surfaces. The second is sensory papillae which are hemispherical in shape bearing apical cilia. They are found to be concentrated around the oral sucker and on the posterior end of the worm. The third is fungiform papillae without cilia which are found on the posterior end. There are short spines present on the tegument lining the gynecophoral canal of the male worm. The tegument of the female S. sinensium is corrugated with ridges on the ventral surface. Small spines are present on the anterior portion of the dorsal surface. They become larger and increased in number towards the posterior end of the worm. The three types of papillae are present but they are much fewer and less developed than those in the male worm.

  2. Ultrastructural and biochemical detection of biotin and biotinylated polypeptides in Schistosoma mansoni

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    Santos P.R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotinylation is proposed for the identification of surface proteins in Schistosoma mansoni using the streptavidin-HRP conjugate for the detection of labeled polypeptides. However, control samples also showed several endogenous biotinylated polypeptides. In an attempt to determine the possibility of nonspecific binding between the streptavidin-HRP conjugate and polypeptides from S. mansoni, the conjugate was blocked with biotinamidecaproate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BcapNHS before biotin-streptavidin blotting. No bands were detected on the nitrocellulose sheet, demonstrating the specific recognition of biotin by the streptavidin present in the conjugate. Whole cercariae and cercarial bodies and tails showed several endogenous biotinylated polypeptides. The biotin concentration was 13 µg/190,000 cercariae. Adult worms presented less endogenous biotinylated polypeptides than cercariae. These results may be due to changes in the environment from aerobic to anaerobic conditions when cercarial bodies (schistosomula are transformed into adult worms and a decrease in CO2 production may occur. Cercariae, cercarial bodies and adult male worms were examined by transmission electron microscopy employing an avidin-colloidal gold conjugate for the detection of endogenous biotin. Gold particles were distributed mainly on the muscle fibers, but dispersed granules were observed in the tegument, mitochondria and cytosol. The discovery of endogenous biotin in S. mansoni should be investigated in order to clarify the function of this vitamin in the parasite

  3. Therapy with bone marrow cells reduces liver alterations in mice chronically infected by Schistosoma mansoni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheilla Andrade Oliveira; Bruno Solano Freitas Souza; Cada Adriana Guimar(a)es-Ferreira; Elton Sá Barreto; Siane Campos Souza; Luiz Antonio Rodrigues Freitas; Ricardo Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MCs) in the regeneration of hepatic lesions induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S.mansoni) chronic infection.METHODS: Female mice chronically infected with S.mansoni were treated with BM-MCs obtained from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by intravenous or intralobular injections. Control mice received injections of saline in similar conditions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for GFP DNA, immunofluorescence and morphometric studies were performed.RESULTS: Transplanted GFP+ cells migrated to granuloma areas and reduced the percentage of liver fibrosis. The presence of donor-derived cells was confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for detection of cells bearing Y chromosome and by PCR analysis for detection of GFP DNA. The levels of TGF-β, a cytokine associated with fibrosis deposition, in liver fragments of mice submitted to therapy were reduced. The number of oval cells in liver sections of S.rnansoni-infected mice increased 3-4 fold after transplantation. A partial recovery in albumin expression, which is decreased upon infection with S.mansoni, was found in livers of infected mice after cellular therapy.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, transplanted BMCs migrate to and reduce the damage of chronic fibrotic liver lesions caused by S.mansoni.

  4. Indirect Effects of Oral Tolerance Inhibit Pulmonary Granulomas to Schistosoma mansoni Eggs

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    Geraldo Magela Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral injection of tolerated proteins into orally tolerant mice inhibits the initiation of immunological responses to unrelated proteins and blocks severe chronic inflammatory reactions of immunological origin, such as autoimmune reactions. This inhibitory effect which we have called “indirect effects of oral tolerance” is also known as “bystander suppression.” Herein, we show that i.p. injection of OVA + Al(OH3 minutes before i.v. injection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs into OVA tolerant mice blocked the increase of pulmonary granulomas. In addition, the expression of ICAM-1 in lung parenchyma in areas outside the granulomas of OVA-orally tolerant mice was significantly reduced. However, at day 18 after granuloma induction there was no difference in immunofluorescency intensity to CD3, CD4, F4/80, andα-SMA per granuloma area of tolerant and control groups. Reduction of granulomas by reexposure to orally tolerated proteins was not correlated with a shift in Th-1/Th-2 cytokines in serum or lung tissue extract.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Antônio Aurélio Euzébio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of three different Schistosoma mansoni strains from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (BH strain and São Paulo (SJ and SD strains was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Observations of the most severe clinical cases among local patients treated (SD strain in the city of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil formed the basis of this study. Mice were used as definitive hosts and were infected with cercariae from Biomphalaria tenagophila (SJ and SD strains and Biomphalaria glabrata (BH strains. The parameters analyzed were as follows: number of S. mansoni eggs in mice feces; number of granulomas per tissue area in liver, spleen, lungs, pancreas, and ascending colon; measurements of hepatic and intestinal granulomas; number of adult worms; and measurements of trematode eggs. The comparison among the three strains indicated that the SD strain, isolated in Campinas, presented a higher worm recovery relative to the number of penetrating cercariae. In addition, when compared to the SJ and BH strains, the SD strain demonstrated similar pathogenicity to the BH strain, with a greater quantity of granulomas in the viscera, as well as larger granulomas and eggs. Furthermore, a greater quantity of trematode eggs was also shed in the feces.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of Different Strains of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzébio, Antônio Aurélio; Zuim, Nádia Regina Borim; Linhares, Arício Xavier; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of three different Schistosoma mansoni strains from the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (BH strain) and São Paulo (SJ and SD strains) was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Observations of the most severe clinical cases among local patients treated (SD strain) in the city of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil) formed the basis of this study. Mice were used as definitive hosts and were infected with cercariae from Biomphalaria tenagophila (SJ and SD strains) and Biomphalaria glabrata (BH strains). The parameters analyzed were as follows: number of S. mansoni eggs in mice feces; number of granulomas per tissue area in liver, spleen, lungs, pancreas, and ascending colon; measurements of hepatic and intestinal granulomas; number of adult worms; and measurements of trematode eggs. The comparison among the three strains indicated that the SD strain, isolated in Campinas, presented a higher worm recovery relative to the number of penetrating cercariae. In addition, when compared to the SJ and BH strains, the SD strain demonstrated similar pathogenicity to the BH strain, with a greater quantity of granulomas in the viscera, as well as larger granulomas and eggs. Furthermore, a greater quantity of trematode eggs was also shed in the feces.

  7. Characterization of export receptor exportins (XPOs) in the parasite Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Fabiano C P; Pereira, Roberta V; Oliveira, Victor F; Gomes, Matheus de S; Jannotti-Passos, Liana K; Borges, William C; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2013-12-01

    Several proteins and different species of RNA that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes, which require a family of conserved nuclear export receptors called exportins (XPOs). It has been reported that the XPOs (XPO1, XPO5, and XPOT) are directly involved in the transport processes of noncoding RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and/or from cytoplasm to the nucleus. All three genes are present in fungi, plants, and deuterostome metazoans. However, protostome metazoan species lack one of the three genes across evolution. In this report, we have demonstrated that all three XPO proteins are present in the parasite protostome Schistosoma mansoni. As this parasite has a complex life cycle presenting several stages in different hosts and environments, implying a differential gene regulation, we proposed a genomic analysis of XPOs to validate their annotation. The results showed the conservation of exportin family members and gene duplication events in S. mansoni. We performed quantitative RT-PCR, which revealed an upregulation of SmXPO1 in 24 h schistosomula (sixfold when compared with cercariae), and similar transcription levels were observed for SmXPO5 and SmXPOT in all the analyzed stages. These three XPO proteins have been identified for the first time in the protostome clade, which suggests a higher complexity in RNA transport in the parasite S. mansoni. Taken together, these results suggest that RNA transport by exportins might control cellular processes during cercariae, schistosomula, and adult worm development.

  8. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

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    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  9. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

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    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  10. La queratotaxia cercariana en la diferenciacion de sexos de schistosoma mansoni

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    Luz Arelis Pino

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available El número de papilas argirófilas superficiales y su modelo de disposición en el tegumento de las cercarias (quetotaxia de Schistosoma mansoni nos permitió diferenciar los sexos a nivel del mencionado estadío larvario, mediante los siguientes critérios: - Mayor homogeneidad en las cercarias machos, en cuanto al número total de papilas ventrales y dorsales a nivel de cuerpo y cola cercarianos (C.V. = 4,1%, que en las cercarias hembras (C. V. = 18,3% (P < 0,001. - Presencia en el 80% de las cercarias machos de cuatro papilas en los cuadrantes "C" ó "D" inferior-izquierdo e inferior-derecho, respectivamente ventrales, mientras que dicho caracter sólo está presente en el 40% de las cercarias hembras (P < 0,001. - Diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P < 0,001 entre el número total promedio de papilas corporales centrales de las cercarias hembras (X = 11,9 ± 0,2 y el de las cercarias machos (X = 11,1 ± 0,3. - Diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P < 0,05 para la mayor distancia promedio entre las papilas AIL y AIIL, de cada cercaria, en relación con el sexo (femenino = 25,5 µm ± 0,33; masculino = 27,3 µm ± 0,26.

  11. Extra-cellular matrix changes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Borges Claudia Maria da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivity of snails against parasites exhibits a primitive focal reaction, with encapsulation, phagocytosis and destruction of parasite larvae by macrophage-like cells - the hemocytes. This reaction mimics granulomatous inflammation seen in higher animals. However, different from the latter, little is known about the participation of extra-cellular matrix in such snail defense reactions. Normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata of different strains were submitted to cytological, histological, ultrastructural and biochemical methods in order to investigate the behavior of extra-cellular tissues at the site of anti-parasite reactions. In spite of the presence of two cell-types in peripheral hemolymph, only one cell-type was present at the sites of tissue reactions. Although pre-existent collagen and elastic fibers and microfibrils sometimes appeared slightly compressed around focal reactions, no evidences of duplication, synthesis or deposition of connective-tissue extra-cellular components were observed within or around the zones of reactive cell accumulations. Thus, tissue reactions against S. mansoni in the snail B. glabrata appeared exclusively dependent on one specific population of hemocytes.

  12. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Coen M Adema

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide a novel resource for analysis of the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, members of the international Biomphalaria glabrata Genome Initiative (biology.unm.edu/biomphalaria-genome.html, working with the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI and supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI, produced a high quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library. The BB02 strain B. glabrata, a field isolate (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil that is susceptible to several strains of Schistosoma mansoni, was selfed for two generations to reduce haplotype diversity in the offspring. High molecular weight DNA was isolated from ovotestes of 40 snails, partially digested with HindIII, and ligated into pAGIBAC1 vector. The resulting B. glabrata BAC library (BG_BBa consists of 61824 clones (136.3 kb average insert size and provides 9.05 × coverage of the 931 Mb genome. Probing with single/low copy number genes from B. glabrata and fingerprinting of selected BAC clones indicated that the BAC library sufficiently represents the gene complement. BAC end sequence data (514 reads, 299860 nt indicated that the genome of B. glabrata contains ~ 63% AT, and disclosed several novel genes, transposable elements, and groups of high frequency sequence elements. This BG_BBa BAC library, available from AGI at cost to the research community, gains in relevance because BB02 strain B. glabrata is targeted whole genome sequencing by NHGRI.

  13. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity.

  14. Functional visualization of the excretory system of adult Schistosoma mansoni by the fluorescent marker resorufin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Kusel, J R; Thornhill, J

    2002-12-01

    Excretion of metabolic wastes as well as xenobiotics is a major concern of all living organisms, and the Platyhelminthes including Schistosoma mansoni possess the protonephridial excretory system for their survival. Except for some ultra-structural and biochemical information, little is known about the protonephridium of platyhelminths due to a lack of established techniques for exploring the excretory activity. This study describes a new technique to assess the excretory activity of S. mansoni by use of the fluorescent marker resorufin, which is a potential substrate of the drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein. After simple diffusion into the schistosome body, fluorescent resorufin was concentrated in the excretory tubules by an energy-dependent mechanism and excreted via the nephridiopore. The present technique of labelling functionally the excretory system was applicable to adult worms, but not schistosomula or cercariae. A variety of modulators known to interfere with mammalian P-glycoprotein function perturbed resorufin excretion from male adult schistosomes, including cyclosporin A, Ro11-2933, verapamil, or nifedipine. This technique of labelling the excretory system with fluorescent resorufin has enabled us to study aspects of the physiological function, hitherto unknown, of the protonephridial system of S. mansoni.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases

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    Maria Ilma Araújo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection leads to a type 2-immune response with increased production of interleukin (IL-10. Evidence indicates chronic exposure to S. mansoni down regulates the type 1 immune response and prevents the onset of Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus and Cronh's disease. Furthermore, our own studies have revealed that chronic exposure to S. mansoni also down regulates atopic disease, Th2-mediated diseases. Our studies show an inverse association between the skin prick test reactivity and infection with S. mansoni and show the severity of asthma is reduced in subjects living in an endemic area of S. mansoni. Moreover, we hypothesize the mechanisms involved in the modulation of inflammatory response in atopic individuals, is likely dependent on IL-10 production, an anti-inflammatory cytokine elevated during helminth infections. Patients with asthma and helminth infections produced less IL-5 than patients with asthma without helminth infections, and this down regulation could, in part, be mediated by IL-10. In conclusion, helminthic infections, through induction of regulatory mechanisms, such as IL-10 production, are able to modulate the inflammatory immune response involved in the pathology of auto-immune and allergic disease.

