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Sample records for blood flow cbf

  1. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) with 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tadaki; Masumura, Michio; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Hideyuki.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of CO 2 inhalation on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) were examined with 133 Xe inhalation method (Novo Inhalation Cerebrograph) on 9 normal peoples and 20 patients. Nine normal peoples were divided into 3 groups consisting of each 3 peoples, namely young age group, middle age group, and old age group. Each increased CBF (%) by CO 2 inhalation was 40 -- 44 in young age group, 36 -- 37 in middle age group, and 35 -- 36 in old age group in the blood flow of the first compartment (F 1 ), and 27 -- 28 in young age group, 30 -- 31 in middle age group and 23 -- 24 in old age group in the initial slope index (ISI). Each CO 2 reactivity factor (RF) was 5.5 -- 5.8 in young age group, 3.8 -- 4.0 in middle age group and 3.3 in old age group in F 1 , and 3.1 -- 3.2 in young age group, 2.0 -- 3.3 in middle age group, and 1.2 -- 1.3 in old age group in ISI. Twenty patients consisted of 15 patients of occlusive cerebrovascular disease, 2 patients of head injury, 2 patients of normal pressure hydrocephalus and one patient of subarachnoid hemorrhage. RF was abnormally lower than normal value in 5 patients in F 1 , but in 7 in ISI. Clinical benefits of CBF study during CO 2 inhalation with 133 Xe inhalation method were discussed. (author)

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in major depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Junichi

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with major depression and in normal controls was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p [ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 22 patients with major depression and 14 normal controls. The rCBF was calculated by the ratio of activity per pixel in the cortical regions to activity per pixel in the cerebellum. IMP-SPECT was conducted in patients with major depression under the depressive and remitted states. rCBF values in the frontal, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and the occipital regions, and the mean rCBF values were significantly lower in depressive patients than in the controls. Increased rCBF values were observed, and the mean rCBF became normal in the state of remittence. There was no significant difference in mean rCBF between depressive patients and the controls. Therefore, because the lower rCBF was normalized following improvement in expressive symptoms, the rCBF values could be useful as 'state dependent markers' in patients with major depression. (author)

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatry: Methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohovnik, I.

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been confined to neurology and nuclear medicine. Only one laboratory had concentrated on using this technique in psychiatric studies. Recently, however, rCBF has been increasingly used in psychiatry, and it seems appropriate at this time to examine the value and limitations of this method. The present article reviews selected methodological issues that may complicate the performance and interpretation of rCBF studies, with the aim of providing some means to evaluate published work and to plan further psychiatric research. In this paper, the term rCBF refers only to the two-dimensional, noninvasive methods that rely on inhalation or intravenous injection of xenon-133. The growing interest of rCBF to psychiatry stems mostly from the fact that this technique can indirectly map cerebral metabolism and, by interface, neural activity or information processing. Regional metabolism and blood flow are closely coupled to the human brain in the absence of gross pathology, and since psychiatric patients rarely present acute neurological abnormalities that might disrupt this coupling, one may infer regional metabolism from flow

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement by 133Xe inhalation (Inhamatic 33rCBF measuring instrument)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Onodera, Hideki; Endo, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    The rCBF and its patterns obtained by 133 Xe inhalation on 20 healthy subjects were studied. In a group of subjects aged 25 years or less, the fast flow (F1) representing the mean cerebral blood flow (MCBF) was 97.1 +- 15.7 m1/100 g/min (abbreviated as m1) in the left hemisphere and 96.6 +- 16.8 m1 in the right; and the initial slope index (ISI), 65.8 +- 10.4 m1 for the left and 65.1 +- 10.7 m1 for the right. In a group of subjects aged 25 or more, F1 was 83.5 +- 10.1 m1 for the left and 84.8 +- 9.6 m1 for the right; and ISI, 55.7 +- 6.9 m1 for the left and 55.8 +- 6.7 m1 for the right. In both groups, F1 showed a hyperfrontal pattern in which F1 was higher than MCBF in the frontal region by about 10%, and ISI showed high values primarily in the sylvian fissure. With respect to the variation of F1 values from the 1st to 2nd measurements, MCBF was 7.6 +- 5.1% in the left hemisphere and 9.0 +- 4.7% in the right; and ISI, 14.6 +- 5.1% in the left and 14.4 +- 10.6% in the right. Thus, F1 values showed higher reproducibility. Depending on the difference in start fit time (SFT), both F1 and ISI values showed great changes, particularly so when SFT was close to the peak of the head curve. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Acute effects of electroconvulsive therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment

  6. An intravenous isotope method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.; Ahonen, A.; Koivula, A.; Kallanranta, T.; Laitinen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The regional cerebal blood flow (rCBF), initial slope index (ISI), transfer time (t - sub(h)) and volume (rCBV) were measured simultaneously in 43 hospital patients using a 133 Xe intravenous injection method and quantitative dynamic 99 Tcsup(m) brain scintigraphy. The measurements were made with a gamma camera and the data processing interfaced with a small digital computer. The mean values and standard deviations were obtained from 50 control hemispheres standardized to the age of 40 years. Good agreement was found between the blood flow values determined from the intra-arterial and intravenous injection techniques. (author)

  7. Altered cerebral blood flow in chronic neck pain patients but not in whiplash patients: a 99mTc-HMPAO rCBF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Torbjörn; Guez, Michel; Hildingsson, Christer; Toolanen, Göran; Nyberg, Lars; Riklund, Katrine

    2006-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with chronic whiplash syndrome and chronic neck pain patients without previous history of trauma along with a healthy control group. Chronic neck pain is a common disorder and a history of cervical spine injury including whiplash trauma constitute a risk factor for persistent neck pain. The aetiology of the late whiplash syndrome is unknown with no specific diagnostic criteria based on imaging, physiological, or psychological examination. Earlier studies indicate a parieto-occipital hypoperfusion but it is unclear if the hypoperfusion represents a response to chronic pain. The rCBF was monitored in 45 patients with chronic neck pain: 27 cases with chronic whiplash syndrome and 18 age and gender matched cases with non-traumatic chronic neck pain. The rCBF was estimated with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). The non-traumatic patients displayed rCBF changes in comparison with the whiplash group and the healthy control group. These changes included rCBF decreases in a right temporal region close to hippocampus, and increased rCBF in left insula. The whiplash group displayed no significant differences in rCBF in comparison with the healthy controls. The present study suggests different pain mechanisms in patients with chronic neck pain of non-traumatic origin compared to those with chronic neck pain due to a whiplash trauma.

  8. Local application of 133Xenon for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eintrei, C.; Leszniewski, W.; Carlsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that halothane causes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this study the effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in humans were determined in the presence of 70% N 2 O at a combined MAC concentration of 1.5. CBF was determined in 24 patients from the washout of locally applied 133 Xenon with the use of an external scintillation. All 24 patients (control n = 6, halothane n = 6, enflurane n = 6, and isoflurane n = 6) were undergoing neurosurgical procedures. All patients were anesthetized with thiopental, fentanyl, droperidol, and 70% N 2 O in oxygen and paralyzed with pancuronium. The measurements were performed after the dura had been opened and before definitive surgery. The first measurement was done in the absence of any volatile agent, and the wash-out curve was registered for 6 min. The second measurement was done after one of the volatile agents had been added for at least 20 min and had reached a concentration of 0.58% for halothane, 1.14% for enflurane, or 1.0% for isoflurane in the expiratory gases in order to obtain about 1.5 MAC with each volatile anesthetic. The anesthetic concentrations were measured with the Engstroem multigas analyzer EMMA. The physiologic variables changed very little throughout the period of observation. Body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, PaCO 2 , and PaO 2 were stable. Ephedrine was used to maintain a stable arterial pressure. At approximately 1.5 MAC, halothane (plus N 2 O) increased rCBF to nearly three times (166%) the control value, while enflurane induced only a slight increase (35%) in rCBF

  9. Altered cerebral blood flow in chronic neck pain patients but not in whiplash patients: a 99mTc-HMPAO rCBF study

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, Torbjörn; Guez, Michel; Hildingsson, Christer; Toolanen, Göran; Nyberg, Lars; Riklund, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with chronic whiplash syndrome and chronic neck pain patients without previous history of trauma along with a healthy control group. Chronic neck pain is a common disorder and a history of cervical spine injury including whiplash trauma constitute a risk factor for persistent neck pain. The aetiology of the late whiplash syndrome is unknown with no specific diagnostic criteria based on imaging, physiologica...

  10. Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement with one point sampling by sup 123 I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masahiro [University of Occupational and Enviromental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Iida, Hidehiro; Murakami, Matsutaro

    1992-02-01

    A handy method of quantifying regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement by {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT was designed. A standard input function was made and the sampling time to calibrate this standard input function by one point sampling was optimized. An average standard input function was obtained from continuous arterial samplings of 12 healthy adults. The best sampling time was the minimum differential value between the integral calculus value of the standard input function calibrated by one point sampling and the input funciton by continuous arterial samplings. This time was 8 minutes after an intravenous injection of {sup 123}I-IMP and an error was estimated to be {+-}4.1%. The rCBF values by this method were evaluated by comparing them with the rCBF values of the input function with continuous arterial samplings in 2 healthy adults and a patient with cerebral infarction. A significant correlation (r=0.764, p<0.001) was obtained between both. (author).

  11. Noninvasive quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using Tc-99m ECD SPECT with adjunctive radionuclide angiography in ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Jun Sung; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Myung Ho; Cho, Suk Shin

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative CBF measurements are essential for diagnosing ischemic lesion, evaluating the therapeutic effects and predicting the prognosis of cerebral ischemia. Even though several methods have been introduced, these techniques are too cumbersome and invasive to be applied to routine studies. In this study, a non-invasive simple method for the quantitative angiography. Fifteen normal controls and 27 patients with unilateral carotid ischemic stoke were selected. Brain perfusion index (BPI) of each hemisphere was measured in each subject by acquisition of serial radionuclide angiography after injection of 20mCi of Tc-99m ECD. With Lassen's correction algorithm of curve-linear relationship between the brain activity and blood flow, rCBF on transaxial SPECT slice corresponding with MRI lesion sites (ischemic core, border zone and contralateral mirror locus) were calculated. BPI values for normal controls showed a significant negative correlation with advantage age (r=-0.64, p=0.021) and hemisphric BPI were 11.02±1.6 and 7.8±1.4 for normal controls and patient, respectively. Significant differences were observed between two groups (p=0.0012). rCBF obtained from core zone (12±2.5 ml/100/min), boneder zone (29.2±8.1) and contralateral mirror locus (52.1±15.1) were clearly defined in each subject of patient group. Measurement of BPI and rCBF using Tc-99m ECD SPECT with adjunctive radionuclide angiography could be an useful, simple and non-invasive method in evaluation of the cerebral flood in the ischemic stroke

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in schizophrenia during verbal memory activation: a 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography (SPET) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, G F; Costa, D C; Ell, P J; Pilowsky, L S; David, A S; Kerwin, R W

    1994-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in a group of medicated DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients and age, sex and handedness matched normal volunteers using a split-dose 99mTc-HMPAO Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET) protocol. Measures were taken during the performance of a verbal memory task aimed at activating the left medial temporal lobe, a region repeatedly suggested to be structurally abnormal in schizophrenia. In normal subjects, the performance of the task was associated with significant rCBF increases in the left medial temporal, left inferior frontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and right cerebellum. Despite their significantly poorer performance on the memory task, the degree of medial temporal activation measured in the schizophrenic patients was not significantly different from that found in the control group. This finding suggests that memory deficits in schizophrenia do not necessarily imply failure to activate the left medial temporal lobe as assessed by 99mTc-HMPAO SPET.

  13. Local cerebral blood flow (1CBF) and oxygen consumption (1CMRO2) in evolving irreversible ischemic infarction: a study with positron tomography and oxygen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.; Rougemont, D.; Lebrun-Grandie, P.; Comar, D.; Bousser, M.G.; Bories, J.; Castaigne, P.; Cabanis, E.

    1982-09-01

    In 25 patients suffering from cerebral ischemia set up in the area of the internal carotid artery the local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral oxygen consumption (lCMRO 2 ) were measured by the method of continuous inhalation of oxygen 15-labelled gas combined with positron emission tomography. These two local parameters and their ratio, the local oxygen extraction rate (lO 2 E), were studied inside the brain region tending spontaneously towards ischemic necrosis, a zone defined by means of repeated tomodensitometric examinations. The essential facts observed are the variability of the lCBF and the lO 2 E values, from extremely low to extremely high, whereas the collapse of the lCMRO 2 is constant. Consequently this last parameter alone would be a good prognostic index, an lCMRO 2 decrease to a level below about 70% of the controlateral value indicating that the necrosis is spontaneously irreparable. These results are discussed in the light of published data

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement using D.S.P.E.C.T. and xenon inhalation: first results in distal encephalic juvenile ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinling, M.; Guerouaou, D.; Dubois, P.; Bouchez, P.; Arnott, G.; Vergnes, R.

    1984-01-01

    Xenon inhalation and D.S.P.E.C.T. were used for rCBF measurement in 16 patients with distal encephalic juvenile ischemia. 8 patients immediately had a second study, 15 minutes after IV injection of 500 mg acetazolamide. Results show that rCBF was abnormal in 13 patients, including some who had only minor clinical symptoms. rCBF measurement complemented neuroradiological data in 12 of 16 cases and proved more informative in 7 cases. Our most striking finding is perhaps that no patient responded normally to acetazolamide injection: three failed to respond and five showed complex (heterogeneous responses). Follow up of these patients will perhaps provide information as to the prognostic value of rCBF and acetazolamide reactivity measurements [fr

  15. Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow(CBF) in Congestive Heart Failure (CHB): non-invasive quantification with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Jae Joong; Lim, Ki Chun; Lee, Hee Kyung; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Recent reports revealed that cerebral metabolism in CHF was abnormally deranged and proposed as a potential marker of disease severity. Since deranged cerebral metabolism in CHF may result from compromised cerebral perfusion, quantification of CHF may be useful for accurate risk stratification of CHF. Therefore, we investigated whether CHF in patients with CHF is compromised and correlated with clinical parameters. Fifteen patients (M/F:11/5, 45{+-}9yr) with CHF (LVEF<40%) and 7 healthy controls (M/F:5/2, 41{+-}8yr) were prospectively studied. All patients underwent radionuclide angiography including cerebral hemispheres and aortic arch using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. Global CBF was measured non-invasively by the application of Patlak graphical plot analysis. All patients were also evaluated using a standardized protocol that included echocardiography and clinical evaluation. Global CBF (40.3{+-}5.2 ml/min/100g) of the patients with CHF were significantly lower than those (49.7{+-}2.4 ml/min/100g) of controls (p<0.01). Global CBF were correlated with NYHA functional class (r=-0.617, p=0.43), but not correlated with other clinical parameters such as age (r=-0.463, p=0.082), duration (r=0.237, p>0.1), systolic BP (r=-0.063, p>0.5), LVEF (r=-0.13, p>0.1), LV dimension(r=0.139, p>0.5), and PV pressure gradients (r=0.072, p>0.5). Cerebral perfusion of the patients with CHF was compromised and not correlated with cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters.

  16. Imaging of the appearance time of cerebral blood using [15O]H2O PET for the computation of correct CBF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Yukito; Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Monden, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-23

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is important for the understanding of normal and pathologic brain physiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) with H215O (or C15O2) can quantify CBF and apply kinetic analyses, including autoradiography (ARG) and the basis function methods (BFM). These approaches, however, are sensitive to input function errors such as the appearance time of cerebral blood (ATB), known as the delay time. We estimated brain ATB in an image-based fashion to correct CBF by accounting for differences in computed CBF values using three different analyses: ARG and BFM with and without fixing the partition coefficient. Subject groups included those with no significant disorders, those with elevated cerebral blood volume, and those with reduced CBF. All subjects underwent PET examination, and CBF was estimated using the three analyses. The ATB was then computed from the differences of the obtained CBF values, and ATB-corrected CBF values were computed. ATB was also estimated for regions of interest (ROIs) of multiple cortical regions. The feasibility of the present method was tested in a simulation study. There were no significant differences in the obtained ATB between the image- and ROI-based methods. Significantly later appearance was found in the cerebellum compared to other brain regions for all groups. In cortical regions where CBF was reduced due to occlusive lesions, the ATB was 0.2 ± 1.2 s, which was significantly delayed relative to the contralateral regions. A simulation study showed that the ATB-corrected CBF was less sensitive to errors in input function, and noise on the tissue curve did not enhance the degree of noise on ATB-corrected CBF image. This study demonstrates the potential utility of visualizing the ATB in the brain, enabling the determination of CBF with less sensitivity to error in input function.

  17. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only inc...... the cerebral tissue's increased demand for glucose supply during neural activation with recent evidence supporting a key function for astrocytes in rCBF regulation....

  18. An evaluation of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement by xenon-enhanced dynamic CT with helical scanning technique and the functional imaging by multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). Fundamental study and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenichi

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the quantitative rCBF by xenon-enhanced dynamic CT with helical scanning technique on all brain regions, and also examined clinical usefulness of coronal and sagittal section images which are similar to SPECT images obtained by the functional multiplanar reconstitution (MPR) imaging of many successive flow maps. We used 14 clinical cases. The conventional xenon-enhanced CT was simple and ideal method to measure rCBF, however, it had disadvantages; it gives a few laminagraphical images or only the axial directional images, compared to SPECT or PET. There is a risk to overlook lesions out of the image or not to obtain the whole images of the lesion. Although the helical scanning technique has a methodological characteristics to use adjacent data for the image reconstitution, it is by no means inferior to the conventional method in the contrast resolution or the image resolution when the co-helical function and an appropriate reconstituted function were used. It has an advantage to scan all brain regions by only one cycle of scanning. Furthermore on making good use of the property that the helical scanning technique can give the successive data, we can observe rCBF by coronal and sagittal images when many flow maps were made up by reconstituted images of the narrow steps. This shows the clinical usefulness of this technique. One of the future problem to be solved is to decrease the exposure dose. (K.H.)

  19. Cerebral blood flow variations in CNS lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Tobin, M.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Jamieson, D.; Freundlich, B.; Grenell, S.; Freemen, L.; Reivich, M.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF), over time, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and varying neurologic manifestations including headache, stroke, psychosis, and encephalopathy. For 20 paired xenon-133 CBF measurements, CBF was normal during CNS remissions, regardless of the symptoms. CBF was significantly depressed during CNS exacerbations. The magnitude of change in CBF varied with the neurologic syndrome. CBF was least affected in patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or malaise, whereas patients with encephalopathy or psychosis exhibited the greatest reductions in CBF. In 1 patient with affective psychosis, without clinical or CT evidence of cerebral ischemia, serial SPECT studies showed resolution of multifocal cerebral perfusion defects which paralleled clinical recovery

  20. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  1. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Lund; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    A review of the current literature regarding sleep-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) is presented. Early investigations have led to the notion that dreamless sleep was characterized by global values of CBF and CMR practically at the level of wakefulness......, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dream sleep) was a state characterized by a dramatically increased level of CBF and possibly also of CMR. However, recent investigations firmly contradict this notion. Investigations on CBF and CMR performed during non-REM sleep, taking the effect of different...... current state identify the physiological processes involved in sleep or the physiological role of sleep....

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  4. Correlation of experimental rCBF determinations in goats with flow measurements from a Doppler-modified carotid artery shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftus, C.M.; Silvidi, J.A.; Becker, J.A.; Miller, B.V.; Bernstein, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    A carotid artery shunt system has been developed that continuously monitors blood flow rates by embedding a Doppler crystal in the shunt wall. The crystal ranges through a liquid lens that enables it to be placed without violation of the shunt lumen. Because the crystal is at a fixed angle (45 degrees) to the axis of blood flow and the diameter of the lumen remains constant, a linear relationship exists between flow rates and the Doppler velocity signal. This shunt system was previously tested in vitro using a pulsatile pump and was found to be accurate to within 4.7% of the actual flow rate. In the present study, animal (goat) experiments were performed consisting of simultaneous carotid shunt flow and bilateral rCBF measurements by the radiolabeled microsphere technique to determine in vivo the accuracy of this Doppler modified shunt and to ascertain the ability of shunt flow to increase in the face of acute contralateral carotid occlusion. Data from five animals show that in vivo shunt flow can be recorded to within 13% of control rCBF and that shunt flow increases nearly 50% under conditions of distal demand (contralateral carotid occlusion). This device may prove useful in laboratory studies of carotid shunt dynamics and in clinical practice to quickly detect correctable shunt flow abnormalities

  5. Estimation of intersubject variability of cerebral blood flow measurements using MRI and positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Larsson, Henrik B W; Hansen, Adam E

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the within and between subject variability of quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements in normal subjects using various MRI techniques and positron emission tomography (PET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Repeated CBF measurements were performed in 17 healthy, young...

  6. Effect of pregnancy on regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Mori, Norimasa

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) of 10 pregnant women were quantified by 133 Xe SPECT study with inhalation method before and after artificial abortion. During pregnancy, value of r-CBF in each region except occipital lobe was significantly higher than that of the post abortion. Arterial blood gas was analyzed after SPECT procedure. P co2 concentration increased significantly after artificial abortion. Although its mechanism is unknown, our preliminary work demonstrates that r-CBF increased by pregnancy. (author)

  7. Cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Staberg, B.

    1983-01-01

    The disappearance rate of 133 Xe was studied in 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using an epicutaneous labeling technique in involved skin lesions or normal-appearing skin of the proximal extensor site of the forearm. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal subjects. Calculations of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) in psoriatic skin lesions were performed using a tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 133 Xe, lambda c,pso, of 1.2 ml/100 g/min. lambda c,pso was estimated after the relative content of water, lipids, and proteins had been analyzed in psoriatic skin biopsies of 6 patients with untreated psoriasis. The mean relative content of water was markedly reduced to 23.5 +/- 1.5% (SEM), and lipids and proteins were markedly increased to 2.5 +/- 0.7% and 74.0 +/- 2.2, respectively, compared to previously published data for normal skin (water 72.5%, lipids 1%, proteins 26.5%). Mean CBF in untreated psoriatic skin was 63.5 +/- 9.0 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than the mean CBF in 10 normal subjects, 6.3 +/- 0.5 ml/100 g/min (p much less than 0.0001). Mean CBF in normal-appearing skin in patients with psoriasis was 11.0 +/- 1.3 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than CBF in normal subjects (p less than 0.0002)

  8. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed

  9. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined

  10. Bilateral CBF measurements in patients with global and flow disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, A.; Meinig, G.; Kreysch, G.; Schuermann, K.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the Xe-inhalation method, related to the clinical picture and to other noninvasive methods which had shown to a limited extent cerebral vascular lesions, is considered. In patients with angiomas, NPH and local cerebral vascular lesions, the inhalation technique seems to be a clinically useful and reliable examination method which is able to detect even small hemispheric and regional flow defects which were not sufficiently traceable by other methods. (Auth./C.F.)

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Ono, Shinnichi; Nishikawa, Takushi

    1993-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p- 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was used to quantify the regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) in 11 diabetic patients (average age; 67.9 years) and 12 non-diabetic subjects (average age; 67.4 years), none of whom had (cerebrovascular disease (CVD) on CT studies. A reference sampling method by continuous arterial blood sampling was used to quantify r-CBF. There were no significant differences in physiological or laboratory data between diabetic and non-diabetic groups except for fasting plasma glucose and HbA 1c levels. The average of r-CBF in each region of cerebrum and cerebellum was significantly lower in diabetic group than that in the control group (p<0.01). These observations show that r-CBF of diabetic patients is reduced, even in the absence of findings of CVD on a CT study. (author)

  12. Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (DSPECT): Definition of a generally acceptable normal range and follow-up checks after extracranial bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography was evaluated in 50 volunteers with unobtrusive cerebral findings, who were to provide the relevant standard values. It was found that the values measured were easily reproducible. Measurements in patients showing cerebrovascular disease that were carried out before and after extracranial bypass surgery did mostly not suggest any perceivable improvement of cerebral blood flow. In isolated cases the cerebral reserve was influenced favourably, as judged from measurements after administration of acetazolamide. (MBC) [de

  13. Cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow measurements in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments - published in 7 papers in The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1983-86 - have demonstrated: 1. The accuracy of the local 133 Xe washout method is about 15% for estimation of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF), and about 10% for subcutaneous blood flow measurements (SBF). In measurements of absolute CBF values a graphic curve resolution of the washout curve should alwaus be performed. Otherwise the CBF might be considerably underestimated. 2. CdTe(Cl) mini-detectors can be attached directly to the skin, and might yield measurements of both CBF and SBF that can substitute for those made with conventional detectors. 3. The laser Doppler measurements could not be correlated to quantitative measurements of the CBF. 4. The tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 133 Xe of lesional psoriatic skin (LS) is increased. 5. In untreated, LS of patients with active psoriasis the CBF is about a factor of 10 times higher than the CBF of normal individuals. In non-lesional skin (NLS) of patients with active psoriasis the CBF is about a factor of 2 higher than the CBF of normal individuals. However, the CBF did not differ in NLS of patients with minimal skin manifestations. The high CBF decreases gradualy during antipsoriatic treatment. 6. A paradoxical autoregulation of the CBF was observed in LS. 7. The high CBF is not due to a maximally dilated vascular bed. 8. The SBF in LS areas was a factor of higher than the SBF in normal individuals. 9. A normal, local regulation of the SBF was found. (author)

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in primary degenerative dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Totsuka, Shiro; Shinohara, Masao; Koyama, Hideki; Sagawa, Katsuo; Morinobu, Shigeru; Oiji, Arata; Komatani, Akio

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined, using SPECT by Xe-133 inhalation, in patients with primary degenerative dementia who were subgrouped according to predominant symptoms with respect to amnesia, apraxia, agnosia, aphasia, and personality changes. Also the effect of sex and age at dementia onset on the rCBF patterns was assessed. (author). 26 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  15. Sympathetic regulation of cerebral blood flow in humans : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, M.; van Dijk, J. M. C.; Elting, J. W. J.; Staal, M. J.; Absalom, A. R.

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by vasomotor, chemical, metabolic, and neurogenic mechanisms. Even though the innervation of cerebral arteries is quite extensively described and reviewed in the literature, its role in regulation of CBF in humans remains controversial. We believe that

  16. Cerebral blood flow in patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postiglione, A; Lassen, N A; Holman, B L

    1993-01-01

    In the normal brain as well as in Alzheimer's disease (AD), regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) is coupled to metabolic demand and, therefore, changes in CBF reflect variations in neuronal metabolism. The use of radionuclide techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon...

  17. Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B

    1981-01-01

    In a consecutive group of 56 stroke patients the regional cerebral blood flow was measured within 84 hours after stroke. A 254 multidetector scintillation camera and the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection method was used to study rCBF. Typical rCBF-patterns are described and compared to the findings...

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, J.; Ohta, Y.; Nakane, Y.; Mori, H.; Hirota, N.; Yonekura, M.

    1987-01-01

    The present study on schizophrenics dealt with the relationship of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to age, disease duration, and treatment length with chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ). Regional cerebral blood flow in 28 cerebral regions of interest was measured by iv injection of /sup 133/X in 54 schizophrenic patients and 39 healthy volunteers. Neither age nor dosage of CPZ significantly influenced rCBF. All patients, including 11 treated for a short period of time (6 months or less), were characterized by having a decreased rCBF over the whole cerebrum. Thirty-four patients treated for a long period of time (2 years or more) had a varied rCBF distribution in the left hemisphere, with the most predominant feature being the decrease in rCBF in the frontal lobe (i.e., hypofrontality); however, there was no linear correlation between rCBF and disease duration. A decreased rCBE in the right occipital region was seen in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, suggesting that manifestations of symptoms may depend on disturbed regions. These results suggest that cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenic patients may not be restricted to the frontal lobe, but cover the whole cerebrum, and that nonuniform dysfunction in various regions of the cerebrum, including the frontal lobe, may be involved in manifestations of symptoms.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Jun; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Hirota, Noriyoshi; Yonekura, Masahiro.

    1987-01-01

    The present study on schizophrenics dealt with the relationship of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to age, disease duration, and treatment length with chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ). Regional cerebral blood flow in 28 cerebral regions of interest was measured by iv injection of X-133 in 54 schizophrenic patients and 39 healthy volunteers. Neither age nor dosage of CPZ significantly influenced rCBF. All patients, including 11 treated for a short period of time (6 months or less), were characterized by having a decreased rCBF over the whole cerebrum. Thirty-four patients treated for a long period of time (2 years or more) had a varied rCBF distribution in the left hemisphere, with the most predominant feature being the decrease in rCBF in the frontal lobe (i.e., ''hypofrontality''); however, there was no linear correlation between rCBF and disease duration. A decreased rCBE in the right occipital region was seen in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, suggesting that manifestations of symptoms may depend on disturbed regions. These results suggest that cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenic patients may not be restricted to the frontal lobe, but cover the whole cerebrum, and that nonuniform dysfunction in various regions of the cerebrum, including the frontal lobe, may be involved in manifestations of symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the 133 xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoh, Masayuki

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest using the 133 Xe inhalation technique in 40 DSM-III-diagnosed schizophrenics (22 males, 18 females: mean age 35.0 years, range 20-49 years) and 31 age-and sex-matched normal controls (16 males, 15 females: mean age 34.3 years, range 21-49 years). The absolute value (AV) and the percent value (PV) of the rCBF in schizophrenics were compared with those in controls. Correlations between rCBF and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores or the performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were examined in schizophrenics. Schizophrenics showed significantly lower AVs in all brain regions examined and a significantly lower PV in the left superior frontal region than controls. The hyperfrontal rCBF distribution which was found in both hemispheres in controls, was absent in the left hemisphere in schizophrenics. In schizophrenics, superior frontal blood flows were significantly negatively correlated with the negative symptom scores of the BPRS but not with the total scores and the positive symptom scores of the BPRS. In schizophrenics, inferior frontal blood flows were significantly correlated with the number of sorting categories achieved. These results indicate that rCBF in schizophrenia is reduced in the whole brain and especially in the left superior frontal region. These findings suggest a frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia. (author)

  2. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of 133 Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial 133 Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic 133 Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic 133 Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications

  3. Alteration of CBF and CMRO2 and TRH effects on CBF in spinocerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyoshi, Toshihiko; Namura, Yasuhiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and to evaluate the cerebral circulation and metabolism in patients with SCD. We performed a positron emission tomography study on each of six SCD patients (mean age 47.7 ± 3.6 : 5 cases; OPCA of Dejerene-Thomas type, 1 case; OPCA of Menzel type) and twelve normal volunteers. In SCD patients there were marked reductions in CBF (p < 0.01) and CMRO2 (p < 0.01) in the cerebellum compared with normal volunteers, while in the cerebral cortices and the thalamus, SCD patients showed normal values. There were no significant changes in regional and global CBF after 2 mg TRH intravenous injection in the SCD patients. But comparing CBF before TRH administration with corrected CBF (CBF after TRH · mean global CBF before TRH/mean global CBF after TRH), it is only the CBF of the cerebellum that increased after TRH administration (paired t test, p < 0.02). This elevation of CBF in the cerebellum would be related to some clinical effects of TRH in SCD patients. (author)

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 36 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (putaminal hemorrhage) treated surgically, using the Xenon-133 intracarotid injection method. The correlations between CBF in four regions, (the hemisphere, the frontal region, the sensori-motor area and the focal area) and the duration from the operation, the conscious level, the hematoma volume and motor function were investigated. Mean cerebral blood flow (MCBF), rCBF in sensori-motor area and in the focal area showed a value below 30 ml/100g/min. for any duration after the operation within one year. However, in the frontal region rCBF tends to increase from 4 months after the operation. There was a close correlation between the conscious level and CBF, especially in the frontal region. The higher CBF was noted in the better consciousness group. In hematoma cases the larger the hematoma volume (especially those over 31 ml)the lower the CBF in all three regions. In the focal area rCBF showed the lowest value among these three regions and was dependent on the hematoma volume, while frontal region revealed the highest flow value of them all, even in cases with a hematoma volume over 81 ml. There was a significant difference in rCBF between cases with severe motor disturbance and cases with moderate motor disturbance, except in the focal area. In the frontal region rCBF coincides rather well to the degree of motor disturbance. While, rCBF in the focal area was less than 30 ml/100g/min., and showed no correlation to motor function. (J.P.N.)

  5. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Ainslie, Philip N; Hoiland, Ryan L; Willie, Chris K; MacLeod, David B; Madden, Dennis; Maslov, Petra Zubin; Drviš, Ivan; Dujić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on a maximal breath-hold (BH) in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7) performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg). Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline), and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO 2 ) by about 26% (p tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa). The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01). These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H + washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO 2 .

  6. Long-term follow-up of cerebral blood flow in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Tanno, Hirokazu; Isobe, Katsumi [Kimitsu Central Hospital, Kisarazu, Chiba (Japan); Yamaura, Akira

    1992-03-01

    The xenon-133 inhalation technique was used to make three measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 34 patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm: in the acute period (<14 days) after subarachnoid hemorrhage, in the subacute period (15-30 days), and in the chronic period (12-24 months). The hemispheric mean value of initial slope index was used as the mean CBF. The clinical outcomes were classified into good recovery (GR)(24 cases), moderate disability (MD)(5), and severe disability (SD)(5) on the Glasgow Outcome Scale. In all periods, the mean CBF significantly correlated with the outcome. GR patients had the highest mean CBF, MD patients the intermediate mean CBF, and SD patients the lower mean CBF. GR patients had a near-normal mean CBF by the chronic period, while SD patients showed no significant CBF recovery throughout the course. (author).

  7. Symptom correlates of cerebral blood flow following acute concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan W. Churchill

    Full Text Available Concussion is associated with significant symptoms within hours to days post-injury, including disturbances in physical function, cognition, sleep and emotion. However, little is known about how subjective impairments correlate with objective measures of cerebrovascular function following brain injury. This study examined the relationship between symptoms and cerebral blood flow (CBF in individuals following sport-related concussion. Seventy university level athletes had CBF measured using Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL, including 35 with acute concussion and 35 matched controls and their symptoms were assessed using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3. For concussed athletes, greater total symptom severity was associated with elevated posterior cortical CBF, although mean CBF was not significantly different from matched controls (p=0.46. Examining symptom clusters, athletes reporting greater cognitive symptoms also had lower frontal and subcortical CBF, relative to athletes with greater somatic symptoms. The “cognitive” and “somatic” subgroups also exhibited significant differences in CBF relative to controls (p≤0.026. This study demonstrates objective CBF correlates of symptoms in recently concussed athletes and shows that specific symptom clusters may have distinct patterns of altered CBF, significantly extending our understanding of the neurobiology of concussion and traumatic brain injury. Keywords: Sport concussion, Cerebral blood flow, ASL, Symptoms

  8. Effects of dose-dependent levels of isoflurane on cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects studied using positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Cold, G E; Rasmussen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    maintained constant over time. No significant change in global CBF was observed. Throughout all three MAC levels of sedation, isoflurane caused an increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the anterior cingulate and decreased rCBF in the cerebellum. Initially, isoflurane (0 vs. 0.2 MAC) significantly...