  16. Comparison of Schistosoma mansoni soluble cercarial antigens and soluble egg antigens for serodiagnosing schistosome infections.

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    Huw Smith

    Full Text Available A Schistosoma mansoni cercarial antigen preparation (cercarial transformation fluid--SmCTF was evaluated for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in human sera in 4 collaborating laboratories. The performance of SmCTF was compared with that of S. mansoni egg antigens (SmSEA in an indirect enzyme-immunoassay (ELISA antigen assay, the latter being used routinely in 3 of the 4 participating laboratories to diagnose S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections. In the fourth laboratory the performance of SmCTF was compared with that of S. japonicum egg antigens (SjSEA in ELISA for detection of anti-S. japonicum antibodies. In all 4 laboratories the results given by SmCTF in ELISA were very similar to those given by the antigen preparation routinely used in the respective laboratory to detect anti-schistosome antibodies in human infection sera. In so far as the ELISA results from SmCTF are thus so little different from those given by schistosome egg antigens and also cheaper to produce, the former is a potentially useful new diagnostic aid for schistosomiasis.

  17. Spatial distribution of human Schistosoma japonicum infections in the Dongting Lake Region, China.

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    Giovanna Raso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to spatially model the effect of demographic, reservoir hosts and environmental factors on human Schistosoma japonicum infection prevalence in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China and to determine the potential of each indicator in targeting schistosomiasis control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional serological, coprological and demographic data were obtained from the 2004 nationwide periodic epidemiologic survey for Hunan Province. Environmental data were downloaded from the USGS EROS data centre. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed for spatial analysis of the infection prevalence among study participants. A total of 47,139 participants from 47 administrative villages were selected. Age, sex and occupation of residents and the presence of infected buffaloes and environmental factors, i.e. NDVI, distance to the lake and endemic type of setting, were significantly associated with S. japonicum infection prevalence. After taking into account spatial correlation, however, only demographic factors (age, sex and occupation and the presence of infected buffaloes remained significant indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long established demographic factors, as well presence of host reservoirs rather than environmental factors are driving human transmission. Findings of this work can be used for epidemiologic surveillance and for the future planning of interventions in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province.

  18. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

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    Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA and T. parthenium (TP and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.

  19. Predicting the spatial distribution of Biomphalaria straminea, a potential intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, in China

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    Mohamed R. Habib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases impacting human health in the tropics and sub-tropics. The geographic distribution of Schistosoma mansoni, the most widespread species, includes areas in Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. Snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate host for S. mansoni. Biomphalaria straminea is not indigenous in China but was accidentally introduced to Hong Kong from South America and has spread to other habitats in the southern parts of the country. This species is known for its great dispersal capacity that highlights the importance of the snail as a potential host for S. mansoni in China. In this connection, although no such infection has been recorded in the field so far, the continuous expansion of China’s projects in endemic areas of Africa and import of the infection via returning workers or visitors deserve attention. The purpose of this study was to map and predict the spatial distribution of B. straminea in China. Snail occurrence data were assembled and investigated using MaxEnt software, along with climatic and environmental variables to produce a predictive risk map. Of the environmental variables tested, the precipitation of warmest quarter was the most contribution factor for snail’s spatial distribution. Risk areas were found in southeastern China and it is expected that they will guide policies and control programmes to potential areas area of snail abundance and used for spatial targeting of control interventions for this invasive species.

  20. Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Better Method for Diagnosing Chronic Schistosoma mansoni Infections.

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    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Mohamed, Rabie M; Belal, Usama S; Abdel-Raheem, Ehab M; Naoi, Koji; Norose, Kazumi

    2015-12-01

    For more effective diagnosis of the acute and chronic stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection in humans, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was compared with the Kato-Katz method. A total of 150 stool samples were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics at the Department of Tropical Medicine, Minia University Hospital, Egypt. Three groups of patients, 50 with acute intestinal schistosomiasis, 70 with chronic intestinal schistosomiasis and 30 normal healthy controls were studied. Stool samples were analyzed by PCR and the Kato-Katz method. The mean number of eggs per gram of feces was 4.6 when estimated by the Kato-Katz method in positive stool samples from acute schistosomiasis cases but only 1.7 in chronic cases. In acute intestinal schistosomiasis, 15 and 45 out of 50 cases were positive by Kato-Katz and PCR, respectively. In the chronic intestinal schistosomiasis cases, 6 and 68 out of 70 cases were positive by the Kato-Katz and PCR methods, respectively. We conclude that PCR appears to be an effective diagnostic technique for S. mansoni infection, especially where a low worm burden exists, such as in chronic cases.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni: quantification of skin penetration and early migration by differential external radioassay and autoradiography

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    Georgi, J.R. (New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca (USA))

    1982-04-01

    Eleven gamma-emitting radionuclides (/sup 49/Sc, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 75/Se (as selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate), /sup 109/Cd, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 203/Hg) were screened as labelling agents for Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by incubation of infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails in radioactive solution. Only (/sup 75/Se)methionine yielded satisfactorily labelled cercariae. Differential external radioassay, a new technique employing partial body shielding within a total body counter, permitted separate estimation of tail and body radioactivity of conscious mice previously exposed by tail immersion to /sup 75/Se-labelled cercariae, with measurements repeated as often as desired. Approximately 39% of the /sup 75/Se present in emergent cercariae was retained by schistosomula transformed in vitro but this was subject to considerable variation, especially in schistosomula transformed in vivo. Secreted or catabolized label from penetrant cercariae and schistosomula was rapidly removed from the skin by the bloodstream. Numbers of schistosomula in tail skin were directly proportional to the number of reduced silver foci counted on tail autoradiograms; only a very small fraction of tail radioactivity represented unbound ('spurious') label. Migration of schistosomula away from skin was 50% complete at 3.8-4.3 days, as determined by probit analysis of autoradiographic data.

  2. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

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    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  3. BEBERAPA FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN PENULARAN Schistosoma japonicum DI DATARAN TINGGI NAPU KABUPATEN POSO SULAWESI TENGAH

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    Rosmini Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The transmission of schistosomiasis is related with human behavior or habit factors in the schistosomiasis endemic area. The Purpose of this study was to identify several factors in relationship with schistosomiasis in Napu Highland. The Study was observational with cross sectional design. Data collection were coducted stool survey and interviewes in among 196 respondents using simple random sampling. Stool samples were examined by the Kato-Katz method and interviewed was used  questionnaire to identify several factors in realtionship with schistosomiasis transmission. Out of 6 community behaviours suspected to contribute to infection of schistosomiasis, 5 were related with schistosomiasis, i. e. the habit of taking a bath and washing in the river (p=<0.001, always going to the focus area (p=0.04,utilizing water resources from well (p=0.001, washing legs or hand in the river(p=<0.001 and swimming (p=0.007. Schistosomiasis infection was related to the community behaviour of bathing and washing in the river, always going to the focus area, utilizing water resources from well, washing legs or hand in the river and swimming.Key word: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, behaviour, Napu Highland.Central Sulawesi

  4. Towards an understanding of the function of the phytochelatin synthase of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Rigouin, Coraline; Nylin, Elyse; Cogswell, Alexis A; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Williams, David L

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is a protease-like enzyme that catalyzes the production of metal chelating peptides, the phytochelatins, from glutathione (GSH). In plants, algae, and fungi phytochelatin production is important for metal tolerance and detoxification. PCS proteins also function in xenobiotic metabolism by processing GSH S-conjugates. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of PCS in the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni. Recombinant S. mansoni PCS proteins expressed in bacteria could both synthesize phytochelatins and hydrolyze various GSH S-conjugates. We found that both the N-truncated protein and the N- and C-terminal truncated form of the enzyme (corresponding to only the catalytic domain) work through a thiol-dependant and, notably, metal-independent mechanism for both transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthesis) and peptidase (hydrolysis of GSH S-conjugates) activities. PCS transcript abundance was increased by metals and xenobiotics in cultured adult worms. In addition, these treatments were found to increase transcript abundance of other enzymes involved in GSH metabolism. Highest levels of PCS transcripts were identified in the esophageal gland of adult worms. Taken together, these results suggest that S. mansoni PCS participates in both metal homoeostasis and xenobiotic metabolism rather than metal detoxification as previously suggested and that the enzyme may be part of a global stress response in the worm. Because humans do not have PCS, this enzyme is of particular interest as a drug target for schistosomiasis.

  5. Exposure to Hycanthone alters chromatin structure around specific gene functions and specific repeats in Schistosoma mansoni

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    David eRoquis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic plathyhelminth responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis, a disease affecting 67 million people worldwide and causing an important economic burden. The schistosomicides hycanthone, and its later proxy oxamniquine, were widely used for treatments in endemic areas during the 20th century. Recently, the mechanism of action, as well as the genetic origin of a stably and Mendelian inherited resistance for both drugs was elucidated in two strains. However, several observations suggested early on that alternative mechanisms might exist, by which resistance could be induced for these two drugs in sensitive lines of schistosomes. This induced resistance appeared rapidly, within the first generation, but was metastable (not stably inherited. Epigenetic inheritance could explain such a phenomenon and we therefore re-analyzed the historical data with our current knowledge of epigenetics. In addition, we performed new experiments such as ChIP-seq on hycanthone treated worms. We found distinct chromatin structure changes between sensitive worms and induced resistant worms from the same strain. No specific pathway was discovered, but genes in which chromatin structure modification were observed are mostly associated with transport and catabolism, which makes sense in the context of the elimination of the drug. Specific differences were observed in the repetitive compartment of the genome. We finally describe what types of experiments are needed to understand the complexity of heritability that can be based on genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms for drug resistance in schistosomes.

  6. The genomic proliferation of transposable elements in colonizing populations: Schistosoma mansoni in the new world.

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    Wijayawardena, Bhagya K; DeWoody, J Andrew; Minchella, Dennis J

    2015-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genes with an inherent ability to move within and among genomes. Theory predicts that TEs proliferate extensively during physiological stress due to the breakdown of TE repression systems. We tested this hypothesis in Schistosoma mansoni, a widespread trematode parasite that causes the human disease schistosomiasis. According to phylogenetic analysis, S. mansoni invaded the new world during the last 500 years. We hypothesized that new world strains of S. mansoni would have more copies of TEs than old world strains due to the physiological stress associated with invasion of the new world. We quantified the copy number of six TEs (Saci-1, Saci-2 and Saci-3, Perere-1, Merlin-sm1, and SmTRC1) in the genome and the transcriptome of old world and new world strains of S. mansoni, using qPCR relative quantification. As predicted, the genomes of new world parasites contain significantly more copies of class I and class II TEs in both laboratory and field strains. However, such differences are not observed in the transcriptome suggesting that either TE silencing mechanisms have reactivated to control the expression of these elements or the presence of inactive truncated copies of TEs.

  7. Hybridism between Biomphalaria cousini and Biomphalaria amazonica and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni

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    Tatiana Maria Teodoro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques can aid in the classification of Biomphalaria species because morphological differentiation between these species is difficult. Previous studies using phylogeny, morphological and molecular taxonomy showed that some populations studied were Biomphalaria cousini instead of Biomphalaria amazonica. Three different molecular profiles were observed that enabled the separation of B. amazonica from B. cousini. The third profile showed an association between the two and suggested the possibility of hybrids between them. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the hybridism between B. cousini and B. amazonica and to verify if the hybrids are susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni. Crosses using the albinism factor as a genetic marker were performed, with pigmented B. cousini and albino B. amazonica snails identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. This procedure was conducted using B. cousini and B. amazonica of the type locality accordingly to Paraense, 1966. In addition, susceptibility studies were performed using snails obtained from the crosses (hybrids and three S. mansoni strains (LE, SJ, AL. The crosses between B. amazonica and B. cousini confirmed the occurrence of hybrids. Moreover, hybrids can be considered potential hosts of S. mansoni because they are susceptible to LE, SJ and AL strains (4.4%, 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively. These results indicate that there is a risk of introducing schistosomiasis mansoni into new areas.

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

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    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  9. Schistosomicidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae against Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

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    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Ac-EO against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni is reported in this paper. Concerning this activity, Ac-EO was considered to be active, but less effective than the positive control (praziquantel, PZQ in terms of separation of coupled pairs, mortality, decrease in motor activity, and tegumental alterations. However, Ac-EO caused an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of eggs of S. mansoni. Precocene I (74.30% and (E-caryophyllene (14.23% were identified as the two major constituents of Ac-EO. These compounds were tested individually and were found to be much less effective than Ac-EO and PZQ. A mixture of the two major compounds in a ratio similar to that found in the Ac-EO was also less effective than Ac-EO, thus revealing that there are no synergistic effects between these components. These results suggest that the essential oil of A. conyzoides is very promising for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  10. Morphological Study of Adult Male Worms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 by Scanning Electron Microscopy

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    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubercles, spines and sensory receptors are the most studied structures of adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni isolated in other countries. The purpose of this investigation was to properly define these structures in Brazilian worms. Specimens 7-8 weeks after infection were recovered from albino SW mice and from a wild rodent (Nectomys squamipes and processed for scanning electron microscopy studies. Photomicrographs of the anterior region with the aspects related to the outer and inner regions of both suckers were considered. The ventral portion of the middle region was represented by the anterior of gynaecophoric canal while the dorsal surface was studied in its ventral and dorsal regions mainly focusing the aspect of the tubercles, spines and sensorial papillae. The outer surface of the oral sucker is spiny and spines are bigger, sharp with sensory receptors in their posterior edge. Tubercles with spines or receptors are more concentrated in the middle region and in one of the margins of the gynaecophoric canal. An excretory pore-like structure in the posterior portion was observed. The gynaecophoric canal has few sensory structures, spines broadned in their mid-region and are sharp pointed at the distal end. It was concluded that the presently studied characters are similar to those previously reported

  11. Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: morphometric differences between adult worms from sympatric rodent and human isolates

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    Neves Renata Heisler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer software for image analysis (IMAGE PRO PLUS, MEDIA CYBERNETICS was utilized in male and females adult worms, aiming the morphological characterization of Schistosoma mansoni samples isolated from a slyvatic rodent, Nectomys squamipes, and humans in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and recovered from Mus musculus C3H/He. The following characters for males's testicular lobes were analyzed: number, area, density, larger and smaller diameter, longer and shorter axis and perimeter and extension; for females: area, longer and shorter axis, larger and smaller diameter and perimeter of the eggs and spine; oral and ventral suckers area and distance between them in both sex were determined. By the analysis of variance (one way ANOVA significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in all studied characters, except for the density of testicular lobes. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected for all characters in the female worms. Data ratify that sympatric isolates present phenotypic differences and the adult female characters are useful for the proper identification of S. mansoni isolates.

  12. Host-induced morphological changes of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 male worms

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    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the permissiveness of Nectomys squamipes to Schistosoma mansoni and the influence of the albino mice on the morphological aspects of adult worms derived from a population isolated from N. squamipes, the morphology of adult S. mansoni Sambon, 1907 male worms was studied using a digital image analyser (MOP VIDEOPLAN and light microscopy. Their sources were as follows: (1 recovered from the wild rodent N. squamipes Brants naturally infected from Sumidouro, RJ, Brazil; (2 recovered from albino mice experimentally infected with the strain derived from N. squamipes; (3 recovered after the isolation of a strain derived from aboriginal human infections in Sumidouro. Worms recovered from N. squamipes (group 1 showed body lenght and distance between suckers significantly bigger than those of the specimens maintained in mice (groups 2 and 3. The number of tests in group 1 was statistically less than of groups 2 and 3. Group 2 strains which were maintained in mice, presented the lenght of the worms as the only significant different character. Data show that: (1 N. squamipes is a more suitable host for the development of S. mansoni when compared to the albino mice; (2 a strain of S. mansoni isolated from a natural host undergoes morphological changes after its passage in the white mouse.

  13. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

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    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  14. Morphological study of adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 by confocal laser scanning microscopy

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    Machado-Silva José Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to detail data obtained through brightfield microscopy (BM on reproductive, excretory and digestive system, specimens of Schistosoma mansoni eight weeks old, were recovered from SW mice, stained with Langeron's carmine and analyzed under a confocal laser scanning microscope CLSM 410 (Carl Zeiss. The reproductive system presented a single and lobate testis, with intercommunications between the lobes without efferent duct. Supernumerary testicular lobe was amorphous and isolated from the normal ones. Collecting tubules (excretory ducts, followed by the excretory bladder, opening to the external media through the excretory pore, were observed at the posterior extremity of the body. In the digestive tract, a cecal swelling was noted at the junction that originates the single cecum. It was concluded that through confocal laser scanning microscopy, new interpretations of morphological structures of S. mansoni worms could be achieved, modifying adopted and current descriptions. The gonad consists of a single lobed testis, similar to that observed in some trematode species. Moreover, the same specimens can be observed either by BM or CLSM, considering that the latter causes only focal and limited damage in tissue structures.

  15. Parasite glycans and antibody-mediated immune responses in Schistosoma infection.

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    van Diepen, Angela; Van der Velden, Niels S J; Smit, Cornelis H; Meevissen, Moniek H J; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2012-08-01

    Schistosome infections in humans are characterized by the development of chronic disease and high re-infection rates after treatment due to the slow development of immunity. It appears that anti-schistosome antibodies are at least partially mediating protective mechanisms. Efforts to develop a vaccine based on immunization with surface-exposed or secreted larval or worm proteins are ongoing. Schistosomes also express a large number of glycans as part of their glycoprotein and glycolipid repertoire, and antibody responses to those glycans are mounted by the infected host. This observation raises the question if glycans might also form novel vaccine targets for immune intervention in schistosomiasis. This review summarizes current knowledge of antibody responses and immunity in experimental and natural infections with Schistosoma, the expression profiles of schistosome glycans (the glycome), and antibody responses to individual antigenic glycan motifs. Future directions to study anti-glycan responses in schistosomiasis in more detail in order to address more precisely the possible role of glycans in antibody-mediated immunity are discussed.

  16. Haemoproteus and Schistosoma synthesize heme polymers similar to Plasmodium hemozoin and beta-hematin.

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    Chen, M M; Shi, L; Sullivan, D J

    2001-03-01

    Many parasites digest hemoglobin as an amino acid source, but only a few produce heme polymer pigment instead of catabolizing heme via heme oxygenase. This work compares purified heme polymers produced by Haemoproteus columbae and Schistosoma mansoni to that of Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and synthetic beta-hematin. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy identifies the signature peaks of the common iron-carboxylate bond characteristic in all four heme polymers. However, all pigments could be distinguished by quite different three-dimensional structure visualized by Field Emission Inlens Scanning Electron Microscopy. Both P. falciparum and H. columbae heme polymers had a symmetrical shape unlike the amorphous S. mansoni heme polymer and beta-hematin. All four heme pigments serve as templates for heme polymer extension, which was inhibitable by chloroquine and other quinoline antimalarials. The polymers showed different levels of resistance to hydrogen peroxide degradation. This work identifies another genus, Haemoproteus, capable of intracellular heme polymer formation. The different three-dimensional structures of each pigment implicate genus specific formation of heme polymer, variation of inhibition of polymer extension by the quinolines and degradation by hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Congenital infection of rabbits with Schistosoma japonicum and protective immunity of offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI You-en 石佑恩; Abdel-Moneim M Salim 沙里模; NING Chang-xiu 宁长修; GAN Yan 甘燕; ZHU Xiao-hua 朱晓华; PU Ling-yi 卜玲毅

    2004-01-01

    Background Recently congenital infection with Schistosoma japonicum (S. Japonicum) has been domonstrated in pigs, rabbits, mice and dogs. We explored the rabbit as an animal model for the congenital infection of schistosomiasis japonica and assessed the effect of a congenital S. Japonicum infection on the resistance of rabbit kittens to a postnatal challenge infection.Methods Sixteen pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were infected with a single dose of S. Japonicum cercariae. The exposed animals were divided into three groups according to the gestation age at the time of infection. Diagnosis of prenatally acquired S. Japonicum infection in the rabbit kittens was primarily based on serological tests in combination with parasitological and histopathological findings. Congenitally infected kittens were challenged percutaneously with 100 S. Japonicum cercariae to assess the effect of a congenital S. Japonicum infection on kitten resistance to a postnatal challenge infection.Conclusions This study demonstrates the possibility of congenital infection of S. Japonicum in rabbits and the resistance of congenitally infected kittens to a postnatal challenge infection. These results have important implications not only for epidemiological investigations, but also in designing government control programs for schistosomiasis.

  18. [Schistosoma haematobium among immigrants consulting in municipal free clinics in Paris in 2003].

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    Deniaud, F; Collignon, A; Guesnon, M S; Squinazi, F; Rouvier, J; Derouineau, J; Ayache, B

    2006-05-01

    The "Consultations de Diagnostic et d'Orientation" (CDO) are free medical consultations for precarious populations, proposed by the Health Department of Paris. More than two-thirds of the CDO patients come from Sub-Saharan Africa. Schistosoma haematobium (SH) is one of the most frequent infectious diseases detected within CDO. More than a thousand people have consulted for the first time in CDO in 2003 in one of the municipal free Clinics which proposes this service. Parasitologic test of urine has been performed among 220 patients and found 24 positive results: viable eggs of SH (10.8%). All 24 patients are male, most of them are under 35 years-old and come from the region of the Senegal River that lies in the junction of Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. We want to remind physicians in non-tropical setting to think of SH when they see a patient originating from Africa. To ask him if he presents haematuria and if not, to prescribe a parasitologic test of urine. If all patients from endemic regions had undergone this screening in 2003, we would have detected about 20 more cases of SH. If treated early enough, it could avoid severe uronephrological complications, which are rare but represent a high health care cost (bladder tumor, renal failure).

  19. Detection of Urinary Tract Pathology in Some Schistosoma haematobium Infected Nigerian Adults

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    O. S. Onile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for Schistosoma haematobium infection and its possible morbidity was carried out in 257 adult participants in Eggua community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Parasitological assessment for the presence of ova of S. haematobium in urine and abdominopelvic ultrasonographic examination for bladder and secondary kidney pathology were carried out. S. haematobium prevalence of 25.68% (66/257 was recorded among the participants. There was a significantly higher prevalence of 69.2% of urinary schistosomiasis in the females than the prevalence of 31.8% in males (P=0.902. The intensity of infections was mostly light (55 (21.8% compared to heavy (10 (3.9% with the mean intensity of 16.7 eggs/10 mL urine. Structural bladder pathology prevalence among participants was 33.9%. The bladder and kidney pathologies observed by ultrasound in subjects with S. haematobium infections included abnormal bladder wall thickness (59%, abnormal bladder shape (15.2%, bladder wall irregularities (15.2%, bladder masses (1.5%, bladder calcification (1.5%, and hydronephrosis (3%. Infection with S. haematobium was associated with bladder pathology. Higher frequencies of bladder abnormalities were observed more in the participants with light intensity of S. haematobium infection than in those with heavy infection. More bladder pathology was also seen in women than in men, although this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is evidence that the development of bladder pathology may be associated with S. haematobium infection.

  20. Factors Involved in Schistosoma mansoni Infection, in Rural Areas of Northeast Brazil

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    Coutinho Eridan M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two contiguous villages in Tracunhaém county (State of Pernambuco, endemic for schistosomiasis, were studied: Itapinassu (138 inhabitants and São Joaquim (91 inhabitants. Agriculture predominates in the former region while ceramics is the main activity in the latter. Although no statistical difference was found regarding prevalence, severe infection (>400 epg predominated in Itapinassu, probably related to the kind of occupation. No association was found between parasite burden and severity of disease, in spite of the high infection rates for Schistosoma mansoni in both communities (approx. 60%. Typical epidemiological features of schistosomiasis such as age-related prevalences and intensities of infection (high in children, low in adults were also mutual characteristics. Nutritional status determined through anthropometric evaluation was carried out by measuring specific anthropometric indicators. A deficit of energy intake, as well as vitamin A and riboflavin deficiencies were detected. The prevalence of moderate or severe undernutrition in patients under 18 years old was 21.9% in Itapinassu and 24.1% in São Joaquim. In this group an association was found between prevalence of schistosomiasis and chronic undernutrition. Similarly, for patients over 18 year old the prevalence of undernutrition was higher than 20%. However, in this case no association between nutritional status and either prevalence of schistosomiasis or parasite burden could be detected. The two communities had not been treated for eight years.

  1. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria spp., the intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni, in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S; Malone, John B; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-09-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni remains an important parasitic disease of man, endemic in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. The aetiological agent is the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, whereas aquatic snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts in the parasite life cycle. In Brazil, the distribution of Biomphalaria spp. is closely associated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis. The purpose of this study was to map and predict the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of S. mansoni across Brazil. We assembled snail "presenceonly" data and used a maximum entropy approach, along with climatic and environmental variables to produce predictive risk maps. We identified a series of risk factors that govern the distribution of Biomphalaria snails. We find that high-risk areas for B. glabrata are concentrated in the regions of Northeast and Southeast and the northern part of the South region. B. straminea are found in the Northeast and Southeast regions, and B. tenagophila are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions. Our findings confirm that the presence of the intermediate host snails is correlated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis mansoni. The generated risk maps of intermediate host snails might assist the national control programme for spatial targeting of control interventions and to ultimately move towards schistosomiasis elimination in Brazil.