  9. Cerebral blood flow in patients with thalamic hemorrhage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Mikiya; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Omiya, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Junichi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yoshitoshi; Okawara, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Takeda, Satoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In twenty-nine patients with thalamic hemorrhage, single photon emission CT (SPECT) and CT were performed in the acute stage. Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was performed by the 133-Xe inhalation method using SPECT (Tomomatic 64). CT findings such as hematoma volume, involvement of internal capsule, ventricular hematoma and topographical localization of hematoma were investigated. We studied etiological analysis of decreased CBF in the acute stage. CBF values in the group of large-volume hematoma (≥10 ml) decreased moderately on the hematoma side and mildly on the nonhematoma side. CBF values in the group of small-volume hematoma (<10 ml) decreased mildly on the hematoma side but didn't decrease on the nonhematoma side. CBF values of the former on the hematoma side decreased significantly compared with the latter. Linear correlation between hematoma volume and CBF was significant. As to topographical localization, CBF values of the group which involved medial thalamus decreased significantly compared with the other group. Factors of involvement of internal capsule and ventricular hematoma didn't affect CBF values. In conclusion, major factors which affected decreased CBF in the acute stage were hematoma volume and tomographical localization. (author)

  10. Decreased cerebral blood flow in renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Chisako; Komaba, Yuichi; Sakayori, Osamu; Iino, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    We performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to investigate the influence of renal transplantation on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Fifteen renal transplant recipients and twelve normal subjects underwent cerebral SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). All transplant recipients received prednisolone and cyclosporine (CyA). Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured by defining regions of interest in the cerebral cortex, deep white matter, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. In transplant recipients, correlations to the mean overall cortical CBF were assessed using the interval from transplantation to measurement of SPECT, as well as the serum creatinine concentration. Moreover, to investigate the influence of CyA on CBF, the correlation between mean overall cortical CBF and CyA trough concentrations was assessed. In all regions, CBF in renal transplant recipients was significantly lower than in normal subjects. No significant correlation was seen between serum creatinine, interval from transplantation, or CyA trough concentrations and mean overall cortical CBF. Renal transplant recipients demonstrated a decrease in CBF, that can have an associated secondary pathology. Therefore, renal transplant recipients may benefit from post-operative MRI or CT. (author)

  11. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Humbert, J.R.; Robinson, A.E.; Lindstrom, W.W.; Gruenauer, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  12. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and cerebral blood flow and O2 uptake during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions....... To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow velocity...... in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise, whereas a 22% (P

  13. Regulation of cerebral blood flow in patients with autonomic dysfunction and severe postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Birger; Mehlsen, Jesper; Boesen, Finn

    2002-01-01

    Whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation is maintained in autonomic dysfunction has been debated for a long time, and the rather sparse data available are equivocal. The relationship between CBF and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was therefore tested in eight patients with symptoms...

  14. Caffeine and human cerebral blood flow: A positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, O.G.; Modell, J.G.; Hariharan, M.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to quantify the effect of caffeine on whole brain and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans. A mean dose of 250 mg of caffeine produced approximately a 30% decrease in whole brain CBF; regional differences in caffeine effect were not observed. Pre-caffeine CBF strongly influenced the magnitude of the caffeine-induced decrease. Caffeine decreased p a CO 2 and increased systolic blood pressure significantly; the change in p a CO 2 did not account for the change in CBF. Smaller increases in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, and subjectively reported anxiety were also observed

  15. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming

  16. Simultaneous Imaging of CBF Change and BOLD with Saturation-Recovery-T1 Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available A neuroimaging technique based on the saturation-recovery (SR-T1 MRI method was applied for simultaneously imaging blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD contrast and cerebral blood flow change (ΔCBF, which is determined by CBF-sensitive T1 relaxation rate change (ΔR1CBF. This technique was validated by quantitatively examining the relationships among ΔR1CBF, ΔCBF, BOLD and relative CBF change (rCBF, which was simultaneously measured by laser Doppler flowmetry under global ischemia and hypercapnia conditions, respectively, in the rat brain. It was found that during ischemia, BOLD decreased 23.1±2.8% in the cortical area; ΔR1CBF decreased 0.020±0.004s-1 corresponding to a ΔCBF decrease of 1.07±0.24 ml/g/min and 89.5±1.8% CBF reduction (n=5, resulting in a baseline CBF value (=1.18 ml/g/min consistent with the literature reports. The CBF change quantification based on temperature corrected ΔR1CBF had a better accuracy than apparent R1 change (ΔR1app; nevertheless, ΔR1app without temperature correction still provides a good approximation for quantifying CBF change since perfusion dominates the evolution of the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1app. In contrast to the excellent consistency between ΔCBF and rCBF measured during and after ischemia, the BOLD change during the post-ischemia period was temporally disassociated with ΔCBF, indicating distinct CBF and BOLD responses. Similar results were also observed for the hypercapnia study. The overall results demonstrate that the SR-T1 MRI method is effective for noninvasive and quantitative imaging of both ΔCBF and BOLD associated with physiological and/or pathological changes.

  17. Cerebral blood flow in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hirotaka

    1984-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is usually decreased in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. A total of 81 regional CBF measurements were performed using an Anger-type dynamic gamma camera with the Xe-133 intracarotid injection technique in 23 patients with thalamic hemorrhage, 18 with small putaminal hemorrhage, and 5 with large putaminal hemorrhage. The results were as follows: Bilateral CBF in thalamic hemorrhages was markedly reduced from 1 week to 2 or 3 weeks after onset; it then showed a tendency to increase from 4 weeks to 3 months. In putaminal hemorrhages, however, CBF in the affected hemisphere did not tend to increase despite increased CBF in the contralateral hemisphere. CBF of the affected hemisphere was plotted against the hematoma volume, and the biphasic curve showed an initial steep and subsequent gentle slope in both putaminal and thalamic hemorrhages. The degree of CBF reduction in the affected hemisphere was more evident in thalamic than in putaminal hemorrhages. However, the flow reduction in the contralateral hemisphere was more obvious in thalamic than in putaminal hemorrhages. Factors such as mean arterial blood pressure, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, hematocrit and the degree of involvement of the internal capsule, as shown on CT scan were not directly related to CBF reduction. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the mass effect of the hematoma plays an important role in the discrepancy between CBF reduction in putaminal and thalamic hemorrhages. Rather, the discrepancy may result from the impairment of respective anatomical sites in the thalamic and putaminal regions. It is also suggested that ipsilateral as well as contralateral CBF reduction is probably caused by the decreased cortical metabolic demand. This may be based on the disruption of the transneural fiber pathways, which connect both the thalamus and putamen to the cerebral cortex. (author)

  18. Quantitation of cerebral blood flow using HMPAO tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyant, P.; Mallet, J.J.; Sau, J.; Teyssier, R.; Bonmartin, A.

    1997-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using 99m Tc-HMPAO. It relies on the application of the bolus distribution principle. The rCBF is determined using compartmental analysis, by measuring the amount of tracer retained in the parenchyma and the input function. The values for blood: brain partition coefficient and for the conversion rate from the lipophilic to the hydrophilic form of the tracer are taken from the literature. Mean values for rCBF in eight patients are 41.1 ± 6.4 et 25.6 ± 5.8 mL.min -1 for the grey matter and for the white matter respectively (mean±standard deviation). This method allows to quantitate rCBF with one SPET scan and one venous blood sample. (authors)

  19. The correlative analysis between CBF measured by SPECT and Chinese reading test in childhood reading disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yonggang; Su Jianzhi; He Jianjun; Yang Zhiwei; Liu Guofeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its association with Chinese reading skill diagnostic test (CRSDT) in childhood reading disorder (RD). Methods: In 25 RD children and 20 age-matched control subjects, the authors quantitatively determined CBF and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with SPECT using the non-blood-withdrew method. The authors studied the correlation between the CBF and the total raw scores by CRSDT. Results: CBF in case group was (38.87 +- 3.77) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and was significantly lower than that in control group [43.65 +- 2.64) mL·100 g -1 ·min -1 (P < 0.01)]. These reduction in CBF correlated with the total raw scores by CRSDT. Conclusion: These results suggest the children with reading disorder have CBF reduction and SPECT is useful for evaluation of cerebral functioning in reading disorder children

  20. Altered Cerebral Blood Flow Covariance Network in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear how topological properties of CBF network are altered in this disorder. Here, arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI was employed to measure resting-state CBF in 96 schizophrenia patients and 91 healthy controls. CBF covariance network of each group was constructed by calculating across-subject CBF covariance between 90 brain regions. Graph theory was used to compare intergroup differences in global and nodal topological measures of the network. Both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls had small-world topology in CBF covariance networks, implying an optimal balance between functional segregation and integration. Compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed reduced small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the network, suggesting a shift toward randomized network topology in schizophrenia. Furthermore, schizophrenia patients exhibited altered nodal centrality in the perceptual-, affective-, language-, and spatial-related regions, indicating functional disturbance of these systems in schizophrenia. This study demonstrated for the first time that schizophrenia patients have disrupted topological properties in CBF covariance network, which provides a new perspective (efficiency of blood flow distribution between brain regions) for understanding neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease. Comparison between short and long-term donepezil therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Yo; Okuyama, Chio; Kubota, Takao; Nakai, Takako; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Mori, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with donepezil improves cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) when compared to a placebo-controlled group. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of AD patients in short-term and long-term treatment with donepezil. rCBF was measured by N-isopropyl-p- 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) autoradiography method. CBF measurements were performed in 17 AD patients before treatment and after 3 months (short-term therapy) and 1 year (long-term therapy). Regions of interest were set at cerebral cortex and cerebellar hemisphere. We used absolute CBF and relative CBF expressed as ratio to cerebellar CBF. Significant increases in relative rCBF were noted in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes at the end of short-term therapy. rCBF was decreased after the long-term therapy, whereas rCBF was still increased to a slight extent, as compared with the pre-treatment levels. Absolute rCBF showed minimal change and a tendency to decline. Relative rCBF significantly increased in the short-term donepezil therapy, while following the long-term therapy, rCBF decreased to the pre-treatment level. (author)

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow in the persistent vegetative state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Masaharu; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Ioku, Masahiko [Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; and others

    1989-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in eight patients in a persistent vegetative state was measured and compared with that in five healthy volunteers. The patients were classified into three groups: Group 1 (locked-in syndrome) consisted of a single patient, Group 2 (typical vegetative state) of five patients, and Group 3 (prolonged coma) of two patients. CBF was measured early after onset by single photon emission computed tomography with {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine and/or {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. The regions of interest (ROIs) were the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, and cerebellar areas and basal ganglia. The values obtained in these areas were averaged, and the ratio for each ROI ((the value in the ROI/the mean value) x 100) was calculated. 'Hyper-frontal distribution' of CBF was found to be rare in both the normal condition and the vegetative state. Higher CBF values were noted in the left than in the right frontal area in four of the five volunteers but in only four of the eight patients. CBF distribution in the frontal lobe was characteristic for each group: Group 1 showed high CBF bilaterally, although the elevation was statistically significant only on the right side, and Group 3 exhibited significantly low values. In Group 2, CBF was variable but, for the most part, within normal limits. Awareness was closely correlated with frontal lobe function and alteration of CBF in the frontal region. (author).

  3. Sources of variability of resting cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) show large variability among healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effect of established factors influencing CBF on the variability of resting CBF. We retrospectively analyzed spontaneous variability in 430 CBF...... measurements acquired in 152 healthy, young subjects using (133)Xe single-photon emission computed tomography. Cerebral blood flow was correlated positively with both end-tidal expiratory PCO2 (PETCO2) and female gender and inversely with hematocrit (Hct). Between- and within-subject CO2 reactivity...... when Hct was also accounted for. The present study confirms large between-subject variability in CBF measurements and that gender, Hct, and PETCO2 explain only a small part of this variability. This implies that a large fraction of CBF variability may be due to unknown factors such as differences...

  4. Statistic rCBF study of extrapyramidal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Takashi; Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi [National Saigata Hospital, Ogata, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    We studied regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 2 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 2 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 2 patients with striatonigral degeneration, and 16 normal volunteers, using Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). Decreased rCBF in PD patients was shown in the posterior parietal and occipital cortex. Decreased rCBF in DLB was shown in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex with relative sparing of the sensorimotor cortex.. Decreased rCBF in PSP was shown in the frontal cortex. Decreased rCBF in SND was shown in the frontal cortex and cerebellum. Statistic rCBF analysis using 3D-SSP was a useful measure for the early differential diagnosis of extrapyramidal disorders. (author)

  5. Aberrant Cerebral Blood Flow in Response to Hunger and Satiety in Women Remitted from Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Christina E. Wierenga; Amanda Bischoff-Grethe; Grace Rasmusson; Ursula F. Bailer; Ursula F. Bailer; Laura A. Berner; Thomas T. Liu; Walter H. Kaye

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN) have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We comp...

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in the patient with brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shohei

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT) in 21 cases of intracranial tumors (13 meningiomas, 5 gliomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors). Peritumoral edema was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the extent of edema on CT and MRI. According to intratumoral blood flow distribution patterns, three patterns were classified as central type with relatively high blood flow at the center of the tumor, homogeneous type with an almost homogeneous blood flow distribution, and marginal type with relatively high blood flow at the periphery of the tumor. High grade astrocytoma and metastatic brain tumor showed marginal type blood flow and moderate or severe edema except in one case. Five meningiomas with severe peritumoral edema revealed marginal type blood flow and four with mild peritumoral edema showed central type blood flow, except for one case. No correlation was found between the extent of peritumoral edema and histological subtype, tumor size, location, duration of clinical history, vascularization on angiogram, and mean blood flow in the tumor. These results suggest that blood flow distribution patterns within the tumor may affect the extension of peritumoral edema. Pre- and postoperative rCBFs were evaluated with Xe-CT and IMP-SPECT in 7 cases, mean rCBF of peritumoral edema was 6.2 ml/100 g/min preoperatively, and discrepancy between rCBF on Xe-CT and that on IMP-SPECT was shown in the remote cortical region ipsilateral to the tumor. Postoperative rCBF revealed an improved blood flow in both adjacent and remote areas, suggesting that the decreased blood flow associated with brain tumors might be relieved after surgery. (author) 53 refs

  7. Relationship of 133Xe cerebral blood flow to middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in men at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. M.; Skolnick, B. E.; Gelfand, R.; Farber, R. E.; Stierheim, M.; Stevens, W. C.; Beck, G. Jr; Lambertsen, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by 133Xe clearance simultaneously with the velocity of blood flow through the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) over a wide range of arterial PCO2 in eight normal men. Average arterial PCO2, which was varied by giving 4% and 6% CO2 in O2 and by controlled hyperventilation on O2, ranged from 25.3 to 49.9 mm Hg. Corresponding average values of global CBF15 were 27.2 and 65.0 ml 100 g min-1, respectively, whereas MCA blood-flow velocity ranged from 42.8 to 94.2 cm/s. The relationship of CBF to MCA blood-flow velocity over the imposed range of arterial PCO2 was described analytically by a parabola with the equation: CBF = 22.8 - 0.17 x velocity + 0.006 x velocity2 The observed data indicate that MCA blood-flow velocity is a useful index of CBF response to change in arterial PCO2 during O2 breathing at rest. With respect to baseline values measured while breathing 100% O2 spontaneously, percent changes in velocity were significantly smaller than corresponding percent changes in CBF at increased levels of arterial PCO2 and larger than CBF changes at the lower arterial PCO2. These observed relative changes are consistent with MCA vasodilation at the site of measurement during exposure to progressive hypercapnia and also during extreme hyperventilation hypocapnia.

  8. Noninvasive MRI measurement of the absolute cerebral blood volume-cerebral blood flow relationship during visual stimulation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Qiu, Maolin; Constable, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) underlies blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI signal. This study investigates the potential for improved characterization of the CBV-CBF relationship in humans, and examines sex effects as well as spatial variations in the CBV-CBF relationship. Healthy subjects were imaged noninvasively at rest and during visual stimulation, constituting the first MRI measurement of the absolute CBV-CBF relationship in humans with complete coverage of the functional areas of interest. CBV and CBF estimates were consistent with the literature, and their relationship varied both spatially and with sex. In a region of interest with stimulus-induced activation in CBV and CBF at a significance level of the P < 0.05, a power function fit resulted in CBV = 2.1 CBF(0.32) across all subjects, CBV = 0.8 CBF(0.51) in females and CBV = 4.4 CBF(0.15) in males. Exponents decreased in both sexes as ROIs were expanded to include less significantly activated regions. Consideration for potential sex-related differences, as well as regional variations under a range of physiological states, may reconcile some of the variation across literature and advance our understanding of the underlying cerebrovascular physiology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  10. Oxygen consumption and blood flow coupling in human motor cortex during intense finger tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi Vafaee, Manouchehr; Vang, Kim; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Rates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMR(glc)) rise in cerebral cortex during continuous stimulation, while the oxygen-glucose index (OGI) declines as an index of mismatched coupling of oxygen consumption (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen-CMRO(2)) to CBF and CMR(glc). To t...

  11. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetised pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the kinetics of several radiotracers. However, the impact of physiological factors regulating CBF...

  12. Cognitive profiles and regional cerebral blood flow patterns in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Bruhn, P; Schmidt, E

    1994-01-01

    Individual cognitive profiles and correlations between cognitive functions and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were analyzed in 20 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). CBF was measured with high resolution single photon emission computed...

  13. Focal increase of cerebral blood flow during stereognostic testing in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, E; Larsen, B

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern during stereognostic discrimination in man. The rCBF was measured in 18 subjects who had no major neurological defects. The clearance from the hemisphere of xenon 133 injected (133Xe) into the carotid artery was measured...

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow changes related to affective speech presentation in persistent vegetative state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, BM; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    A story told by his mother was presented on tape to a trauma patient in persistent vegetative state (PVS). During auditory presentation, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed by means of positron emission tomography (PET). Changes in rCBF related to this stimulus

  15. Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 12 patients with acute symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. CBF was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computer tomography. Six patients had severe strokes and large infarcts on the CT scan...

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow in childhood headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, E.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 16 cranial regions in 23 children and adolescents with frequent headaches using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. Blood flow response to 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) was also determined in 21 patients, while response to 50% oxygen was measured in the two patients with hemoglobinopathy. Included were 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of migraine, 4 with musculoskeletal headaches, and 3 with features of both types. Also studied were 2 patients with primary thrombocythemia, 2 patients with hemoglobinopathy and headaches, 1 patient with polycythemia, and 1 with headaches following trauma. With two exceptions, rCBF determinations were done during an asymptomatic period. Baseline rCBF values tended to be higher in these young patients than in young adults done in our laboratory. Localized reduction in the expected blood flow surge after CO2 inhalation, most often noted posteriorly, was seen in 8 of the 13 vascular headaches, but in none of the musculoskeletal headache group. Both patients with primary thrombocythemia had normal baseline flow values and altered responsiveness to CO2 similar to that seen in migraineurs; thus, the frequently reported headache and transient neurologic signs with primary thrombocythemia are probably not due to microvascular obstruction as previously suggested. These data support the concept of pediatric migraine as a disorder of vasomotor function and also add to our knowledge of normal rCBF values in younger patients. Demonstration of altered vasomotor reactivity to CO2 could prove helpful in children whose headache is atypical

  17. Type of aphasia and regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Minematsu, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tohru

    1982-01-01

    In 40 patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured after 2 months of ictus with 133 Xe inhalation method. There were 18 cases with motor aphasia and 22 with sensory aphasia. On the measurements of rCBF, 3 detectors were placed over frontal region (group F), 3 over temporal region (group T), and remaining 3 over parietal region (group P), of the dominant hemisphere. The flow values were compared with the rCBF values obtained from 21 control subjects who had no abnormality in CT scan and on neurological examinations. The control subjects revealed the hyperfrontal pattern of flow distribution; rCBF values in groups F, T and P, which were expressed as an initial slope index, were 50.0 +- 4.8, 48.0 +- 5.1 and 47.4 +- 4.5, respectively. The hyperfrontal pattern was absent in cases with motor aphasia. In this group, rCBF in groups F, T and P were 42.0 +- 8.3, 44.7 +- 8.4 and 41.0 +- 8.5, respectively, and rCBF in frontal region was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group. In sensory aphasia, rCBF values in groups F, T and P were all significantly reduced compared to the controls showing 44.0 +- 5.7, 42.8 +- 5.1 and 40.6 +- 5.4, respectively. In this group, the hyperfrontal pattern was maintained at a low flow level. When absolute rCBF values were compared between motor and sensory aphasia, there was no significant difference between these 2 groups. However, regional flow distribution in motor aphasia was significantly different from that of sensory aphasia, and the cases having the lowest value in group F were more frequently found in the former than in the latter. (J.P.N.)

  18. Cerebral Blood Flow Measurement Using fMRI and PET: A Cross-Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean J. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is the study of brain hemodynamics, and MR arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion imaging has gained wide acceptance as a robust and noninvasive technique. However, the cerebral blood flow (CBF measurements obtained with ASL fMRI have not been fully validated, particularly during global CBF modulations. We present a comparison of cerebral blood flow changes (ΔCBF measured using a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR ASL perfusion method to those obtained using H2O15 PET, which is the current gold standard for in vivo imaging of CBF. To study regional and global CBF changes, a group of 10 healthy volunteers were imaged under identical experimental conditions during presentation of 5 levels of visual stimulation and one level of hypercapnia. The CBF changes were compared using 3 types of region-of-interest (ROI masks. FAIR measurements of CBF changes were found to be slightly lower than those measured with PET (average ΔCBF of 21.5±8.2% for FAIR versus 28.2±12.8% for PET at maximum stimulation intensity. Nonetheless, there was a strong correlation between measurements of the two modalities. Finally, a t-test comparison of the slopes of the linear fits of PET versus ASL ΔCBF for all 3 ROI types indicated no significant difference from unity (P>.05.

  19. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation during intracranial hypertension in hypoxic lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, C.O.; Backofen, J.E.; Koehler, R.C.; Jones, M.D. Jr.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that hypoxic hypoxia interferes with cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation when intracranial pressure (ICP) is elevated in pentobarbital-anesthetized lambs (3 to 9 days old). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was lowered stepwise from 73 to 23 mmHg in eight normoxic lambs and from 65 to 31 mmHg in eight other hypoxic lambs by ventricular infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. In normoxic lambs, CBF measured by microspheres labeled with six different radioisotopes was not significantly changed over this range of CPP. In animals made hypoxic, base-line CBF was twice that of normoxic lambs. CBF was unchanged as CPP was reduced to 31 mmHg. Lower levels of CPP were not attained because a pressor response occurred with further elevations of ICP. No regional decrements in blood flow to cortical arterial watershed areas or to more caudal regions, such as cerebellum, brain stem, or thalamus, were detected with elevated ICP. Cerebral O 2 uptake was similar in both groups and did not decrease when CPP was reduced. These results demonstrate that normoxic lambs have a considerable capacity for effective autoregulation of CBF when ICP is elevated. Moreover, cerebral vasodilation in response to a level of hypoxia approximating that normally seen prenatally does not abolish CBF autoregulation when ICP is elevated during the first postnatal week

  20. Single-photon tomographic determination of regional cerebral blood flow in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, F.J.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Stokely, E.M.; Homan, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Using a single-photon emission computed tomographic scanner (SPECT) the authors determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with inhaled xenon-133, a noninvasive procedure. Studies were performed in 40 normal individuals, and these were compared with rCBF determinations in 51 patients with seizure disorders. Although positive results were obtained in 15 of 16 patients with mass lesions, the group of principal interest comprised 25 patients suffering from ''temporal lobe'' epilepsy. Only one of these had a positive x-ray computed tomogram, but 16 had positive findings on rCBF study. These findings included increased local blood flow in the ictal state and reduced flow interictally

  1. Role of hypotension in decreasing cerebral blood flow in porcine endotoxemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.F.; Breslow, M.J.; Shapiro, R.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The role of reduced arterial blood pressure (MAP) in decreasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) during endotoxemia was studied in pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs. Microspheres were used to measure regional CBF changes during MAP manipulations in animals with and without endotoxin. Endotoxin decreased MAP to 50 mmHg and decreased blood flow to the cortex and cerebellum without affecting cerebral cortical oxygen consumption (CMRo 2 ). Elevating MAP from 50 to 70 mmHg during endotoxemia with norepinephrine did not change cortical blood flow or CMRo 2 but increased cerebellar blood flow. Brain stem blood flow was not affected by endotoxin or norepinephrine. When MAP was decreased to 50 mmHg by hemorrhage without endotoxin, no change in blood flow to cortex, cerebellum, or brain stem was observed from base-line levels. These results suggest that decreased MAP below a lower limit for cerebral autoregulation does not account for the decreased CBF observed after endotoxin

  2. Clinical studies on cerebral blood flow in chronic subdural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Atsuhiro; Akagi, Katsuhito; Horibe, Kunio; Yamasaki, Mami; Yuguchi, Takamichi

    1988-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and clinical symptoms were examined between pre- and post-operations in twenty-four patients with unilateral chronic subdural hematoma. The following results were obtained by intravenous /sup 133/Xe method : 1. There was a reducing tendency of the CBF (hemisphere) on hematoma side, in most cases. While, the groups of headache and disturbances of consciousness did not give a laterality between hematoma and opposite side without the group of hemiparesis. 2. The absolute values of the CBF in the groups of headache and disturbances of consciousness were correlated with the clinical symptoms. In the group of hemiparesis, the laterality between hematoma and opposite side was correlated with the clinical symptoms. 3. In the group of hemiparesis, the F-flow (fast-flow) had sensitive reaction more than the ISI (initial slope index) with symptomatic improvement. 4. It was found that there was not an increase in the absolute value of the CBF, which was under the normal limit between pre- and post-operations in the case without improvement. By SPECT (Method of IMP), the following results were obtained : 1. There was the area of defect at the location of hematoma and the CBF tended to reduce at the subcortical white matter and at the basal ganglia of hematoma side. 2. The CBF of the contralateral hematoma side in the hemisphere of cerebellum was also tended to reduce.

  3. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow : The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H.; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L.; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Doevendans, PAFM

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133 Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-10-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of /sup 133/Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoutai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mituhiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  7. Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow on patients with early syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jijun; Wu Jinchang; Yang Yi; Tang Jun; Liu Zengli; Shi Xin

    2005-01-01

    To study quantitative change of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on patients with early syphilis, the authors have established a method on absolute measurement of rCBF by using SPECT with Ethyl Cysteinate Dimmer (ECD) as imaging agent, and the method was applied to measure rCBF on patients with early syphilis. The rCBF values measured by this method are highly consistent with the values measured by other classical methods such as SPECT ( 123 I-IMP) and PET( 15 O-H 2 O). The rCBF values for early syphilis patients and the normal control show some statistical differences. A routine quantitative absolute measurement of rCBF featured with simple procedures is therefore on the way of maturation. (authors)

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... associated with HE rather than the liver disease as such. The changes in CMRO(2) and CBF could not be linked to blood ammonia concentration or CMRA....

  9. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and 15 O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO 2 value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT. (author)

  10. Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF

  11. The effects of activation procedures on regional cerebral blood flow in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, D.; Wolfson, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) can be measured using 133XE and collimated detectors. The radionuclide can be administered either by inhalation or intracarotid injection. Comparison of blood flow determinations at rest and during performance of an activity identifies those brain regions that become active during the performance of the activity. Relatively specific patterns of r-CBF are observed during hand movements, sensory stimulation, eye movements, speech, listening, and reading. Regional CBF changes during reasoning and memorization are less specific and less well characterized. It is clear that brain lesions affect r-CBF responses to various activities, but this effect has not been well correlated with functional deficits or recovery of function. Regional CBF measurement gives information about brain activity and the functional response to experimental manipulation. This approach may well add to our understanding of normal, as well as pathologic, brain functioning

  12. Corticotropin-releasing factor: effect on cerebral blood flow in physiologic and ischaemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michele, Manuela; Touzani, Omar; Foster, Alan C; Fieschi, Cesare; Sette, Giuliano; McCulloch, James

    2005-09-01

    The expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in cerebral arteries and arterioles suggests that CRF may modulate cerebral blood flow (CBF). In the present study, the effects of CRF, CRF-like peptides and the CRF broad spectrum antagonist DPhe-CRF on CBF have been investigated under normal physiologic conditions and in the margins of focal ischaemic insult. The experiments were carried out in anaesthetised and ventilated rats. Changes in CBF after subarachnoid microapplication of CRF and related peptides were assessed with a laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) probe. In the ischaemic animals, agents were injected approximately 60 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Microapplication of CRF and related peptides in normal rats into the subarachnoid space produced sustained concentration-dependent increases in CBF. This effect was attenuated by co-application with DPhe-CRF, which did not alter CBF itself. A second microapplication of CRF 30 min after the first failed to produce increases in CBF in normal animals. Microapplication of CRF in the subarachnoid space overlying the ischaemic cortex effected minor increases in CBF whereas D-Phe-CRF had no significant effect on CBF. Activation of the CRF peptidergic system increases CBF in the rat. Repeated activation of CRF receptors results in tachyphylaxis of the vasodilator response. CRF vasodilator response is still present after MCAo in the ischaemic penumbra, suggesting that the CRF peptidergic system may modulate CBF in ischaemic stroke.

  13. Resting state cerebral blood flow with arterial spin labeling MRI in developing human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Peterson, Bradley S; Asllani, Iris; Zelaya, Fernando; Lythgoe, David; Kangarlu, Alayar

    2018-07-01

    The development of brain circuits is coupled with changes in neurovascular coupling, which refers to the close relationship between neural activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Studying the characteristics of CBF during resting state in developing brain can be a complementary way to understand the functional connectivity of the developing brain. Arterial spin labeling (ASL), as a noninvasive MR technique, is particularly attractive for studying cerebral perfusion in children and even newborns. We have collected pulsed ASL data in resting state for 47 healthy subjects from young children to adolescence (aged from 6 to 20 years old). In addition to studying the developmental change of static CBF maps during resting state, we also analyzed the CBF time series to reveal the dynamic characteristics of CBF in differing age groups. We used the seed-based correlation analysis to examine the temporal relationship of CBF time series between the selected ROIs and other brain regions. We have shown the developmental patterns in both static CBF maps and dynamic characteristics of CBF. While higher CBF of default mode network (DMN) in all age groups supports that DMN is the prominent active network during the resting state, the CBF connectivity patterns of some typical resting state networks show distinct patterns of metabolic activity during the resting state in the developing brains. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood flow changes in Alzheimer's disease induced by lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavics, L.; Sera, T.; Kalman, J.; Janka, Z.; Csernay, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Lactate, as metabolite of the glycolysis is a source of energy of the nerves. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed the neuroprotective effect of lactate and improvement of brain function after ischaemic injury. Intravenous infusion of lactate increases the global cerebral blood flow (CBF). In Alzheimer disease (AD) characteristic regional blood flow abnormalities and in the cerebrospinal fluid abnormal lactate levels were detected. Since disturbed CBF and vasoregulation was found in AD the effect of intravenous Na-lactate on CBF and related metabolic parameters was examined in order to assess the CBF response in the AD brain. In twenty (14 woman, 6 man, age ± SD.: 74 ± 7 years) patients with Alzheimer's disease (DSM IV, MMT.:13 ± 6) self-control study was performed. rCBF SPECT (99mTc-HMPAO) investigations were fulfilled during 5 mg/kg body weight 0.5 M Na-lactate infusion and in control state (0.9 % saline infusion) one week apart. The rCBF changes visually and by statistical parametric mapping were analyzed. ECG, blood pressure, heart rate, venous blood pH, pCO 2 , bicarbonate, serum lactate and cortisol level were measured before and after the SPECT investigation. Acute panic inventory and anxiety rating scales were used to access the psychiatric effect of lactate. The serum lactate levels increased in average from 0.8 mmol/L to 4.6 mmol/L, and 6.1 mmol/L 10 and 20 minutes after lactate infusion respectively. Compensatory changes were found in the venous blood pH, pCO 2 and bicarbonate levels. Significant psychiatric symptoms and blood pressure and heart rate increase were not observed. The serum cortisol level remained unchanged. At the baseline investigation all of the patients have bilateral temporal or parietal hypoperfused areas in 8 patients with other additional localization of abnormalities. In 12 patients the global cerebral blood flow increased, in 8 decreased rCBF was detected by visual evaluation. According to the SPM analysis the

  15. A single subcutaneous bolus of erythropoietin normalizes cerebral blood flow autoregulation after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Ma, XiaoDong; Rochat, Per

    2002-01-01

    the intracarotid (133)Xe method. CBF autoregulation was preserved in both sham-operated groups (lower limits of mean arterial blood pressure: 91+/-3 and 98+/-3 mmHg in groups A and B, respectively). In the vehicle treated SAH-group, autoregulation was abolished and the relationship between CBF and blood pressure...... administered recombinant EPO on impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation after experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: group A, sham operation plus vehicle; group B, sham operation plus EPO; group C, SAH plus vehicle; group D, SAH plus EPO...

  16. Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Friis-Hansen, B

    1979-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured, using the 133Xe clearance technique, a few hours after birth in 19 infants with varying degrees of respiratory distress syndrome. Ten of these infants had had asphyxia at birth. The least affected infants with normotension (systolic blood pressure 60 to 65 mm Hg......) had CBF values of about 40 ml/100 gm/minute. Hypotensive infants with asphyxia at birth or RDS or both had values for CBF of about 20 ml/100 gm/minute, or less. CBF was strongly correlated with the arterial blood pressure, showing a linear relationship that was identical in infants with asphyxia...

  17. Quantitative measurement of the cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdart, R.; Mamo, H.; Meric, P.; Seylaz, J.