  2. Towards an Understanding of the Function of the Phytochelatin Synthase of Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Nylin, Elyse; Cogswell, Alexis A.; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Williams, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is a protease-like enzyme that catalyzes the production of metal chelating peptides, the phytochelatins, from glutathione (GSH). In plants, algae, and fungi phytochelatin production is important for metal tolerance and detoxification. PCS proteins also function in xenobiotic metabolism by processing GSH S-conjugates. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of PCS in the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni. Recombinant S. mansoni PCS proteins expressed in bacteria could both synthesize phytochelatins and hydrolyze various GSH S-conjugates. We found that both the N-truncated protein and the N- and C-terminal truncated form of the enzyme (corresponding to only the catalytic domain) work through a thiol-dependant and, notably, metal-independent mechanism for both transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthesis) and peptidase (hydrolysis of GSH S-conjugates) activities. PCS transcript abundance was increased by metals and xenobiotics in cultured adult worms. In addition, these treatments were found to increase transcript abundance of other enzymes involved in GSH metabolism. Highest levels of PCS transcripts were identified in the esophageal gland of adult worms. Taken together, these results suggest that S. mansoni PCS participates in both metal homoeostasis and xenobiotic metabolism rather than metal detoxification as previously suggested and that the enzyme may be part of a global stress response in the worm. Because humans do not have PCS, this enzyme is of particular interest as a drug target for schistosomiasis. PMID:23383357

  3. Towards an understanding of the function of the phytochelatin synthase of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Rigouin

    Full Text Available Phytochelatin synthase (PCS is a protease-like enzyme that catalyzes the production of metal chelating peptides, the phytochelatins, from glutathione (GSH. In plants, algae, and fungi phytochelatin production is important for metal tolerance and detoxification. PCS proteins also function in xenobiotic metabolism by processing GSH S-conjugates. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of PCS in the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni. Recombinant S. mansoni PCS proteins expressed in bacteria could both synthesize phytochelatins and hydrolyze various GSH S-conjugates. We found that both the N-truncated protein and the N- and C-terminal truncated form of the enzyme (corresponding to only the catalytic domain work through a thiol-dependant and, notably, metal-independent mechanism for both transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthesis and peptidase (hydrolysis of GSH S-conjugates activities. PCS transcript abundance was increased by metals and xenobiotics in cultured adult worms. In addition, these treatments were found to increase transcript abundance of other enzymes involved in GSH metabolism. Highest levels of PCS transcripts were identified in the esophageal gland of adult worms. Taken together, these results suggest that S. mansoni PCS participates in both metal homoeostasis and xenobiotic metabolism rather than metal detoxification as previously suggested and that the enzyme may be part of a global stress response in the worm. Because humans do not have PCS, this enzyme is of particular interest as a drug target for schistosomiasis.

  4. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Manal A Hamed

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  5. Expression of Recombinant Baculovirus Carrying Schistosoma japonicum 26 ku GST in Mammalian Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangqing; SONG Jianhua; LIU Wenqi; LONG Xiaochun; MO Hongmei; LI Yonglong; CHEN Xinwen

    2006-01-01

    In order to construct recombinant baculovirus carrying Schistosoma japonicum 26 ku glutathione S-transferase gene (Sj26), and observe the expression of Sj26 in mammalian cells, the Sj26 gene was amplified with plasmid pGEX-3X as template by PCR, and then recombined into Tvector for sequencing. Sj26 gene was inserted into the downstream of CMV promoter of donor plasmid pFBDGC, and the recombinant donor plasmid pFBDGC-Sj26 transformed into DH10Bac,then the recombinant bacmid AcCMVSj26 was isolated and transfected into Sf9 cells. The recombinant baculovirus was harvested and final titer of vAcCMVSj26 was measured. BHK cells were transducted with recombinant baculovirus in vitro. By using Western blot, the expression of 26 ku glutathione S-transferase (GST) was detected. The results showed that after enzyme digestion and sequencing, the donor plasmid was successfully constructed. PCR confirmed that pFBDGC-Sj26 and Bacmid homologous recombination occurred in E. coli. After transfection of Sf9 cells with recombinant Bacmid, recombinant baculovirus was replicated in Sf9 cells and expressed green fluorescent protein. PCR further revealed recombinant baculovirus contained Sj26. The titer of the harvested baculovirus was 1.24 × 108. Western blot demonstrated that recombinant baculovirus could express 26 ku GST in BHK cells. It was concluded that Sj26 recombinant baculovirus was successfully constructed, and the 26 ku GST was expressed in mammalian cells.

  6. Development of a real time polymerase chain reaction for quantitation of Schistosoma mansoni DNA

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    Ana Lisa do Vale Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the development of a SYBR Green I based real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR protocol for detection on the ABI Prism 7000 instrument. Primers targeting the gene encoding the SSU rRNA were designed to amplify with high specificity DNA from Schistosoma mansoni, in a real time quantitative PCR system. The limit of detection of parasite DNA for the system was 10 fg of purified genomic DNA, that means less than the equivalent to one parasite cell (genome ~580 fg DNA. The efficiency was 0.99 and the correlation coefficient (R² was 0.97. When different copy numbers of the target amplicon were used as standards, the assay could detect at least 10 copies of the specific target. The primers used were designed to amplify a 106 bp DNA fragment (Tm 83ºC. The assay was highly specific for S. mansoni, and did not recognize DNA from closely related non-schistosome trematodes. The real time PCR allowed for accurate quantification of S. mansoni DNA and no time-consuming post-PCR detection of amplification products by gel electrophoresis was required. The assay is potentially able to quantify S. mansoni DNA (and indirectly parasite burden in a number of samples, such as snail tissue, serum and feces from patients, and cercaria infested water. Thus, these PCR protocols have potential to be used as tools for monitoring of schistosome transmission and quantitative diagnosis of human infection.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni polypeptides immunogenic in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.P.; Strand, M.

    1987-10-01

    We compared the humoral immune response of mice protected against Schistosoma mansoni by vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae to that of patently infected mice, and we identified antigens that elicit a greater, or unique, immune response in the vaccinated mice. These comparisons were based upon radioimmunoprecipitations and immunodepletion of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled schistosomular and adult worm polypeptides, followed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses. The humoral responses of patently infected mice and of mice vaccinated once were remarkably similar and were directed against schistosome glycoproteins ranging in molecular size from greater than 300 to less than 10 kDa. Exposing mice to a second vaccination resulted in a marked change in the immune response, to one predominantly directed toward high molecular size glycoproteins. Sequential immunodepletion techniques identified five schistosomular and seven adult worm antigens that showed a greater or unique immunogenicity in vaccinated mice as compared with patently infected mice. These adult worm antigens were purified by preparative sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and used to prepare a polyclonal antiserum, anti-irradiated vaccine. This antiserum bound to the surface of live newly transformed and lung-stage schistosomula, as assessed by immunofluorescence assays, and was reactive with a number of /sup 125/I-labeled schistosomular surface polypeptides, including a doublet of 150 kDa that was also recognized by sera of vaccinated mice but not by sera of patently infected mice.

  8. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  9. Circulating Antigens Levels in Different Clinical Forms of the Schistosoma mansoni Infection

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA levels in relation to the different clinical phases of Schistosoma sp. infection a sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibody 5H11 was performed. The sera of three groups of 25 Brazilian patients with acute, intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of S. mansoni infection were tested and compared to a non-infected control group. Patients and control groups were matched for age and sex and the number of eggs per gram of feces was equally distributed among the three patient groups. Sensitivity of 100%, 72%, 52% of the assay was observed for the intestinal, hepatosplenic and acute toxemic groups respectively. The specificity was 100%. Intestinal and hepatosplenic groups presented CCA levels significantly higher in comparison to those observed for acute patients (F-ratio = 2,524; p = 0.000 and F-ratio = 6,314; p = 0.015 respectively. There was no significant difference of CCA serum levels between hepatosplenic and intestinal groups (F-ratio = 1,026; p = 0.316.

  10. Antigenic community between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata: on the search of candidate antigens for vaccines

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    N Chacón

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously confirmed the presence of common antigens between Schistosoma mansoni and its vector, Biomphalaria glabrata. Cross-reactive antigens may be important as possible candidates for vaccine and diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Sera from outbred mice immunized with a soluble Biomphalaria glabrata antigen (SBgA of non-infected B. glabrata snails recognized molecules of SBgA itself and S. mansoni AWA by Western blot. Recognition of several molecules of the SBgA were inhibited by pre-incubation with AWA (16, 30, 36, 60 and 155 kDa. The only specific molecule of AWA, inhibited by SBgA, was a 120 kDa protein. In order to determine which epitopes of SBgA were glycoproteins, the antigen was treated with sodium metaperiodate and compared with non-treated antigen. Molecules of 140, 60 and 24 kDa in the SBgA appear to be glycoproteins. Possible protective effects of the SBgA were evaluated immunizing outbred mice in two different experiments using Freund's Adjuvant. In the first one (12 mice/group, we obtained a significant level of protection (46% in the total worm load, with a high variability in worm recovery. In the second experiment (22 mice/group, no significant protection was observed, neither in worm load nor in egg production per female. Our results suggest that SBgA constitutes a rich source of candidate antigens for diagnosis and prophylactic studies.

  11. Anthelmintic Effects of Alkylated Diamines and Amino Alcohols against Schistosoma mansoni

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    Fábio de Souza Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines are substances involved in many aspects of cell growth, division, and differentiation. Because of the metabolic differences between host cells and parasite cells, polyamine metabolism has been considered as a potential target for the chemotherapy of parasitic diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the schistosomicidal activity of different N-alkylated diamines (3a–3h, amino alcohols (4a–4d, and glycosylated amino alcohols (10a–10d. Compounds were prepared by synthetic methods and submitted to in vitro evaluation against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. At 100 μM, 3b, 3e, and 3h as well as 4a, 4b, 4d, 10a, 10b, and 10d resulted in 100% mortality of adult schistosomes. Compound 3d (12.5 to 100 μM caused the death of 100% of both male and female adult schistosomes, while 3f (12.5 to 100 μM resulted in 100% mortality of only male adult worms, whereas no mortality in female worms was observed. Compounds 3d and 3f were also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs in comparison with the negative control group. Diamines 3d and 3f may represent useful lead compounds for further optimization in order to develop new schistosomicidal agents.

  12. Hamster Weight Patterns Predict the Intensity and Course of Schistosoma haematobium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thien-Linh P; Boyett, Deborah M; Hurley-Novatny, Amelia; Hsieh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Although Syrian golden hamsters are widely used as hosts for experimental infection by Schistosoma haematobium , surprisingly little is known about the course of infection and associated intensity (as defined by measures of parasite burden). As such, we sought to define inexpensive, simple, noninvasive, and accurate methods for assessing and predicting the severity of disease in S. haematobium -infected hamsters in order to prevent premature hamster sacrifice and unexpected morbidity and mortality. Through monitoring the weight and behavior of infected hamsters, we determined that the weight-loss patterns of infected hamsters are highly correlated with commonly used measures of the severity of infection (i.e., numbers of eggs passed in the stool, worm burdens, and total egg yields). In contrast, we found no significant correlation between hamster weight-loss patterns and egg yields from liver and intestinal tissues. Our findings suggest that a more complex relationship exists among worm burden, fecundity, and egg passage in the feces than previously appreciated. Regardless, our data may be useful for workers seeking to optimize harvests of S. haematobium eggs and worms from infected hamsters for downstream applications.

  13. Genetic variability and identification of the intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies based on shell or reproductive organ morphology and genetic considerations suggest extensive intraspecific variation in Biomphalaria snails. The high variability at the morphological and genetic levels, as well as the small size of some specimens and similarities between species complicate the correct identification of these snails. Here we review our work using methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification for analysis of genetic variation and identification of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Arbitrarily primed-PCR revealed that the genome of B. glabrata exihibits a remarkable degree of intraespecific polymorphism. Low stringency-PCR using primers for 18S rRNA permited the identification of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis. The study of individuals obtained from geographically distinct populations exhibits significant intraspecific DNA polymorphism, however specimens from the same species, exhibit some species specific LSPs. We also showed that PCR-restriction fragment of length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of Biomphalaria rDNA, using DdeI permits the differentiation of the three intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The molecular biological techniques used in our studies are very useful for the generation of new knowledge concerning the systematics and population genetics of Biomphalaria snails.

  14. Polyethyleneimine (PEI mediated siRNA gene silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata.

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    Matty Knight

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds and small interfering (si RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a 'mock' fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease.

  15. Partial protection induced by phage library-selected peptides mimicking epitopes of Schistosoma japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To obtain peptide mimicking epitopes of Schistosoma japonicum (S.japonicum) through screening of a phage peptide library and to test their potential for induction of protection. Methods S.japonicum infected sera from Microtus fortis (IMFS) and normal sera from Microtus fortis (NMFS) were used respectively to screen a 12-mers random peptide library by testing the reactivity of anti-S.japonicum serum with the phagotopes. After three rounds of biopanning, the pooled phages were used to immunize mice, after which challenge infection was performed. Results Of 12 randomly picked clones, 10 clones selected using IMFS and 7 clones selected using NMFS were shown to be antigenic. Significant reduction in adult worms (22.6%) and a high reduction (68.9%) in liver eggs were achieved following immunization with phages screened with IMFS. However, no protection was elicited by those selected with NMFS. Conclusion The results show that the phagotopes are both antigenic and immunogenic, suggesting a potential use of phage displayed peptide as novel vaccines against S. japonicum.

  16. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Mayara; Rezende Morais, Enyara; Graciano de Paula, Renato; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Afonso, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Tomie Ouchida, Amanda; Curti, Carlos; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them. PMID:27875592

  17. Confocal laser scanning microscopy for detection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the gut of mice.