    1976-01-01

    The value of the cerebral blood flow measurement (CBF) is outlined, its limits are defined and some future prospects discussed. The xenon 133 brain clearance study is at present the most accurate quantitative method to evaluate the CBF in different regions of the brain simultaneously. The method and the progress it has led to in the physiological, physiopathological and therapeutic fields are described. The major disadvantage of the method is shown to be the need to puncture the internal carotid for each measurement. Prospects are discussed concerning methods derived from the same general principle but using a simpler, non-traumatic way to introduce the radio-tracer, either by breathing into the lungs or intraveinously [fr

  18. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Secher, Niels

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries......, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal...... whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work...

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus: diagnostic and prognostic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.; Bergh, A.C.; Bilting, M.; Aerlig, AA.; Jacobsson, L.; Stephensen, H.; Wikkelsoe, C.

    1994-01-01

    Relative regional cerebral blood flow (rrCBF) was measured by SPET using 99m Tc-HMPAO as flow tracer, in 23 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). 1000 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO was given intravenously and the rrCBF calculated as regional/cerebellar count level ratios. The patients were examined before and 3-12 months after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. rrCBF was also determined in ten healthy aged matched volunteers who served as controls. The NPH patients had decreased rrCBF in the hippocampal regions and in the frontal and parietal white matter as compared to the controls. The frontal/parietal rrCBF ratio correlated with both psychiatric disability and the preoperative degree of incontinence. Decreased flow in frontal white matter, frontoparietal and hippocampal grey matter and a low frontalparietal grey matter flow ratio preoperatively correlated with improvement in both Mini Mental State score and psychiatric disability after shunt surgery. After shunt surgery the rrCBF increased in the mesencephalon, frontal grey and white matter, parietal white matter and hippocampus. The flow increase in hippocampal regions and frontal white matter correlated with improvement in psychiatric symptomatology. The results of this study regarding the frontal and hippocampal rrCBF patterns, and the clinical correlation, support the hypothesis that CBF changes in these regions are of patohphysiological and prognostic importance in NPH. (orig./MG)

  20. Subcortical aphasia and cerebral blood flow using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celsis, P.; Puel, M.; Demonet, J.P.; Bonafe, A.; Cardebat, D.; Viallard, G.; Pujol, T.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Rascol, A.

    1985-01-01

    Possible cerebral blood flow (CBF) alteration in subcortical aphasia was investigated by single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). The results confirm the capsulo-striatal lesions and also point to the high rate of ipsilateral thalamic and cortical dysfunction. (author). 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  1. A New Technology for Detecting Cerebral Blood Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Guo, Song; Jensen, Lars T

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for real-time non-invasive, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during surgery, in intensive care units and clinical research. We investigated a new non-invasive hybrid technology employing ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy (UT-NIRS) that may estimate...

  2. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, Adam M.; Borzage, Matthew T.; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J.; Coates, Thomas D.; Wood, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated.

  3. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on cerebral blood flow in neonates, infants, and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeley, W.J.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Kern, F.H.; Brusino, F.G.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) management in neonates, infants, and children requires extensive alterations in temperature, pump flow rate, and perfusion pressure, with occasional periods of circulatory arrest. The effect of these alterations on cerebral blood flow (CBF) are unknown. This study was designed to determine the relation of temperature and mean arterial pressure to CBF during hypothermic CPB (18-32 degrees C), with and without periods of total circulatory arrest. CBF was measured before, during, and after hypothermic CPB with xenon-clearance techniques in 67 pediatric patients, aged 1 day-16 years. Patients were grouped based on different CPB techniques: group A, repair during moderate-hypothermic bypass at 25-32 degrees C; group B, repair during deep-hypothermic bypass at 18-22 degrees C; and group C, repair with total circulatory arrest at 18 degrees C. There was a significant correlation of CBF with temperature during CPB. CBF significantly decreased under hypothermic conditions in all groups compared with prebypass levels under normothermia. In groups A and B, CBF returned to baseline levels in the rewarming phase of CPB and exceeded baseline levels after bypass. In group C, no significant increase in CBF was observed during rewarming after total circulatory arrest (32 ± 12 minutes) or after weaning from CPB. During moderate-hypothermic CPB (25-32 degrees C), there was no association between CBF and mean arterial pressure. However, during deep-hypothermic CPB (18-22 degrees C), there was a association between CBF and mean arterial pressure

  4. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Takao [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO{sub 2} inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO{sub 2} inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO{sub 2}, CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  5. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Takao

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO 2 inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO 2 inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO 2 , CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO 2 and PaCO 2 during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  6. Correlation of severity of aphasia with cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Sone, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tohru

    1982-01-01

    In 46 patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method, and relationship between severity of aphasia and degree of rCBF reduction was investigated. Measurements of rCBF were performed after 2 months of ictus in all patients. At the time of rCBF measurements, the severity of aphasia was mild in 13, moderate in 16 and severe in the other 17 patients. Control rCBF values were obtained from 16 subjects who had neither neurological deficits nor abnormal findings on CT scan. In control group, mean hemispheric rCBF values (mCBF), which were calculated from initial slope index, were 49.1 +- 3.8 and 49.4 +- 3.9 respectively in the right and left hemisphere. In all aphasic patients but two who had mild aphasia, mCBF in the left hemisphere showed lower values as compared to that in the right hemisphere. The mCBF in the left hemisphere was 46.5 +- 5.3 in the mild group, 41.3 +- 5.8 in the moderate group and 34.3 +- 5.0 in the severe group. The values in the moderate and severe groups were significantly reduced as compared to the control or those in the mild group. The mCBF in the severe group was also significantly lower than those in the moderate group. The mCBF in the right hemisphere was 48.4 +- 6.3 in the mild group, 45.6 +- 6.1 in the moderate group and 38.6 +- 4.9 in the severe group. The values in the severe group were significantly reduced as compared to those in the other groups as well as the control. The present study suggests that measurements of rCBF by 133 Xe inhalation method are valid for the evaluation of severity of aphasia in stroke patients. (author)

  7. Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Migueis, Mark; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2010-02-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is monitoring the injured brain to detect harmful events that can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF). Since current non-invasive bedside methods can only indirectly assess blood flow, the goal of this research was to develop an optical technique for measuring absolute CBF. A time-resolved near-infrared (NIR) apparatus was built and its ability to accurately measure changes in optical properties was demonstrated in tissue-mimicking phantoms. The time-resolved system was combined with a bolus-tracking method for measuring CBF using the dye indocyanine green (ICG) as an intravascular flow tracer. Cerebral blood flow was measured in newborn piglets and for comparison, CBF was concurrently measured using a previously developed continuous-wave NIR method. Measurements were acquired with both techniques under three conditions: normocapnia, hypercapnia and following occlusion of the carotid arteries. Mean CBF values (N = 3) acquired with the TR-NIR system were 31.9 +/- 11.7 ml/100g/min during occlusion, 39.7 +/- 1.6 ml/100g/min at normocapnia, and 58.8 +/- 9.9 ml/100g/min at hypercapnia. Results demonstrate that the developed TR-NIR technique has the sensitivity to measure changes in CBF; however, the CBF measurements were approximately 25% lower than the values obtained with the CW-NIRS technique.

  8. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vállez García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD. However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1 to validate previous results showing alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in cWAD, (2 to test if central hyperexcitability reflects changes in rCBF upon non-painful stimulation of the neck, and (3 to verify our hypothesis that the missing link in understanding the underlying pathophysiology could be the close interaction between the neck and midbrain structures. For this purpose, alterations of rCBF were explored in a case-control study using H215O positron emission tomography, where each group was exposed to four different conditions, including rest and different levels of non-painful electrical stimulation of the neck. rCBF was found to be elevated in patients with cWAD in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, and decreased in the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and inferior frontal gyri, the thalamus and the insular cortex when compared with rCBF in healthy controls. No differences in rCBF were observed between different levels of electrical stimulation. The alterations in regions directly involved with pain perception and interoceptive processing indicate that cWAD symptoms might be the consequence of a mismatch during the integration of information in brain regions involved in pain processing.

  9. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19approx52 years, average age: 29.3+-9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19approx53 years, average age: 31.4+-9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  10. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19∼52 years, average age: 29.3±9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19∼53 years, average age: 31.4±9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  11. Cerebral blood flow and red cell delivery in normal subjects and in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swank, R.L.; Roth, J.G.; Woody, D.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined in 77 normal females and 53 normal males of different ages and in 26 men and 45 women with multiple sclerosis by the inhalation of radioactive Xe133 method. In the normal subjects the CBF was relatively high in the teens and fell, at first rapidly and then slowly in both sexes with age. During adult life the flow in females was significantly higher than in males. The delivery of packed red cells (RCD) was determined by multiplying the CBF by the percentage concentration of red cells (HCT). The RCD for both sexes was nearly the same. In the patients with multiple sclerosis there occurred a progressive generalized decrease in CBF and in RCD with age which was significantly greater than observed in normal subjects. The rate of decrease in CBF and RCD correlated directly with the rate of progress of the disease

  12. Resting quantitative cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia measured by pulsed arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkham, Amy; Loughead, James; Ruparel, Kosha; Wu, Wen-Chau; Overton, Eve; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling imaging (ASL) perfusion MRI is a relatively novel technique that can allow for quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. Available data on resting CBF in schizophrenia primarily comes from invasive and expensive nuclear medicine techniques that are often limited to small samples and yield mixed results. The noninvasive nature of ASL offers promise for larger-scale studies. The utilit...

  13. Cerebral blood flow in migraine and cortical spreading depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, M.

    1987-01-01

    In a series of migraine patients, carotid arteriography was carried out as part of the clinical evalution. Nine patients developed a migrainous attack with focal neurological symptoms and headache after the angiography and during the subsequent, ongoing regional cerebral blood flow rCBF study. rCBF was measured by bolus injection of Xenon/sup 133/ into the internal carotid artery and a gamma camera with 254 collimated scintillation detectors covering the lateral aspect of the hemisphere. This technique depicts rCBF mainly at the level of the superficial cortex, with no depth resolution. The resolution is 1 cm/sup 2/ providing detailed spatial information of the cortical blood flow. Other methods for measuring local blood flow in animal and man employ a radioactive, freely diffusible tracer, in combination with an autoradiographic technique for the assessment of the tissue concentration, the so-called autoradiographic methods. In the series of patients with spontaneous migraine, rCBF was estimated using an in-vivo application of the autoradiographic principle. Xenon/sup 133/ was administered by inhalation and the time course of the arterial concentration curve was assessed by a scintillation detector over the upper right lung, since the arterial curve has been found to follow the shape of the lung curve. The rCBF was studied accompanying cortical spreading depression in rat experiments to evaluate wheter this phenomenon could explain the blood flow changes in migraine. (/sup 14/C) iodoantipyrine was given as an intravenous bolus injection and the brain content of indicator was determined by tissue sample or autoradiography after 10 or 20 seconds of isotope circulation. The conditions of the autoradiographic methods are that the flow remains constant within the period of measuring, and that the region under study is homogenous with regard to flow and lambda. (EG).

  14. Cerebral blood flow and carbon dioxide reactivity in children with bacterial meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwal, S.; Stringer, W.; Tomasi, L.; Schneider, S.; Thompson, J.; Perkin, R.

    1990-01-01

    We examined total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by stable xenon computed tomography in 20 seriously ill children with acute bacterial meningitis to determine whether CBF was reduced and to examine the changes in CBF during hyperventilation. In 13 children, total CBF was normal (62 +/- 20 ml/min/100 gm) but marked local variability of flow was seen. In five other children, total CBF was significantly reduced (26 +/- 10 ml/min/100 gm; p less than 0.05), with flow reduced more in white matter (8 +/- 5 ml/min/100 gm) than in gray matter (30 +/- 15 ml/min/100 gm). Autoregulation of CBF appeared to be present in these 18 children within a range of mean arterial blood pressure from 56 to 102 mm Hg. In the remaining two infants, brain dead within the first 24 hours, total flow was uniformly absent, averaging 3 +/- 3 ml/min/100 gm. In seven children, CBF was determined at two carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) levels: 40 (+/- 3) mm Hg and 29 (+/- 3) mm Hg. In six children, total CBF decreased 33%, from 52 (+/- 25) to 35 (+/- 15) ml/min/100 gm; the mean percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was 3.0%. Regional variability of perfusion to changes in PCO2 was marked in all six children. The percentage of change in CBF per millimeter of mercury of PCO2 was similar in frontal gray matter (3.1%) but higher in white matter (4.5%). In the seventh patient a paradoxical response was observed; total and regional CBF increased 25% after hyperventilation. Our findings demonstrate that (1) CBF in children with bacterial meningitis may be substantially decreased globally, with even more variability noted regionally, (2) autoregulation of CBF is preserved, (3) CBF/CO2 responsitivity varies among patients and in different regions of the brain in the same patient, and (4) hyperventilation can reduce CBF below ischemic thresholds

  15. Physiological activation of the human cerebral cortex during auditory perception and speech revealed by regional increases in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    by measuring regional cerebral blood flow CBF after intracarotid Xenon-133 injection are reviewed with emphasis on tests involving auditory perception and speech, and approach allowing to visualize Wernicke and Broca's areas and their contralateral homologues in vivo. The completely atraumatic tomographic CBF...

  16. Electrical modulation of the sympathetic nervous system in order to augment cerebral blood flow : a protocol for an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Staal, Michiel J.; Elting, Jan-Willem J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by several mechanisms. Neurogenic control has been a matter of debate, even though several publications reported the effects of changes in sympathetic tone on CBF. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and spinal-cord stimulation have been

  17. Cerebral blood flow measurement in cerebrovascular occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, T.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) patterns among individual patients with increased statistical confidence, CBF measurements were carried out using the 133Xe-inhalation method and external head detectors. F1 values representing gray matter flow from 3 to 6 head detectors were averaged to form 16 different regions for each cerebral hemisphere. Normative values were obtained from 46 healthy volunteers, and data from individual regions were analyzed for absolute blood flow rates (ml/100g/min), for concordance between right and left hemispheres and as percent of mean hemispheric flow. CBF measurements were then carried out among 37 patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases, and results were compared with normative values. A high incidence of abnormal flows were detected among symptomatic patients with intracranial arterial stenosis or occlusion and those with extracranial internal carotid artery occlusion. By using the above method for data analysis, it was possible to delineate hypoperfused areas among these patients. Even though the 133Xe-inhalation method has inherent limitations, this is a practical and safe method for measurement of CBF which can provide reliable information useful for management of patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases, particularly when the results are presented with statistical confidence

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow during the auditory oddball task measured by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochida, Masahiko

    1997-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by employing PET in nine healthy right-handed male subjects, while they simultaneously performed the auditory oddball task using tone bursts. Results showed that the rCBF value was highest in the transverse gyrus of Heschl in both right and left hemispheres. When comparing the rCBF values between right and left hemispheres, four areas had higher rCBF values in the left hemisphere and eight areas had higher rCBF values in the right hemisphere. Of these, the anterior and posterior parts of the superior temporal gyrus, especially, showed significant differences. The hemispheric differences in the rCBF values of the auditory areas can be attributed to the performance of the oddball task which requires higher processing of non verbal auditory input. The P300 amplitude which reflects the amount of the allocated information processing resources correlated positively with rCBF in the following areas: left piriform cortex, the transverse gyrus of Heschl in both left and right hemispheres. Mean-while, P300 amplitude correlated negatively with rCBF in the nucleus accumbens septi in both right and left hemispheres. The N100 amplitude evoked by frequent stimulus did not correlate with rCBF in almost all ROIs. (K.H.)

  19. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  20. Cerebral blood flow is reduced in patients with sepsis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowton, D.L.; Bertels, N.H.; Prough, D.S.; Stump, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between sepsis-induced CNS dysfunction and changes in brain blood flow remains unknown, and animal studies examining the influence of sepsis on cerebral blood flow (CBF) do not satisfactorily address that relationship. We measured CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO 2 in nine patients with sepsis syndrome using the 133 Xe clearance technique. Mean CBF was 29.6 +/- 15.8 (SD) ml/100 g.min, significantly lower than the normal age-matched value in this laboratory of 44.9 +/- 6.2 ml/100 g.min (p less than .02). This depression did not correlate with changes in mean arterial pressure. Despite the reduction in CBF, the specific reactivity of the cerebral vasculature to changes in CO 2 was normal, 1.3 +/- 0.9 ml/100 g.min/mm Hg. Brain blood flow is reduced in septic humans; the contribution of this reduction to the metabolic and functional changes observed in sepsis requires further study

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow using sup 133 Xenon intra-venous technique, 2; Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular ischemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Masahiro; Teramoto, Shigeyoshi; Moriyama, Tadayoshi (Nagasaki Chuo National Hospital (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    Using the {sup 133}Xenon venous method, we have studied the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 947 patients with cerebrovascular ischemic disease. In 116 stroke or TIA patients with internal carotid artery occlusion or severe stenosis, their rCBF revealed 48.9 ml/100 g/min on average in the group of one side occlusion, 46.7 ml/100 g/min in the group of both sides occlusion. These values reduced approximately 12%, 16% and 15% of the rCBF in healthy volunteers of same age, respectively. In 28 patients with moya moya disease, their rCBF tended to be higher in younger cases and lower with advanced age. In the majority of the cases, their rCBF was age-dependent with 20{similar to}25 ml/100 g/min below the curve of age-matched rCBF of healthy volunteers. The reduction of rCBF was observed in 69 (48.3%) of 143 cases clinically diagnosed as small vessel disease, in 58 (41.4%) of 140 cases with vertebro-basilar insufficiency and in 23 (44.2%) of 52 cases with syncopal attack compared with the rCBF of healthy volunteers. (author).

  2. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hidemichi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Takuo

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of reduction of cerebral circulation in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not yet been clarified. Previous studies have variously indicated that cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction may be due to cerebral vasospasm, an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), constriction of intraparenchymal arterioles, or metabolic reduction. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism. In 36 patients with aneurysmal SAH, the values of mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (GMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured by using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with arterial blood drawing and oxygen saturation of internal jugular bulb blood (SjO 2 ) in the acute stage (1-3 days after onset) and the spasm stage (7-10 days after onset). The patients in our study were selected by using the following criteria: no history of cerebrovascular or cardiopulmonary diseases; under the age of 70; the ruptured aneurysm was treated by clipping or coil embolization within 72 hours after onset; no symptoms of cerebral vasospasm; no signs of cerebral ischemic change on CT scans. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grading classification; the mild group (Grades I and II) consisted of 27 cases and the severe group (Grade IV) consisted of 9 cases. We studied differences in mCBF CMRO 2 , and OEF between the mild group and severe group. In the mild group, mCBF, CMRO 2 , and OEF were significantly higher than in the severe group during both the acute and the spasm stage. Also mCBF showed a direct correlation with CMRO 2 . All the patients were kept under the following conditions: the bed was positioned so that the upper body was raised at an angle at 30 deg; blood pressure was maintained at 130-150 mmHg and PaCO 2 of arterial blood was maintained at 35-40 mmHg; ICP

  3. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF on a maximal breath-hold (BH in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7 performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg. Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline, and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2 by about 26% (p < 0.01. Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04. In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa. The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01. These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2.

  4. Prolonged disturbances of regional cerebral blood flow in transient ischemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured over both hemispheres in 20 patients with unilateral transient ischemic attacks (TIA) of the territory of the internal carotid artery on the day of the TIA. rCBF was estimated with the nontraumatic Xenon 133-inhalation technique using the initial slope index. 13 patients experienced their first TIA, 7 had several attacks. In 14 patients the first rCBF-measurement was performed during the presentation of clinical symptoms. The 2nd rCBF-measurement was done on day 2, the last one on day 7. Scans of the 15 patients studied with CT were normal. On day 1 mean rCBF of the TIA-side was significantly lower than that of the contralateral hemispheres. 22% of all areas showed a significant reduction of flow compared to mean rCBF. Mean rCBF of both the TIA- and the contralateral side was significantly reduced compared to the bi-hemispheric mean rCBF of a control group with no history of TIA or completed strokes but at least 2 risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. Whereas mean rCBF did not change in the contralateral side it increased significantly (+6.9%) in the TIA-side from day 1 to day 2 but not from there to day 7. This is reflected by the increase of the total number of ROI with normal flow from day 1 to day 2. Considering the actual flow and the flow course of that tissue which was believed to be responsible for the clinical symptoms the following regional patterns were observed: normal rCBF in 6 patients; early return to normal concomitant to the clinical course (n = 4)

  5. The effect of isovolemic hemodilution with oxycyte, a perfluorocarbon emulsion, on cerebral blood flow in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood flow (CBF is auto-regulated to meet the brain's metabolic requirements. Oxycyte is a perfluorocarbon emulsion that acts as a highly effective oxygen carrier compared to blood. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Oxycyte on regional CBF (rCBF, by evaluating the effects of stepwise isovolemic hemodilution with Oxycyte on CBF. METHODOLOGY: Male rats were intubated and ventilated with 100% O(2 under isoflurane anesthesia. The regional (striatum CBF (rCBF was measured with a laser doppler flowmeter (LDF. Stepwise isovolemic hemodilution was performed by withdrawing 4ml of blood and substituting the same volume of 5% albumin or 2 ml Oxycyte plus 2 ml albumin at 20-minute intervals until the hematocrit (Hct values reached 5%. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the albumin-treated group, rCBF progressively increased to approximately twice its baseline level (208+/-30% when Hct levels were less than 10%. In the Oxycyte-treated group on the other hand, rCBF increased by significantly smaller increments, and this group's mean rCBF was only slightly higher than baseline (118+/-18% when Hct levels were less than 10%. Similarly, in the albumin-treated group, rCBF started to increase when hemodilution with albumin caused the CaO(2 to decrease below 17.5 ml/dl. Thereafter, the increase in rCBF was accompanied by a nearly proportional decrease in the CaO(2 level. In the Oxycyte-treated group, the increase in rCBF was significantly smaller than in the albumin-treated group when the CaO(2 level dropped below 10 ml/dl (142+/-20% vs. 186+/-26%, and rCBF returned to almost baseline levels (106+/-15 when the CaO(2 level was below 7 ml/dl. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hemodilution with Oxycyte was accompanied with higher CaO(2 and PO(2 than control group treated with albumin alone. This effect may be partially responsible for maintaining relatively constant CBF and not allowing the elevated blood flow that was observed with albumin.

  6. Source Estimation for the Damped Wave Equation Using Modulating Functions Method: Application to the Estimation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on modulating functions is proposed to estimate the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). The problem is written in an input estimation problem for a damped wave equation which is used to model the spatiotemporal variations

  7. Heterogeneity of neocortical cerebral blood flow deficits in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Bruhn, P; Kristensen, M

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with high resolution brain dedicated single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime (HMPAO) in 25 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and in 25 control subjects, selected according...... to rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria. The aim was to analyse the topography of rCBF deficits in individual patients. In the group of patients with Alzheimer's disease as a whole, global CBF was reduced, but a factorial analysis of variance did not show disproportionate reduction of rCBF in any brain...... combination of two, three, or four, of four major brain regions (a left and right frontal and a left and right posterior region). All patients with Alzheimer's disease and none of the control subjects had an abnormal rCBF pattern. Eleven of the 13 different patterns were seen in the patients. Frontal changes...

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow during mechanical hyperventilation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Høgh, Peter; Møller, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Hyperventilation is frequently used to prevent or postpone the development of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The influence of such therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) remains, however, unknown. In this study the CBF......-distribution pattern was determined within the first 12 hours after development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) stage 4 before and during hyperventilation. Ten consecutive patients (median age 48 [range 33-57] years) with FHF and 9 healthy controls (median age 54 [24-58] years) had rCBF determined by single photon...... emission computed tomography (SPECT) using intravenous injection of 133Xenon. For determination of high resolution CBF pattern, the patients were also studied with 99mTc-hexa-methylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) in the hyperventilation condition. There was no significant difference in the rCBF distribution...

  9. Cerebral blood flow and brain shrinkage seen on CT during ACTH therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futagi, Yasuyuki; Abe, Jiro; Kawahigashi, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    By means of the Doppler ultrasound method, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed in 21 children with epilepsy undergoing treatment with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). The maximum reduction in the internal carotid velocity, as an index of CBF during therapy, was about 35 percent compared with the values before therapy. Furthermore, sequential computed tomography (CT) examinations of the same subjects were performed to evaluate the change in the area of the intracranial brain parenchyma during therapy. The maximum reduction in the parenchymal area during therapy was about 10 percent. This corresponds to a 20 percent reduction in CBF according to Poiseuille's law, however, the remaining reduction in CBF demonstrated by velocity measurement cannot be explained only by that mechanical vascular factor. From these findings, it is concluded that in order to elucidate the mechanism of the CBF reduction, physiological factors such as changes in metabolism during therapy should also be evaluated in addition to the mechanical and physical causes. (author)

  10. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating...... and the monitoring parameters. Results No significant statistical correlations were found between CBF and the nine monitoring variables. However, we found that arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and body temperature were important predictors of CBF that should be observed and kept constant. In addition, we...... found that long-duration anaesthesia was significantly correlated with high heart rate, low arterial oxygen tension, and high body temperature, but not with CBF. Conclusions The findings indicate that PaCO2 and body temperature are crucial for maintaining stable levels of CBF and thus optimizing PET...

  11. The clinical study of cerebral blood flow imaging in patients with early syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zengli; Shi Xin; Wu Jinchang; Tang Jun; Zhong Jijun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of cerebral blood flow imaging for evaluation of patients with early syphilis. Methods: Fifty-three patients with early syphilis underwent cerebral blood flow imaging using 99 Tc m -ethylenecysteinate dimer(ECD). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes were analyzed. Results: The acquired images of 53 patients were graded as 5 types. The rCBF was significantly depressed in 48 of 53 patients mainly in the areas dominated by anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery. Conclusion: Treponema pallidum (TP) could start invading central nervous system at the early stage of infection

  12. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  13. Effect of anxiety on cortical cerebral blood flow and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Resnick, S.M.; Skolnick, B.E.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between anxiety and cortical activity was compared in two samples of normal volunteers. One group was studied with the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the other with positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 Flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) for measuring cerebral metabolic rates (CMR) for glucose. The inhalation technique produced less anxiety than the PET procedure, and for low anxiety subjects, there was a linear increase in CBF with anxiety. For higher anxiety subjects, however, there was a linear decrease in CBF with increased anxiety. The PET group manifested a linear decrease in CMR with increased anxiety. The results indicate that anxiety can have systematic effects on cortical activity, and this should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different procedures. They also suggest a physiologic explanation of a fundamental behavioral law that stipulates a curvilinear, inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance

  14. Cerebral blood flow changes in Parkinson's disease associated with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derejko, M.; Lass, P.; Slawek, J.; Nyka, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is one of the main non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is diagnosed in about 30% of cases. Its aetiology remains unclear and contributing factors are controversial. Dementia may be more common in old patients with severe motor symptoms and mild cognitive impairment. Clinico-pathological studies show the association between dementia in PD and the age-related group of dementias, such as AD and VaD. A valuable aid in the assessment of dementia in PD is cerebral blood flow (CBF) brain SPECT scanning. It shows three different patterns of rCBF reduction, including frontal lobe hypoperfusion, iu Alzheimer-likel type of hypoperfusion and multiple, vascular defects. The heterogeneity of rCBF reduction may reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of dementia in PD. It may result from concomitant AD pathology, cerebrovascular disease, destruction of nigro-striato-frontal projection or may be a distinct disease of different aetiology. (author)

  15. Tomographic analysis of CBF in cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Hiromu; Kimura, Kazumoto; Ueda, Yuichi; Nagai, Masakatsu; Yoshimasu, Norio.

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion was examined in various types of occlusive disease by computed tomographic CBF method. The method utilized has several advantages over conventional studies using isotope, providing high resolution images in a direct relation to CT anatomy. Ten representative cases were presented from 25 consective cases of occlusive disease studied by this method. The method included inhalation of 40 to 60% xenon with serial CT scanning for 25 min. K (build-up rate), lambda (partition coefficient) and CBF values were calculated from ΔHU for each pixel and ΔXe in expired air, based on Fick's principle, and displayed on CRT as K-, lambda- and CBF-map separately. CBF for gray matter of normal control was 82 +- 11 ml/100 gm/min and that for white matter was 24 +- 5 ml/100 gm/min. The ischemic threshold for gray matter appeared to be approximately 20 ml/100 gm/min, as blood flow in focus of complete infarction was below this level. Blood flow between 20 - 30 ml/ 100 gm/min caused some change on CT, such as localized atrophy, cortical thinning, loss of distinction between gray and white matter and decreased or increased density, which were considered to be compatible with pathological changes of laminar necrosis or gliosis with neuronal loss. In a case with occlusion of middle cerebral artery with subsequent recanalization, causing hemorrhagic infarct, hyperemia was observed in the infarcted cortex that was enhanced by iodine. Periventricular lucency observed in two cases, where blood flow was decreased below threshold, could be classified as ''watershed infarction'' mainly involving white matter. In moyamoya disease, blood flow in the anterior circulation was decreased near ischemic level, whereas that in basal ganglia and territory of posterior cerebral artery was fairly preserved, which was compatible with general angiographic finding of this disease. (author)

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow during mechanical hyperventilation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Høgh, Peter; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical hyperventilation is often instituted in patients with acute bacterial meningitis when increased intracranial pressure is suspected. However, the effect on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unknown. In this study, we measured regional CBF (rCBF) in patients with acute bacterial...... meningitis before and during short-term hyperventilation. In 17 patients with acute bacterial meningitis, absolute rCBF (in ml/100 g min-1) was measured during baseline ventilation and hyperventilation by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using intravenous 133Xe bolus injection. Intravenous...... in the frontal and parietal cortex as well as in the basal ganglia. Focal perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of 12 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities are frequent in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. Short-term hyperventilation does not enhance these abnormalities....

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease by [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Yoshihiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated in 63 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[sup 123]I-iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) as a tracer. Evaluation of the SPECT images was performed in accordance with the rCBF quantification method using a microsphere model. Patients in stage IV demonstrated significantly lower rCBF than those in stage II at the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital regions and in the thalamus and cerebellum. Subjects with mental symptoms demonstrated decreased rCBF in every region in the brain. The present study indicates that clinical exacerbation and manifestation of dementia and other psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease are associated with decreased blood flow in various brain regions. (author).

  18. Cerebral extraction of N-13 ammonia: its dependence on cerebral blood flow and capillary permeability, surface area product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Kuhl, D.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Slin, C.

    1979-01-01

    13 N-labeled ammonia was used to investigate: (1) the cerebral extraction and clearance of ammonia; (2) the mechanicsm by which capillaries accommodate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF); and (3) its use for the measure of CBF. This was investigated by measuring the single pass extraction of 13 NH 3 in rhesus monkeys during P/sub a/CO 2 induced changes in CBF, and with dog studies using in vitro tissue counting techniques to examine 13 NH 3 extraction in gray and white matter, mixed tissue, and cerebellum during variations in CBF produced by combinations of embolization, local brain compression, and changes in P/sub a/CO 2 . The single pass extraction fraction of 13 NH 3 varied from about 70 to 20% over a CBF range of 12 to 140cc/min/100gms. Capillary permeability-surface area product (PS) estimates from this data and the dog experiments show PS increasing with CBF. The magnitude and rate of increase in PS with CBF was highest in gray matter > mixed tissue > white matter. Tissue extraction of 13 NH 3 vs CBF relationship was best described by a unidirectional transport model in which CBF increases by both recruitment of capillaries and by increases of blood velocity in open capillaries. Glutamine synthetase, which incorporates 13 NH 3 into glutamine, appears to be anatomically located in astrocytes in general and specifically in the astrocytic pericapillary end-feet that are in direct contact with gray and white matter capillaries. The net 13 NH 3 extraction subsequent to an i.v. injection increases nonlinearly with CBF. Doubling or halving basal CBF produced from 40 to 50% changes in the 13 N tissue concentrations with further increases in CBF associated with progressively smaller changes in 13 N concentrations. 13 NH 3 appears to be a good tracer for the detection of cerebral ischemia with positron tomography but exhibits a poor response at high values of CBF

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermik, Tevfik F.; Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N.; Ugur-Altun, Betuel

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 ± 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 ± 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermik, Tevfik F. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya Universitesi Hastanesi, Nukleer Tip Anabilim Dali, Gullapoglu Yerleskesi, Edirne (Turkey); Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Ugur-Altun, Betuel [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 {+-} 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 {+-} 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  1. Head holder using negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in xenon CT CBF study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yuzo; Sakai, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Employing analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) confidence maps, we investigated the usefulness of a head holder using a negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in a xenon CT CBF study. A total of 272 consecutive patients for the CBF study were enrolled and classified into 3 groups: 88 patients with a negative pressure bag (M group), 87 patients with an air pillow (A group), and 97 patients with a sponge pillow (S group). The degree of effect of head movements on the CBF measurement in each patient was expressed as a confidence value (mean of the confidence values at one CT slice). The mean of confidence value in the M group (0.461) was statistically lower than that in the A group (0.866) and that in the S group (1.043). These findings showed that the head holder described here was useful for obtaining CBF maps of high quality in a xenon CT CBF study. (author)

  2. Interictal "patchy" regional cerebral blood flow patterns in migraine patients. A single photon emission computerized tomographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right-left asymme......In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right...... rCBF images is insufficient to pick up abnormalities; (2) almost 50% of the migraine sufferers had abnormal rCBF/asymmetries. However, these are discrete compared with those typically seen during the aura phase of a migraine attack. One explanation to the patchy rCBF patterns might...

  3. Analysis And Quantification Of Cerebral Blood Flow As A Possible Biomarker In Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goñi, I.; Garcia-Eulate, R.; Fernandez Seara, M.A.; Galiano, A.; Vidorreta, M.; Riverol, M.; Zubieta, J.L.