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    Martha Charlotte Holtfreter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni infections is the detection of eggs from stool or biopsy specimens. The viability of collected eggs can be tested by the miracidium hatching procedure. Direct detection methods are often limited in patients with light or early infections, whereas serological tests and PCR methods fail to differentiate between an inactive and persistent infection and between schistosomal species. Recently, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM has been introduced as a diagnostic tool in several fields of medicine. In this study we evaluated CLSM for the detection of viable eggs of S. mansoni directly within the gut of infected mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The confocal laser scanning microscope used in this study is based on the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II scanning laser system in combination with the Rostock Cornea Module (image modality 1 or a rigid endoscope (image modality 2. Colon sections of five infected mice were examined with image modalities 1 and 2 for schistosomal eggs. Afterwards a biopsy specimen was taken from each colon section and examined by bright-field microscopy. Visualised eggs were counted and classified in terms of viability status. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We were able to show that CLSM visualises eggs directly within the gut and permits discrimination of schistosomal species and determination of egg viability. Thus, CLSM may be a suitable non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in humans.

  18. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  19. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  20. Construction of a recombinant plasmid pGEX-Sj26GST of Schistosoma japonicum and expression in Escherichia coli BL21( DE3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct and express a recombinant plasmid pGEX-Sj26GST of Schistosoma japonicum(Sj)in Escherichia coli(E.coli)BL21(DE3).Methods Total RNA was extracted from Sj adult worms by RNeasy Mini kit,26 kilodalton glutathione-S-transferases of Schistosoma japonicum(Sj26GST)antigen gene was amplified by real-time PCR(RT-PCR)from the total RNA,then cloned into a prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-1λT and transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3)to construct pGEX-Sj26GST;BL21(pGEX-

  1. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  2. RNA-Seq reveals infection-induced gene expression changes in the snail intermediate host of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattrachai Prasopdee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA in the Greater Mekong sub-region of Thailand. Despite the severe public health impact of Opisthorchis-induced CCA, knowledge of the molecular interactions occurring between the parasite and its snail intermediate host is scant. The examination of differences in gene expression profiling between uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos could provide clues on fundamental pathways involved in the regulation of snail-parasite interplay. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using high-throughput (Illumina sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analyses, we characterized the transcriptomes of uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiling allowed the identification of 7,655 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, associated to 43 distinct biological pathways, including pathways associated with immune defense mechanisms against parasites. Amongst the DEGs with immune functions, transcripts encoding distinct proteases displayed the highest down-regulation in Bithynia specimens infected by O. viverrini; conversely, transcription of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and actins was significantly up-regulated in parasite-infected snails when compared to the uninfected counterparts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study lays the foundation for functional studies of genes and gene products potentially involved in immune-molecular mechanisms implicated in the ability of the parasite to successfully colonize its snail intermediate host. The annotated dataset provided herein represents a ready-to-use molecular resource for the discovery of molecular pathways underlying susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini and for comparative analyses with pulmonate snail

  3. Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics.

  4. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  5. Prevalência da infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em dois municípios do Estado de Alagoas Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two municipalities of the State of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylo César Correia Palmeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos preliminares indicam uma provável expansão da esquistossomose em Alagoas. Este trabalho analisa a ocorrência do Schistosoma mansoni em escolares de dois municípios, localizados nas bacias hidrográficas dos rios Mundaú e Paraíba. MÉTODOS: O grupo de estudo foi constituído por 690 escolares da zona urbana, com idade entre sete e 15 anos. Foram aplicados interrogatórios socioeconômicos e foram usados exames parasitológicos para diagnostico da esquistossomose (métodos de Kato e de Lutz. Foram tratados os casos positivos e foram ministradas palestras para alunos e familiares sobre educação sanitária. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de Schistosoma mansoni foi de 24,9%. A associação entre esquistossomose e outras parasitoses foi significativa em relação à tricuríase (pINTRODUCTION: Preliminary studies indicate a probable schistosomiasis expansion in Alagoas. This work analyzes the occurrence of Schistosoma mansoni in students from two municipalities, located in the Mundaú and Paraíba rivers basins. METHODS: The study group consisted of 690 students in the urban area, aged between seven and 15 years. A standardized socio-economic questionnaire was filled out and parasitological tests were used to diagnosis schistosomiasis (Lutz and Kato methods. Positive cases were treated and students and their families were lectured about health education. RESULTS: The Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was 24.9%. The association between schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases was significant in relation to trichuriasis (p <0.05. Only 50% of infected children lived in brick homes with sanitation and public water supply. Among them, 48.1% used to go usually to the water collections and 55.8% of them knew rivers snails. The concordance analysis between the Lutz and Kato methods showed disagreement in 54.2%, with greater sensitivity for the Lutz technique (76.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The indices obtained characterize the municipalities

  6. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  7. Effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium infection on Plasmodium berghei multiplications in imprinting control region mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; Amoani; Elvis; Ofori; Ameyaw; Du-Bois; Asante; Francis; Ackah; Armah; James; Prah; Collins; Paa; Kwesi; Botchey; Johnson; Nyarko; Boampong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pre-existing Schistosoma haematobium(S. haematobium) infection on malaria disease severity.Methods: The study involved the use of twenty-i ve imprinting control region mice, i fteen of which were initially infected with S. haematobium. Five of the remaining ten schistouninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei(P. berghei) after four weeks(acute stage) of schistosoma infection. The remaining i ve schisto-uninfected mice together with i ve schisto-infected mice were also infected with P. berghei after seven weeks(chronic stage) of schistosoma infection. The last i ve schistoinfected mice were used as control group. They were then monitored for changes in P. berghei parasitaemia on Days 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 post-infection. Records on their survivability were also taken.Results: The co-infected mice had signii cantly higher malaria parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice during acute S. haematobium infection. In contrast, the co-infected mice had signii cantly lower malaria parasitaemia during chronic S. haematobium infection and a higher survival rate.Conclusions: Co-infection of mice with P. berghei during acute S. haematobium infection resulted in rapid P. berghei development and increased malaria parasitaemia. However, the co-infection resulted in slower P. berghei development and decreased malaria parasitaemia with enhanced survivability of the mice during chronic S. haematobium infection. Therefore, pre-existing chronic S. haematobium infection may provide some protection to the host by reducing parasitaemia.

  8. An "in-depth" description of the small non-coding RNA population of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomulum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxun Wang

    Full Text Available Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, which afflicts more than 200 million people yearly in tropical regions of South America, Asia and Africa. A promising approach to the control of this and many other diseases involves the application of our understanding of small non-coding RNA function to the design of safe and effective means of treatment. In a previous study, we identified five conserved miRNAs from the adult stage of Schistosoma japonicum. Here, we applied Illumina Solexa high-throughput sequencing methods (deep sequencing to investigate the small RNAs expressed in S. japonicum schistosomulum (3 weeks post-infection. This has allowed us to examine over four million sequence reads including both frequently and infrequently represented members of the RNA population. Thus we have identified 20 conserved miRNA families that have orthologs in well-studied model organisms and 16 miRNA that appear to be specific to Schistosoma. We have also observed minor amounts of heterogeneity in both 3' and 5' terminal positions of some miRNA as well as RNA fragments resulting from the processing of miRNA precursor. An investigation of the genomic arrangement of the 36 identified miRNA revealed that seven were tightly linked in two clusters. We also identified members of the small RNA population whose structure indicates that they are part of an endogenously derived RNA silencing pathway, as evidenced by their extensive complementarities with retrotransposon and retrovirus-related Pol polyprotein from transposon.

  9. Sequencing and identification of expressed Schistosoma mansoni genes by random selection of cDNA clones from a directional library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória R. Franco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available We have initiated a gene discovery program in Schistosoma mansoni based on the technique of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs, i.e. partial sequences of cDNAs obtained from single passes in automatic DNA sequencers. ESTs can be used to identify genese onf the basis of their homology whith sequences from other species deposited in DNA or protein databases. Trasncripts with sequences without matches in teh databases may represent novel parasite-specific genes. This approach has shown to be very efficient and in less than two years a broad range of novel genes has already been ascertained, more than doubling the number of known S. mansoni genes.

  10. Adenina fosforibosiltransferase de Schistosoma mansoni: proposta de detalhamento do mecanismo catalítico por dinâmica molecular

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Emanoel Armini Caldas

    2011-01-01

    A Adenina Fosforibosiltransferase (APRT E.C. 2.4.2.7) pertence à família de enzimas Fosforibosil Transferases (PRTase) do Tipo I , que catalisa a conversão reversível de Adenina e 5-fosfo-α-D-ribose-1-difosfato (PRPP) em difosfato e adenosina monofosfato, um importante precursor energético da célula. A APRT integra a via de salvação de purinas, única forma de suprir o balanço de purinas em Schistosoma mansoni. Este trabalho apresenta o isolamento, clonagem, expressão heteróloga e purif...

  11. Further evaluation of an updated PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana I Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously reported sensitive PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA was updated and evaluated. Changes in the DNA extraction method, including the use of a worldwide available commercial kit and the inclusion of additional quality control measures, increased the robustness of the test, as confirmed by the analysis of 67 faecal samples from an endemic area in Brazil. The PCR assay is at hand as a proven, reliable diagnostic test for the control of schistosomiasis in specific settings.

  12. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANNOTTI-PASSOS Liana Konovaloff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine Schistosoma mansoni infection rates in Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. straminea, low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR technique was used as a complementary method to light exposure technique. LS-PCR has already been standardized in our laboratory to detect the trematode DNA in B. glabrata. Higher S. mansoni infection rates were detected using conventional method and LS-PCR. The parasite DNA profile was detected in both species after 7-day exposure to miracidia, using LS-PCR. This technique enables early detection of schistosomiasis transmission focuses, in endemic areas, before the beginning of cercariae shedding.

  13. Avaliação in vitro do efeito imunomodulador do leite materno de camundongos infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Sales,Iana Rafaela Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    A alta prevalência de esquistossomose crônica em gestantes, bem como em mulheres em idade fértil, tem sido amplamente relatada. Esta condição materna é capaz de alterar a resposta imune do descendente em longo prazo. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito in vitro do leite materno de mães infectadas pelo Schistosoma mansoni em esplenócitos e caracterizar os peptídeos encontrados nesse leite. Para isso, camundongos fêmeas infectadas ou não, tiveram seu leite coletado no 12º dia ...

  14. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B

    2005-01-01

    The potential value of MODIS satellite sensor data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperatures (LST) for describing the distribution of the Schistosoma mansoni-"Biomphalaria pfeifferi"/Biomphalaria sudanica parasite-snail system in inland Uganda, were tested....... The parasite, however, appears to be restricted in its distribution in both the north-eastern and the south-western regions of Uganda. The absence of disease in the south-west can not be attributed to the absence of snail hosts. Results suggest a combination of satellite sensor data on temperature and standard...

  15. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined at monthly intervals from November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Snails collected at the same time were individually examined for shedding of cercariae of S. mattheei and Schistosoma haematobium. A total of 16 264 (5 418 calves, 5 461 weaners and 5 385 adults faecal samples were collected during the entire period of study and 734 (4.5 % were positive for S. mattheei eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, calves compared to adult cattle (P < 0.01 and the wet season compared to the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from October/ November to March / April for both years of the study. Bulinus globosus, the snail intermediate host of S. mattheei was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snails than the lowveld (P < 0.01. Monthly densities of B. globosus did not show a clearcut pattern although there were peaks between March / May and September / November. The mean num ber of snails collected was positively correlated with the water plants Nymphaea caerulea and

  16. Induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloney, N.A.; Webbe, G.; Hinchcliffe, P.

    1987-02-01

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts.

  17. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Bahnassy, A.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Medicine); Denton, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP 11/34 data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair. (author).

  18. Blood Typing

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    ... if you need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  19. Blood Disorders

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    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  20. What's Blood?

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    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  1. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  2. Efeitos de imunopotenciadores não específicos na infecção experimental pelo Schistosoma mansoni: I. levamisole Effects of non-specific immunopotentiators in experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection: I. levamisole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. L. Montenegro

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do levamisole nas alterações histopatológicas, resistência do hospedeiro e quimiotaxia "in vivo" foram estudados na infecção experimental pelo Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos da linhagem C57B1/10. O tratamento profilático resultou em um aumento no número de vermes adultos obtidos pela perfusão e também em uma taxa de mortalidade maior (p The effects of levamisole on the histopathological changes, host's resistance and "in vivo" chemotaxis in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection of C57B1/10 inbred mice were studied. Prophylatic treatment resulted in an increase in the number of adult worms obtained by perfusion and also increased the mortality rate (p < 0.05. The histopathological changes (liver and intestines were similar in all the groups. A significant reduction of "in vivo" chemotaxis occurred in infected control mice as well as in those submitted to prophylatic treatment with levamisole. Chemotatic activity reached the same levels of normal control mice (non-infected and non-treated with levamisole, when the curative scheme was used. Levamisole seems to increase the susceptibility of inbred C57B1/10 mice to the infection with S. mansoni when administered prior to the infection and increase the chemotatic activity to normal levels when given after infection.