    2016-07-01

    For the past years, a deep research into possible biomarkers has taken place in order to detect Alzheimer’s disease even before earliest symptoms arise. Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) is among those, and its measurement can be performed by non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging techniques. This practical work is framed into a bigger study which assesses diagnostic ability of CBF by Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), and has used phasecontrast generated images to quantify CBF by measuring internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries (VA) blood flow. Age, gender and diagnosis-related changes in CBF have been assessed with statistical methods. Therefore, this work aims to determine if CBF is a suitable parameter for discerning different diagnosis groups: twenty-nine control subjects and seventy-one case subjects including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective memory loss (SML) have been studied. (Author)

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow and P300 in neurosurgical disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Kazuyoshi; Hyoutani, Genhachi; Maeshima, Shinichirou; Miyamoto, Kazuki; Kuwata, Toshikazu; Terada, Tomoaki; Komai, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), P300 and higher brain function were studied in neurosurgical patients with localized lesions on computed tomography (CT). Twenty-five patients ranging in age from 30 to 81 were studied. Nineteen of these suffered from cerebrovascular disease and six had tumors. Using the oddball paradigm, P300 components were elicited by rate tones (2 KHz) and recorded at Cz and Pz referred to linked ear-lobe electorodes. The P300 latencies of the patients were statistically compared with those of 27 normal subjects. Higher brain function was evaluated with the following psychological tests: a rating scale for psychological function (Sano and Tanemura), Mini-Mental State (MMS), Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS) and the 'Kanahiroi' test. Regional CBF was measured in the bilateral cerebral cortices (the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes), thalamus and basal ganglia by means of a cold xenon CT method. The laterality indices of rCBF (Rt. rCBF/Lt. rCBF) in the bilateral symmetrical areas of the patients were compared to those of 8 normal subjects. Of the 25 patients, 12 revealed prolongation of P300 latency. Ten (86%) of the 12 with prolonged P300 latency showed reduction of rCBF in the right cerebral hemisphere (rt. frontal lobe, rt. thalamus and rt. basal ganglia). Significant correlations (P<0.025) were recognized between the P300 latencies and the laterality indices of rCBF in the frontal lobe and thalamus. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05) between the scores of MMS and HDS and the laterality indicies of rCBF in the frontal lobe only. In the 13 patients with normal P300 latency, 6 (46%) displayed no reduction in rCBF. The remaining 7 patients with normal P300 showed reduction of rCBF in the left hemisphere. Both right frontal lobe and right thalamus have an important role affecting the prolongation of P300 latency and disturbance of cognitive functions. (author)

  5. Caffeine and human cerebral blood flow: A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, O.G.; Modell, J.G.; Hariharan, M. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to quantify the effect of caffeine on whole brain and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans. A mean dose of 250 mg of caffeine produced approximately a 30% decrease in whole brain CBF; regional differences in caffeine effect were not observed. Pre-caffeine CBF strongly influenced the magnitude of the caffeine-induced decrease. Caffeine decreased p{sub a}CO{sub 2} and increased systolic blood pressure significantly; the change in p{sub a}CO{sub 2} did not account for the change in CBF. Smaller increases in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, and subjectively reported anxiety were also observed.

  6. Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Migueis, Mark; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lawrence, Keith St.

    2010-09-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is monitoring the injured brain to detect harmful events that can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF), resulting in further injury. Since current noninvasive methods used in the clinic can only assess blood flow indirectly, the goal of this research is to develop an optical technique for measuring absolute CBF. A time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) apparatus is built and CBF is determined by a bolus-tracking method using indocyanine green as an intravascular flow tracer. As a first step in the validation of this technique, CBF is measured in newborn piglets to avoid signal contamination from extracerebral tissue. Measurements are acquired under three conditions: normocapnia, hypercapnia, and following carotid occlusion. For comparison, CBF is concurrently measured by a previously developed continuous-wave NIR method. A strong correlation between CBF measurements from the two techniques is revealed with a slope of 0.79+/-0.06, an intercept of -2.2+/-2.5 ml/100 g/min, and an R2 of 0.810+/-0.088. Results demonstrate that TR-NIR can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy and is sensitive to flow changes. The discrepancy between the two methods at higher CBF could be caused by differences in depth sensitivities between continuous-wave and time-resolved measurements.

  7. Relationship of cerebral blood flow to aortic-to-pulmonary collateral/shunt flow in single ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Wilson, Felice; Pawlowski, Tom; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Berenstein, Laura Diaz; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Clancy, Robert; Elci, Okan; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with single ventricle can develop aortic-to-pulmonary collaterals (APCs). Along with systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, these structures represent a direct pathway from systemic to pulmonary circulations, and may limit cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated the relationship between CBF and APC flow on room air and in hypercarbia, which increases CBF in patients with single ventricle. Methods 106 consecutive patients with single ventricle underwent 118 cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in this cross-sectional study; 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (0.50±0.30 years old), 50 prior to Fontan (3.19±1.03 years old) and 34 3–9 months after Fontan (3.98±1.39 years old). Velocity mapping measured flows in the aorta, cavae and jugular veins. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used. Significance was p<0.05. Results A strong inverse correlation was noted between CBF and APC/shunt both on room air and with hypercarbia whether CBF was indexed to aortic flow or body surface area, independent of age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, Po2 and Pco2 (R=−0.67–−0.70 for all patients on room air, p<0.01 and R=−0.49–−0.90 in hypercarbia, p<0.01). Correlations were not different between surgical stages. CBF was lower, and APCs/shunt flow was higher prior to BDG than in other stages. Conclusions There is a strong inverse relationship between CBF and APC/shunt flow in patients with single ventricle throughout surgical reconstruction on room air and in hypercarbia independent of other factors. We speculate that APC/shunt flow may have a negative impact on cerebral development and neurodevelopmental outcome. Interventions on APC may modify CBF, holding out the prospect for improving neurodevelopmental trajectory. Trial Registration Number NCT02135081. PMID:26048877

  8. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the 133 Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The 133 Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke

  9. Can cerebral blood flow measurement predict clinical outcome in the acute phase in patients with artherosclerotic occlusive carotid artery disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokari, Masaaki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Motoyuki; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Abe, Satoru; Saito, Hisatoshi; Kuroda, Satoshi; Nakayama, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    It has been thought that the clinical course of patients with acute carotid occlusive disease depends on their collateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) and duration of ischemia. However, there have been few clinical reports to prove this hypothesis. Therefore, we performed CBF study in patients with artherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease in the very acute phase, and precisely assessed the prognosis of those patients under intensive medical therapy. This prospective study included a total of 44 patients (72±13 years) who were admitted to our hospital between April, 2007 and December, 2008. To evaluate their initial CBF, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed within 6 hours after the onset. All patients included in this study were medically treated and were periodically followed up by neurological and radiological examination. Moreover, in patients with reduced CBF (ipsilateral CBF/contralateral CBF x 100: %CBF <80%), dobutamine-induce hyperdynamic therapy was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect significant predictors for the occurrence of further cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of further infarction was associated with older age and smaller %CBF. Of 44 patients, 21 experienced further cerebral infarction within 10 days after onset. Fourteen out of 15 patients with %CBF <60% developed cerebral infarction. This study showed that the prognosis of the patients with artherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease in the acute phase is associated with their initial residual CBFs. It may be difficult to stop the developed cerebral infarction in those patients with %CBF <60% despite intensive medical therapy. (author)

  10. A study on measurement of the regional cerebral blood flow using autoradiographic method in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomohiro; Kiya, Katsuzo; Yuki, Kiyoshi; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Mizoue, Tatsuya; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Uozumi, Tohru; Ikawa, Fusao

    1997-01-01

    Development of Autoradiographic method (ARG) has provided measurement of cerebral blood flow in moyamoya disease. We evaluate a cerebral vasodilatory capacity (CVC) for moyamoya disease using ARG method. We used 5 patients with moyamoya disease as a candidate for measurement of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) who admitted to Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital during the past one year. There were 3 patients in an adult age and 2 patients in a young age. We tried to measure the regional CBF (rCBF) using ARG method which was a easy way to estimate the rCBF on SPECT. The CVC was calculated from the difference of the rCBF between resting SPECT and Diamox-loading SPECT. Results were as follows; Reactivity of cerebral vessels to CO 2 loading and CVC weakened in moyamoya disease. The rCBF and CVC in the territories of anterior and middle cerebral arteries reduced in comparison with those in the area supplied by the posterior cerebral artery. The CVC at the treated side with surgical reconstruction recovered somewhat in an adult type. From these results, measurement of CBF using ARG method seems to be useful for evaluation of the CVC in moyamoya disease. (author)

  11. Cerebral blood flow and end-tidal PCO2 during prolonged acetazolamide treatment in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Kastrup, J; Rizzi, Dominick Albert

    1990-01-01

    One oral dose of 1,000 mg of acetazolamide caused an acute 38% increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in eight healthy volunteers. During the following 10 days the subjects took 1,000 mg acetazolamide daily. CBF normalized within the first 2 days. The drug induced mild hyperventilation, gradually ...... of a transient extracellular acidosis dilating brain arterioles, whereas increased ventilatory drive results from a gradually increasing mild intracellular acidosis in the brain....

  12. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... and hyperventilation with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (14 patients) and/or the Kety-Schmidt technique (KS) (11 patients and all controls). In KS studies, CMR was measured by multiplying the arterial to jugular venous concentration difference (a-v D) by CBF. RESULTS: CBF did not differ...

  13. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip...

  14. Quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hisashi; Nakamura, Yusaku; Yagi, Yuji; Miura, Kosuke; Takahashi, Mitsuo [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    This study examined a simple method for measuring the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT. The mean CBF (mCBF) was determined by the Patlack plot method and rCBF was calculated with Lassen`s correction algorithm, as reported by Matsuda et al. The cerebral hemisphere was employed as the reference region for Lassen`s correction. The reference RI count rate was calculated from the left cerebral hemisphere at the basal ganglia level and the correction factor {alpha} was fixed at 2.0. As a result, rCBF could be measured more easily than by Matsuda`s method. The contribution of age, laterality and gender to the CBF of normal subjects were studied. The mCBF value of 26 normal subjects was 53.8{+-}6.4 ml/100 g/min and showed a significant correlation with advancing age (R=0.644, p=0.0004, n=26). The mean values for rCBF of the cerebellum, frontal area, temporal area, occipital area and parietal area were 77.3{+-}6.6 ml/100 g/min, 70.2{+-}9.1 ml/100 g/min, 72.3{+-}7.5 ml/100 g/min, 71.8{+-}6.2 ml/100 g/min and 73.8{+-}8.6 ml/100 g/min, respectively. There were no gender or laterality differences in the mCBF or respective rCBF values. Each of the above listed regions, except for the occipital area, demonstrated a significant correlation with advancing age. The most remarkable decrease in rCBF with age was noted in the frontal area (R=0.757, p=0.001, n=26). (author).

  15. Quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hisashi; Nakamura, Yusaku; Yagi, Yuji; Miura, Kosuke; Takahashi, Mitsuo

    1994-01-01

    This study examined a simple method for measuring the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT. The mean CBF (mCBF) was determined by the Patlack plot method and rCBF was calculated with Lassen's correction algorithm, as reported by Matsuda et al. The cerebral hemisphere was employed as the reference region for Lassen's correction. The reference RI count rate was calculated from the left cerebral hemisphere at the basal ganglia level and the correction factor α was fixed at 2.0. As a result, rCBF could be measured more easily than by Matsuda's method. The contribution of age, laterality and gender to the CBF of normal subjects were studied. The mCBF value of 26 normal subjects was 53.8±6.4 ml/100 g/min and showed a significant correlation with advancing age (R=0.644, p=0.0004, n=26). The mean values for rCBF of the cerebellum, frontal area, temporal area, occipital area and parietal area were 77.3±6.6 ml/100 g/min, 70.2±9.1 ml/100 g/min, 72.3±7.5 ml/100 g/min, 71.8±6.2 ml/100 g/min and 73.8±8.6 ml/100 g/min, respectively. There were no gender or laterality differences in the mCBF or respective rCBF values. Each of the above listed regions, except for the occipital area, demonstrated a significant correlation with advancing age. The most remarkable decrease in rCBF with age was noted in the frontal area (R=0.757, p=0.001, n=26). (author)

  16. Cerebral blood flow mapping using stable xenon-enhanced CT in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Robinson, A.E.; Carey, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The cerebral blood flow (CBF) of 25 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease (SCCVD) was examined using a xenon-CT flow mapping method. Brain CT and MR findings were correlated with those of the xenon-CT flow studies. CBF defects on xenon-CT correlated reasonably well with the areas of cortical infarctions on the MR images, but in 27% of the cases, flow defects were slightly larger than the areas of infarctions on the MR images. In deep watershed or basal ganglia infarctions, abnormal CBF was noted about the cerebral cortex near infarctions in 72% of the patients, regardless of infarction sizes on the MR images. However, decreased CBF was recognized in 4 of the 9 children whose MR images were virtually normal. Thus, the extent of flow depletion cannot be predicted accurately by MR imaging alone. Xenon-CT flow mapping proved a safe and reliable procedure for evaluation of the CBF of patients with SCCVD. Although this study is preliminary, it may have a potential in selecting patients for hypertransfusion therapy, as a noninvasive test and for following children with SCCVD during their therapy. Careful correlation of results of CBF with those of MR imaging or of CT is important for objective interpretations of flow mapping images. (orig.)

  17. Noninvasive regional cerebral blood flow measurements at pre- and post-acetazolamide test using 99mTc-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Seigo; Tanaka, Masaaki.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for serial noninvasive cerebral blood flow measurements at pre- and post-acetazolamide (Diamox) test was newly developed using 99m Tc-ECD without blood sampling. Baseline mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured from graphical analysis of time activity curves for brain and aortic arch obtained from radionuclide angiography by injection of 370-555 MBq 99m Tc-ECD. The first SPECT study was performed immediately after intravenous administration of 1 g of Diamox, then baseline regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated using Lassen's correction algorithm. Immediately after the stop of the first SPECT study, additional 555-740 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was administered, thereafter the second SPECT study was started. Post-Diamox SPECT images were obtained by subtraction of the first baseline images from the second images. Using Lassen's algorithm, post-Diamox mCBF was estimated from the baseline mCBF, the baseline mean SPECT counts, and post-Diamox mean SPECT counts corrected for administered dose and imaging time. Post-Diamox rCBF was obtained from the post-Diamox mCBF and the post-Diamox mean SPECT counts using Lassen's algorithm. Coefficient variation was shown 2.7% and 3.5%: mCBF and rCBF, respectively in test-retest results in six patients without Diamox administration. Nine demented patients without vascular disorders showed significant mCBF increase of 35.7% on the average by post-Diamox. In conclusion, this simplified method is practically useful for measuring CBF at pre- and post-Diamox test within short period of time without any blood sample. (author)

  18. Relationships between Cerebral Blood Flow and IQ in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Emily; Liu, Collin Y; Yan, Lirong; Kim, Yoon Chun; Dapretto, Mirella; Mendez, Mario F; Wang, Danny J J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between IQ and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in children and adolescents. ASL was used to collect perfusion MRI data on 39 healthy participants aged 7 to 17. The Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale was administered to determine IQ scores. Multivariate regression was applied to reveal correlations between CBF and IQ scores, accounting for age, sex and global mean CBF. Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis, which measures regional cortical volume, was performed as a control. Regression analyses were further performed on CBF data with adjustment of regional gray matter density (GMD). A positive correlation between CBF and IQ scores was primarily seen in the subgenual/anterior cingulate, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal and right inferior parietal regions. An inverse relationship between CBF and IQ was mainly observed in bilateral posterior temporal regions. After adjusting for regional GMD, the correlations between CBF and IQ in the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal regions and left insula remained significant. These findings support the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence, especially the role of the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex in the neural networks associated with intelligence. The present study also demonstrates the unique value of CBF in assessing brain-behavior relationships, in addition to structural morphometric measures.

  19. Aberrant Cerebral Blood Flow in Response to Hunger and Satiety in Women Remitted from Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Wierenga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We compared resting CBF measured with pulsed arterial spin labeling in 21 RAN and 16 healthy comparison women (CW when hungry (after a 16-h fast and after a meal. Only remitted subjects were examined to avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition on brain function. Compared to CW, RAN demonstrated a reduced difference in the Hungry − Fed CBF contrast in the right ventral striatum, right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (pcorr < 0.05 and left posterior insula (punc < 0.05; RAN had decreased CBF when hungry versus fed, whereas CW had increased CBF when hungry versus fed. Moreover, decreased CBF when hungry in the left insula was associated with greater hunger ratings on the fasted day for RAN. This represents the first study to show that women remitted from AN have aberrant resting neurovascular function in homeostatic neural circuitry in response to hunger. Regions involved in homeostatic regulation showed group differences in the Hungry − Fed contrast, suggesting altered cellular energy metabolism in this circuitry that may reduce motivation to eat.

  20. Study of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging for sudden sensorineural deafness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changhui; Kui Xixiao; Xiong Qibin; Wen Hui; Xie Jiabiao

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical value of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT imaging for sudden sensorineural deafness (SSD). Methods: 10 normal persons, 19 conductive deafness and 31 SSD patients were examined by rCBF SPECT imaging, and compared with X CT at the same time. All SSD patients were followed up for 6∼12 months with repeated rCBF SPECT imaging. Results: 1) The radioactivity of diseased and normal horizontal temporal gyrus ratio (T/NT) in SSD patients was the lowest among three groups (P < 0.01). 2) The sensitivity (80.6%) and accurate rate (88.3%) of rCBF SPECT imaging in SSD patients were much higher than those of CT (3.2% and 50%, P < 0.01). 3) There was a significant correlation between degree of deafness and T/NT in SSD patients. 4) Good prognosis of SSD patients with normal rCBF SPECT was found. 5) The rCBF SPECT had close concordance between rCBF SPECT imaging and clinical prognosis (84.6%). Conclusions: rCBF SPECT imaging was superior to X CT in diagnosis of SSD and played an important clinical role

  1. Cerebral blood flow in the occlusive cerebrovascular disease. 133Xe intravenous injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuda, Hitoshi; Mukawa, Jiro; Takara, Eiichi; Kinjo, Toshihiko; Ishikawa, Yasunari

    1988-04-01

    From December 1985 to May 1986, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 11 patients with occlusive cerebrovascular diseases confined by angiography. 133Xe (5mci) intravenous injection method designed by Kuikka and coworkers was applied for the measurement of regional-CBF and mean-CBF, and the calculation was based on the initial slope index. They were composed of 4 patients of the middle cerebral artery occlusion, 2 of the posterior cerebral artery occlusion, 1 of the internal carotid artery occlusion, 2 of the middle cerebral artery stenosis, 1 of the internal carotid artery stenosis, and 1 of the anterior cerebral artery stenosis. The period from the vascular attack to the initial CBF study was 2-29 days(mean 9.2 days). Recovery of mean-CBF was correlated with clinical and neurological improvement, and vice versa. There was no correlation between mean-CBF and neurological severity. CBF study alone is not sufficient to evaluate neuronal conditions in the occlusive disease. Additional other means, such as CT-scan, angiography and etc. should be requested for it. Intravenous 133Xe injection technique has an advantage over intracarotid injection method; less dangerous, especially in ages and capable of simultaneous measurement of bilateral hemisphere. Considering /sup c/ross talk/sup /regional-CBF of a low density area on X-ray CT-scan was equal to the one obtained by intracarotid injection method.

  2. Confidence limits for regional cerebral blood flow values obtained with circular positron system, using krypton-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    The 90% confidence limits have been determined for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values obtained in each cm 2 of a cross section of the human head after inhalation of radioactive krypton-77, using the MNI circular positron emission tomography system (Positome). CBF values for small brain tissue elements are calculated by linear regression analysis on the semi-logarithmically transformed clearance curve. A computer program displays CBF values and their estimated error in numeric and gray scale forms. The following typical results have been obtained on a control subject: mean CBF in the entire cross section of the head: 54.6 + - 5 ml/min/100 g tissue, rCBF for small area of frontal gray matter: 75.8 + - 9 ml/min/100 g tissue. Confidence intervals for individual rCBF values varied between + - 13 and + - 55% except for areas pertaining to the ventricular system where particularly poor statistics have been obtained. Knowledge of confidence limits for rCBF values improves their diagnostic significance, particularly with respect to the assessment of reduced rCBF in stroke patients. A nomogram for convenient determination of 90% confidence limits for slope values obtained in linear regression analysis has been designed with the number of fitted points (n) and the correlation coefficient (r) as parameters. (author)

  3. CBF tomographic measurement with the scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayayan, R.; Philippon, B.; Pehlivanian, E.

    1989-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) allows calculation of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in multiple cross-sections of the human brain. The methods of Kanno and Lassen is utilized and a study of reproductibility in terms of integration numbers and period of integrations is performed by computer simulation and experimental study with a Gamma-camera. Finally, the possibility of calculating the regional cerabral blood flow with a double headed rotating Gamma-camera by inert gas inhalation, like the Xenon-133 is discussed [fr

  4. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow study with 123I-IMP in patients with dementia and in patients with poor activities of daily living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamiya, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) SPECT and quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies were performed in 111 patients with cerebral disorders. Continuous arterial blood sampling method based on the microsphere model was used as a quantitative rCBF measurement. We evaluated rCBF in patients with dementia and also in patients with poor activities of daily living (ADL). Patients with dementia showed significant reduction of mean CBF in contrast to patients without dementia. Significant decrease of rCBF in the bilateral frontal cortex, parietal cortex and basal ganglia and the right temporal cortex were found in demented patients. Although patients with vascular dementia showed decreased rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia, demented patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant reduction of rCBF in any region. Patients with poor ADL showed decreased rCBF in all brain regions. And particularly frontal and basal ganglionic defects were most pronounced. Patients with poor ADL resulting from cerebral infarction showed significant decrease of rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia. However, there was no significant correlation in Parkinson's disease between ADL and rCBF. The rCBF measurement with 123 I-IMP is useful for clinical evaluation of demented patients and patients with poor ADL. (author)

  5. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow study with [sup 123]I-IMP in patients with dementia and in patients with poor activities of daily living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamiya, Takashi [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-11-01

    N-isopropyl-p[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) SPECT and quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies were performed in 111 patients with cerebral disorders. Continuous arterial blood sampling method based on the microsphere model was used as a quantitative rCBF measurement. We evaluated rCBF in patients with dementia and also in patients with poor activities of daily living (ADL). Patients with dementia showed significant reduction of mean CBF in contrast to patients without dementia. Significant decrease of rCBF in the bilateral frontal cortex, parietal cortex and basal ganglia and the right temporal cortex were found in demented patients. Although patients with vascular dementia showed decreased rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia, demented patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant reduction of rCBF in any region. Patients with poor ADL showed decreased rCBF in all brain regions. And particularly frontal and basal ganglionic defects were most pronounced. Patients with poor ADL resulting from cerebral infarction showed significant decrease of rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia. However, there was no significant correlation in Parkinson's disease between ADL and rCBF. The rCBF measurement with [sup 123]I-IMP is useful for clinical evaluation of demented patients and patients with poor ADL. (author).

  6. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow: the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease (mean age 57 ± 10 years) with available data on magnetic resonance angiography to measure parenchymal CBF. Mean (SD) parenchymal CBF at baseline was 52.3 (9.8) mL/min/100 mL and decreased with 1.5 (11.0) mL/min/100 mL after on average 3.9 years of follow-up. Linear regression analyses showed that greater hemoglobin and hematocrit values were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and more decline in parenchymal CBF over time, independent of cardiovascular risk factors, use of antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, or diuretics, and brain measures: adjusted mean differences (95% confidence interval [CI]) in decline in parenchymal CBF between patients in the lower and upper quartiles of hemoglobin and hematocrit were -2.48 (95% CI -3.70 to -1.25) and -3.69 (95% CI -5.45 to -1.94) mL/min/100 mL. Higher hemoglobin and hematocrit were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and a greater decline in parenchymal CBF over time, possibly as a result of physiological compensating mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in focal cortical epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Oikawa, T; Sveinsdottir, E

    1976-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in ten patients with focal cortical epilepsy. The blood flow was measured by the intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 (133Xe), and the isotope clearance was recorded by a multidetector scintillation camera with 254 detectors. Three patients were....... This finding accords with earlier studies. All nine patients studied in the interictal phase showed, either spontaneously or during activation by intermittent light, focal flow increases in areas presumed to comprise the epileptic focus. These interictal hyperemic foci probably reflect subictal neuronal...

  8. Post traumatic brain perfusion SPECT analysis using reconstructed ROI maps of radioactive microsphere derived cerebral blood flow and statistical parametric mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Brito Manuel; Solano Juan; Sanchez Pablo; Georgiou Michael F; Capille Michael; McGoron Anthony J; Kuluz John W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by SPECT could be important in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) because changes in regional CBF can affect outcome by promoting edema formation and intracranial pressure elevation (with cerebral hyperemia), or by causing secondary ischemic injury including post-traumatic stroke. The purpose of this study was to establish an improved method for evaluating regional CBF changes after TBI in piglets. Me...

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow and Amyloid-β Interact to Affect Memory Performance in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Bangen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years underwent neuroimaging and memory testing. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify CBF and florbetapir PET amyloid imaging was used to measure Aβ deposition. Aβ status (i.e., positivity versus negativity was determined based on established cutoffs (Landau et al., 2013. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess memory. Linear regression models adjusted for age, education, and sex, demonstrated significant interactions between CBF and Aβ status on memory performance. Among Aβ positive older adults, there were significant negative associations between higher CBF in hippocampus, posterior cingulate, and precuneus and poorer memory performance. In contrast, among Aβ negative older adults, there were no significant associations between CBF and cognition. Our findings extend previous CBF studies of dementia risk by reporting interactions between Aβ status and CBF on memory performance in a sample of well-characterized, cognitively normal older adults. Results suggest that differential CBF-cognition associations can be identified in healthy, asymptomatic Aβ positive older adults relative to Aβ negative individuals. Associations between higherCBF and poorer memory among Aβ positive older adults may reflect a cellular and/or vascular compensatory response to pathologic processes whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain normal memory

  10. Frontiers in optical imaging of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Anna; Sakadžić, Sava; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Nizar, Krystal; Saisan, Payam A; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A

    2012-07-01

    In vivo optical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism did not exist 50 years ago. While point optical fluorescence and absorption measurements of cellular metabolism and hemoglobin concentrations had already been introduced by then, point blood flow measurements appeared only 40 years ago. The advent of digital cameras has significantly advanced two-dimensional optical imaging of neuronal, metabolic, vascular, and hemodynamic signals. More recently, advanced laser sources have enabled a variety of novel three-dimensional high-spatial-resolution imaging approaches. Combined, as we discuss here, these methods are permitting a multifaceted investigation of the local regulation of CBF and metabolism with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Through multimodal combination of these optical techniques with genetic methods of encoding optical reporter and actuator proteins, the future is bright for solving the mysteries of neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling and translating them to clinical utility.

  11. Altered Coupling Between Resting-State Cerebral Blood Flow and Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajia; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Xu, Lixue; Liu, Feng; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-10-21

    Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups. Whole gray matter CBF-FCS coupling was decreased in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. In schizophrenia patients, the decreased CBF/FCS ratio was predominantly located in cognitive- and emotional-related brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, hippocampus and thalamus, whereas an increased CBF/FCS ratio was mainly identified in the sensorimotor regions, including the putamen, and sensorimotor, mid-cingulate and visual cortices. These findings suggest that the neurovascular decoupling in the brain may be a possible neuropathological mechanism of schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging

  13. Cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with 123I-IMP in vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura; Daitoh, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow differences between patients with vascular dementia, patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, and age-matched controls were examined. Thirty four patients with vascular dementia (VD) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All the patients had routine assessment including history, physical and neurological examinations, neuropsychological assessment, blood tests, EEG, head MRI, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). All of them fulfilled the NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia. Thirty nine patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction and 110 age-matched controls were included in this study. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using N-isopropyl-P- 123 I-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) and SPECT imager. The mCBF in VD was 27.6±5.3 ml/100 g/min, while those in the control group and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction were 36.6±6.1 ml/100 g/min and 32.5±5.5 ml/100 g/min, respectively. The patients with VD demonstrated significantly reduced mCBF and rCBF in twenty regions including both cerebellar hemispheres as compared with those of the control group. Although there was no significant rCBF differences in bilateral inferior occipital regions and the right cerebellar hemisphere between patients with VD and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, we could find significant lower rCBF in the remaining brain areas. In spite of the severity of VD, the diffuse decrease of cerebral blood flow was recognized in all patients with VD. (author)

  14. Relationship between relative cerebral blood flow, relative cerebral blood volume, and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the preterm neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhashemi, Mina; Kongolo, Guy; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Goudjil, Sabrina; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age. Transfer entropy was calculated in order to determine the directionality between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text]. The surrogate method was applied to determine statistical significance. The results show that rCBV and [Formula: see text] have a predominant driving influence on rCBF at the resting state in the preterm neonatal brain. Statistical analysis robustly detected the correct directionality of rCBV on rCBF and [Formula: see text] on rCBF. This study helps to clarify the early organization of the rCBV-rCBF and [Formula: see text] inter-relationship in the immature cortex.

  15. Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in a juvenile porcine model by depth-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lawrence, Keith St.

    2010-05-01

    Nearly half a million children and young adults are affected by traumatic brain injury each year in the United States. Although adequate cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential to recovery, complications that disrupt blood flow to the brain and exacerbate neurological injury often go undetected because no adequate bedside measure of CBF exists. In this study we validate a depth-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that provides quantitative CBF measurement despite significant signal contamination from skull and scalp tissue. The respiration rates of eight anesthetized pigs (weight: 16.2+/-0.5 kg, age: 1 to 2 months old) are modulated to achieve a range of CBF levels. Concomitant CBF measurements are performed with NIRS and CT perfusion. A significant correlation between CBF measurements from the two techniques is demonstrated (r2=0.714, slope=0.92, p<0.001), and the bias between the two techniques is -2.83 mL.min-1.100 g-1 (CI0.95: -19.63 mL.min-1.100 g-1-13.9 mL.min-1.100 g-1). This study demonstrates that accurate measurements of CBF can be achieved with depth-resolved NIRS despite significant signal contamination from scalp and skull. The ability to measure CBF at the bedside provides a means of detecting, and thereby preventing, secondary ischemia during neurointensive care.

  16. No effect of angiotensin II AT(2)-receptor antagonist PD 123319 on cerebral blood flow autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrup, T M; Paulson, O B; Strandgaard, S

    2001-01-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin AT1-receptor antagonists shift the limits of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) towards lower blood pressure (BP). The role of AT2-receptors in the regulation of the cerebral cir...

  17. Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous anticonvulsant but not a mediator of the increase in cerebral blood flow accompanying bicuculline-induced seizures in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Theard, M A; Pelligrino, D A

    1994-01-01

    ) is NO an endogenous anticonvulsant or proconvulsant substance? and (2) is the cerebral blood flow (CBF) increase accompanying bicuculline (BC)-induced seizures mediated by NO? The experiments were performed in 300-400-g Wistar rats anesthetized with 0.6% halothane and 70% N2O/30% O2. CBF was measured using...

  18. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  19. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo

    1983-04-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways.

  20. Distributed Cerebral Blood Flow estimation using a spatiotemporal hemodynamic response model and a Kalman-like Filter approach

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2015-11-23

    This paper discusses the estimation of distributed Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) using spatiotemporal traveling wave model. We consider a damped wave partial differential equation that describes a physiological relationship between the blood mass density and the CBF. The spatiotemporal model is reduced to a finite dimensional system using a cubic b-spline continuous Galerkin method. A Kalman Filter with Unknown Inputs without Direct Feedthrough (KF-UI-WDF) is applied on the obtained reduced differential model to estimate the source term which is the CBF scaled by a factor. Numerical results showing the performances of the adopted estimator are provided.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p 123 I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author)

  2. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Otte, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD). However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1) to validate previous results showing alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cWAD, (2) to test if central hyperexcitability reflects changes in rCBF upon non-painful stimulation of the neck, and (3) to verify our hypothesis that the missing link in understanding the underlying pathophysiology could be the close interaction between the neck and midbrain structures. For this purpose, alterations of rCBF were explored in a case-control study using H2(15)O positron emission tomography, where each group was exposed to four different conditions, including rest and different levels of non-painful electrical stimulation of the neck. rCBF was found to be elevated in patients with cWAD in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, and decreased in the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and inferior frontal gyri, the thalamus and the insular cortex when compared with rCBF in healthy controls. No differences in rCBF were observed between different levels of electrical stimulation. The alterations in regions directly involved with pain perception and interoceptive processing indicate that cWAD symptoms might be the consequence of a mismatch during the integration of information in brain regions involved in pain processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Types of traumatic brain injury and regional cerebral blood flow assessed by [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Yamaura, Akira; Isobe, Katsumi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), rCBF changes in the first 24 hours post-trauma were studied in 12 severe head trauma patients using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [sup 99m]technetium-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO). Patients were classified as focal or diffuse TBI based on x-ray computed tomographic (X-CT) findings and neurological signs. In six patients with focal damage, SPECT demonstrated: (1) perfusion defect (focal severe ischemia) in the brain region larger than the brain contusion by X-CT, (2) hypoperfusion (focal CBF reduction) in the brain region without abnormality by X-CT, and (3) localized hyperperfusion (focal CBF increase) in the surgically decompressed brain after decompressive craniectomy. Focal damage may be associated with a heterogeneous CBF change by causing various focal CBF derangements. In six patients with diffuse damage, SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in only one patient. Diffuse damage may be associated with a homogeneous CBF change by rarely causing focal CBF derangements. The type of TBI, focal or diffuse, determines the type of CBF change, heterogeneous or homogeneous, in the acute severe head trauma patient. (author).

  4. Types of traumatic brain injury and regional cerebral blood flow assessed by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, I; Yamaura, A; Isobe, K

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), rCBF changes in the first 24 hours post-trauma were studied in 12 severe head trauma patients using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mtechnetium-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime. Patients were classified as focal or diffuse TBI based on x-ray computed tomographic (X-CT) findings and neurological signs. In six patients with focal damage, SPECT demonstrated 1) perfusion defect (focal severe ischemia) in the brain region larger than the brain contusion by X-CT, 2) hypoperfusion (focal CBF reduction) in the brain region without abnormality by X-CT, and 3) localized hyperperfusion (focal CBF increase) in the surgically decompressed brain after decompressive craniectomy. Focal damage may be associated with a heterogeneous CBF change by causing various focal CBF derangements. In six patients with diffuse damage, SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in only one patient. Diffuse damage may be associated with a homogeneous CBF change by rarely causing focal CBF derangements. The type of TBI, focal or diffuse, determines the type of CBF change, heterogeneous or homogeneous, in the acute severe head trauma patient.

  5. Types of traumatic brain injury and regional cerebral blood flow assessed by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Yamaura, Akira; Isobe, Katsumi

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), rCBF changes in the first 24 hours post-trauma were studied in 12 severe head trauma patients using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m technetium-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO). Patients were classified as focal or diffuse TBI based on x-ray computed tomographic (X-CT) findings and neurological signs. In six patients with focal damage, SPECT demonstrated: 1) perfusion defect (focal severe ischemia) in the brain region larger than the brain contusion by X-CT, 2) hypoperfusion (focal CBF reduction) in the brain region without abnormality by X-CT, and 3) localized hyperperfusion (focal CBF increase) in the surgically decompressed brain after decompressive craniectomy. Focal damage may be associated with a heterogeneous CBF change by causing various focal CBF derangements. In six patients with diffuse damage, SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in only one patient. Diffuse damage may be associated with a homogeneous CBF change by rarely causing focal CBF derangements. The type of TBI, focal or diffuse, determines the type of CBF change, heterogeneous or homogeneous, in the acute severe head trauma patient. (author)

  6. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO 2 response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO 2 reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  7. Effects of flow changes on radiotracer binding: Simultaneous measurement of neuroreceptor binding and cerebral blood flow modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Christin Y; Mandeville, Joseph B; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Catana, Ciprian; Hooker, Jacob M; Rosen, Bruce R

    2017-01-01

    The potential effects of changes in blood flow on the delivery and washout of radiotracers has been an ongoing question in PET bolus injection studies. This study provides practical insight into this topic by experimentally measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuroreceptor binding using simultaneous PET/MRI. Hypercapnic challenges (7% CO 2 ) were administered to non-human primates in order to induce controlled increases in CBF, measured with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling. Simultaneously, dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding of [ 11 C]raclopride or [ 18 F]fallypride was monitored with dynamic PET. Experiments showed that neither time activity curves nor quantification of binding through binding potentials ( BP ND ) were measurably affected by CBF increases, which were larger than two-fold. Simulations of experimental procedures showed that even large changes in CBF should have little effect on the time activity curves of radiotracers, given a set of realistic assumptions. The proposed method can be applied to experimentally assess the flow sensitivity of other radiotracers. Results demonstrate that CBF changes, which often occur due to behavioral tasks or pharmacological challenges, do not affect PET [ 11 C]raclopride or [ 18 F]fallypride binding studies and their quantification. The results from this study suggest flow effects may have limited impact on many PET neuroreceptor tracers with similar properties.

  8. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow: MRI measurements in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja; Larsson, Henrik B W; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-11-01

    Although both impaired cardiac function and reduced cerebral blood flow are associated with ageing, current knowledge of the influence of cardiac function on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cardiac function on CBF. CBF and cardiac output were measured in 31 healthy subjects 50-75 years old using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Mean values of CBF, cardiac output and cardiac index were 43.6 ml per 100 g min(-1), 5.5 l min(-1) and 2.7 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in males, and 53.4 ml per 100 g min(-1), 4.3 l min(-1) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed a gender-related inverse association of increased low-to-high-frequency power ratio with CBF and fractional brain flow. The findings do not support a direct effect of cardiac function on CBF, but demonstrates gender-related differences in cardiac output distribution. We propose fractional brain flow as a novel index that may be a useful marker of adequate brain perfusion in the context of ageing as well as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of short-term hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation is impaired in patients with acute bacterial meningitis: this may be caused by cerebral arteriolar dilatation. We tested the hypothesis that CBF autoregulation is recovered by acute mechanical hyperventilation in 9 adult patients...... with acute bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Norepinephrine was infused to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 mm Hg from baseline. Relative changes in CBF were concomitantly recorded by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery, measuring mean flow velocity (V...... completely during hyperventilation. The slope of the autoregulation curve decreased during hyperventilation compared with normoventilation (Pmeningitis, indicating...

  10. Does helmet CPAP reduce cerebral blood flow and volume by comparison with Infant Flow driver CPAP in preterm neonates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaramella, Patrizia; Freato, Federica; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Saraceni, Elisabetta; Vianello, Andrea; Chiandetti, Lino

    2006-10-01

    We compared neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the conventional nasal Infant Flow driver (IFD) CPAP in the noninvasive assessment of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative cerebral blood volume changes (DeltaCBV) by near-infrared spectroscopy. A randomized crossover study in a tertiary referral NICU. Assessment of CBF and DeltaCBV in 17 very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress (median age 5 days) treated with two CPAP devices at a continuous distending pressure of 4 mbar. Neonates were studied for two consecutive 60-min periods with helmet CPAP and with IFD CPAP. Basal chromophore traces enabled DeltaCBV changes to be calculated. CBF was calculated in milliliters per 100 grams per minute from the saturation rise integral and rate of rise O(2)Hb-HHb. Median (range) CBF with helmet CPAP was 27.37 (9.47-48.20) vs. IFD CBF 34.74 (13.59-60.10)(p=0.049) and DeltaCBV 0.15 (0.09-0.28) with IFD and 0.13 (0.07-0.27) with helmet CPAP (NS). Using helmet and IFD CPAP, the neonates showed no difference in mean physiological parameters (transcutaneous carbon dioxide and oxygen tension, pulse oximetry saturation, heart rate, breathing rate, mean arterial blood pressure, desaturation rate, axillary temperature). Assessing CBF and DeltaCBV measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with two CPAP devices revealed no differences in relative blood volume, but CBF was lower with helmet CPAP. Greater active vasoconstriction and/or passive capillary and/or venous vessel compression seem the most likely reason, due to a positive pressure around the head, neck, and shoulders by comparison with the airway pressure.

  11. A quantitative study of cerebral blood flow in childhood using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD patlak-plot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamori, Hiroyuki; Kohira, Ryutaro; Fujita, Yukihiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2001-12-01

    Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured by SPECT using the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD Patlak-Plot method in 54 subjects (age: 1 to 14 years). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values were obtained using Lassen's correction algorithm. The mCBF values were 52.2 ml/100 g/min in those aged 1-4 years, 49.3 ml/100 g/min in those aged 5-9 years, and 48.1 ml/100 g/min in those aged 10-14 years. There was a slight decrease with advancing age. The rCBF in the frontal region was lower than in other regions in those aged 1-4 years. The Patlak-Plot method is suitable for examination of children, because it does not require arterial blood sampling. (author)

  12. Type of aphasia and regional cerebral blood flow. A study with /sup 133/Xe inhalation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Minematsu, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tohru (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-11-01

    In 40 patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured after 2 months of ictus with /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. There were 18 cases with motor aphasia and 22 with sensory aphasia. On the measurements of rCBF, 3 detectors were placed over frontal region (group F), 3 over temporal region (group T), and remaining 3 over parietal region (group P), of the dominant hemisphere. The flow values were compared with the rCBF values obtained from 21 control subjects who had no abnormality in CT scan and on neurological examinations. The control subjects revealed the hyperfrontal pattern of flow distribution; rCBF values in groups F, T and P, which were expressed as an initial slope index, were 50.0 +- 4.8, 48.0 +- 5.1 and 47.4 +- 4.5, respectively. The hyperfrontal pattern was absent in cases with motor aphasia. In this group, rCBF in groups F, T and P were 42.0 +- 8.3, 44.7 +- 8.4 and 41.0 +- 8.5, respectively, and rCBF in frontal region was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group. In sensory aphasia, rCBF values in groups F, T and P were all significantly reduced compared to the controls showing 44.0 +- 5.7, 42.8 +- 5.1 and 40.6 +- 5.4, respectively. In this group, the hyperfrontal pattern was maintained at a low flow level. When absolute rCBF values were compared between motor and sensory aphasia, there was no significant difference between these 2 groups. However, regional flow distribution in motor aphasia was significantly different from that of sensory aphasia, and the cases having the lowest value in group F were more frequently found in the former than in the latter.

  13. Vertigo-related cerebral blood flow changes on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feiyan; Li, Zhongshi; Xie, Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Wu

    2014-11-01

    A prospective study using magnetic resonance imaging on a consecutive cohort of patients with cervical vertigo. To quantitatively investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with cervical vertigo by using 3-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling. Previous studies reported blood flow velocity reduction in posterior circulation during vertigo. However, the detailed information of CBF related to cervical vertigo has not been provided. A total of 33 patients with cervical vertigo and 14 healthy volunteers were recruited in this study. Three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling was performed on each subject to evaluate the CBF before and after the cervical hyperextension-hyperflexion movement tests, which was used to induce cervical vertigo. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the effect of subjects and tests. There were time effects of CBF in the territory of bilateral superior cerebellar artery, bilateral posterior cerebral artery, bilateral middle cerebral artery, and right anterior cerebral artery, but no group effect was observed. The analysis of CBF revealed a significant main effect of tests (P=0.024) and participants (P=0.038) in the dorsal pons. Cervical vertigo onset may be related to CBF reduction in the dorsal pons, which sequentially evokes the vestibular nuclei. 2.

  14. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H.; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR glu ) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR glu measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p glu in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR glu , but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  15. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow in experimental brain tumors studied by double tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Sako, K.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Feindel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Coupling of regional glucose utilization (GLU) and blood flow (CBF) was examined in rats with implanted brain tumors (AA ascites tumor) by quantitative double tracer autoradiography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine. Four to 13 days after implantation, the animals were injected with the two tracers to obtain autoradiograms from the same brain section before and after the decay of YF. The autoradiograms were then analyzed by an image processor to obtain a metabolic coupling index (MCI = GLU/CBF). In the tumor, high GLU and low CBF were uncoupled to give a high MCI which implied anerobic glycolysis. In large tumors, the CBF was even lower. In the peri-tumoral region, GLU was reduced and reduction was lowest around the larger tumors. CBF in the peri-tumoral region was also reduced, but this reduction became less as the distance from the tumor margin increased. The GLU and CBF of white matter was little influenced by the presence of tumors except for some reduction in these values in relation to the larger tumors. The MCI in the tumor was higher than in the cortex of the same as well as the opposite hemisphere. These findings indicate that the metabolism and blood flow of the tumor and surrounding brain are variable and directly related to tumor size.

  16. Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was studied using multiple sequential administrations of 15 O-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. In the resting state an excellent correlation between CBF and CMRO 2 was found when paired measurements of CBF and CMRO 2 from multiple (30-48) brain regions were tested in each of 33 normal subjects. Regional uncoupling of CBF and CMRO 2 was found, however, during neuronal activation induced by somatosensory stimulation. Stimulus-induced focal augmentation of cerebral blood flow (29% mean) far exceeded the concomitant local increase in tissue metabolic rate (mean, 5%), when resting-state and stimulated-state measurements were obtained in each of 9 subjects. Stimulus duration had no significant effect on response magnitude or on the degree of CBF-CMRO 2 uncoupling observed. Dynamic, physiological regulation of CBF by a mechanism (neuronal or biochemical) dependent on neuronal firing per se, but independent of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, is hypothesized

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow in neuropediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junik, R.

    2001-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography can effectively and non-invasively measure regional blood flow. Mostly used 99mTc-HMPAO is a safe brain imaging agent for pediatric applications. The radiation dose is acceptable. Knowledge of the normal rCBF pattern, including normal asymmetries and variations due to age, is necessary prerequisite for the evaluation and reporting of the results of 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies in clinical practice. The interpretation of he rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The aim of the present review is to focus on the contribution to clinical developmental neurology of SPECT The clinical use of SPECT in developmental neurology are epilepsy, brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, high-risk neonates, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury, migraine, anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity, and monitoring therapy. Sedation is not routinely used, rather each child is evaluated. However, drug sedation is mandatory in some uncooperative children. (author)

  18. Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation in Sepsis for the Intensivist: Why Its Monitoring May Be the Future of Individualized Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Carrie M; Rosenblatt, Kathryn; Rivera-Lara, Lucia; Nyquist, Paul; Hogue, Charles W

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation maintains consistent blood flow across a range of blood pressures (BPs). Sepsis is a common cause of systemic hypotension and cerebral dysfunction. Guidelines for BP management in sepsis are based on historical concepts of CBF autoregulation that have now evolved with the availability of more precise technology for its measurement. In this article, we provide a narrative review of methods of monitoring CBF autoregulation, the cerebral effects of sepsis, and the current knowledge of CBF autoregulation in sepsis. Current guidelines for BP management in sepsis are based on a goal of maintaining mean arterial pressure (MAP) above the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. Bedside tools are now available to monitor CBF autoregulation continuously. These data reveal that individual BP goals determined from CBF autoregulation monitoring are more variable than previously expected. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, for example, the lower limit of autoregulation varied between a MAP of 40 to 90 mm Hg. Studies of CBF autoregulation in sepsis suggest patients frequently manifest impaired CBF autoregulation, possibly a result of BP below the lower limit of autoregulation, particularly in early sepsis or with sepsis-associated encephalopathy. This suggests that the present consensus guidelines for BP management in sepsis may expose some patients to both cerebral hypoperfusion and cerebral hyperperfusion, potentially resulting in damage to brain parenchyma. The future use of novel techniques to study and clinically monitor CBF autoregulation could provide insight into the cerebral pathophysiology of sepsis and offer more precise treatments that may improve functional and cognitive outcomes for survivors of sepsis.

  19. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive compulsive disorder patients with SPM and ROI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peiyong; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Guo Wanhua; Zhu Chengmo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the alternations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Methods: rCBF measurements using 99 Tc m -ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT was performed on 14 OCD patients and 23 age-matched healthy volunteers. The rCBF distribution was compared between these two groups with SPM under the conditions of increased and decreased perfusion, and with regions of interest (ROIs) using cerebral template. P value was set at 0.01 level. Results: SPM analysis showed that rCBF decreased in cerebral areas including bilateral putamen, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus, and right orbital gyrus, superior and middle frontal gyrus, and left temporo-occipital lobule and superior parietal gyrus, and vermis. rCBF was also increased in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. With ROIs method, rCBF was decreased in right anterior frontal, temporo-parietal lobule and left temporo-occipital lobule. Conclusions: The study supports the viewpoint that rCBF abnormality of fronto-striatal circuits is involved in OCD patients. SPM method is a forceful tool in analyzing cerebral regional characters

  20. rCBF measurement by one-point venous sampling with the ARG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nobuhiro; Okamoto, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hidekado; Hattori, Teruo

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of using venous blood sampling instead of arterial blood sampling for the current method of ARG (autoradiography) used to determine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on the basis of one session of arterial blood sampling and SPECT. For this purpose, the ratio of the arterial blood radioactivity count to the venous blood radioactivity count, the coefficient of variation, and the correlation and differences between arterial blood-based rCBF and venous blood-based rCBF were analyzed. The coefficient of variation was lowest (4.1%) 20 minutes after injection into the dorsum manus. When the relationship between venous and arterial blood counts was analyzed, arterial blood counts correlated well with venous blood counts collected at the dorsum manus 20 or 30 minutes after intravenous injection and with venous blood counts collected at the wrist 20 minutes after intravenous injection (r=0.97 or higher). The difference from rCBF determined on the basis of arterial blood was smallest (0.7) for rCBF determined on the basis of venous blood collected at the dorsum manus 20 minutes after intravenous injection. (author)

  1. The Methodology of Doppler-Derived Central Blood Flow Measurements in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert A. de Waal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central blood flow (CBF measurements are measurements in and around the heart. It incorporates cardiac output, but also measurements of cardiac input and assessment of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CBF can be measured in the central circulation as right or left ventricular output (RVO or LVO and/or as cardiac input measured at the superior vena cava (SVC flow. Assessment of shunts incorporates evaluation of the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale. This paper describes the methodology of CBF measurements in newborn infants. It provides a brief overview of the evolution of Doppler ultrasound blood flow measurements, basic principles of Doppler ultrasound, and an overview of all used methodology in the literature. A general guide for interpretation and normal values with suggested cutoffs of CBFs are provided for clinical use.

  2. Local cerebral blood flow and local oxygen consumption in prolonged hemiplegic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.; Lebrun-Grandie, P.; Serdaru, M.; Bousser, M.G.; Lhermitte, F.; Cabanis, E.

    1982-09-01

    This work gives the results of a study by positron emission tomography of the cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen-extraction rate (O 2 E) and oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) during severe and prolonged attack of hemiplegic migraine. The salient facts observed are a high (CBF) in the brain hemisphere affected (ruling out the hypothesis of a persistent cerebral ischemia), together with a collapsed O 2 E (''luxury perfusion'') and especially preservation of the CMRO 2 suggesting a decoupling not only between CBF and CMRO 2 but also between CMRO 2 and functional state of the tissue. Some time after the attack a new study showed the recoupling between CBF and CMRO 2 , but with the latter reduced in the affected hemisphere although the clinical and tomodensitometric state had returned to normal. These new observations should not however be improperly generalised to all migraines, given the unusual characteristics of the disorder in our patient [fr

  3. The relationship between the cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism in primary degenerative dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masada, Kouji

    1995-01-01

    The CBF, CMRO 2 and CMRGlu were measured in patients with primary degenerative dementia including 5 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type and 4 patients with Pick's disease, and then the correlation between the cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism was evaluated. The control subjects consisted of 5 age-matched normal volunteers. The CBF, CMRO 2 and CMRGlu decreased in the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal regions in the patients with Alzheimer's dementia, while they decreased in the bilateral frontal and temporal regions in the patients with Pick's disease. Both the CBF and CMRO 2 were closely correlated with each other. However, the CMRGlu was more severely impaired than the CBF or CMRO 2 in both pathological conditions. These results suggested that CMRGlu began to decrease before the reduction of the aerobic metabolism and thus measuring the CMRGlu is considered to be the most sensitive method for detecting abnormal regions in primary degenerative dementia. (author)

  4. Effects of acetazolamide on cerebral blood flow and brain tissue oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L; Kastrup, J

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of 1 g of acetazolamide to 8 normal subjects studied at sea level and in normoxia caused an acute increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). During the subsequent prolonged oral treatment with 1 g of acetazolamide daily, CBF returned to normal within 2 days. The alveolar CO2 tension...... decreased gradually to 70% of the control value, indicating hyperventilation. At sea level hyperventilation will not increase brain oxygenation significantly in normal man, as the arterial oxygen content only increases minimally, while CBF is unchanged. At high altitude the beneficial effects...... of acetazolamide on the symptoms of acute mountain sickness may well be due to an improved oxygen supply to the brain, as hyperventilation will, at the low ambient PO2, cause a significant increase of the arterial oxygen content, while CBF presumably is unaffected by the drug. During hypoxia at high altitude...

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, R.N.; Golden, C.J.; Berg, R.A.; Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Forsell, T.; Wilson, J.; Graber, B.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia

  6. Reduction of cerebral blood flow in subclinical hepatic encephalopathy and its correlation with plasma-free tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Testa, R.; Celle, G.; Gris, A.; Marenco, S.; Nobili, F.; Novellone, G.; Rosadini, G.

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), measured by the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation method, EEG, and plasma levels of ammonia (NH 3 ) and free tryptophan were determined in 18 hospitalized cirrhotic patients affected with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy, as diagnosed by the Kurtz test. CBF results were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in the patients' group as compared with a sex- and age-matched normal control population, although seven patients had values in the normal range. NH 3 was increased only in six, while free tryptophan was increased in all but two patients. A significant negative correlation (p = 0.02) between CBF and free tryptophan was found, even though it appears to be difficult to interpret. We suggest that CBF impairment in some cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy may be related to the systemic metabolic derangement caused by the liver disease; free tryptophan could have some implication in producing CBF reduction

  7. Alpha-contingent EEG feedback reduces SPECT rCBF variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Steinberg, Bruce; Mulholland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    EEG feedback methods, which link the occurrence of alpha to the presentation of repeated visual stimuli, reduce the relative variability of subsequent, alpha-blocking event durations. The temporal association between electro-cortical field activation and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) led us...... to investigate whether the reduced variability of alpha-blocking durations with feedback is associated with a reduction in rCBF variability. Reduced variability in the rCBF response domain under EEG feedback control might have methodological implications for future brain-imaging studies. Visual stimuli were...... to quantify the variance-reducing effects of ACS across multiple, distributed areas of the brain. Both EEG and rCBF measures demonstrated decreased variability under ACS. This improved control was seen for localized as well as anatomically distributed rCBF measures....

  8. Changes of rCBF on major depressed patients following TMS treatment: and SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Changes of regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) on five drug-resistant depressed patients were examined by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99 Tc m - Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime ( 99 Tc m HMPAO) before and after Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). The SPECT images were analysed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) package. TMS at the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) of the depressed patients resulted in an increase of rCBF at a focal region in the vicinity of the stimulation site. No change was observed at any remote region. A 34.8% global CBF reduction for the depressed patients was found in their raw data. SPM analysis of the globally scaled images shows that there are increases of rCBF in the parietal region for the depressed patients. Global CBF scaling might contribute to these increases. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Preliminary studies of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients with leukoaraiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yaming; Ren Yan; He Qiu

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in leukoaraiosis (LA) lesion and cortical regions and analyse the relation between rCBF changes and dementia. METHODS: Regional cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging with SPECT was performed in 49 patients with subcortical multiple cerebral infarction, including 24 cases company LA [LA(+)], 25 cases not company LA[LA(-)] and 10 normal subjects. The relative analysis was made between rCBF changes and cognitive scores. RESULTS: Compared the LA(+) with control, the rCBFs in frontal, parietal, temporal cortexes and LA lesion significantly decreased (P<0.05). The rCBF of frontal, parietal cortexes and LA lesions was also significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with LA(-) groups. The cognitive scores were significantly related with rCBF changes in frontal cortex and LA lesion (r = 0.765, P<0.01 and r = 0.439, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In patients with subcortical multiple cerebral infarction company LA lesion, there were extensive ischemic hypoperfusion changes in the cortical regions and LA lesion, which may response to decreased cerebral function and had certain relationship with dementia. The examination with SPECT cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging had unique advantage and value

  10. Changes in cerebral blood flow after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt can help predict the development of hepatic encephalopathy: An arterial spin labeling MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Wang, Ze [Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qi, Rong Feng; Shi, Donghong [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Fan, Xinxin [Research Institute of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) are still unclear. Our aim is to assess the TIPS-induced CBF changes and their potential clinical significance using the arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Nine cirrhotic patients underwent ASL 1–8 days before and 4–7 days after TIPS. CBF was calculated at each voxel and mean CBF values were computed in the whole brain, gray matter and white matter. Changes of CBFs before and after TIPS were compared by paired t-test. Results: Voxel-wise results showed CBF diffusely increased in patients after TIPS, but no region with significant decrease in CBF was found, nor was any significant mean CBF difference detected in the whole brain, gray matter and white matter. Six patients out of nine showed a global CBF increase of 9–39%; one patient presented a global CBF decrease of 6%; another two showed a global CBF decrease of 16% and 31% respectively. Follow-up studies showed that the two patients with greatly decreased global CBF suffered from multiple episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) after TIPS and one died of OHE. Conclusions: CBF derived from noninvasive ASL MRI could be used as a useful biomarker to predict the development of OHE through consecutively tracking CBF changes in patients with inserted TIPS. Increased CBFs in many cortical regions could be common effects of the TIPS procedure, while decreased global CBF following TIPS might indicate the development of OHE.

  11. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero [University Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H. [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes, Clinical Epilepsy Section, Bethesda, MD (United States); Herscovitch, Peter [National Institutes of Health, PET Department, Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Carson, Richard E. [Yale PET Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR{sub glu}) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR{sub glu} measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p<0.05) lower in TLE patients than in controls in all regions, except the fusiform gyrus contralateral to the epileptic focus. After PVC, statistical significance was maintained in only four regions: ipsilateral inferior temporal cortex, bilateral insula and contralateral amygdala. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in CBF asymmetry indices (AIs) in any region before or after PVC. In TLE patients, AIs for CBF were significantly smaller than for CMR{sub glu} in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR{sub glu}, but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  12. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A

    1979-01-01

    reaching CBF values up to 6 times normal at normal MABP of about 60 to 70 mmHg, and severe ischemia reaching CBF values close to zero in large cortical areas at MABP of 30 mmHg. CVP remained essentially unchanged at 10--15 mmHg. The severe and prolonged asphyxia rendered the blood-brain barrier leaky......Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in non-exteriorized near-term sheep fetuses using the radioactive microsphere technique. By partially occluding the umbilical vessels for a period of 1--1 1/2 hours a progressive and severe asphyxia with a final arterial pH of 6.90 was achieved. Varying...... the mean arterial blood pressure in the fetuses by blood withdrawal or infusion in this state, CBF was measured at different perfusion pressures (mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) minus central venous pressure (CVP)). A passive flow/pressure relationship--loss of autoregulation--was found, with hyperemia...

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT). Comparing with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and aged control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Kitani, M; Tsunematsu, T

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID.

  14. Cerebral blood flow of the non-affected brain in patients with malignant brain tumors as studied by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yuzo; Imao, Yukinori; Hirata, Toshifumi; Ando, Takashi; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    In 40 patients (age range, 20-69 years) receiving radiation and chemotherapy for brain tumors, the mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) in the non-affected area has been examined by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with Xe-133. Forty volunteers (age range, 25-82 years) served as controls. Although mCBF during external irradiation was transiently increased, it was significantly decreased at 3 months after beginning of external irradiation compared with that in the control group. Factors responsible for the decrease in mCBF were radiation doses, lesion volume, the degree of cerebral atrophy, and age; this was more pronounced when chemotherapy such as ACNU was combined with radiation. A decreased mCBF was independent of intraoperative radiation combined with external radiation and either local or whole brain irradiation. SPECT with Xe-133 was useful in determining minute changes in cerebral blood flow that precedes parenchymal brain damage. (N.K.)

  15. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO 2 , and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using 15 O 2 , C 15 O 2 inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO 2 were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia. These results suggest that measurements of cerebral blood flow and metabolism were necessary to study the responsible lesion for aphasia. (author)

  16. Effects of bathing on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers. Using Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Yorizumi, Kouji

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of bathing in warm water on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Seven healthy male volunteers were subjected to experiments. The subjects were bathed in warm water at 39degC for 20 minutes in a sitting position immersed up to the neck. Each subject received two CBF examinations: one under normal conditions and the other after taking a bath mentioned above. There was an interval of at least seven days between the two examinations. To measure CBF, we used the Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc ECD). To examine CBF after bathing, 99m-Tc ECD was injected within 10 minutes after bathing. Brain perfusion index (BPI) and regional CBF (rCBF) were used as indexes for evaluating CBF. The body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, and hematocrit were also measured. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analyses. The following were observed: BPI increased significantly after bathing (p<0.05). rCBF in the cerebral cortex, particularly in the frontal lobe, tended to increase after bathing (p<0.05). No definite changes were observed in the cerebellar cortex, caudate nucleus, or thalamus. The body temperature and pulse increased significantly after bathing. No definite changes were observed in blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, or hematocrit. From the above, we conclude that bathing in warm water causes the cerebral blood flow to increase in healthy subjects. (author)

  17. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  18. Cerebral blood flow modulation by Basal forebrain or whisker stimulation can occur independently of large cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Norio; Nagai, Terumi; Ozawa, Katsuya; Oe, Yuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Hirase, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    We report that a brief electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), the primary source of cholinergic projection to the cerebral cortex, induces a biphasic cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) response in the somatosensory cortex of C57BL/6J mice. This CBF response, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, was attenuated by the muscarinic type acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine, suggesting a possible involvement of astrocytes in this type of CBF modulation. However, we find that IP3R2 knockout mice, which lack cytosolic Ca2+ surges in astrocytes, show similar CBF changes. Moreover, whisker stimulation resulted in similar degrees of CBF increase in IP3R2 knockout mice and the background strain C57BL/6J. Our results show that neural activity-driven CBF modulation could occur without large cytosolic increases of Ca2+ in astrocytes.

  19. A quantitative study of regional cerebral blood flow in childhood using {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT. With emphasis on age-related changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Ayame; Kishi, Kazuko; Sejima, Hitoshi; Haneda, Noriyuki; Uchida, Nobue; Sugimura, Kazuro; Ito, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Hideyuki [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using N-isopropyl-p-={sup 123}I= iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) was used for quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on 26 individuals between 0 and 19 years of age. The rCBF showed age-related changes; it was low in early infancy, increased in late infancy through early childhood, and decreased and remained constant after puberty. The rCBF through cerebral cortex varied more greatly than through thalamus and cerebellum, and seemed to depend more closely on age. In the case of 4 months of age rCBF was very low at the frontal region and was very high at the occipital region. In more older cases, rCBF in the cerebral cortex was higher than in the thalamus. In childhood, rCBF was very inconsistent and showed a great inter-individual variance. (author)

  20. A quantitative study of regional cerebral blood flow in childhood using 123I-IMP-SPECT. With emphasis on age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ayame; Kishi, Kazuko; Sejima, Hitoshi; Haneda, Noriyuki; Uchida, Nobue; Sugimura, Kazuro; Ito, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Hideyuki

    1996-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) was used for quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on 26 individuals between 0 and 19 years of age. The rCBF showed age-related changes; it was low in early infancy, increased in late infancy through early childhood, and decreased and remained constant after puberty. The rCBF through cerebral cortex varied more greatly than through thalamus and cerebellum, and seemed to depend more closely on age. In the case of 4 months of age rCBF was very low at the frontal region and was very high at the occipital region. In more older cases, rCBF in the cerebral cortex was higher than in the thalamus. In childhood, rCBF was very inconsistent and showed a great inter-individual variance. (author)

  1. Changes in the regional cerebral blood flow after drug-induced blood-pressure reduction in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwata, Noriyuki; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Naoya; Konno, Hiromu; Iwabuchi, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1993-01-01

    In patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages, changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after drug-induced blood-pressure reduction were examined by means of subtraction SPECT. The subjects were 38 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages; 22 were putaminal hemorrhages (mean age, 56.8 years; mean hematoma volume, 18.4 cc), while 16 were thalamic hemorrhages (mean age, 61.9 years; mean hematoma volume, 7.8 cc). The rCBF was measured by means of SPECT (Tomomatic 64) with 133 Xe inhalation. Trimethaphan (an autonomic ganglion blocker) and diltiazem hydrochloride (a calcium antagonist) were used for the reduction of the blood pressure. The results were as follows: In the acute stage, the mean CBF was reduced when the blood pressure fell by more than 20% in both the putaminal hemorrhages and the thalamic hemorrhages. A similar tendency was observed in the subacute stage, except that a greater reduction in the blood pressure was needed to induce mean CBF reduction. The subtraction of rCBF maps before and after hypotension treatment shows a reduction of the rCBF in the lateral region of hematoma and the contralateral hemisphere. (author)

  2. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eBangen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors, advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor. This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines.

  3. Thermodilution-determined Internal Jugular Venous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Widmer, Mario; Hilty, Matthias P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases ~20% during whole body exercise although a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF is reported to remain stable; a discrepancy that could reflect evaluation of arterial vs. internal jugular venous (IJV) flow and/or that CBF is influenced by posture. Here we test...

  4. Ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy does not detect hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anton; Secher, Niels H.; Hirasawa, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Continuous non-invasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may be important during anaesthesia and several options are available. We evaluated the CerOx monitor that employs ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy to estimate changes in a CBF index (CFI).Methods: Seven...... healthy males (age 21-26 years) hyperventilated and were administered phenylephrine to increase mean arterial pressure by 20-30 mmHg. Frontal lobe tissue oxygenation (ScO2) and CFI were obtained using the CerOx and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAvmean) was determined....... Administration of phenylephrine was not associated with any changes in MCAvmean, ICAf, ECAf, ScO2, SkBF, SskinO2, or CFI.Conclusion: The CerOx was able to detect a stable CBF during administration of phenylephrine. However, during hyperventilation MCAvmean and ICAf decreased while CFI increased, likely due...

  5. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and symptom clusters of the depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom clusters of depressive mood in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-seven patients with stage 4-5 CKD were subjected to statistical parametric mapping analysis of brain single-photon emission computed tomography. Correlation analyses between separate symptom clusters of depressive mood and rCBF were done. The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils. The third factor (anxiety and psychomotor aspects) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyms, right superior frontal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the right ligual gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, the separate symptom clusters were correlated with specific rCBF patterns similar to those in major depressive disorder patients without CKD. However, some areas with discordant rCBF patterns were also noted when compared with major depressive disorder patients. Further larger scale investigations are needed. (author)

  6. Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in normal aging using 99mTc-ECD SPECT and Patlak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Shinji; Nandate, Yuka; Enya, Mayumi; Manabe, Tomoko; Goto, Hiroo; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Kato, Zenichiro; Kondo, Naomi

    1998-01-01

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied using 99m Tc-ECD SPECT and Patlak method in 47 subjects, aged 1 to 79 years (mean 28.5 years). No abnormal finding was found on MR imaging in the subjects. We obtained mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) by means of Patlak method. rCBF was measured by positioning regions of interest (ROIs) in frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, cerebellum and thalamus. The correlation coefficient between ages and mCBF was r=-0.897 (p<0.0001). mCBF of children was significantly higher (p<0.05), compared with adults. By dispersion analysis according to the groups of ages, significantly higher rCBF values were available in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes during childhood than adulthood (p<0.05), but there were almost no significant differences of rCBF during childhood than adulthood in cerebellum and thalamus. (author)

  7. Psychiatric and subjective symptoms and cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebral infarction after treatment with Ca antagonist (nilvadipine). Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow by the 123IMP-SPECT ARG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakayori, Osamu; Kitamura, Shin; Mishina, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Mineo; Terashi, Akirou

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatric and subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness, lack of spontaneity, anxiety, and a depressive state are often found in patients with chronic cerebral infarction. Some Ca antagonists are reported to relieve such symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychiatric and subjective symptoms and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cerebral infarction and to evaluate the clinical effects of Ca antagonists from the standpoint of the cerebral circulation. Nilvadipine was administered to is patients with chronic cerebral infarction and their CBF was measured by the 123 IMP-SPECT ARG method before and at 8 weeks after the nilvadipine treatment. The CBF in patients with hypertension was increased by 11% after giving nilvadipine. Patients without hypertension showed no tendency for elevation of their CBF. Patients who were relieved from some psychiatric symptoms revealed a 14% increase of CBF in all cortical regions, and a significant increase was noted in the frontal and temporal regions. In other patients without changes in psychiatric symptoms, the CBF did not increase in any of the cortical regions. No relationship between symptoms and CBF was observed in any of the patients with subjective symptoms. Our study demonstrated a close correlation between psychiatric symptoms and CBF. We speculate that psychiatric symptoms in chronic cerebral infarction may reflect diffuse brain dysfunctions. We also conclude that nilvadipine is more effective in relieving psychiatric symptoms in patients with hypertensive cerebral infarction. It is inferred that nilvadipine may be more effective in relieving psychiatric symptoms in patients with hypertension. (author)

  8. Cerebral blood flow and liver function in patients with encephalopathy due to acute and chronic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T; Schroeder, T; Ranek, L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in hepatic encephalopathy, to ascertain whether this was related to the changes in liver function and whether these changes gave any prognostic information. CBF, determined by the intravenous xenon-133 method......, and liver functions, assessed by the prothrombin index, bilirubin concentration, and the galactose elimination capacity, were studied in patients with acute fulminant liver failure and in patients with encephalopathy due to chronic liver diseases--that is, cirrhosis of various etiologies. The CBF range...