  3. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  4. Blood Transfusion and Donation

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    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  5. Blood (For Parents)

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    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  6. Catecholamine blood test

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    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  7. Biology of Blood

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    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  9. Characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase SmcGK1 of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Leutner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are trematode parasites and of worldwide medical importance for humans and animals. Growth and development of these parasites require a specific host environment, but also permanent communication processes between the two genders. Accumulating molecular evidence indicates that the responsible interactions are mediated by signal transduction processes. Conserved signaling molecules were identified, and first approaches made for their characterization. However, no representative of the conserved family of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs has been described in this parasite yet. Within the Schistosoma mansoni genome data-set we identified cGK homologs, of which one was investigated in more detail in this study. We present the cloning of SmcGK1, whose sequence shows homology to cGKs of higher eukaryotes. SmcGK1 was found to be gender-independently transcribed in adult schistosomes. The occurrence of SmcGK1 sense and antisense transcripts suggests that the expression of this gene is controlled at the post-transcriptional level. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrated a gonad-preferential expression profile in both genders indicating a role of SmcGK1, at least during sexual development of schistosomes. Using a cGK-specific inhibitor to treat adult schistosomes in vitro finally resulted in a multifaceted phenotype including slow motion, oocyte congestion, and reduced egg production.Esquistossomos são parasitas trematodos de importância médica em todo o mundo para o homem e os animais. O crescimento e o desenvolvimento destes parasitas requerem um ambiente específico do hospedeiro, mas também um processo de comunicação permanente entre parasitas dos dois sexos. Evidência molecular tem se acumulado e indica que as interações são mediadas por processos de transdução de sinal. Moléculas sinalizadoras conservadas foram identificadas, e as primeiras abordagens têm sido feitas para sua caracterização. Contudo, não foi

  10. Schistosoma mansoni polo-like kinases and their function in control of mitosis and parasite reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Dissous

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinases are important regulators of cell cycle progression and mitosis. They constitute a family of conserved serine/threonine kinases which are highly related in their catalytic domains and contain polo boxes involved in protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization. In mammals, five Plks (Plk 1-5 encompass diverse roles in centrosome dynamics, spindle formation, intra S-phase and G2/M checkpoints and DNA damage response. Plk1 is a key positive regulator of mitosis and is overexpressed in various types of cancers. Plk4 is a divergent member of the Plk family, with essential functions in centriole duplication. Homozygous disruption of Plk1 or Plk4 in mice is lethal in embryos. Two Plk members SmPlk1 and SmSak, homologous to Plk1 and Plk4 respectively, are present in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. Structural and functional analyses of SmPlk1 have demonstrated its conserved function in the regulation of cell cycle G2/M transition in Xenopus oocytes. The anti-cancer drug BI 2536 (the most potent and selective Plk1 inhibitor inhibits specifically the catalytic activity of SmPlk1 and induced profound alterations in schistosome gonads, indicating a role of SmPlk1 in parasite gametogenesis and its potential as a novel chemotherapeutic target against schistosomiasis. Functions of SmSak in cell cycle regulation and schistosome gonad development are currently investigatedQuinases do tipo Polo ("polo-like" são importantes reguladores da progressão do ciclo celular e da mitose. Elas constituem uma família de serina/treonina quinases que são altamente relacionadas entre si no seu domínio catalítico e contêm blocos "polo" envolvidos com interações proteína-proteína e com localização subcelular. Em mamíferos, cinco Plks (Plk 1-5 englobam diversos papéis na dinâmica do centrossomo, formação do fuso, "checkpoints" dentro da fase S e da transição G2/M, e na resposta aos danos do DNA. Plk1 é um regulador

  11. Decay of antibody isotypes against early developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni after treatment of schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Yohko KANAMURA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to a number of parasite antigens are found in schistosomiasis patients, and antibodies to early developmental stages were demonstrated to be efficient immunologic markers for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. In the present study, decay patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies against cercariae and schistosomula were investigated, in comparison to antibodies against worms and eggs in schistosomiasis patients after chemotherapy, for an investigation of seroepidemiologic aspects. Data obtained in the study of 359 serum samples from patients with Schistosoma mansoni infection, noninfected individuals, and patients followed-up for a period of 12 to 15 months after treatment provided the basis to postulate a general pattern for the kinetics of antibody decay. Before treatment, the antibody pattern was represented by a unimodal curve, which shifted to a bimodal curve after treatment, and ended with a unimodal curve similar to that for the noninfected group. Different types of antibodies were classified into four categories according to their decay features, and anti-schistosomulum IgM was classified into the moderate-decay caterogy, whereas other antibodies to early parasite stages were classified into the slow-decay category. The present methodology permits the identification of the most suitable antibodies to be detected in field control programs for schistosomiasis or other parasitosesEm pacientes com esquistossomose, são encontrados anticorpos contra grande número de antígenos parasitários, e aqueles contra formas evolutivas jovens do parasita demonstraram que eram eficientes marcadores imunológicos para o diagnóstico da esquistossomose. Padrões de queda de anticorpos IgM e IgG contra cercária e esquistossômulo foram aqui estudados, comparativamente aos dos anticorpos contra verme e ovo, em pacientes esquistossomóticos após quimioterapia, abordando aspectos soroepidemiológicos. Dados obtidos no estudo de 359 amostras de soros

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of glutamine synthetase, a tegumental protein from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunhui; Hong, Yang; Cao, Yan; Wang, Fei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Wei, Meimei; Liu, Shengfa; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-12-01

    Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine, providing nitrogen for the production of purines, pyrimidines, amino acids, and other compounds required in many pivotal cellular events. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding Schistosoma japonicum glutamine synthetase (SjGS) was isolated from 21-day schistosomes. The entire open reading frame of SjGS contains a 1,095-bp coding region corresponding to 364 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 40.7 kDa. NCBIP blast shows that the putative amino acid of SjGS contains a classic β-grasp domain and a catalytic domain of glutamine synthetase. The relative mRNA expression of SjGS was evaluated in 7-, 13-, 21-, 28-, 35-, and 42-day worms of S. japonicum in the final host and higher expression at day 21, and 42 worms were observed. This protein was also detected in worm extracts using Western blot. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that the SjGS protein was mainly distributed on tegument and parenchyma in 28-day adult worms. The recombinant glutamine synthetase with a molecular weight of 45 kDa was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in its active form. The enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was 3.30 ± 0.67 U.μg-1. The enzyme activity was highly stable over a wide range of pH (6-9) and temperature (25-40 °C) under physiological conditions. The transcription of SjGS was upregulated in praziquantel-treated worms at 2-, 4-, and 24-h posttreatment compared with the untreated control. As a first step towards the clarification of the role of glutamine synthetase in schistosome species, we have cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding SjGS in S. japonicum, and the data presented suggest that SjGS is an important molecule in the development of the schistosome.

  13. Effect of clinically approved HDAC inhibitors on Plasmodium, Leishmania and Schistosoma parasite growth

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    Ming Jang Chua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L. donovani parasites and two for in vivo activity in a mouse malaria model. All four compounds were potent inhibitors of P. knowlesi malaria parasites (IC50 9–370 nM, with belinostat, panobinostat and vorinostat having 8–45 fold selectivity for the parasite over human neonatal foreskin fibroblast (NFF or human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells, while romidepsin was not selective. Each of the HDAC inhibitor drugs caused hyperacetylation of P. knowlesi histone H4. None of the drugs was active against Leishmania amastigote or promastigote parasites (IC50 > 20 μM or S. mansoni schistosomula (IC50 > 10 μM, however romidepsin inhibited S. mansoni adult worm parings and egg production (IC50 ∼10 μM. Modest in vivo activity was observed in P. berghei infected mice dosed orally with vorinostat or panobinostat (25 mg/kg twice daily for four days, with a significant reduction in parasitemia observed on days 4–7 and 4–10 after infection (P < 0.05, respectively.

  14. Toxicity of cadmium to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae: effects on vitality and developmental ability in white mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliman, R.B. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg); Esham, L.P.

    1977-09-29

    Time-until-death studies were run on cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in 8 concentrations of cadmium (from cadmium sulfate) ranging from 100 ppM to 0.0001 ppM. All concentrations used were found to be toxic, and at 10 ppM all cercariae were dead within 4 hours, which coincides with their period of maximum infectability following emergence from the snail host. At 2 ppM, all cercariae died within 8 hours, and at 1 ppM all died within 16 hours. In addition, groups of cercariae were exposed to cadmium concentrations of 10, 1, and 0.1 ppM for periods of 30, 20, and 10 minutes. Thereafter, cercariae from these groups were allowed to penetrate the tails of white mice or were injected subcutaneously into mice. After 8 weeks, these mice were autopsied and the adult worms collected by perfusion. Maturation of cercariae from both methods of invasion was seriously impaired. Statistical analysis using a 3 x 4 x 2 factoral design for analysis of variance showed both time of exposure and concentration of cadmium ion to be significant factors in determining number of worms developing at p = 0.01. A significant interaction between time of exposure and concentration was found to exist. The two methods of infection did not have a significant effect on the number of worms recovered. Therefore, it appears that those toxicant-exposed cercariae capable of maturing do not need assistance in transversing the skin barrier but can penetrate and migrate to reach the mesenteric venules for maturation.

  15. A strategy for emergency treatment of Schistosoma japonicum-infested water

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    Li Hong-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by contact with Schistosoma japonicum cercaria-infested water when washing, bathing or production, remains a major public-health concern in China. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a suspension concentrate of niclosamide (SCN on killing cercaria of S. japonicum that float on the water surface, and its toxicity to fish, so as to establish an emergency-treatment intervention for rapidly killing cercaria and eliminating water infectivity. Results At 30 min after spraying 100 mg/L SCN, with niclosamide dosages of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 g/m2, the water infectivity reduced significantly and no infectivity was found at 60 min after spraying SCN. The surface of static water was sprayed with 100 mg/L SCN, the peak concentration was found at 0 min, and the solution diffused to site with a water depth of 10 cm after 10 min. 30 min later, SCN diffused to the whole water body, and distributed evenly. After spraying 100 mg/L SCN onto the surface of the water with a volume of(3.14 × 202×50cm3, with niclosamide dosages of 0.02 g/m2, 96 h later, no death of zebra fish was observed. Conclusions By spraying 100 mg/L SCN, with a niclosamide dosage of 0.02 g/m2 onto the surface of S. japonicum-infested water, infectivity of the water can be eliminated after 30-60 min, and there is no evident toxicity to fish. This cercaria-killing method, as an emergency-treatment intervention for infested water, can be applied in those forecasting and early warning systems for schistosomiasis.

  16. Congenital and nursing effects on the evolution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

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    J. A. Lenzi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the immune response to schistosomal infection in children or offspring born to mother R infected with Schistosoma mansoni has been demonstrated in human and in experimental schistosomiasis. One of the hypothesis to explain this fact could be the transfer of circulating antigens and antibodies from mother to foetus through the placenta or from mother to child by milk. The results of this spontaneous transference are controversial in the literature. In an attempt to investigate these questions, we studied one hundred and twenty offspring (Swiss mice, sixty born to infected-mothers (group A and sixty born to non-infected mothers (group B. These were percutaneously infected with 50 cercariae/mouse, and divided in six sub-groups (20 mice/sub-group, according to the following schedule: after birth (sub-groups A.I and B.I, 10 days old (sub-groups A.II and B.II and 21 days old (sub-groups A.III and B.III. After the exposure period, the young mice returned to their own mothers for nursing. Six weeks later, the mice were killed. We obtained the following results: 1 There is transference of antibody to cercariae (CAP, adult worms (SWAP and egg antigens (SEA from the infected mothers to the offspring, probably through placenta and milk; 2 Offspring born to infected mothers exhibit much less coagulative hepatic necrosis and show a lower number of eggs in the small intestine and a less intense and predominant exsudative stage of the hepatic granulomas when compared with the exsudative-productive stage of the control groups. The findings suggest that congenital and nursing factors can interfere on the development of the schistosomiasis infection, causing an hyporesponse to the eggs.

  17. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  18. Immunization of mice with cells from juvenile worms of Schistosoma japonicum provides immunoprotection against schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To validate the protective efficacy against schistosomiasis by immunization with cells from juvenile Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model and to analyze possible factors related to protection, in this study, two independent repeated vaccination trials were performed. After three subcutaneous vaccinations, in trial one, in the absence of adjuvant, primary juvenile worm cells (pJCs) from S. japonicum induced remarkable average reductions in worm burden (54.3%), liver eggs per gram (LEPG) load (59.8%) as well as egg granulomas size (66.5%) compared to PBS control group (P<0.01), which were significantly higher than those elicited by fractions of juvenile worm cells (JCFs) or fractions of juvenile worms (JWFs) (P<0.05). Non-cell components of worms (WNCs) showed no significant protection. In trial two, compared to PBS control group, significant protective effect was also observed for cultured juvenile worm cells (cJCs) from S. japonicum with 58.4% worm reduction and 68.1% LEPG reduction (P<0.01). However, cultured adult worms cells (cACs) showed significantly higher worm burden (P<0.05) and egg burden (P<0.01) when compared to cJCs. Immunological analysis of trial two revealed that cJCs engendered a Th1-biased mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response while cACs elicited a Th2-type response. Our data indicated that immunization with both primary and cultured cells from S. japonicum juvenile worms provided high immunoprotection, for which the physical character of immunogens, stage-specific parasite and the type of immune response induced might be responsible, suggesting that vaccination with whole cells from S. japonicum larvae is a promising approach to produce protective immunity against schistosomiasis.