  9. Significance of preoperative cerebral blood flow measurements in endovascular occlusion of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, A.; Weitzner, I.; Luft, A.; Merland, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements during 12 endovascular balloon occlusions (ten internal carotid and two middle cerebral arteries) with good clinical and angiographic tolerance were done with repeated boluses of Xe-133 injected directly into the ipsi- and contralateral carotid systems, during the occlusion and repeated measurements with detectors on both sides (before occlusion and 5-30 minutes after occlusion). In two cases of unchanged and four of increased CBF, one reversible deficit was probably due to an embolus. In six cases of decreased CBF, two deficits occurred, characterized by a greater than 25% decrease. It seems to represent a good predictive value for intolerance to occlusion

  10. No effect of angiotensin II AT(2)-receptor antagonist PD 123319 on cerebral blood flow autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrup, T M; Paulson, O B; Strandgaard, S

    2001-01-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin AT1-receptor antagonists shift the limits of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) towards lower blood pressure (BP). The role of AT2-receptors in the regulation of the cerebral...... group. CBF was measured by the intracarotid 133xenon injection method and BP was raised by noradrenaline infusion and lowered by controlled haemorrhage in separate groups of rats. The limits of autoregulation were determined by computed least-sum-of-squares analysis. PD 123319 did not influence baseline...

  11. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashayekh, Ameneh; Pham, Dzung L.; Yousem, David M.; Dizon, Mercedes; Barker, Peter B.; Lin, Doris D.M. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), a dietary supplement used for a number of conditions including dementia, has been suggested to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in CBF could be detected by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in elderly human subjects taking EGb. DSC-MRI was performed in nine healthy men (mean age 61 {+-} 10 years) before and after 4 weeks of 60 mg EGb taken twice daily. One subject underwent six consecutive scans to evaluate intrasubject reproducibility. CBF values were computed before and after EGb, and analyzed at three different levels of spatial resolution, using voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and regions of interest in different lobes, and all regions combined. Normalized intrasubject CBF (nCBF) measurements had a standard deviation of 7% and 4% in gray and white matter (WM) regions, respectively. SPM using an uncorrected, voxel-level threshold of P {<=} 0.001 showed a small CBF increase in the left parietal-occipital region. CBF in individual lobar regions did not show any significant change post-EGb, but all regions combined showed a significant increase of non-normalized CBF after EGb (15% in white and 13% in gray matter, respectively, P {<=} 0.0001). nCBF measured by DSC-MRI has good intrasubject reproducibility. In this small cohort of normal elderly individuals, a mild increase in CBF is found in the left parietal-occipital WM after EGb, as well as a small but statistically significant increase in global CBF. (orig.)

  12. Chronically impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in long-term diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, N; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A

    1975-01-01

    Using the arteriovenous oxygen difference method autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in 16 long-term diabetics and eight control patients. Blood pressure was raised by angiotensin infusion and lowered by trimethaphan camsylate infusion, in some cases combined with head-up tilting...... of the patient. Regression analysis was carried out on the results in order to quantify autoregulatory capacity. In the control patients CBF did not vary with moderate blood pressure variations, indicating normal autoregulation. In four of the 16 diabetic patients CBF showed significant pressure dependency......, indicating impaired autoregulation. The cause of impaired autoregulation in some long-term diabetics is believed to be diffuse or multifocal dysfunction of cerebral arterioles due to diabetic vascular disease. Other conditions with impaired autoregulation are discussed and compared with that seen in long...

  13. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain. Positron emission tomography (PET), using intravenously administered H 2 ( 15 )O as the diffusible blood-flow tracer, was employed for all CBF measurements. The use of H 2 ( 15 )O with PET allowed eight CBF measurements to be made in rapid sequence under multiple stimulation conditions without removing the subject from the tomograph. Nine normal volunteers each underwent a series of eight H2( 15 )O PET measurements of CBF. Initial and final scans were made during visual deprivation. The six intervening scans were made during visual activation with patterned-flash stimuli given in random order at 1.0-, 3.9-, 7.8-, 15.5-, 33.1-, and 61-Hz repetition rates. The region of greatest rCBF increase was determined. Within this region the rCBF was determined for every test condition and then expressed as the percentage change from the value of the initial unstimulated scan (rCBF% delta). In every subject, striate cortex rCBF% delta varied systematically with stimulus rate. Between 0 and 7.8 Hz, rCBF% delta was a linear function of stimulus repetition rate. The rCBF response peaked at 7.8 Hz and then declined. The rCBF% delta during visual stimulation was significantly greater than that during visual deprivation for every stimulus rate except 1.0 Hz. The anatomical localization of the region of peak rCBF response was determined for every subject to be the mesial occipital lobes along the calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex. Stimulus rate is a significant determinant of rCBF response in the visual cortex. Investigators of brain responses to selective activation procedures should be aware of the potential effects of stimulus rate on rCBF and other measurements of cerebral metabolism

  14. Correlative assessment of cerebral blood flow obtained with perfusion CT and positron emission tomography in symptomatic stenotic carotid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisdas, Sotirios [JWG University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Nemitz, Ole; Becker, Hartmut; Donnerstag, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Berding, Georg [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Weissenborn, Karin; Ahl, Bjoern [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neurology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Twelve patients with ICA stenosis underwent dynamic perfusion computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies at rest and after acetazolamide challenge. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps on perfusion CT resulted from a deconvolution of parenchymal time-concentration curves by an arterial input function (AIF) in the anterior cerebral artery as well as in both anterior choroidal arteries. CBF was measured by [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET using multilinear least-squares minimization procedure based on the one-compartment model. In corresponding transaxial PET scans, CBF values were extracted using standardized ROIs. The baseline perfusion CT-CBF values were lower in perfusion CT than in PET (P>0.05). CBF values obtained by perfusion CT were significantly correlated with those measured by PET before (P<0.05) and after (P<0.01) acetazolamide challenge. Nevertheless, the cerebrovascular reserve capacity was overestimated (P=0.05) using perfusion CT measurements. The AIF selection relative to the side of carotid stenosis did not significantly affect calculated perfusion CT-CBF values. In conclusion, the perfusion CT-CBF measurements correlate significantly with the PET-CBF measurements in chronic carotid stenotic disease and contribute useful information to the evaluation of the altered cerebral hemodynamics. (orig.)

  15. Functional regional cerebral blood flow SPECT using 99mTc-HM-PAO by speech memory tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Junko

    1993-01-01

    Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc-99m HA-PAO, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by giving word memory and Miyake's tasks were determined for localizatin of speech memory function. Twice injection method of Tc-99m HM-PAO was used to obtain subtraction SPECT images; and positioning of the 1st and 2nd SPECT was determined by phantom study. To prevent artifacts and changes in rCBF as far as possible, the subjects were informed word fluency and Miyake's tasks sufficiently. When giving word fluency approach, an increase in rCBF was observed in both the operculum and the supratemporal convolution of dominant hemisphere. When giving Miyake's approach, it was observed predominantly in the supratemporal convolution of dominant hemisphere. Although it was also observed in the base of frontal lobe and operculum, there was no bilateral difference. An increased rCBF in the basal nucleus was more clearly observed by Miyake's than word fluency tasks without bilateral differences. There was no definitive increase in rCBF in the Papez's circuit responsible for memory and emotion by either word fluency or Miyake's tasks. In mentally mild disorder patients, an increased rCBF was observed in the same areas as those in normal subjects. In such patients having a decreased rCBF at rest, an increased rCBF was seen in the contralateral hemisphere and the surrounding areas of the lesions, suggesting compensatory mechanism. (N.K.) 65 refs

  16. Correlative assessment of cerebral blood flow obtained with perfusion CT and positron emission tomography in symptomatic stenotic carotid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Nemitz, Ole; Becker, Hartmut; Donnerstag, Frank; Berding, Georg; Weissenborn, Karin; Ahl, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    Twelve patients with ICA stenosis underwent dynamic perfusion computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies at rest and after acetazolamide challenge. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps on perfusion CT resulted from a deconvolution of parenchymal time-concentration curves by an arterial input function (AIF) in the anterior cerebral artery as well as in both anterior choroidal arteries. CBF was measured by [ 15 O]H 2 O PET using multilinear least-squares minimization procedure based on the one-compartment model. In corresponding transaxial PET scans, CBF values were extracted using standardized ROIs. The baseline perfusion CT-CBF values were lower in perfusion CT than in PET (P>0.05). CBF values obtained by perfusion CT were significantly correlated with those measured by PET before (P<0.05) and after (P<0.01) acetazolamide challenge. Nevertheless, the cerebrovascular reserve capacity was overestimated (P=0.05) using perfusion CT measurements. The AIF selection relative to the side of carotid stenosis did not significantly affect calculated perfusion CT-CBF values. In conclusion, the perfusion CT-CBF measurements correlate significantly with the PET-CBF measurements in chronic carotid stenotic disease and contribute useful information to the evaluation of the altered cerebral hemodynamics. (orig.)

  17. Assessing regional cerebral blood flow in depression using 320-slice computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    Full Text Available While there is evidence that the development and course of major depressive disorder (MDD symptomatology is associated with vascular disease, and that there are changes in energy utilization in the disorder, the extent to which cerebral blood flow is changed in this condition is not clear. This study utilized a novel imaging technique previously used in coronary and stroke patients, 320-slice Computed-Tomography (CT, to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in those with MDD and examine the pattern of regional cerebral perfusion. Thirty nine participants with depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 24 (HAMD24 score > 20, and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS score > 53 and 41 healthy volunteers were studied. For all subjects, 3 ml of venous blood was collected to assess hematological parameters. Transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound was utilized to measure parameters of cerebral artery rCBFV and analyse the Pulsatility Index (PI. 16 subjects (8 =  MDD; 8 =  healthy also had rCBF measured in different cerebral artery regions using 320-slice CT. Differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson's tests were employed in our statistical analyses. Compared with the control group, whole blood viscosity (including high\\middle\\low shear rateand hematocrit (HCT were significantly increased in the MDD group. PI values in different cerebral artery regions and parameters of rCBFV in the cerebral arteries were decreased in depressive participants, and there was a positive relationship between rCBFV and the corresponding vascular rCBF in both gray and white matter. rCBF of the left gray matter was lower than that of the right in MDD. Major depression is characterized by a wide range of CBF impairments and prominent changes in gray matter blood flow. 320-slice CT appears to be a valid and promising tool for measuring rCBF, and could thus be employed in psychiatric settings for biomarker and treatment response purposes.

  18. Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    . They showed in the acute phase (Days 1-3) very large low-flow areas, larger than the hypodense areas seen on the CT scan. The cerebral vasoconstrictor and vasodilator capacity was tested in the acute phase following aminophylline and acetazolamide, respectively. A preserved but reduced reactivity was seen......Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 12 patients with acute symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. CBF was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computer tomography. Six patients had severe strokes and large infarcts on the CT scan...

  19. rCBF in radiation necrosis as measured by xenon-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Osamu; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Segawa, Hiromu; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Hideki; Yoshimasu, Norio; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1986-01-01

    We experienced a case of radiation necrosis in which the necrosis occurred two and a half years after radiation therapy against craniopharyngioma. In this case, we evaluated the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by means of the Xe-enhanced CT method and studied the change in rCBF in comparison with the rCBF pattern of brain tumors or cerebral infarctions. In general, rCBF decreased in accordance with the low-density area in a conventional CT scan. The decrease in rCBF was most significant in the white matter, but the rCBF in the thinned cortex was also lowered. On the contrary, that of the basal ganglia was almost completely preserved. The rCBF pattern was different from those of brain tumors or diffuse cerebral infarction caused by the occlusion of the main arteries and was thought to be characteristic of radiation necrosis. Differential diagnosis between radiation necrosis and the recurrence of brain tumor has been thought to be difficult, but with this rCBF analysis the possibility of differential diagnosis between the two lesions was clearly indicated. (author)

  20. Quantitative agreement between [(15)O]H2O PET and model free QUASAR MRI-derived cerebral blood flow and arterial blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijtel, D. F. R.; Petersen, E. T.; Mutsaerts, H. J. M. M.; Bakker, E.; Schober, P.; Stevens, M. F.; van Berckel, B. N. M.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Booij, J.; van Osch, M. J. P.; van Bavel, E. T.; Boellaard, R.; Lammertsma, A. A.; Nederveen, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was an agreement between quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVA) measurements by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) and model-free QUASAR MRI. Twelve healthy subjects were scanned within a week

  1. Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 12 patients with acute symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. CBF was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computer tomography. Six patients had severe strokes and large infarcts on the CT scan....... They showed in the acute phase (Days 1-3) very large low-flow areas, larger than the hypodense areas seen on the CT scan. The cerebral vasoconstrictor and vasodilator capacity was tested in the acute phase following aminophylline and acetazolamide, respectively. A preserved but reduced reactivity was seen...... had occlusion of the relevant internal carotid artery. In all 6 patients, CBF studies at 2 and 6 months resembled the acute phase, showing large areas with reduced flow. At the 6 months follow-up, the vasodilatory stress test was repeated, and all but one showed a preserved but reduced vasoreactivity...

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements by a noninvasive microsphere method using 123I-IMP. Comparison with the modified fractional uptake method and the continuous arterial blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Seigo; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanizaki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    A noninvasive microsphere method using N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), developed by Yonekura et al., was performed in 10 patients with neurological diseases to quantify regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Regional CBF values by this method were compared with rCBF values simultaneously estimated from both the modified fractional uptake (FU) method using cardiac output developed by Miyazaki et al. and the conventional method with continuous arterial blood sampling. In comparison, we designated the factor which converted raw SPECT voxel counts to rCBF values as a CBF factor. A highly significant correlation (r=0.962, p<0.001) was obtained in the CBF factors between the present method and the continuous arterial blood sampling method. The CBF factors by the present method were only 2.7% higher on the average than those by the continuous arterial blood sampling method. There were significant correlation (r=0.811 and r=O.798, p<0.001) in the CBF factor between modified FU method (threshold for estimating total brain SPECT counts; 10% and 30% respectively) and the continuous arterial blood sampling method. However, the CBF factors of the modified FU method showed 31.4% and 62.3% higher on the average (threshold; 10% and 30% respectively) than those by the continuous arterial blood sampling method. In conclusion, this newly developed method for rCBF measurements was considered to be useful for routine clinical studies without any blood sampling. (author)

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow distribution in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Madsen, P L

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow distribution (rCBF) in 24 first admissions with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder and in 17 healthy volunteers was examined. Single photon emission computed tomography with a brain-retained tracer, technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime, was used...... interrelationship in schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder....

  4. Performance on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, M.; Steen, C.; Hoogduin, J. M.; van Osch, M. J. P.; Fierens, Y.; Cambron, M.; Koch, M. W.; De Keyser, J.

    BackgroundTo assess the relationship between performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and axonal metabolic integrity in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of the centrum semiovale in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MethodsNormal

  5. Sufentanil does not increase cerebral blood flow in healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, N.; Weinstabl, C.; Podreka, I.; Spiss, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sufentanil on human cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in seven unpremedicated, healthy volunteers 31 +/- 3.5 yr of age (mean +/- SD) and either sex. CBF (ml.100 g-1.min-1) was measured noninvasively with the 133Xe clearance technique and a scintillation camera before and after sufentanil 0.5 micrograms/kg administered intravenously. This technique provides values for global blood flow and for gray and white matter blood flow, and from 13 preselected regions in one hemisphere. After the administration of sufentanil, the volunteers were stimulated verbally in order to prevent their loss of consciousness and hypercarbia. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and end-tidal CO2 ETCO2 were recorded during the measurements. Neither global CBF (46.1 +/- 1.6 control and 43 +/- 1.9 after sufentanil, mean +/- SEM) nor gray (76.5 +/- 3.2 and 70.9 +/- 6.1) or white (22.7 +/- 1.5 and 24.2 +/- 1.6) matter blood flow changed significantly after sufentanil administration. As well, no significant differences in HR (72 +/- 4 control and 79 +/- 4 beats per min after sufentanil) and ETCO2 (39.8 +/- 1.4 and 41.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg) were observed. It is concluded that sufentanil has no significant effect on CBF in healthy human volunteers

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Kortekaas, Rudie; Kuipers, Rutger; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Pruim, Jan; Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Holstege, Gert

    2006-01-01

    There is a severe lack of knowledge regarding the brain regions involved in human sexual performance in general, and female orgasm in particular. We used [(15)O]-H(2)O positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy women during a nonsexual resting state,

  7. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with /sup 133/Xe inhalation and dynamic single photon emission computer tomography. Normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootwelt, K; Dybevold, S; Nyberg-Hansen, R; Russell, D

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was studied by /sup 133/Xe inhalation tomography in 25 healthy subjects. Mean age was 41 years and range 23-66 years. Mean hemispheric CBF at rest was 59.8 ml/100 g/min, and cerebellar flow 60.8 ml/100 g/min. The distribution of CBF values was skewed and approximated a log normal distribution. Estimated lower and upper normal reference range limits calculated as mean (log) = - 2 S.D. (log) were 47-74 ml/100 g/min. Women had approximately 5 ml/100 g/min higher CBF values than men, corresponding to the difference in hematocrit. Neither in men or women was there any tendency to age dependent reduction or increase in flow. In both sexes hemispheric regional CBF (rCBF) was asymmetric with higher flow values in the right cerebral hemisphere; particularly in the anterior distribution territory of the middle cerebral artery. Emotional activation as a consequence of the study conditions is assumed to be the cause of this observed asymmetry. Cerebellar flow was not assymetric. No significant difference in cerebellar or hemispheric CBF was found when a second study followed the first by 3-15 months, PCO/sub 2/ correction of flow improved reproducibility. Acetazolamide responses are reported.

  8. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with 133Xe inhalation and dynamic single photon emission computer tomography. Normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootwelt, Kjell; Dybevold, Synnoeve; Nyberg-Hansen, Rolf; Russell, David

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was studied by 133 Xe inhalation tomography in 25 healthy subjects. Mean age was 41 years and range 23-66 years. Mean hemispheric CBF at rest was 59.8 ml/100 g/min, and cerebellar flow 60.8 ml/100 g/min. The distribution of CBF values was skewed and approximated a log normal distribution. Estimated lower and upper normal reference range limits calculated as mean (log) = - 2 S.D. (log) were 47-74 ml/100 g/min. Women had approximately 5 ml/100 g/min higher CBF values than men, corresponding to the difference in hematocrit. Neither in men or women was there any tendency to age dependent reduction or increase in flow. In both sexes hemispheric regional CBF (rCBF) was asymmetric with higher flow values in the right cerebral hemisphere; particularly in the anterior distribution territory of the middle cerebral artery. Emotional activation as a consequence of the study conditions is assumed to be the cause of this observed asymmetry. Cerebellar flow was not assymetric. No significant difference in cerebellar or hemispheric CBF was found when a second study followed the first by 3-15 months, PCO 2 correction of flow improved reproducibility. Acetazolamide responses are reported. (author)

  9. Evaluating ocular blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Maram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that vascular impairment plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of various ocular diseases including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal venous occlusive disease. Thus, qualitative and quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow (BF is a topic of interest for early disease detection, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the rapid improvement in technology, there are several invasive and noninvasive techniques available for evaluating ocular BF, with each of these techniques having their own limitations and advantages. This article reviews these important techniques, with a particular focus on Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT and OCT-angiography.

  10. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  11. Statistical image analysis of cerebral blood flow in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaru; Yuzawa, Izumi; Suzuki, Sachio; Kurata, Akira; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Asano, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The Summary of this study was to investigate pathophysiology of moyamoya disease, we analyzed brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT) images of patients with this disease by using interface software for a 3-dimensional (3D) data extraction format. Presenting symptoms were transient ischemic attack (TIA) in 21 patients and hemorrhage in 6 patients. All the patients underwent brain SPECT scan of 123 I-iofetamine (IMP) at rest and after acetazolamide challenge (17 mg/kg iv, 2-day method). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured using arterial blood sampling and an autoradiography model. The group of the patients who presented with TIAs showed decreased CBF in the frontal lobe at rest compared to that of patients with hemorrhage, but Z-score ((mean-patient data)/ standard deviation (SD)) did not reach statistical significance. Significant CBF decrease after acetazolamide challenge was observed in a wider cerebral cortical area in the TIA group than in the hemorrhagic group. The brain region of hemodynamic ischemia (stage II) correlated well with the responsible cortical area for clinical symptoms of TIA. A hemodynamic ischemia stage image clearly represented recovery of reserve capacity after bypass surgery. Statistical evaluation of SPECT may be useful to understand and clarify the pathophysiology of this disease. (author)

  12. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Poor agreement between transcranial Doppler and near-infrared spectroscopy-based estimates of cerebral blood flow changes in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toksvang, Linea N; Plovsing, Ronni R; Petersen, Marie W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may be valuable in critically ill patients with sepsis. In this study, we compared spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD)-derived estimates of noradrenaline-associated changes...... in CBF in such patients. METHODS: Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was elevated by increasing the noradrenaline infusion rate in eight mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock. The associated changes in CBF were assessed by simultaneous ipsilateral......-derived estimates with a relative bias of 14% and limits of agreement of -18% to 45% change in CBF. CONCLUSION: Our findings stress that TCD and NIRS cannot be used interchangeably for monitoring changes in cerebral haemodynamics in critically ill patients with sepsis receiving vasopressor treatment...

  14. β-Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollinger, B.R.; Bryan, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the β-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-[N-methyl- 14 C]iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied from ∼60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that β-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia

  15. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements

  16. Cerebral blood flow measurement using stable xenon CT with very short inhalation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1991-02-01

    A noninvasive, simplified method using inhalation of stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) and computed tomographic (CT) scanning to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional partition coefficient (r{lambda}) is described. Twenty-four patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and six volunteer controls inhaled 30% Xe{sup s} and 70% oxygen for 180 seconds and exhaled for 144 seconds during serial CT scanning without denitrogenation. The end-tidal Xe{sup s} concentration was continuously monitored with a thermoconductivity analyzer to determine the build-up range (A value) and build-up rate constant (K value) for arteries with the curve fitting method. The time-CT number (Hounsfield unit) curve for cerebral tissue during the Xe{sup s} washin and washout phases was used to calculate r{lambda} and rCBF using least squares curve fitting analysis. The resultant r{lambda} and rCBF map demonstrated a reliable distribution between the gray and white matter, and infarcted areas. rCBF was high in gray matter, low in white matter, and much lower in infarcted areas than in white matter. r{lambda} was high in white matter, low in gray matter, and much lower in infarcted areas. Xe{sup s} CT-CBF studies with very short inhalation of 180 seconds is a clinically useful method for evaluation of rCBF in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. (author).

  17. Three dimensional cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional local cerebral blood flow values were measured in 28 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease without dementia and 17 control subjects, by means of xenon enhanced CT method using low concentration cold xenon and autoradiographic strategy. The results demonstrated that local cerebral perfusion in the patients with Parkinson's disease decreased with close correlations with aging and severity of the clinical symptoms and signs. Stepwise multiregression analysis revealed that mean CBF values and 1-CBF values through thalamus and white matter decreased primarily depending on aging and degree of brain atrophy, whereas 1-CBF values through basal ganglia decreased depending on severity of disease. The spatial distributions of 1-CBF were maintained normally and symmetrically even in the severely affected cases or in those with hemiparkinsonism, therefore hyperfrontalities were well preserved in all of the patients. Acute intravenous administration of L-DOPA gave rise to a diffuse increase in 1-CBF only in the patients and the increment was more prominent in patients severely affected than in those mildly affected. It was concluded that reduction of 1-CBF in the basal ganglia and cortex may be attributed to hypometabolism in the mesostriatal and mesocortical dopaminergic system. (author)

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kouichi; Watanabe, Sho; Suzuki, Michiyo; Kamijima, Gonbei

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular dementia, eleven patients with vascular dementia and eight patients with non-demented infarction were studied and regional CBF were measured quantitatively with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. All cases were basal infarction and vascular dementia were diagnosed by less than 21.5 of the Hasegawa's dementia score and more than 7 of Hachinsk's ischemic score. The results of the present study were as follows: (1) Cerebrovascular dementia showed lower mean CBF value compared with non-demented group. (2) Regional CBF of bilateral frontal areas and affected basal ganglia were significantly reduced than occipital area in the dementia group. (3) A comparison of regional CBF and the Hasegawa's dementia score revealed a statistically significant correlation at the bilateral frontal areas in the dementia group. It is possible that measuring the regional CBF quantitatively by IMP-SPECT is useful for clinical analysis of vascular dementia. (author)

  19. Three dimensional cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Takashi

    1987-07-01

    Three dimensional local cerebral blood flow values were measured in 28 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease without dementia and 17 control subjects, by means of xenon enhanced CT method using low concentration cold xenon and autoradiographic strategy. The results demonstrated that local cerebral perfusion in the patients with Parkinson's disease decreased with close correlations with aging and severity of the clinical symptoms and signs. Stepwise multiregression analysis revealed that mean CBF values and 1-CBF values through thalamus and white matter decreased primarily depending on aging and degree of brain atrophy, whereas 1-CBF values through basal ganglia decreased depending on severity of disease. The spatial distributions of 1-CBF were maintained normally and symmetrically even in the severely affected cases or in those with hemiparkinsonism, therefore hyperfrontalities were well preserved in all of the patients. Acute intravenous administration of L-DOPA gave rise to a diffuse increase in 1-CBF only in the patients and the increment was more prominent in patients severely affected than in those mildly affected. It was concluded that reduction of 1-CBF in the basal ganglia and cortex may be attributed to hypometabolism in the mesostriatal and mesocortical dopaminergic system.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Sho; Maruyama, Michiyuki; Miyakawa, Koichi; Kamijima, Gonbei; Sasaki, Yasuto.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-one cases of ischemic cerebrovascular disease were investigated using the 133 Xe inhalation method. Fifty-six were male and 25 were female. ages ranged from 25 to 84, with a mean age of 65.4 years. Thirty-two had cerebrovascular dementia and 49 had non dementia infarction. Two criteria were used for a diagnosis of cerebrovascular dementia: 1) the presense of cerebrovascular disease and 2) a score of less than 21.5 Hasegawa's dementia scale. By computed tomographic findings all cases were classified into three groups: lesion on a right hemisphere, a left hemisphere and bilateral hemispheres. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated by 2-compartmental analysis and initial slope index method. The results are as follows: 1) Cases of cerebrovascular dementia tended to have a lower mean rCBF value. (p < 0.001). 2)rCBF patterns showed lower values in the central area for cases of laterality as determined by CT scan. 3) Both interhemispheric mean rCBF and mean rCBF classified from main lesion were no significant different between dementia group and non dementia group. 4) A comparison of mean rCBF with Hasegawa's dementia scale revealed a statistically significant correlation. (p < 0.001). (author)

  1. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mraovitch, S.; Calando, Y.; Goadsby, P.J.; Seylaz, J. (Laboratoire de Recherches Cerebrovasculaire, Paris (France))

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBF{sub LDF}), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with {alpha}-chloralose. CBF{sub LDF} was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine and ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  3. Cerebral Blood Flow Measurements in Adults: A Review on the Effects of Dietary Factors and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Joris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving cerebrovascular function may be a key mechanism whereby a healthy lifestyle, of which a healthy diet combined with increased physical activity levels is a cornerstone, protects against cognitive impairments. In this respect, effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF—a sensitive physiological marker of cerebrovascular function—are of major interest. This review summarizes the impact of specific dietary determinants and physical exercise on CBF in adults and discusses the relation between these effects with potential changes in cognitive function. A limited number of randomized controlled trials have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of an acute intake of nitrate and polyphenols on CBF, but evidence for a relationship between these effects as well as improvements in cognitive functioning is limited. Moreover, long-term trans-resveratrol supplementation has been shown to increase CBF in populations at increased risk of accelerated cognitive decline. Long-term supplementation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may also increase CBF, but related effects on cognitive performance have not yet been found. Significant decreases in cerebral perfusion were observed by commonly consumed amounts of caffeine, while alcohol intake was shown to increase CBF in a dose-dependent way. However, the long-term effects are not clear. Finally, long-term exercise training may be a promising approach to improve CBF, as increases in perfusion may contribute to the beneficial effects on cognitive functioning observed following increased physical activity levels.

  4. Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow during an Alteration in Glycemic State in a Large Non-human Primate (Papio hamadryas sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunov, Peter; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack L; Davis, Michael D; Wang, Danny J J; Lin, Ai-Ling; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Andrade, Marcia C R; Mattern, Vicki; Frost, Patrice; Higgins, Paul B; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Voruganti, Venkata S

    2017-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during a hyperglycemic challenge were mapped, using perfusion-weighted MRI, in a group of non-human primates. Seven female baboons were fasted for 16 h prior to 1-h imaging experiment, performed under general anesthesia, that consisted of a 20-min baseline, followed by a bolus infusion of glucose (500 mg/kg). CBF maps were collected every 7 s and blood glucose and insulin levels were sampled at regular intervals. Blood glucose levels rose from 51.3 ± 10.9 to 203.9 ± 38.9 mg/dL and declined to 133.4 ± 22.0 mg/dL, at the end of the experiment. Regional CBF changes consisted of four clusters: cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon. Increases in the hypothalamic blood flow occurred concurrently with the regulatory response to systemic glucose change, whereas CBF declined for other clusters. The return to baseline of hypothalamic blood flow was observed while CBF was still increasing in other brain regions. The spatial pattern of extra-hypothalamic CBF changes was correlated with the patterns of several cerebral networks including the default mode network. These findings suggest that hypothalamic blood flow response to systemic glucose levels can potentially be explained by regulatory activity. The response of extra-hypothalamic clusters followed a different time course and its spatial pattern resembled that of the default-mode network.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko

    1992-09-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p<0.01), 25.0% (p<0.05) and 25.6% (p<0.01), respectively. The reduction of rCBF in the basal ganglia was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with symptoms such as gait disturbance, frozen gait and motor disability score. However, no significant correlation was observed between the severity of dementia and any regional reduction of CBF, including the frontal or parietal cortices. These data show that the severity of dementia in PD may be related to other factors but not with CBF. Quantification of rCBF with [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author).

  6. Imaging of cerebral blood flow in patients with severe traumatic brain injury in the neurointensive care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham eRostami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia is a common and deleterious secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI. A great challenge for the treatment of TBI patients in the neurointensive care unit (NICU is to detect early signs of ischemia in order to prevent further advancement and deterioration of the brain tissue. Today, several imaging techniques are available to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF in the injured brain such as Positron emission tomography (PET, Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, Xenon-CT, perfusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and CT perfusion scan. An ideal imaging technique would enable continuous noninvasive measurement of blood flow and metabolism across the whole brain. Unfortunately, no current imaging method meets all these criteria. These techniques offer snapshots of the CBF. MRI may also provide some information about the metabolic state of the brain. PET provides images with high resolution and quantitative measurements of CBF and metabolism however it is a complex and costly method limited to few TBI centres. All of these methods except mobile Xenon-CT require transfer of TBI patients to the radiological department. Mobile Xenon-CT emerges as a feasible technique to monitor CBF in the NICU, with lower risk of adverse effects. Promising results have been demonstrated with Xenon-CT in predicting outcome in TBI patients. This review covers available imaging methods used to monitor CBF in patients with severe TBI.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in vascular depression assessed by 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Mahito; Shimoda, Kengo; Mizumura, Sunao; Tateno, Amane; Fujito, Tatsuma; Mori, Takao; Endo, Shunkichi

    2003-01-01

    As the prevalence of white matter hyperintensities detected on T2 weighted MRI scans in patients with late-onset depression is higher than that in nondepressed patients, the concept of ''vascular depression'' (VDep) was introduced in 1997. However, the pathology of vascular depression has not been clarified. This study examined the differences in functional imaging between vascular and non-vascular depression (non-VDep). We utilized 123 I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to compare regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) between 9 patients with VDep (Krishnan criteria) and 11 age- and sex-matched patients with non-VDep in both depressed and remitted states. In both VDep and non-VDep patients, mean rCBF increased significantly as depression improved, partially aided by changes in left anterior temporal blood flow. In addition, compared to non-VDep patients, the left anterior frontal rCBF for VDep patients was significantly lower in both depressed and remitted states. Left anterior temporal rCBF therefore appears to represent a state marker that increases as symptoms associated with late-onset depression improve, regardless of vascular changes. Furthermore, in VDep patients, left anterior frontal rCBF was low in both states compared to non-VDep patients, and might not only represent a trait marker, but also correlated with the duration of disease and likelihood of recurrence and relapse. (author)

  8. Hypothermia reduces cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in newborn pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busija, D.W.; Leffler, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined effects of hypothermia on cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized, newborn pigs (1-4 days old). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined with 15-μm radioactive microspheres. Regional CBF ranged from 44 to 66 ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and cerebral metabolic rate was 1.94 ± 0.23 ml O 2 ·100 g -1 ·min -1 during normothermia (39 degree C). Reduction of rectal temperature to 34-35 degree C decreased CBF and cerebral metabolic rate 40-50%. In another group of piglets, they examined responsiveness of the cerebral circulation to arterial hypercapnia during hypothermia. Although absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic CBF were reduced by hypothermia and absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebrovascular resistance were increased, the percentage changes from control in these variables during hypercapnia were similar during normothermia and hypothermia. In another group of animals that were maintained normothermic and exposed to two episodes of hypercapnia, there was no attenuation of cerebrovascular dilation during the second episode. They conclude that hypothermia reduces CBF secondarily to a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate and that percent dilator responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia is unaltered when body temperature is reduced

  9. Evaluation and investigation of regional cerebral blood flow by 1 point arterial blood collection method using 99mTc-ECD. Intravenous injection for 4 minutes with constant speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeo; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Sudoh, Hideaki; Tanaka, Masato; Itoh, Kenjiro; Ueno, Yasushi

    1998-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using a 99m Tc-ECD through the 4-min constant intravenous infusion/one point arterial blood sampling method, proposed by Nakagawara et al. of Nakamura Memorial Hospital, and 133Xenon ( 133 Xe)-SPECT was performed on the same subjects to investigate the reproducibility of this method. We also determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) could be measured on the day of blood sampling through dilution of the obtained blood because it was difficult to measure the radioactivity in the blood on the day of blood sampling by this method. More, we investigated fixation of an octanol extraction rate and the substitution of venous blood for arterial blood in this method. The results revealed that CBF measured by this method with a 99m Tc-ECD were closely correlated to those measured by 133 Xe-SPECT, indicating the reliability as a method of measuring CBF. rCBF could be measured on the day of blood sampling through appropriate dilution of the obtained arterial blood. Octanol extraction rates were almost constant, indicating possible omission of cumbersome extraction procedure by fixation. However, the substitution of venous blood for arterial blood showed no correlation under the study system examined. (author)

  10. Cerebral ischemia produced by four-vessel occlusion in the rat: a quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlow, T.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia was produced in the rat by simultaneous occlusion of the vertebral and carotid arteries according to the method of Pulsinelli and Brierley (Stroke 10: 267, 1979). Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by polarographic and autoradiographic techniques. Hydrogen-clearance measurements showed that mean CBF fell in four monitored regions of the hemispheres to between 0.11 and 0.18 ml/g/min, being least in deep rostal gray, intermediate in superficial gray, and greatest in deep caudal gray. However, individual animals had local CBF in excess of 0.20 and even 0.30 ml/g/min, and no animal showed zero CBF. When animals were rendered hypotensive (MABP of 50 Torr) during vascular occlusion, mean CBF ranged between 0.03 and 0.10 ml/g/min in the same regional order. With hypotension, total arrest of flow occurred. Autoradiographic data confirmed the above findings and indicated adequate CBF to the lower brainstem. During vascular occlusion, sufficient CBF may be present ot sustain cerebral tissue as in animals with a well developed spinal circulation or an inadvertently patent vertebral artery

  11. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO/sub 2/, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using /sup 15/O/sub 2/, C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia.