  19. In vitro and in vivo effects of hesperidin treatment on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, G; Abuelsaad, A S A

    2014-09-01

    Hesperidin has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Herein, the schistosomicidal activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Using an in vitro assay, a concentration of 200 μg/ml of hesperidin resulted in the mortality of 100% adult worms of Schistosoma (S.) mansoni within 72 h and a partial tegumental alteration in 10% of worms. However, after 144 h incubation, 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations showed 0% and 10% mortality in adult worms, respectively, without any changes to the tegument. Sublethal doses did not influence egg output nor the development of eggs deposited by pairs of adult worms. In an in vivo study, mice infected with S. mansoni and treated with 600 mg hesperidin/kg body weight showed a respective reduction of 50, 45.2, 50 and 47.5% of males, females, worm pairs and total worm burden. In addition, a respective reduction, based on the number of eggs/g tissue, of 41.5, 63.7 and 58.6% was observed in the liver, intestine and liver/intestinal tissue combined. Furthermore, S. mansoni-specific IgG level significantly increased with hesperidin treatment, whereas IgA and IgE levels were not significantly changed. IgM levels decreased in response to cercarial antigen preparation but were not altered in response to soluble worm or soluble egg antigen. As in hesperidin-treated mice, praziquantel-treated mice showed a similar pattern of specific antibody response to S. mansoni antigens. The present study represents the first report on the effects of the schistosomicidal activity of hesperidin.

  20. Anthelmintic activity in vivo of epiisopiloturine against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria A; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N; Véras, Leiz M C; Lima, David F; Campelo, Yuri D M; Campos, Stefano Augusto; Kuckelhaus, Selma A S; Pinto, Pedro L S; Eaton, Peter; Mafud, Ana C; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Allegretti, Silmara M; de Moraes, Josué; Lolić, Aleksandar; Verbić, Tatjana; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI) against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported.

  1. Disposition of mefloquine and enpiroline is highly influenced by a chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Katrin; Duthaler, Urs; Vargas, Mireille; Ellis, William; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections lead to severe tissue destruction of the gut wall and liver and can influence drug disposition. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a chronic S. mansoni infection on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of two promising antischistosomal lead candidates (mefloquine and enpiroline) in mice. Studies were conducted in two different mouse cohorts (S. mansoni-infected and uninfected mice) for both drugs. Plasma samples were collected at various time points after oral treatment (200 mg/kg of body weight) with study drugs. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was validated to analyze enpiroline and mefloquine in plasma. Livers and intestines were collected from infected animals to determine the onset of action, hepatic shift, and worm burden reduction. Following mefloquine administration, hepatic shifting and significant worm burden reductions (79.2%) were observed after 72 h. At 1 week posttreatment with enpiroline, the majority of worms had migrated to the liver and significant worm burden reductions were observed (93.1%). The HPLC method was selective, accurate (87.8 to 111.4%), and precise (mefloquine, with a 5-fold increase of t1/2 (182.7 h versus 33.6 h) and 2-fold increase of AUC (1,116,517.8 ng · h/ml versus 522,409.1 ng · h/ml). S. mansoni infections in mice influence the PK profiles of enpiroline and mefloquine, leading to delayed clearance. Our data confirm that drug disposition should be carefully studied in schistosomiasis patients.

  2. Genetic diversity within Schistosoma haematobium: DNA barcoding reveals two distinct groups.

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    Bonnie L Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis in one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases, affecting millions of people and animals in developing countries. Amongst the human-infective species S. haematobium is one of the most widespread causing urogenital schistosomiasis, a major human health problem across Africa, however in terms of research this human pathogen has been severely neglected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium, a DNA 'barcoding' study was performed on parasite material collected from 41 localities representing 18 countries across Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands. Surprisingly low sequence variation was found within the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1 and the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 1 snad1. The 61 haplotypes found within 1978 individual samples split into two distinct groups; one (Group 1 that is predominately made up of parasites from the African mainland and the other (Group 2 that is made up of samples exclusively from the Indian Ocean Islands and the neighbouring African coastal regions. Within Group 1 there was a dominance of one particular haplotype (H1 representing 1574 (80% of the samples analyzed. Population genetic diversity increased in samples collected from the East African coastal regions and the data suggest that there has been movement of parasites between these areas and the Indian Ocean Islands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high occurrence of the haplotype (H1 suggests that at some point in the recent evolutionary history of S. haematobium in Africa the population may have passed through a genetic 'bottleneck' followed by a population expansion. This study provides novel and extremely interesting insights into the population genetics of S. haematobium on a large geographic scale, which may have consequence for control and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  3. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated. Findings Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001) with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008) more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001) of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002) of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002) was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women) as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001). Conclusion Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes. PMID:26513151

  4. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages.

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    Goylette F Chami

    Full Text Available The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women.We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5-90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated.Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001 with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008 more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001 of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002 of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002 was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001.Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes.

  5. Reduced Efficacy of Praziquantel Against Schistosoma mansoni Is Associated With Multiple Rounds of Mass Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellen, Thomas; Walker, Martin; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Cotton, James A.; Webster, Joanne P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control in sub-Saharan Africa. The effectiveness of this strategy is dependent on the continued high efficacy of praziquantel; however, drug efficacy is rarely monitored using appropriate statistical approaches that can detect early signs of wane. Methods. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study, examining children infected with Schistosoma mansoni from 6 schools in Uganda that had previously received between 1 and 9 rounds of MDA with praziquantel. We collected up to 12 S. mansoni egg counts from 414 children aged 6–12 years before and 25–27 days after treatment with praziquantel. We estimated individual patient egg reduction rates (ERRs) using a statistical model to explore the influence of covariates, including the number of prior MDA rounds. Results. The average ERR among children within schools that had received 8 or 9 previous rounds of MDA (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI], 88.23%–93.64%) was statistically significantly lower than the average in schools that had received 5 rounds (95% BCI, 96.13%–99.08%) or 1 round (95% BCI, 95.51%–98.96%) of MDA. We estimate that 5.11%, 4.55%, and 16.42% of children from schools that had received 1, 5, and 8–9 rounds of MDA, respectively, had ERRs below the 90% threshold of optimal praziquantel efficacy set by the World Health Organization. Conclusions. The reduced efficacy of praziquantel in schools with a higher exposure to MDA may pose a threat to the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control programs. We call for the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs used in MDA to be closely monitored. PMID:27470241

  6. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

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    Nadia S. Metwally

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day. Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm burden and ova count. Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT , ­ glutamyltransferase (GGT , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP, acid phosphatase (AP, while a decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL and LDL, triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase and phosphofructokinase (PFK enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count. Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities

  7. Antischistosomal activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Schistosoma mansoni harbored in C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Osama M S; Eid, Refaat A; Adly, Mohamed A

    2011-08-01

    The repeated chemotherapy of schistosomiasis has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant schistosome strains. The development of such resistance has drawn the attention of many authors to alternative drugs. Many medicinal plants were studied to investigate their antischistosomal potency. The present work aimed to evaluate antischistosomal activity of crude aqueous extract of ginger against Schistosoma mansoni. Sixteen mice of C57 strain were exposed to 100 ± 10 cercariae per mouse by the tail immersion method; the mice were divided into two groups: untreated group and ginger-treated one. All mice were sacrificed at the end of 10th week post-infection. Worm recovery and egg counting in the hepatic tissues and faeces were determined. Surface topography of the recovered worms was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological examination of liver and intestine was done using routine histological procedures. The worm burden and the egg density in liver and faeces of mice treated with ginger were fewer than in non-treated ones. Scanning electron microscopical examination revealed that male worms recovered from mice treated with ginger lost their normal surface architecture, since its surface showed partial loss of tubercles' spines, extensive erosion in inter-tubercle tegumental regions and numerous small blebs around tubercles. Histopathological data indicated a reduction in the number and size of granulomatous inflammatory infiltrations in the liver and intestine of treated mice compared to non-treated mice. The results of the present work suggested that ginger has antischistosomal activities and provided a basis for subsequent experimental and clinical trials.

  8. Germline transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in Schistosoma mansoni mediated by murine leukemia virus.

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    Gabriel Rinaldi

    Full Text Available Functional studies will facilitate characterization of role and essentiality of newly available genome sequences of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium. To develop transgenesis as a functional approach for these pathogens, we previously demonstrated that pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV can transduce schistosomes leading to chromosomal integration of reporter transgenes and short hairpin RNA cassettes. Here we investigated vertical transmission of transgenes through the developmental cycle of S. mansoni after introducing transgenes into eggs. Although MLV infection of schistosome eggs from mouse livers was efficient in terms of snail infectivity, >10-fold higher transgene copy numbers were detected in cercariae derived from in vitro laid eggs (IVLE. After infecting snails with miracidia from eggs transduced by MLV, sequencing of genomic DNA from cercariae released from the snails also revealed the presence of transgenes, demonstrating that transgenes had been transmitted through the asexual developmental cycle, and thereby confirming germline transgenesis. High-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA from schistosome populations exposed to MLV mapped widespread and random insertion of transgenes throughout the genome, along each of the autosomes and sex chromosomes, validating the utility of this approach for insertional mutagenesis. In addition, the germline-transmitted transgene encoding neomycin phosphotransferase rescued cultured schistosomules from toxicity of the antibiotic G418, and PCR analysis of eggs resulting from sexual reproduction of the transgenic worms in mice confirmed that retroviral transgenes were transmitted to the next (F1 generation. These findings provide the first description of wide-scale, random insertional mutagenesis of chromosomes and of germline transmission of a transgene in schistosomes. Transgenic lines of schistosomes expressing antibiotic resistance could advance

  9. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

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    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina.

  10. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

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    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  11. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

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    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  12. Molecular cloning of Schistosoma mansoni calcineurin subunits and immunolocalization to the excretory system.

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    Mecozzi, B; Rossi, A; Lazzaretti, P; Kady, M; Kaiser, S; Valle, C; Cioli, D; Klinkert, M Q

    2000-10-01

    In order to explain the schistosomicidal effect of cyclosporin A, the hypothesis was advanced that the drug, complexed with cyclophilin, inhibits the phosphatase activity of parasite calcineurin (CN), with mechanisms similar to those operating in its immunosuppressive action. As a preparatory step to the testing of this hypothesis, we report the molecular cloning of both CN subunits in Schistosoma mansoni. The catalytic (A) subunit has a predicted sequence of 607 amino acids and shows substantial similarity to other cloned CNs, except for the carboxy-terminal end that is highly divergent. The regulatory (B) subunit consists of 169 amino acids that are 86% identical to those of the human counterpart and, from its anomalous electrophoretic mobility, it appears to be myristoylated. The results of Southern blotting experiments are compatible with the existence of multiple genes for CNA and a single gene for CNB. Western blots showed that both subunits are present at all stages of the parasite life cycle and can be detected both in the soluble and in the membrane fraction. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed a striking concentration of the anti-CNA reactivity in 6-8 discrete spots in the schistosomula and in distinct spots along the body of the adult parasite, corresponding to the expected localization of flame cells. Both patterns were confirmed by a perfect co-localization of the anti-CNA signal with that of a previously characterized anti-flame cell monoclonal antibody. The preferential confinement of schistosome CN to the protonephridial system suggests that the enzyme in the parasite may fulfil similar functions to those performed in mammalian kidneys.

  13. Molecular approach for detecting early prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snail host.

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    Farghaly, Adel; Saleh, Ayman A; Mahdy, Soad; Abd El-Khalik, Dalia; Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F; Abdel-Rahman, Sara A; Salama, Marwa A

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in early prepatent period and to compare between it and the ordinary detection methods (shedding and crushing). Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni. DNA was extracted from infected snails in addition to non-infected "negative control" (to optimized the efficiency of PCR reaction) and subjected to PCR using primers specific to a partial sequence of S. mansoni fructose-1,6-bus phosphate aldolase (SMALDO). SMALDO gene was detected in the infected laboratory snails with 70, 85, and 100 % positivity at the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day of infection, respectively. In contrast, the ordinary method was not sensitive enough in detection of early prepatent infection even after 7 days of infection which showed only 25 % positivity. By comparing the sensitivity of the three methods, it was found that the average sensitivity of shedding method compared to PCR was 23.8 % and the average sensitivity of crushing method compared to PCR was 46.4 % while the sensitivity of PCR was 100 %. We conclude that PCR is superior to the conventional methods and can detect positive cases that were negative when examined by shedding or crushing methods. This can help in detection of the areas and times of high transmission which in turn will be very beneficial in planning of the exact timing of the proper control strategy.

  14. Evaluation of urine CCA assays for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Western Kenya.

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    Hillary L Shane

    Full Text Available Although accurate assessment of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is important for the design and evaluation of control programs, the most widely used tools for diagnosis are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, slow turn-around-time, or inability to distinguish current from former infections. Recently, two tests that detect circulating cathodic antigen (CCA in urine of patients with schistosomiasis became commercially available. As part of a larger study on schistosomiasis prevalence in young children, we evaluated the performance and diagnostic accuracy of these tests--the carbon test strip designed for use in the laboratory and the cassette format test intended for field use. In comparison to 6 Kato-Katz exams, the carbon and cassette CCA tests had sensitivities of 88.4% and 94.2% and specificities of 70.9% and 59.4%, respectively. However, because of the known limitations of the Kato-Katz assay, we also utilized latent class analysis (LCA incorporating the CCA, Kato-Katz, and schistosome-specific antibody results to determine their sensitivities and specificities. The laboratory-based CCA test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 89.4% by LCA while the cassette test had a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 74.7%. The intensity of the reaction in both urine CCA tests reflected stool egg burden and their performance was not affected by the presence of soil transmitted helminth infections. Our results suggest that urine-based assays for CCA may be valuable in screening for S. mansoni infections.