  12. Cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography with {sup 123}I-IMP in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Gotoh, Chiharu; Yokoyama, Sakura; Daitoh, Nobuyuki [Narita Memorial Hospital, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow differences between patients with vascular dementia, patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, and age-matched controls were examined. Thirty four patients with vascular dementia (VD) were selected from consecutive referrals to the Memory Clinic at Narita Memorial Hospital. All the patients had routine assessment including history, physical and neurological examinations, neuropsychological assessment, blood tests, EEG, head MRI, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). All of them fulfilled the NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia. Thirty nine patients with multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction and 110 age-matched controls were included in this study. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using N-isopropyl-P-{sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) and SPECT imager. The mCBF in VD was 27.6{+-}5.3 ml/100 g/min, while those in the control group and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction were 36.6{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min and 32.5{+-}5.5 ml/100 g/min, respectively. The patients with VD demonstrated significantly reduced mCBF and rCBF in twenty regions including both cerebellar hemispheres as compared with those of the control group. Although there was no significant rCBF differences in bilateral inferior occipital regions and the right cerebellar hemisphere between patients with VD and multiple lacunar infarction without cognitive dysfunction, we could find significant lower rCBF in the remaining brain areas. In spite of the severity of VD, the diffuse decrease of cerebral blood flow was recognized in all patients with VD. (author)

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...... meningiomas (4 of 7 cases) in which most of the tumor itself did not receive any isotope. Brain metastases (6) usually had a low flow in the tumor and tumor-near region. The glioblastomas tended to show markedly bending 133Xe wash-out curves pointing to pronounced heterogeneity of blood flow. Most of the flow...... maps, regardless of the tumor types, showed widespread abnormalities of rCBF not only in the tumor region but also in the region remote from the tumor. It is concluded that measurement of rCBF cannot yield accurate differential diagnostic information, but that the widespread derangement of the brain...

  14. Spatial heterogeneity of the relation between resting-state connectivity and blood flow: an important consideration for pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; van Osch, Matthias J; de Rooij, Mark; Beckmann, Christian F; van Buchem, Mark A; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Johannes M; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2014-03-01

    Resting state fMRI (RSfMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) provide the field of pharmacological Neuroimaging tool for investigating states of brain activity in terms of functional connectivity or cerebral blood flow (CBF). Functional connectivity reflects the degree of synchrony or correlation of spontaneous fluctuations--mostly in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal--across brain networks; but CBF reflects mean delivery of arterial blood to the brain tissue over time. The BOLD and CBF signals are linked to common neurovascular and hemodynamic mechanisms that necessitate increased oxygen transportation to the site of neuronal activation; however, the scale and the sources of variation in static CBF and spatiotemporal BOLD correlations are likely different. We tested this hypothesis by examining the relation between CBF and resting-state-network consistency (RSNC)--representing average intranetwork connectivity, determined from dual regression analysis with eight standard networks of interest (NOIs)--in a crossover placebo-controlled study of morphine and alcohol. Overall, we observed spatially heterogeneous relations between RSNC and CBF, and between the experimental factors (drug-by-time, time, drug and physiological rates) and each of these metrics. The drug-by-time effects on CBF were significant in all networks, but significant RSNC changes were limited to the sensorimotor, the executive/salience and the working memory networks. The post-hoc voxel-wise statistics revealed similar dissociations, perhaps suggesting differential sensitivity of RSNC and CBF to neuronal and vascular endpoints of drug actions. The spatial heterogeneity of RSNC/CBF relations encourages further investigation into the role of neuroreceptor distribution and cerebrovascular anatomy in predicting spontaneous fluctuations under drugs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW INDUCED BY COLD, HEAT AND ISCHEMIC PAIN: A CONTINUOUS ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Michael A.; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Ness, Timothy; Deutsch, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of arterial spin labeling methods, has allowed measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantitatively and to show the pattern of cerebral activity associated with any state such as a sustained pain state or changes due to a neurotropic drug. Methods We studied the differential effects of three pain conditions in ten healthy subjects on a 3T scanner during resting baseline, heat, cold and ischemic pain using continuous arterial spin labeling. Results Cold pain showed the greatest absolute rCBF increases in left anterior cingulate cortex, left amygdala, left angular gyrus, and Brodmann Area 6, and a significant rCBF decrease in the cerebellum. Changes in rCBF were characteristic of the type of pain condition: cold and heat pain showed increases, while the ischemic condition showed a reduction in mean absolute gray matter flow compared to rest. An association of subjects’ pain tolerance and cerebral blood flow was noted. Conclusions The observation that quantitative rCBF changes are characteristic of the pain task employed and that there is a consistent rCBF change in Brodman area 6, an area responsible for the integration of a motor response to pain, should provide extremely useful information in the quest to develop an imaging biomarker of pain. Conceivably, response in BA6 may serve as an objective measure of analgesic efficacy. PMID:22913924

  16. Quantitative changes in regional cerebral blood flow induced by cold, heat and ischemic pain: a continuous arterial spin labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Michael A; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Ness, Timothy; Deutsch, Georg

    2012-10-01

    The development of arterial spin labeling methods has allowed measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantitatively and to show the pattern of cerebral activity associated with any state such as a sustained pain state or changes due to a neurotropic drug. The authors studied the differential effects of three pain conditions in 10 healthy subjects on a 3 Tesla scanner during resting baseline, heat, cold, and ischemic pain using continuous arterial spin labeling. Cold pain showed the greatest absolute rCBF increases in left anterior cingulate cortex, left amygdala, left angular gyrus, and Brodmann area 6, and a significant rCBF decrease in the cerebellum. Changes in rCBF were characteristic of the type of pain condition: cold and heat pain showed increases, whereas the ischemic condition showed a reduction in mean absolute gray matter flow compared with rest. An association of subjects' pain tolerance and cerebral blood flow was noted. The observation that quantitative rCBF changes are characteristic of the pain task used and that there is a consistent rCBF change in Brodman area 6, an area responsible for the integration of a motor response to pain, should provide extremely useful information in the quest to develop an imaging biomarker of pain. Conceivably, response in BA6 may serve as an objective measure of analgesic efficacy.

  17. Cerebral blood flow tomography with xenon-133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1985-01-01

    computed tomograph (SPECT) is required. Two brain-dedicated SPECT systems designed for this purpose are mentioned, and the method is described with special reference to the limitations inherent in the soft energy of the 133Xe primary photons. CBF tomography can be used for a multitude of clinical...... of other tracers for CBF tomography using SPECT is summarized with emphasis on the 99mTc chelates that freely pass the intact blood-brain barrier. The highly sensitive brain-dedicated SPECT systems described are a prerequisite for achieving high resolution tomograms with such tracers....

  18. Measurement of mean cerebral blood flow using SPECT and dementia rating scales in the memory clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Shirai, Fumie; Yoshikawa, Ayumi; Gotoh, Chiharu

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the association between mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) values using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and cognitive performance scores of three dementia rating scales (ADAS, MMSE, HDS-R). Mean CBF was measured by the 123 I-IMP-ARG method in a selected group of 51 out-patients aged 41 to 90 years and by the 99m Tc-ECD method in the other group of 57 out-patients aged 51 to 91 years. Simple regressions were calculated for each of the neuropsychological clusters and mCBF values. In 123 I-IMP-ARG-SPECT study, there was a significant correlation between the mCBF values and HDS-R scores (R=0.37, p=0.01). 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT study revealed statistically significant correlations between the mCBF values and ADAS scores (R=-0.48, p 123 I-IMP-ARG-SPECT study and 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT study showed the progressive declines of mCBF with advancing cognitive dysfunctions. Using the cut-off point study (23/24 scores in MMSE and 20/21 scores in HDS-R), we have found that the patients with cognitive dysfunctions had lower mCBF values than the patients with those in each group of aged 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and 80-89 years. However, the difference of mCBF values between the groups with cognitive dysfunctions and without those had decreased gradually with advancing age. The present study suggests that SPECT can provide important functional informations to assess the cognitive impairment in patients with the memory disturbance. (author)

  19. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kohjidai 5-7-1, 651-2273, Nishi-ku, Kobe-City, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, Katsunori [Daiichi Radioisotope Laboratories, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  20. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ryo; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Katsunori; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography ( 99m Tc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, 99m Tc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  1. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance hybrid scanner imaging of cerebral blood flow using 15O-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie B; Henning, William S; Lindberg, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Abnormality in cerebral blood flow (CBF) distribution can lead to hypoxic-ischemic cerebral damage in newborn infants. The aim of the study was to investigate minimally invasive approaches to measure CBF by comparing simultaneous (15)O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and single TI pulsed...

  2. Effects of antipsoriatic treatment on cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis measured by 133Xe washout method and laser Doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Staberg, B.

    1985-01-01

    In 8 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) was measured simultaneously in both involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin before (i.e., on the first day of hospitalization) and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 28th days of treatment with tar. The 133 Xe washout method was used after epicutaneous labeling and compared to the laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal individuals. Before treatment the mean CBF in involved psoriatic skin was 62.6 +/- 18.7 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1, which is significantly higher than CBF of uninvolved skin in psoriatic patients, 9.5 +/- 4.0 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1, (p less than 0.01) and is 13.6 times higher than CBF in the normal individuals (p less than 0.01). Fifty hours following onset of treatment (i.e., after only 2 applications of tar), mean CBF of the involved psoriatic skin had decreased significantly to 35.0 +/- 13.9 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1, (p less than 0.01), which was not statistically different from the CBF on the 7th day. During the following weeks, the CBF in involved psoriatic skin decreased at a more moderate rate than that observed during the first week and was 15.0 +/- 6.1 SD ml X (100 g X min)-1 on the 28th day. This value is not significantly different from the CBF of uninvolved skin in these patients. At the end of treatment, the CBF of the uninvolved skin had decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in all the patients to values similar to those observed in the skin of normal individuals. A parallel decline was observed in a clinical psoriatic score index; however, it is not known whether the observed decrease in CBF was preceded or succeeded by the clinical improvement

  3. Effect of sumatriptan on cerebral blood flow during migraine headache. Measurement by sequential SPECT used 99mTc-ECD background subtraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Torihara, Yoshito; Tsuneyoshi, Noritaka; Ikeda, Yoshitomo

    2001-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of sumatriptan on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during migraine headache. Nine cases were examined by 99m Tc-ECD background subtraction method for the absolute value measurement of regional CBF before and after sumatriptan injection. rCBF except for occipital and perioccipital lobes, were increased 10-20% during migraine headache and significant decreases were observed by sumatriptan injection. Two cases of nine had transiently increased systemic blood pressure and cardiac pulse rate, however, all cases improved migraine headache after injection of sumatriptan. (author)

  4. Effect of sumatriptan on cerebral blood flow during migraine headache. Measurement by sequential SPECT used {sup 99m}Tc-ECD background subtraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Torihara, Yoshito; Tsuneyoshi, Noritaka; Ikeda, Yoshitomo [Miyazaki Social Insurance Hospital (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of sumatriptan on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during migraine headache. Nine cases were examined by {sup 99m}Tc-ECD background subtraction method for the absolute value measurement of regional CBF before and after sumatriptan injection. rCBF except for occipital and perioccipital lobes, were increased 10-20% during migraine headache and significant decreases were observed by sumatriptan injection. Two cases of nine had transiently increased systemic blood pressure and cardiac pulse rate, however, all cases improved migraine headache after injection of sumatriptan. (author)

  5. Cerebral blood flow measurement in patients with impaired consciousness: usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Noji, Masato; Tanabe, Yutaka; Koike, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan); Ikegami, Tadashi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The relationship between impairment of consciousness and quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured by the Patlak-plot method using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET) in patients with the following diseases: cerebral infarction, intraparenchymal haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, brain tumour and cerebral contusion. The clinical symptoms were evaluated according to the severity of impaired consciousness, aphasia and dementia. Four hundred and eighty-five CBF measurements were performed. Patients with alert consciousness showed an age-related decline in mean CBF. Patients with aphasia showed a significant reduction in mean CBF compared with those without aphasia. Impaired consciousness was proportional to reduction in mean CBF regardless of types of pathology, and the size of lesion did not influence the mean CBF. Patients with dementia showed a significant reduction in mean CBF proportional to the severity of dementia. The quantitative measurement of CBF using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET is reliable in clinical evaluations. (orig.) With 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  6. Cerebral blood flow measurement in patients with impaired consciousness: usefulness of 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Noji, Masato; Tanabe, Yutaka; Koike, Y.; Ikegami, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between impairment of consciousness and quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured by the Patlak-plot method using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography ( 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET) in patients with the following diseases: cerebral infarction, intraparenchymal haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, brain tumour and cerebral contusion. The clinical symptoms were evaluated according to the severity of impaired consciousness, aphasia and dementia. Four hundred and eighty-five CBF measurements were performed. Patients with alert consciousness showed an age-related decline in mean CBF. Patients with aphasia showed a significant reduction in mean CBF compared with those without aphasia. Impaired consciousness was proportional to reduction in mean CBF regardless of types of pathology, and the size of lesion did not influence the mean CBF. Patients with dementia showed a significant reduction in mean CBF proportional to the severity of dementia. The quantitative measurement of CBF using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET is reliable in clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  7. Network-wise cerebral blood flow redistribution after 20 Hz rTMS on left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan-Qi; Xie, Jun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Wang, Ze

    2018-04-01

    The repetitive application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been consistently shown to be beneficial for treating various neuropsychiatric or neuropsychological disorders, but its neural mechanisms still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS using cerebral blood flow (CBF) collected from 40 young healthy subjects before and after applying 20 Hz left DLPFC rTMS or SHAM stimulations. Relative CBF (rCBF) changes before and after 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM were assessed with paired-t test. The results show that 20 Hz DLPFC rTMS induced CBF redistribution in the default mode network, including increased rCBF in left medial temporal cortex (MTC)/hippocampus, but reduced rCBF in precuneus and cerebellum. Meanwhile, SHAM stimulation didn't produce any rCBF changes. After controlling SHAM effects, only the rCBF increase in MTC/hippocampus remained. Those data suggest that the beneficial effects of high-frequency rTMS may be through a within-network rCBF redistribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  9. The effect of EC-IC bypass surgery on resting cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve capacity studied with stable Xe-CT and acetazolamide test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Kashiwagi, S.; Nakano, S.; Takasago, T.; Abiko, S.; Shiroyama, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Ito, H. (Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1991-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CRC) were measured by stable xenon computerized tomography (Xe-CT) and acetazolamide test in 15 patients with cerebrovascular disease before and after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery for minor stroke, reversible ischemic neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack. All had angiographically shown occlusive lesions of the major arterial trunk. In the present series, global analysis showed that the bypass did not increase the resting rCBF, but did increase the rCRC. We divided the patients into four groups according to the preoperative resting rCBF and rCRC. All 3 patients with normal resting rCBF and reduced rCRC showed postoperative improvement of rCRC. Of 6 patients with reduced CBF and reduced CRC, three had postoperative increase in resting CBF and four had increased CRC. One of two patients with reduced CBF and normal CRC showed only an increase in CRC. We propose that reduced CRC or reduced CBF with reduced CRC are criteria for selection of candidates for bypass surgery. We conclude that Xe-CT with the Diamox test is a useful and simple method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamics. Preoperative grouping with a combination of preoperative resting rCBF and preoperative rCRC is useful for predicting the effect of EC-IC bypass surgery. (orig.).

  10. Abnormal Resting State Corticolimbic Blood Flow in Depressed Unmedicated Patients With Major Depression: A 15O-H2O PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Monkul, E. Serap; Silva, Leandro A.P.; Narayana, Shalini; Peluso, Marco A.M.; Zamarripa, Frank; Nery, Fabiano G.; Najt, Pablo; Li, John; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.; Lafer, Beny; Soares, Jair C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the differences in the resting state corticolimbic blood flow between 20 unmedicated depressed patients and 21 healthy comparisons. Resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H215O PET. Anatomical MRI scans were performed on an Elscint 1.9 T Prestige system for PET-MRI coregistration. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow indicating neural activity were detected using an ROI-free image subtraction strategy. In addition, the resting blood flow in patients wa...

  11. The cerebral blood flow measurement without absolute input function value for PET O-15 injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tadashige

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the method of the measurement for the region of interest's (ROI's) cerebral blood flow (CBF) using PET data and the input function without the absolute density value of the radio activity. The value of the input function and the output function are fixed from the clinical data by regression analysis. The input function and the output function are transformed by the Fourier transform. The transfer function of the differential equation of the compartment model is got by these Fourier transforms. The CBF can be estimated by the transfer function regression analysis. Results are compared between the proposal and conventional methods. (author)

  12. Chronicity and a low anteroposterior gradient of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with the 133xenon inhalation technique in 27 patients with schizophrenia of less than 5 years' duration and in 27 patients with schizophrenia of more than 12 years' duration, under resting conditions. Similar measurements were also performed in 54 normal control subjects matched for age and sex. Patients with schizophrenia of long duration had lower anteroposterior gradients of CBF than patients with schizophrenia of short duration and matched control subjects. Covarying out age and end-tidal levels of CO2 did not alter the results

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow for singers and nonsingers while speaking, singing, and humming a rote passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two groups of singers (n = 12,13) and a group of nonsingers (n = 12) each produced the national anthem by (1) speaking and (2) singing the words and by (3) humming the melody. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest and during each phonation task from seven areas in each hemisphere by the 133 Xe-inhalation method. Intrahemisphere, interhemisphere, and global rCBF were generally similar across phonation tasks and did not yield appreciable differences among the nonsingers and the singers

  14. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  15. Effect of axillary blockade on regional cerebral blood flow during static handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, D B; Friberg, L; Mitchell, J H

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined at rest and during static handgrip before and after regional blockade with lidocaine. A fast rotating single photon emission computer tomograph system with 133Xe inhalation was used at orbitomeatal plane (OM) +2.5 and +6.5 cm in eight subjects. M...... static handgrip, there was no increase in rCBF after partial sensory and motor blockade. Thus bilateral activation occurs in the premotor and motor sensory cortex during static handgrip, and this activation requires neural feedback from the contracting muscles....

  16. Focal increase of blood flow in the cerebral cortex of man during vestibular stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olsen, T S; Roland, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study is an attempt to reveal projection areas for vestibular afferents to the human brain. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured over 254 cortical regions during caloric vestibular stimulation with warm water (44 degrees C). rCBF was measured when the external auditory...... meatus was irrigated with water at body temperature as a control to vestibular stimulation. During vestibular stimulation there was only a single cortical area, located in the superior temporal region, which showed a consistent focal activation in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated side...... stimulation that gives rise to the associated conscious vestibular sensation of vertigo....

  17. Functioning heterotopic grey matter? Increased blood flow with voluntary movement and sensory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimodozono, M.; Kawahira, K.; Tanaka, N.

    1995-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter has never been reported to have any neuronal function other than as an epileptic focus. However, recent advances in measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral metabolism have enabled us to assess localised function and functional changes of the brain. We saw a patient with cerebral haemorrhage with bilateral heterotopic grey matter. No neurological deficits or seizures were present before the haemorrhage. To establish the function of the heterotopic grey matter, we studied changes in their rCBF during voluntary movement and sensory stimulation of unilateral extremities using xenon-CT (Xe-CT). (orig.)

  18. Focal ischaemia caused by instability of cerebrovascular tone during attacks of hemiplegic migraine. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olsen, T S; Roland, P E

    1987-01-01

    During the course of hemiplegic migraine in 3 patients, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were recorded by the intracarotid 133Xe method and a 254 multidetector camera covering one hemisphere. The rCBF measurements were performed in conjunction with cerebral angiography. During...... the patients developed transient motor and/or sensory deficits and subsequently severe headache. No signs of arterial occlusion were found. In the over and underperfused regions blood flow fluctuated rapidly because of instability of cerebrovascular tone, defined as transient constriction of the smallest...

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: Application to clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, K.F.; Weinberger, D.R.; Morihisa, J.M.; Zec, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    In the following sections, the authors describe aspects of the xenon-133 inhalation technique as it has been modified in their lab, as well as a number of considerations and prerequisites for setting up such a facility. The authors also discuss the processes by which they technically and clinically validated the methods used. Several case studies follow along with descriptions of the approaches they are taking in investigating psychiatric illnesses with rCBF. Since the concept of a relation between brain functional activity, metabolism, and blood flow has a long history, both in theory and in practice, they first briefly review some of this history and some of the principles involved

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow in epileptic foci using [I-123] IMP-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tohru

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-six epileptic patients, whose ages ranged from 6 months to 16 years (a mean age, 8 years and 2 months), were examined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [I-123] N-isopropyl p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). Of these patients, 44 had partial seizures (PS) and 12 had generalized seizures (GS). SPECT revealed abnormality of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 24 PS patients (54.5%), being correlated with EEG abnormality. Among the 24 patients, 22 had a decreased rCBF and 2 others had an increased rCBF. According to the PS type, rCBF abnormality in the foci was less frequently observed for benign age-related partial epilepsy (2/9) than for the other types of partial epilepsy (22/35). Among 35 patients with the other types of partial epilepsy, SPECT showed foci in the frontal (12), central (3), parietal (4), temporal (6), and occipital (6) regions, and diffuse spike-wave or the lack of paroaxysmals (4). The EEG foci was of the left hemisphere in 12 patients, and of the right hemisphere in 18 patients. Higher incidence of rCBF abnormality was associated with the temporal, partietal, and frontal foci than with the occipital foci. There was no correlation between the incidence of rCBF abnormlaity and the frequency of seizure activities on EEG. Complex partial seizures had a tendency to be associated with rCBF abnormality. In comparing IMP uptake in evaluable 17 patients with a decreased rCBF, a mean %CBF in foci compared to that in the contralateral area was 91.9%. All of the 12 GS patients showed no focal reduction of rCBF around the cortex. Patients with tonic-clonic seizure and myoclonic seizure had almost normal IMP images. The IMP images of organic lesions were a marked reduction of rCBF. IMP-SPECT may also be suitable for evaluating the underlying organic and secondary involving disorders with epilepsy. (N.K.)

  1. Quantification of cerebral blood flow and its clinical usefulness. Application of SPECT to psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uema, Takeshi; Kogure, Daisuke; Takano, Harumasa; Terada, Tomo [National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) was applied to psychiatric diseases with aid of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for analysis of data. To evaluate influence of aging on brain perfusion, noninvasive measurements of cerebral blood flow using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD were performed in 53 normal volunteers, aged 18 to 87 years old. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was 43.9{+-}5.0 ml/100 g/min and showed weak negative correlation with aging (r=-0.451). Perisylvian cerebral cortices and medial frontal areas including anterior cingulate gyri showed greater negative correlation than other areas. These findings suggest the necessity of age-matched control regional CBF (rCBF) data to investigate rCBF abnormality in patients. Four drug-naive schizophrenic patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and superior temporal areas and a left infero-posterior temporal area. Haloperidol administration induced flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left parietal areas, while flow increase in bilateral striatal and right hippocampal areas. Ten aged depressive patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left temporo-parietal areas. Even after remission patients showed flow decrease in the left frontal area as compared with normal subjects. Remission induced flow increase in the right frontal, right parietal, and right orbitofrontal areas compared with depression. These results suggest that CBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD are useful for objective evaluation of regional abnormality in brain function in psychiatric diseases. (author)

  2. Balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery with stable xenon/CT cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erba, S.M.; Horton, J.A.; Latchaw, R.E.; Yonas, H.; Sekhar, L.; Schramm, V.; Pentheny, S.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a technique to predict preoperatively the safety of permanently occluding an internal carotid artery. The method was performed by imaging stable xenon cerebral blood flow (CBF) with the internal carotid artery both open and temporarily occluded with a nondetachable balloon on a double lumen Swan-Ganz catheter. Patients were those in whom we planned to sacrifice the internal carotid artery (those with giant or inaccessible aneurysms) or those in whom such a sacrifice was at least likely (those with skull base tumors). Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of a comparison of occluded and nonoccluded CBF values. Group-I patients had no significant change in CBF with internal carotid artery occlusion; group-II patients showed a symmetric decrease in CBF; and group-III patients had an asymmetric decrease in CBF, always greater on the occluded side. A fourth group clinically failed to tolerate even brief carotid occlusion. The internal carotid artery in one patients from group III was sacrificed at surgery: the size and shape of his postoperative infarct corresponded almost exactly to the area of asymmetrically decreased CBF on his occluded study. The data suggest that if surgery is likely to result in permanent occlusion of the internal carotid artery, then patients who are at risk for delayed neurologic injury due to a compromised cerebral blood flow should have arterial bypass grafts before such surgery is performed

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in normal pressure hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1989-05-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the authors measured cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen metabolic rates (CMRO{sub 2}), the cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in eight normal volunteers, six SAH patients with NPH, and seven patients without NPH by {sup 15}O-labeled gas and positron emission tomography (PET). In the NPH group, PET revealed a decrease in CBF in the lower regions of the cerebral cortex and a diffuse decrease in CMRO{sub 2}. The decrease in CBF in the lower frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices was significantly greater in the NPH than in the non-NPH group. Reduction of CMRO{sub 2} was also more extensive in the NPH group, and both CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were more markedly decreased in the lower frontal region. OEF was increased in all areas in both of the patient groups, but the increase was not significant in most areas. CBF, CMRO{sub 2} and OEF did not significantly differ between the non-NPH group and the normal volunteers. There was no significant difference in CBV among the three groups. These results indicate that NPH involves impairment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the lower regions of the cerebral cortex, particularly in the lower frontal region. (author).

  4. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Mølby Henriksen

    Full Text Available Although dementia is associated with both global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF changes, little is known about cerebral perfusion in the early pre-clinical stages of cognitive decline preceding overt cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF.The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94 and poorer (Group B, n = 95 on cognitive testing at age 57 than expected from testing at age 20. Participants underwent supplementary cognitive testing, blood sampling and MRI including measurements of regional and global CBF.Regional CBF was lower in group B than in group A in the posterior cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. The associations were attenuated when corrected for global atrophy, but remained significant in regions of interest based analysis adjusting for regional gray matter volume and vascular risk factors. No influence of group on global CBF was observed.We conclude that early sub-clinical cognitive decline is associated with reduced perfusion in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus independently of regional atrophy and vascular risk factors, but cannot be statistically separated from an association with global atrophy.

  5. What does rCBF-SPECT offer in schizophrenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, G.M.S.; Barrett, J.J.; Toone, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric problem common in the younger population. Structural imaging and findings on autopsy have not yet revealed a specific deficit in these patients. Uncertainty in clinical diagnosis based on a set of signs and symptoms is another drawback in the management of this patient population. Regional cerebral blood flow studies (rCBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers the opportunity to study the underlying phenomenon and to detect the specific functional deficits in schizophrenia. (Author)

  6. Reduction in mean cerebral blood flow measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD-SPECT during normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Shirai, Fumie; Hara, Shigeru [Narita Memorial Hospital, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured by SPECT using the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD-Patlak-Plot method in a selected group of 61 normal non-hospitalized subjects aged 51 to 91 years. The mCBF values showed 48.4{+-}4.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 50-59 years group, 49.9{+-}5.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 60-69 years group, 46.4 {+-}6.5 ml/100 g/min in aged 70-79 group, 38.0{+-}3.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 80-89 years group, 38.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 90-99 years group. There was a statistically significant reduction of mCBF with advancing age (R=-0.41; p=0.001). Women have significantly higher mCBF values than men up to aged 70 years group. In this study, there was no significant laterality in the mCBF between right and left hemispheres in all decade groups. The history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking failed to show significant difference in the mCBF values. The present study shows that normal aging is associated with mCBF reduction. (author)

  7. Asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type by SPECT using I-123 IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Hisayuki; Hanyu, Haruo; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Hatano, Nobuyoshi; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takanari; Amino, Saburo [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1990-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine in 22 patients with clinically diagnosed senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and in 18 age matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of rCBF for matched right-left regions of interest. rCBF of parietal lobe in SDAT patients was significantly most laterally asymmetrycal, but the least in occipital lobe. Lateral asymmetry of rCBF in SDAT patients correlated with asymmetry of language and visuospatial functions; decreased rCBF in the left parietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right parietal lobe, with viduospatial dysfunction. Furthermore cerebellar AIs correlated negatively with those of the cerebral hemisphere and lower frontal region in SDAT patients. The results demonstrate that rCBF measurement by {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT is useful to detect lateral asymmetry in reduction of rCBF in SDAT. (author).

  8. Reduction in mean cerebral blood flow measurements using 99mTc-ECD-SPECT during normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Nobuya; Daitoh, Nobuyuki; Shirai, Fumie; Hara, Shigeru

    1997-01-01

    Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured by SPECT using the 99m Tc-ECD-Patlak-Plot method in a selected group of 61 normal non-hospitalized subjects aged 51 to 91 years. The mCBF values showed 48.4±4.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 50-59 years group, 49.9±5.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 60-69 years group, 46.4 ±6.5 ml/100 g/min in aged 70-79 group, 38.0±3.7 ml/100 g/min in aged 80-89 years group, 38.9 ml/100 g/min in aged 90-99 years group. There was a statistically significant reduction of mCBF with advancing age (R=-0.41; p=0.001). Women have significantly higher mCBF values than men up to aged 70 years group. In this study, there was no significant laterality in the mCBF between right and left hemispheres in all decade groups. The history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking failed to show significant difference in the mCBF values. The present study shows that normal aging is associated with mCBF reduction. (author)

  9. Asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type by SPECT using I-123 IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hisayuki; Hanyu, Haruo; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Hatano, Nobuyoshi; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takanari; Amino, Saburo

    1990-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine in 22 patients with clinically diagnosed senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and in 18 age matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of rCBF for matched right-left regions of interest. rCBF of parietal lobe in SDAT patients was significantly most laterally asymmetrycal, but the least in occipital lobe. Lateral asymmetry of rCBF in SDAT patients correlated with asymmetry of language and visuospatial functions; decreased rCBF in the left parietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right parietal lobe, with viduospatial dysfunction. Furthermore cerebellar AIs correlated negatively with those of the cerebral hemisphere and lower frontal region in SDAT patients. The results demonstrate that rCBF measurement by 123 I-IMP SPECT is useful to detect lateral asymmetry in reduction of rCBF in SDAT. (author)

  10. The usefulness of CBF brain SPECT in forensic medicine: the civil law codes cases. A description of four cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunowicz, M.; Lass, P.; Bandurski, T.; Krzyzanowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this report was to assess the usefulness of cerebral blood flow (CBF) scanning utilising the SPECT technique in forensic medicine cases in the area of civil law cases. CBF SPECT scanning was performed in four patients utilising 99m Tc-ECD and a triple-head gammacamera. In the analysis both the asymmetry index and cerebellar normalisation were applied. Reference values were obtained by studying 30 healthy volunteers. In those cases CBF SPECT scanning played an important role in forensic argument. It influenced the sentence and the amount of financial compensation. CBF SPECT scanning may provide valuable information in forensic medicine argument in civil law cases, but only when taken together with psychometric tests and other neuroimaging methods (CT, MRI). The value of CBF SPECT scanning alone may be limited in judicial proceedings. (author)

  11. Measurement of local blood flow and oxygen consumption in evolving irreversible cerebral infarction: an in vivo study in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.; Rougemont, D.; Lebrun-Grandie, P.; Bousser, M.G.; Cabanis, E.; Bories, J.; Comar, D.; Castaigne, P.