  15. Use of geospatial modeling to predict Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

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    Dana M Woodhall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people, can lead to significant morbidity and mortality; distribution of single dose preventative chemotherapy significantly reduces disease burden. Implementation of control programs is dictated by disease prevalence rates, which are determined by costly and labor intensive screening of stool samples. Because ecological and human factors are known to contribute to the focal distribution of schistosomiasis, we sought to determine if specific environmental and geographic factors could be used to accurately predict Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in Nyanza Province, Kenya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A spatial mixed model was fit to assess associations with S. mansoni prevalence in schools. Data on S. mansoni prevalence and GPS location of the school were obtained from 457 primary schools. Environmental and geographic data layers were obtained from publicly available sources. Spatial models were constructed using ArcGIS 10 and R 2.13.0. Lower S.mansoni prevalence was associated with further distance (km to Lake Victoria, higher day land surface temperature (LST, and higher monthly rainfall totals. Altitude, night LST, human influence index, normalized difference vegetation index, soil pH, soil texture, soil bulk density, soil water capacity, population, and land use variables were not significantly associated with S. mansoni prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that there are specific environmental and geographic factors that influence S. mansoni prevalence rates in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Validation and use of schistosomiasis prevalence maps will allow control programs to plan and prioritize efficient control campaigns to decrease schistosomiasis burden.

  16. The use of microencapsulated hepatocytes transplantation reduces mortality and liver alterations in Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters.

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    Sherif, Soad A; Moharib, Mona N; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Hammam, Olfat A; Salman, Fatma H; El-Naggar, Mohamed M

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotropic liver transplantation. The goal of this work was to study the adequacy of intrasplenic hepatocyte transplantation (HCTx) in fresh and microencapsulated forms, in a hamster model of liver fibrosis by Schistosoma mansoni infected hamsters were divided into 6 groups; untreated for 11 weeks (GI) and for 15 weeks (GII), treated with praziquantel (PZQ) 7 weeks PI, and killed 4 weeks (GIII) and 8 weeks (GIV) post-treatment. Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then treated orally with immunosuppressive drug "cyclosporine (4 weeks post PZQ treatment), 24 hr. before interasplenic injection with fresh hepatocytes (V). Treated with PZQ 7 weeks PI, and then injected interasplenically (4 weeks post-treatment) with microencapsulated hepatocytes (GVI). GI & GIII were killed 11 weeks PI for assessment the anti-schistosomal efficacy of PZQ. The other four groups were killed 15 weeks PI for investigation of liver and spleen histology, serum liver enzymes and hepatic oxidative markers before and after HCTx. Freshly isolated hepatocytes with a mean viability 92.97 +/- 1.2% were used for microencapsulation and transplantation. Histological study showed the presence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen of recipient. PZQ accelerated healing of hepatic granulomatous lesions as evidenced parasitologically by the increase in the percentage of dead eggs and histologically showing more granuloma circumscription with more ova degeneration and less inflammatory cells. The 25-day survival rates in GII, GIV, GV& GVI were 5/15 (33.3%), 8/15 (53.3%), 10/15 (66.7%) and 9/15 (60%) respectively. In addition, there were significantly better outcomes in serum biochemical indexes such as ALT, AST, gamma-GT, ALP, and hepatic SOD and MDA in the fresh and microencapsulated groups than in PZQ-treated group, without great differences between the microencapsulated and the fresh transplanted groups

  17. Genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of parasite multidrug resistance transporters disrupts egg production in Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Ravi S Kasinathan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs are ATP-dependent transporters involved in efflux of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. When overexpressed, these transporters can mediate multidrug resistance (MDR in mammalian cells, and changes in Pgp expression and sequence are associated with drug resistance in helminths. In addition to the role they play in drug efflux, MDR transporters are essential components of normal cellular physiology, and targeting them may prove a useful strategy for development of new therapeutics or of compounds that enhance the efficacy of current anthelmintics. We previously showed that expression of Schistosoma mansoni MDR transporters increases in response to praziquantel (PZQ, the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis, and that reduced PZQ sensitivity correlates with higher levels of these parasite transporters. We have also shown that PZQ inhibits transport by SMDR2, a Pgp orthologue from S. mansoni, and that PZQ is a likely substrate of SMDR2. Here, we examine the physiological roles of SMDR2 and SmMRP1 (the S. mansoni orthologue of MRP1 in S. mansoni adults, using RNAi to knock down expression, and pharmacological agents to inhibit transporter function. We find that both types of treatments disrupt parasite egg deposition by worms in culture. Furthermore, administration of different MDR inhibitors to S. mansoni-infected mice results in a reduction in egg burden in host liver. These schistosome MDR transporters therefore appear to play essential roles in parasite egg production, and can be targeted genetically and pharmacologically. Since eggs are responsible for the major pathophysiological consequences of schistosomiasis, and since they are also the agents for transmission of the disease, these results suggest a potential strategy for reducing disease pathology and spread.

  18. Septins of Platyhelminths: identification, phylogeny, expression and localization among developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Zeraik, Ana E; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Mann, Victoria H; Popratiloff, Anastas; Araujo, Ana P U; Demarco, Ricardo; Brindley, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP binding proteins conserved from yeasts to humans. Originally identified in mutants of budding yeast, septins participate in diverse cellular functions including cytokinesis, organization of actin networks, cell polarity, vesicle trafficking and many others. Septins assemble into heteroligomers to form filaments and rings. Here, four septins of Schistosoma mansoni are described, which appear to be conserved within the phylum Platyhelminthes. These orthologues were related to the SEPT5, SEPT10 and SEPT7 septins of humans, and hence we have termed the schistosome septins SmSEPT5, SmSEPT10, SmSEPT7.1 and SmSEPT7.2. Septin transcripts were detected throughout the developmental cycle of the schistosome and a similar expression profile was observed for septins in the stages examined, consistent with concerted production of these proteins to form heterocomplexes. Immunolocalization analyses undertaken with antibodies specific for SmSEPT5 and SmSEPT10 revealed a broad tissue distribution of septins in the schistosomulum and colocalization of septin and actin in the longitudinal and circular muscles of the sporocyst. Ciliated epidermal plates of the miracidium were rich in septins. Expression levels for these septins were elevated in germ cells in the miracidium and sporocyst. Intriguingly, septins colocalize with the protonephridial system of the cercaria, which extends laterally along the length of this larval stage. Together, the findings revealed that schistosomes expressed several septins which likely form filaments within the cells, as in other eukaryotes. Identification and localization demonstrating a broad distribution of septins across organs and tissues of schistosome contributes towards the understanding of septins in schistosomes and other flatworms.

  19. Septins of Platyhelminths: identification, phylogeny, expression and localization among developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Ana E Zeraik

    Full Text Available Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP binding proteins conserved from yeasts to humans. Originally identified in mutants of budding yeast, septins participate in diverse cellular functions including cytokinesis, organization of actin networks, cell polarity, vesicle trafficking and many others. Septins assemble into heteroligomers to form filaments and rings. Here, four septins of Schistosoma mansoni are described, which appear to be conserved within the phylum Platyhelminthes. These orthologues were related to the SEPT5, SEPT10 and SEPT7 septins of humans, and hence we have termed the schistosome septins SmSEPT5, SmSEPT10, SmSEPT7.1 and SmSEPT7.2. Septin transcripts were detected throughout the developmental cycle of the schistosome and a similar expression profile was observed for septins in the stages examined, consistent with concerted production of these proteins to form heterocomplexes. Immunolocalization analyses undertaken with antibodies specific for SmSEPT5 and SmSEPT10 revealed a broad tissue distribution of septins in the schistosomulum and colocalization of septin and actin in the longitudinal and circular muscles of the sporocyst. Ciliated epidermal plates of the miracidium were rich in septins. Expression levels for these septins were elevated in germ cells in the miracidium and sporocyst. Intriguingly, septins colocalize with the protonephridial system of the cercaria, which extends laterally along the length of this larval stage. Together, the findings revealed that schistosomes expressed several septins which likely form filaments within the cells, as in other eukaryotes. Identification and localization demonstrating a broad distribution of septins across organs and tissues of schistosome contributes towards the understanding of septins in schistosomes and other flatworms.

  20. Silver-enhanced colloidal gold metalloimmunoassay for Schistosoma japonicum antibody detection.

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    Chu, Xia; Xiang, Zhi-Feng; Fu, Xin; Wang, Shi-Ping; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2005-06-01

    A silver-enhanced colloidal gold metalloimmunoassay has been proposed for the determination of Schistosoma japonicum antibody (SjAb) in rabbit serum. The adult worm antigen of S. japonicum (SjAg) was adsorbed passively on the walls of a polystyrene microwell and then reacted with the desired SjAb. The colloidal gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody was adsorbed on the walls of the polystyrene microwells through the reaction with SjAb, followed by the silver enhancement process, dissolution of silver metal atoms in an acidic solution, and determination of dissolved silver ions by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a glassy-carbon electrode. Assay conditions were optimized, including the reaction time of SjAg with SjAb, the interaction of SjAb with the colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibody, the dilution ratio of the colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibody and the silver enhancement time. The integration of the anodic stripping peak current depended linearly on the SjAb logarithmic concentration over the range of 6.4 ng/ml to 100 microg/ml. A detection limit as low as 3.0 ng/ml SjAb was achieved, which was better than the piezoelectric body acoustic wave sensor (detection limit of 7.2 microg/ml) and the renewable amperometric immunosensor (detection limit of 0.36 microg/ml). Rabbit serum samples with various degrees of infection were analyzed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method meets the requirements of clinical analysis.

  1. Reconstructing Colonization Dynamics of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni following Anthropogenic Environmental Changes in Northwest Senegal.

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    Frederik Van den Broeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental changes may lead to ecosystem destabilization and the unintentional colonization of new habitats by parasite populations. A remarkable example is the outbreak of intestinal schistosomiasis in Northwest Senegal following the construction of two dams in the '80s. While many studies have investigated the epidemiological, immunological and geographical patterns of Schistosoma mansoni infections in this region, little is known about its colonization history.Parasites were collected at several time points after the disease outbreak and genotyped using a 420 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1 and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite markers. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses revealed the presence of (i many genetically different haplotypes at the non-recombining mitochondrial marker and (ii one homogenous S. mansoni genetic group at the recombining microsatellite markers. These results suggest that the S. mansoni population in Northwest Senegal was triggered by intraspecific hybridization (i.e. admixture between parasites that were introduced from different regions. This would comply with the extensive immigration of infected seasonal agricultural workers from neighboring regions in Senegal, Mauritania and Mali. The spatial and temporal stability of the established S. mansoni population suggests a swift local adaptation of the parasite to the local intermediate snail host Biomphalaria pfeifferi at the onset of the epidemic.Our results show that S. mansoni parasites are very successful in colonizing new areas without significant loss of genetic diversity. Maintaining high levels of diversity guarantees the adaptive potential of these parasites to cope with selective pressures such as drug treatment, which might complicate efforts to control the disease.

  2. Evidence for Novel Pharmacological Sensitivities of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP Channels in Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Swarna Bais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions globally. Praziquantel (PZQ, the only drug currently available for treatment and control, is largely ineffective against juvenile worms, and reports of PZQ resistance lend added urgency to the need for development of new therapeutics. Ion channels, which underlie electrical excitability in cells, are validated targets for many current anthelmintics. Transient receptor potential (TRP channels are a large family of non-selective cation channels. TRP channels play key roles in sensory transduction and other critical functions, yet the properties of these channels have remained essentially unexplored in parasitic helminths. TRP channels fall into several (7-8 subfamilies, including TRPA and TRPV. Though schistosomes contain genes predicted to encode representatives of most of the TRP channel subfamilies, they do not appear to have genes for any TRPV channels. Nonetheless, we find that the TRPV1-selective activators capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX induce dramatic hyperactivity in adult worms; capsaicin also increases motility in schistosomula. SB 366719, a highly-selective TRPV1 antagonist, blocks the capsaicin-induced hyperactivity in adults. Mammalian TRPA1 is not activated by capsaicin, yet knockdown of the single predicted TRPA1-like gene (SmTRPA in S. mansoni effectively abolishes capsaicin-induced responses in adult worms, suggesting that SmTRPA is required for capsaicin sensitivity in these parasites. Based on these results, we hypothesize that some schistosome TRP channels have novel pharmacological sensitivities that can be targeted to disrupt normal parasite neuromuscular function. These results also have implications for understanding the phylogeny of metazoan TRP channels and may help identify novel targets for new or repurposed therapeutics.

  3. Septins of Platyhelminths: Identification, Phylogeny, Expression and Localization among Developmental Stages of Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraik, Ana E.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Mann, Victoria H.; Popratiloff, Anastas; Araujo, Ana P. U.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Brindley, P