    1982-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo measurement of local cerebral blood flow (1CBF), oxygen consumption rate (1CMRO 2 ) and glucose utilisation (1CMRG1c) in man. Although 1CMRG1c is accessible in animals, this is not the case for 1CMRO 2 , an excellent index of local functional state. PET imaging of the local interrelationship of CBF and metabolism in completed ischemic stroke has attracted considerable interest because of its potential to differentiate irreversibly damaged from viable tissue on the basis of the CBF- metabolism patterns. Several qualitative or semi-quantitative pioneering studies provided a limited insight into this question, while the single truly quantitative study was only briefly reported. We report here a detailed study of the local CBF-CMRO 2 quantitative patterns in irreversibly infarcted brain regions

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow and the effects of nicardipine, a new cerebral vasodilator, in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Katsuhiro; Motomura, Naoyasu; Murata, Koen; Sakai, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Michio; Tsutsumi, Shigetoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined by 133 Xe inhalation method in 22 neuropsychiatric patients with an average age of 65.8 years -- 14 patients having cerebrovascular disturbance (Group 1) and 8 patients having endogenous or organic psychosis or neurological lesions (Group 2). Furthermore, nicardipine was orally administered to the patients and its effects on rCBF and on neuropsychiatric symptoms were examined. Regarding the mean and abnormal decrease of rCBF in the bilateral hemispheres and the frequency of ischemic foci, there was no significant difference between the groups. However, regional ischemic focus was more frequently observed in Group 1 than in Group 2. Long-term serial administration of nicardipine increased the rCBF and improved psychiatric symptoms in some of the patients in Group 1. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Redistribution of Cerebral Blood Flow during Severe Hypovolemia and Reperfusion in a Sheep Model: Critical Role of α1-Adrenergic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schiffner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintenance of brain circulation during shock is sufficient to prevent subcortical injury but the cerebral cortex is not spared. This suggests area-specific regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF during hemorrhage. Methods: Cortical and subcortical CBF were continuously measured during blood loss (≤50% and subsequent reperfusion using laser Doppler flowmetry. Blood gases, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, heart rate and renal blood flow were also monitored. Urapidil was used for α1A-adrenergic receptor blockade in dosages, which did not modify the MABP-response to blood loss. Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were used to determine adrenergic receptor expression in brain arterioles. Results: During hypovolemia subcortical CBF was maintained at 81 ± 6% of baseline, whereas cortical CBF decreased to 40 ± 4% (p < 0.001. Reperfusion led to peak CBFs of about 70% above baseline in both brain regions. α1A-Adrenergic blockade massively reduced subcortical CBF during hemorrhage and reperfusion, and prevented hyperperfusion during reperfusion in the cortex. α1A-mRNA expression was significantly higher in the cortex, whereas α1D-mRNA expression was higher in the subcortex (p < 0.001. Conclusions: α1-Adrenergic receptors are critical for perfusion redistribution: activity of the α1A-receptor subtype is a prerequisite for redistribution of CBF, whereas the α1D-receptor subtype may determine the magnitude of redistribution responses.

  14. Cerebral blood flow abnormalities induced by transient hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy. Analysis by Tc-99m-HMPAO and SPM96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nishii, Ryuichi; Ishida, Yasushi; Fujita, Seigo; Futami, Shigemi; Kodama, Takao; Tamura, Shozo; Kawai, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    The current study is an investigation of alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in patients with transient hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy. In addition, the effects of thyroxine treatment on rCBF changes were studied. Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were performed on 24 post-thyroidectomy patients who were in a hypothyroidic state. The measurements were conducted before 131 I therapy and after thyroid hormone (thyroxine) replacement. We used adjusted rCBF images (normalization of global CBF for each subject to 50 ml/100 g/min with proportional scaling) to compare these data with age-matched normal control groups (n=15) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96. We also compared the absolute rCBF value of hypothyroidic patients with those of normal control groups. In addition, the association between rCBF alteration and the severity of depression was also analyzed. Finally, the effect of thyroid hormone replacement on rCBF was investigated individually using the Jack-knife test, in which patient data were compared with those from healthy volunteers. According to the result of this test, all cases were categorized into three subgroups, namely, improved, unchanged group and normal. To prove the reversibility of rCBF alteration after thyroid hormone replacement, a group comparison test between the normal controls and the improved group was done before and after thyroid hormone replacement. Similarly a group comparison test between the unchanged group and normal controls was also performed. In the hypothyroidic condition, there was a significant decrease in the posterior part of the bilateral parietal lobes and in part of the bilateral occipital lobes, including the cuneus. These decreased rCBF areas extended to the bilateral prefrontal cortices as deterioration became more profound. On individual analysis, 16 of 24 patients (66.7%) demonstrated rCBF reduction, while 8 patient did not show significant rCBF change

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechevalier, B.; Petit, M.C.; Eustache, F.; Lambert, J.; Chapon, F.; Viader, F.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation

  16. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Prediction Based on Continuous Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Tewolde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the third most common neurological illness, affecting 1% of the world’s population. Despite advances in medicine, about 25 to 30% of the patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate the severe side effects of medical treatment, and surgery is not an option for the majority of patients with epilepsy. The objective of this article is to review the current state of research on seizure detection based on cerebral blood flow (CBF data acquired by thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF, and CBF-based seizure prediction. A discussion is provided on the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of TDF in detecting and localizing seizure foci, as well as its role in seizure prediction. Also presented are an overview of the present challenges and possible future research directions (along with methodological guidelines of the CBF-based seizure detection and prediction methods.

  17. Stable xenon CT measurement of cerebral blood flow in cardiac transplantation candidates: Correlation with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, J.A.; Fink, M.E.; Hilal, S.K.; Rose, E.A.; Reemtsma, K.

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen consecutive unselected patients with NYHA class 4 cardiac failure referred for cardiac transplantation underwent neurologic examination and cerebral blood flow measurement (rCBF) using the stable xenon enhanced CT method on a GE9800 system. Eleven men and two women were studied (mean age = 43.8 +- 6.1). On neurological examination, six of the patients demonstrated normal mental function; the remaining seven patients demonstrated memory, language, or learning impairment. There was no difference in mean cardiac output between the groups (4.9 L/min +- 1.68 vs. 4.2L/min +- 1.57). rCBF was significantly reduced in the impaired group. Cognitive impairment in patients with cardiac failure can be correlated with cerebral ischemia. Stable xenon CT measurement of rCBF in transplant candidates may help identify patients requiring more rapid transplantation to prevent permanent cerebral injury

  18. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip......-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during exercise. Adrenaline appears to accelerate cerebral glycolysis through a beta2-adrenergic receptor mechanism since noradrenaline is without such an effect. In addition, the exercise-induced cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake is blocked by combined beta 1/2-adrenergic blockade...

  19. Impaired cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during exercise in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial vascular function and capacity to increase cardiac output during exercise are impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We tested the hypothesis that the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during exercise is also blunted and, therefore, that cerebral oxygenation becomes...... affected and perceived exertion increased in T2DM patients. We quantified cerebrovascular besides systemic hemodynamic responses to incremental ergometer cycling exercise in eight male T2DM and seven control subjects. CBF was assessed from the Fick equation and by transcranial Doppler-determined middle...... at higher workloads in T2DM patients and their work capacity and increase in cardiac output were only ~80% of that established in the control subjects. CBF and cerebral oxygenation were reduced during exercise in T2DM patients (P

  20. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    chain reaction was used to determine the mRNA levels for ET(A), ET(B), and 5-HT(1) receptors. Regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) were quantified by means of an autoradiographic technique. RESULTS: Compared with the sham condition, both SAH and saline injection resulted in significantly...

  1. Apparent CBF decrease with normal aging due to partial volume effects: MR-based partial volume correction on CBF SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Tachio; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    Several studies using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have shown changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age, which were associated with partial volume effects by some authors. Some studies have also demonstrated gender-related differences in CBF. The present study aimed to examine age and gender effects on CBF SPECT images obtained using the 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer and a SPECT scanner, before and after partial volume correction (PVC) using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Forty-four healthy subjects (29 males and 15 females; age range, 27-64 y; mean age, 50.0 +/- 9.8 y) participated. Each MR image was segmented to yield grey and white matter images and coregistered to a corresponding SPECT image, followed by convolution to approximate the SPECT spatial resolution. PVC-SPECT images were produced using the convoluted grey matter MR (GM-MR) and white matter MR images. The age and gender effects were assessed using SPM99. Decreases with age were detected in the anterolateral prefrontal cortex and in areas along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, bilaterally, in the GM-MR images and the SPECT images. In the PVC-SPECT images, decreases in CBF in the lateral prefrontal cortex lost their statistical significance. Decreases in CBF with age found along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, on the other hand, remained statistically significant, but observation of the spatially normalized MR images suggests that these findings are associated with the dilatation of the lateral sulcus and lateral ventricle, which was not completely compensated for by the spatial normalization procedure. Our present study demonstrated that age effects on CBF in healthy subjects could reflect morphological differences with age in grey matter.

  2. The significance of CBF measurements for precise management of carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Usui, Reiko; Takeda, Rihei; Nakamura, Hirohiko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Severe hemodynamic cerebral ischemia associated with carotid stenosis could be one of the difining characteristics of the high-risk group for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity in patients treated with CEA were analyzed to clarify the significance of preoperative evaluation of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia using CBF-SPECT. Both the resting and acetazolamide-activated rCBF, and the severity of the hemodynamic cerebral ischemia (Stage 0-II) were quantified using the {sup 123}I-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics were compared in both symptomatic patients (n=30) and asymptomatic patients (n=24). Postoperative improvement of resting rCBF was estimated in both groups. Stage II ischemia was quantitatively defined as both a resting rCBF of less than 80% of normal mean CBF and a vascular reserve (VR: (acetazolamide-activated rCBF/Resting rCBF-1) x 100%) of less than 10%. In the other 31 patients treated with CEA, postoperative hyperperfusion was investigated using CBF-SPECT within 24 hours after CEA. Preoperatively, Stage II ischemia (hemodynamically compromised state) was observed in 20% of symptomatic patients and 8% of asymptomatic patients. A significant difference in resting rCBF was indicated between symptomatic patients (31.8{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min) and asymptomatic patients (37.6{+-}6.6 ml/100 g/min)(p<0.002, t-test). Severity of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia was generally moderate in symptomatic patients. Postoperatively, a significant increase of resting CBF was observed in symptomatic patients but not in asymptomatic patients. In the other 31 patients treated by CEA, symptomatic hyperperfusion was observed in 3 of 4 patients with Stage II ischemia and asymptomatic hyperperfusion was indicated in 3 of 4 patients with Stage I ischemia with a VR of less than 10%. Preoperative CBF measurements in patients treated with CEA were significant to define severe hemodynamic

  3. Effect of dialysis on cerebral blood flow in depressive end-stage renal disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun-Yeol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang-Heon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with depressive symptoms during dialysis. Fourteen patients with ESRD underwent Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and were evaluated the severity of depressive mood at pre-dialytic period and at least 6 months after dialysis initiation. rCBF was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in brain SPECT image. The responder was defined as a decrease of ≥25% in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score from baseline HDRS score. Pre-dialysis brain SPECT did not show any rCBF differences between responders and non-responders. The follow-up brain SPECT revealed a significant higher perfusion in left middle temporal gyrus of responder group when compared with non-responder (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -58, -2, -16, peak Z=3.36, p=0.046). In responder, a significant increase in rCBF was found in right parahippocampal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 30, -40, -14, peak Z=3.51, p=0.043). In non-responder, there were significant decreases in rCBF in left superior frontal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -22, 30, 42, peak Z=3.86, p=0.032) and right orbitofrontal cortex (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 10, 58, -6, peak Z=3.81, p=0.046). The present findings showed the characteristic patterns of rCBF changes in depressive ESRD patients having maintenance dialysis. Further investigations in brain blood flow and glucose metabolism are needed to elucidate the effect of dialysis itself and the difference of according to dialysis modality in patients having depression and ESRD. (author)

  4. Local CBF, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and CMRO/sub 2/: prognostic value in recent supratentorial infarction in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J C; Rougemont, D; Bousser, M G; Lebrun-Grandie, P; Iba-Zizen, M T; Chiras, J

    1983-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) have been measured locally using positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 patients (34 studies) with recent cerebral infarction. The data analysis yielded threshold values for CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ that reliably separated the brain areas spontaneously evolving to necrosis from those maintaining integrity (as determined by C.T. Scanning) but still showing significant changes in CBF and/or CMRO/sub 2/. These results suggest the potential use of PET for estimation of tissue prognosis in recent cerebral infarction.

  5. Relationship of cerebral blood flow to aortic-to-pulmonary collateral/shunt flow in single ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Wilson, Felice; Pawlowski, Tom; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Diaz Berenstein, Laura; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Clancy, Robert; Elci, Okan; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Patients with single ventricle can develop aortic-to-pulmonary collaterals (APCs). Along with systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, these structures represent a direct pathway from systemic to pulmonary circulations, and may limit cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated the relationship between CBF and APC flow on room air and in hypercarbia, which increases CBF in patients with single ventricle. 106 consecutive patients with single ventricle underwent 118 cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in this cross-sectional study; 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (0.50±0.30 years old), 50 prior to Fontan (3.19±1.03 years old) and 34 3-9 months after Fontan (3.98±1.39 years old). Velocity mapping measured flows in the aorta, cavae and jugular veins. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used. Significance was pflow or body surface area, independent of age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, Po2 and Pco2 (R=-0.67--0.70 for all patients on room air, pflow was higher prior to BDG than in other stages. There is a strong inverse relationship between CBF and APC/shunt flow in patients with single ventricle throughout surgical reconstruction on room air and in hypercarbia independent of other factors. We speculate that APC/shunt flow may have a negative impact on cerebral development and neurodevelopmental outcome. Interventions on APC may modify CBF, holding out the prospect for improving neurodevelopmental trajectory. NCT02135081. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Correction for Delay and Dispersion Results in More Accurate Cerebral Blood Flow Ischemic Core Measurement in Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Longting; Bivard, Andrew; Kleinig, Timothy; Spratt, Neil J; Levi, Christopher R; Yang, Qing; Parsons, Mark W

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess how the ischemic core measured by perfusion computed tomography (CTP) was affected by the delay and dispersion effect. Ischemic stroke patients having CTP performed within 6 hours of onset were included. The CTP data were processed twice, generating standard cerebral blood flow (sCBF) and delay- and dispersion-corrected CBF (ddCBF), respectively. Ischemic core measured by the sCBF and ddCBF was then compared at the relative threshold core were used: acute diffusion-weighted imaging or 24-hour diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with complete recanalization. Difference of core volume between CTP and diffusion-weighted imaging was estimated by Mann-Whitney U test and limits of agreement. Patients were also classified into favorable and unfavorable CTP patterns. The imaging pattern classification by sCBF and ddCBF was compared by the χ 2 test; their respective ability to predict good clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale score) was tested in logistic regression. Fifty-five patients were included in this study. Median sCBF ischemic core volume was 38.5 mL (12.4-61.9 mL), much larger than the median core volume of 17.2 mL measured by ddCBF (interquartile range, 5.5-38.8; P core much closer to diffusion-weighted imaging core references, with the mean volume difference of -0.1 mL (95% limits of agreement, -25.4 to 25.2; P =0.97) and 16.7 mL (95% limits of agreement, -21.7 to 55.2; P core measurement on CTP. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission computed tomography in cases of internal carotid artery occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunada, Ichiro [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1989-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with {sup 133}xenon inhalation and single photon emission computed tomography in 33 cases of internal carotid artery occlusion, in the resting state and 25 minutes after acetazolamide administration. The patient population consisted of 24 males and nine females with a mean age of 57 years, who presented with transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase, and CBF increases as a result of dilatation of cerebral arteries due to CO{sub 2} accumulation. The mean CBF was 46 ml/100 g/min on the affected hemisphere and 56 ml/100 g/min on the unaffected hemisphere. The mean CBF value obtained by the same method in 10 normal volunteers was 55 ml/100 g/min. The average increase in CBF after acetazolamide administration was 9% on the affected side and 17% on the unaffected side. The average increase in 10 normal volunteers was 32%. The reduced cerebral arterial reactivity to acetazolamide administration was bilateral in the patient group, suggesting that the cerebral arteries were dilated so as to maintain normal CBF. Extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery was performed in nine patients. Preoperatively, the mean CBF was 48 ml/100 g/min on the affected side and 57 ml/100 g/min on the unaffected side. With postoperative acetazolamide administration, the percent increase in CBF rose from 13% to 22% on the affected side and from 17% to 23% on the unaffected side. The bilateral change toward normal in cerebral arterial reactivity to acetazolamide indicates that the dilated cerebral arteries returned to normal after EC-IC bypass surgery. This suggests that bypass surgery is effective in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion in whom ischemia is caused only by hemodynamic factors, and that measurement of CBF via acetazolamide loading is useful in identifying appropriate candidates for bypass surgery.

  8. Evaluation of technetium-99m exametazime stabilised with cobalt chloride as a blood flow tracer in focal cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartshore, G [Wellcome Surgical Inst. and Hugh Fraser Neuroscience Labs., Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom); Bannan, P [Wellcome Surgical Inst. and Hugh Fraser Neuroscience Labs., Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom); Patterson, J [Wellcome Surgical Inst. and Hugh Fraser Neuroscience Labs., Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom); Higley, B [Wellcome Surgical Inst. and Hugh Fraser Neuroscience Labs., Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom); McCulloch, J [Wellcome Surgical Inst. and Hugh Fraser Neuroscience Labs., Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    A protocol has been devised to effectively extend the limited post-reconstitution shelf life of technetium-99m exametazime as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging cerebral blood flow (CBF) distribution. The potential of [sup 99m]Tc-exametazime stabilised with cobalt chloride for imaging CBF distribution as late as 4 h after reconstitution has been examined in ischaemic and non-ischaemic tissue in halothane-anaesthetised cats. Focal cerebral ischaemia was produced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The relationship between [sup 99m]Tc-exametazime uptake and retention and CBF (assessed with [[sup 14]C]iodoantipyrine 10 min after first radiopharmaceutical administration) was determined in the same tissue section with double label autoradiography. Over the CBF range 0 - 80 ml 100 g[sup -1] min[sup -1], the uptake of [sup 99m]Tc-exametazime (quantitatively and topographically) was linearly related to CBF irrespective of whether the [sup 99m]Tc-labelled tracer was unstabilised (and administered within 10 min of reconstitution) or was stabilised with cobalt chloride (and administered up to 240 min after reconstitution). For levels of CBF in excess of 80 ml 100 g[sup -1] min[sup -1] the excellent topographical relationship between [sup 99m]Tc-exametazime distribution and CBF is maintained but quantitatively, [sup 99m]Tc-exametazime underestimates CBF to a similar degree in animals receiving stabilised and unstabilised [sup 99m]Tc-exametazime. The presence of the stabiliser, cobalt chloride, extends greatly the period over which [sup 99m]Tc-exametazime can be used after reconstitution to generate images of CBF distribution in normal and ischaemic cerebral tissue. (orig.)

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow pattern in normal young and aged volunteers: a 99mTc-HMPAO SPET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catafau, A.M.; Lomena, J.; Pavia, J.; Parellada, E.; Bernardo, M.; Setoain, J.; Tolosa, E.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal pattern of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal young and aged volunteers using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m -Tc-HMPAO) as a tracer. The region brain perfusion of young and aged subjects was compared, especially regarding rCBF differences due to age and gender, and interhemispheric rCBF asymmetries. Sixty-eight right-handed normal volunteers -40 young (mean age 29.5±6.3 years) and 28 aged (mean age 71.2±4.3 years) - were included in the study. rCBF was estimated on the basis of a semiquantitative approach by means of a left-right index and two region/reference ratios, using the cerebellum and the whole brain activity as references. A good correlation between these two region/reference ratios was found (P<0.005 in all cerebral regions). The highest rCBF ratios corresponded to the cerebellum, followed by the occipital lobe. The remaining cortical regions (temporal, parietal, frontal and basal ganglia) showed slightly lower values. The white matter showed rCBF ratios substantially lower than the grey matter. In neighter young nor aged subjects were significant rCBF differences between the genders found in any of the two region/reference indices employed. Aged sugjects showed significantly lower rCBF ratios than young subjects in the left frontal lobe and in the posterior region of the left temporal lobe. In both young and aged subjects, lower perfusion was found in the left hemisphere, except for the white matter region in both age groups and the frontal lobe in the young subjects. Aged subjects presented a slightly higher interhemispheric asymmetry in the frontal lobe. However, interhemispheric asymmetry was minimal (-1.01% to 3.14%). Consequently, a symmetrical rCBF distribution can be assumed between homologous regions, independent of age. (orig.)

  10. First Episode Schizophrenia Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Assessment after Atypical Antipsychotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbu, A.; Mititelu, R.; Marinescu, G.; Ghita, S.; Mazilu, C.; Codorean, I.; Gheorghe, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Since regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings in schizophrenic patients are inconsistent, the aim of our study was to evaluate and compare rCBF in the first episode of schizophrenia, before and after atypical antipsychotic treatment. Method: 21 patients who met criteria for schizophrenia were assessed PANSS score and tomographic brain perfusion (SPECT). The treatment was administered for 10-12 weeks and the dose was 4.8mg/day Risperidone, 11.6mg/day Olanzepine, 440mg/day Quetiapine. After finishing treatment all patients underwent a control SPECT study. Results: PANSS scores revealed two groups: group A-14 patients with predominant positive symptoms; 9 received Olanzapine and 5 Quetiapine. In group B -7 patients with predominant negative symptoms received Risperidone. Positive symptoms were associated with hypoperfusion in posterior parietal regions and superior temporal gyrus, bilaterally; for negative symptoms we found hypoperfusion in prefrontal cortex, predominantly in left side and a hyper perfusion in left basal ganglia. All patients that received atypical antipsychotic drugs had clinical improvement and decreases in PANSS scores; the control SPECT analysis revealed the same cortical changes as first studies in 15 patients and an increase of the rCBF in frontal lobes for 4 patients. 14 patients we noticed an increased rCBF at subcortical level, especially in left caudate nuclei. Conclusions: We found nonspecific features of rCBF in patients with first episode of schizophrenia, suggesting a perfusion dynamic balance rather than a fixed model. Those aspects are much more related to clinical symptoms, than to the therapeutical response. The rCBF changes in subcortical level after treatment (64.4% increase of rCBF; 35.6% not modified), can have a good prognostic value for therapeutic response. (author)

  11. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kenji; Matsushima, Eisuke; Okubo, Yoshiro; Ohta, Katsuya; Murata, Yuji; Koike, Ryuji; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kato, Motoichiro

    2005-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have demonstrated decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, no study has done voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) that can evaluate rCBF objectively, and the relationship between rCBF and psychiatric symptoms has not been well investigated. Using L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc ECD) SPECT and SPM, we aimed to clarify the association of rCBF changes with psychiatric symptoms in SLE patients whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no morphological abnormalities. Twenty SLE patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc ECD SPECT. Data were collected from August 2000 to March 2003. SLE was diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, and psychiatric symptoms were diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. On the basis of the modified Carbotte, Denburg, and Denburg method, the patients were classified into 3 groups: a group with major psychiatric symptoms (hallucinosis, delusional disorder, and mood disorder), a group with minor psychiatric symptoms (anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, and emotionally labile disorder), and a group without psychiatric symptoms. Gross organic lesions were ruled out by brain MRI. Group comparisons of rCBF were performed with analysis using SPM99. SLE patients without MRI lesions showed decreased rCBF in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus. The reduction in rCBF was overt in patients with major psychiatric symptoms. Our study indicated that SLE patients may have dysfunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus and that this may be associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms.

  12. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  13. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Nagata, Ken

    1998-01-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  14. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO{sub 2} response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO{sub 2} reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  15. Cerebral Blood Flow Responses to Aquatic Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Rhodri; Hensman, Marianne Y; Lucas, Samuel J E

    2017-07-01

    Aquatic treadmills are used as a rehabilitation method for conditions such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis, and stroke, and can facilitate an earlier return to exercise training for athletes. However, their effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses has not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic treadmill exercise would augment CBF and lower HR compared with land-based treadmill exercise. Eleven participants completed incremental exercise (crossover design) starting from walking pace (4 km·h, immersed to iliac crest [aquatic], 6 km·h [land]) and increasing 1 km·h every 2 min up to 10 km·h for aquatic (maximum belt speed) or 12 km·h for land. After this, participants completed two 2-min bouts of exercise immersed to midthigh and midchest at constant submaximal speed (aquatic), or were ramped to exhaustion (land; increased gradient 2° every min). Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and HR were measured throughout, and the initial 10 min of each protocol and responses at each immersion level were compared. Compared with land-based treadmill, MCAvmean increased more from baseline for aquatic exercise (21% vs 12%, P aquatic walking compared with land-based moderate intensity running (~10 cm·s, P = 0.56). Greater water immersion lowered HR (139 vs 178 bpm for midchest vs midthigh), whereas MCAvmean remained constant (P = 0.37). Findings illustrate the potential for aquatic treadmill exercise to enhance exercise-induced elevations in CBF and thus optimize shear stress-mediated adaptation of the cerebrovasculature.

  16. Global cerebral blood flow changes measured by brain perfusion SPECT immediately after whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtawa, Nobuyuki; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Hosono, Makoto; Takahashi, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is still a major treatment option for patients with metastatic brain tumor despite recent advances in chemotherapy and newer techniques of radiation therapy. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) of changes induced by whole brain radiation is not fully investigated, and the aim of the study was to measure CBF changes non-invasively with brain perfusion SPECT to correlate with treatment effect or prognosis. Total of 106 patients underwent WBI during April 1998 to March 2002. Both brain MRI and brain perfusion SPECT could be performed before (less than 1 week before or less than 10 Gy of WBI) and immediately after (between 1 week before and 2 weeks after the completion of WBI) the therapy in 17 of these patients. They, 10 men and 7 women, all had metastatic brain tumor with age range of 45 to 87 (mean of 61.4) years. Tc-99m brain perfusion agent (HMPAO in 4, ECD in 13) was rapidly administered in a 740-MBq dose to measure global and regional CBF according to Matsuda's method, which based on both Patlak plot and Lassens' linearity correction. Brain MRI was used to measure therapeutic response according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification as complete remission (CR), partial response (PR), no change (NC), and progressive disease (PD). Survival period was measured from the completion of WBI. Mean global CBF was 40.6 and 41.5 ml/100 g/min before and immediately after the WBI, respectively. Four patients increased (greater than 10%) their global mean CBF, 10 unchanged (less than 10% increase or decrease), and 3 decreased after the WBI. The WBI achieved CR in none, PR in 8, NC in 6, and PD in 3 on brain MRI. Change in global mean CBF (mean±SD) was significantly larger in PR (4.3±2.0 ml/100 g/min, p=0.002) and in NC (-0.1±4.5) than in PD (-3.9±6.4, P=0.002, P=0.016, respectively). Survival was not significantly (p>0.05) different among the patients with CR (20 weeks), NC (48 weeks), and PD (21 weeks). Change in global CBF and survival was

  17. CBF and CMRo2 during craniotomy for small supratentorial cerebral tumours in enflurane anaesthesia. A dose-response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, J.B.; Cold, G.E.; Eriksen, H.O.; Eskesen, V.; Blatt-Lyon, B.

    1986-01-01

    In 14 patients with supratentorial cerebral tumours with midline shift ≤ 10 mm, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo 2 ) were measured twice on the contralateral side of the craniotomy, using a modification of the Kety and Schmidt method. For induction of anaesthesia, thiopental, fentanyl and pancuronium were used. The anaesthesia was maintained with enflurane 1% in nitrous oxide 67%. Moderate hypocapnia to a level averaging 4.3 kPa was achieved. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n=7), 1% enflurane was used throughout the anaesthesia, and CBF and CMRo 2 measured about 70 min after induction averaged 30.1 ml 100 g -1 min -1 and 1.98 ml O 2 100 g -1 min -1 , respectively. During the second CBF study 1 h later, CBF and CMRo 2 were unchanged (P>0.05). In group 2 (n=7), the inspiratory enflurane concentration was increased from 1 to 2% after the first CBF measurement. In this group a significant decrease in CMRo 2 was observed, while CBF was unchanged. In six patients EEG was recorded simultaneously with the CBF measurements. In patients subjected to increasing enflurane concentration (Group 2), a suppression in the EEG activity was observed without spike waves. It is concluded that enflurane induces a dose-related decrease in CMRo 2 and suppression in the EEG activity, whereas CBF was unchanged (author)

  18. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovitch, P.; Powers, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The principal advantage of positron emission tomography over other methods for measuring cerebral blood flow stems from the accurate, quantitative three-dimensional measurements of regional brain radioactivity that are possible with this technique. As a result, accurate quantitative measurements of regional cerebral blood flow can be obtained for both superficial and deep cerebral structures. The value of PET for investigating central nervous system physiology and pathology extends far beyond this, however. Through the use of different radiotracers and appropriate mathematical models, PET can be applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physiologic variables. Measurements of rCBF tell only part of the story. Experience with PET and with a variety of other techniques has taught us that rCBF is at times a poor indicator of the metabolic, functional, and biochemical status of cerebral tissue. It is only by understanding the interaction of all of these factors that our understanding of neurologic disease can advance. It is in the investigation of these complex relationships that the real value of PET resides

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow before and after vascular surgery in patients with transient ischemic attacks with 133-xenon inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Hemmingsen, Ralf; Lindewald, H

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow CBF was studied in 14 patients with transient ischemic attacks TIA and arteriosclerotic neck vessel disease. CBF was measured by a rapidly rotating single photon emission computerized tomograph using Xenon-133 inhalation. This method yields images of 3 brain slices depicting CBF...... with no abnormality on the CT-scan. The abnormal blood flow pattern was found to be unchanged after clinically successful reconstructive vascular surgery. This suggests the presence of irreversible ischemic tissue damage without gross emollition (incomplete infarction). It is concluded, that TIAs are often harmful...... events, as no less than 9 of the 14 patients studied had evidence of complete and/or incomplete infarction. Thorough examination and rational therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to prevent further ischemic lesions....

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with transient ischemic attacks studied by Xenon-133 inhalation and emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Hemmingsen, R; Henriksen, L

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow CBF was studied in 14 patients with transient ischemic attacks TIA and arteriosclerotic neck vessel disease. CBF was measured by a rapidly rotating single photon emission computerized tomograph using Xenon-133 inhalation. This method yields images of 3 brain slices depicting CBF...... with no abnormality on the CT-scan. The abnormal blood flow pattern was found to be unchanged after clinically successful reconstructive vascular surgery. This suggests the presence of irreversible ischemic tissue damage without gross emollition (incomplete infarction). It is concluded, that TIAs are often harmful...... events, as no less than 9 of the 14 patients studied had evidence of complete and/or incomplete infarction. Thorough examination and rational therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to prevent further ischemic lesions....

  1. A study on regional cerebral blood flow at rest and stress state in anxiety disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate he characteristics of rest and stress regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive anxiety disorder patients. Methods: Twenty naive anxiety disorder patients were enrolled in the study with twenty healthy volunteers as controls. The rest and stress 99 Tc m -ethylene cystein dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed separately at 2 consecutive days, Raven reasoning test was used as a stressor. Results: 1) Compared to the healthy controls, the patients' rest rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower (P<0.05 and 0.01). 2)The patients' stress rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, part occipital lobe, part parietal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls' (P<0.05 and 0.01). 3) Opposite to the healthy controls, the rCBF of patients increased significantly after stressor simulating. Conclusions: The hypofunction of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia may exist in naive anxiety disorder patients. The abnormal rCBF of patients after simulating may be one of the characteristics of anxiety disorder

  2. Effects of video game playing on cerebral blood flow in young adults: a SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Yang, Bang-Hung; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lin, Chun-Lung; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chien Chang, Alice; Lee, Shin-Min

    2013-04-30

    To study the impact of video game playing on the human brain, the effects of two video games playing on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in young adults were determined. Thirty healthy subjects comprising 18 males and 12 females who were familiar with video game playing were recruited. Each subject underwent three sessions of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a bolus injection of 20 mCi (99m)Tc ECD IV to measure their CBF. The first measurement was performed as baseline, the second and third measurements were performed after playing two different video games for 30 min, respectively. Statistic parametric mapping (SPM2) with Matlab 6.5 implemented on a personal computer was used for image analysis. CBF was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex and significantly increased in the temporal and occipital cortices after both video games playing. Furthermore, decreased CBF in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which was significantly correlated with the number of killed characters was found after the violent game playing. The major finding of hypo-perfusion in prefrontal regions after video game playing is consistent with a previous study showing reduced or abnormal prefrontal cortex functions after video game playing. The second finding of decreased CBF in the ACC after playing the violent video game provides support for a previous hypothesis that the ACC might play a role in regulating violent behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SPECT study of cerebral blood flow reactivity after acetazolamide in patients with transient ischemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, F.; Celsis, P.; Clanet, M.; Guiraud-Chaumeil, B.; Rascol, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated 15 patients with one or more transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in the internal carotid artery territory within the month following the most recent TIA. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by single-photon emission computed tomography, using intravenous xenon-133 before and after injection of 1 g acetazolamide. Six patients had severe carotid stenosis or occlusion; the other nine patients had no significant carotid lesions. Twenty age-matched volunteers free of neurologic symptoms or history were used as controls. Mean CBF in the sylvian region was not significantly different between patients and controls. Seven patients exhibited a focal hypoperfusion at rest in the symptomatic hemisphere, and their hypoperfused areas were hyporeactive after administration of acetazolamide. Seven other patients exhibited hyporeactive areas after acetazolamide administration while their CBF tomograms at rest were normal. Thus, CBF abnormalities were detected in 14 of the 15 patients. Our findings suggest that CBF measured early after acetazolamide administration could be useful to confirm the clinical diagnosis of TIA. In the nine patients with no significant lesion of the internal carotid artery, the areas of hypoperfusion were small and were probably related to the focal ischemic event. In the six patients with severe lesions of the internal carotid artery, abnormalities were of variable size and intensity but were often large and pronounced. The discrepancy between these two subgroups of patients could be ascribed to the hemodynamic influence of the internal carotid artery lesions. Moreover, our findings may provide some insight into the pathophysiology of TIAs

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99m Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-02-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs.

  6. New insights into coupling and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2016-06-30

    The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied. The neurovascular unit is a conceptual model encompassing the anatomical and metabolic interactions between the neurons, vascular components, and glial cells in the brain. It is compromised under disease states such as stroke, diabetes, hypertension, dementias, and with aging, all of which trigger a cascade of inflammatory responses that exacerbate brain damage. Hence, tight regulation and maintenance of neurovascular coupling is central for brain homeostasis. This review article also discusses the waste clearance pathways in the brain such as the glymphatic system. The glymphatic system is a functional waste clearance pathway that removes metabolic wastes and neurotoxins from the brain along paravascular channels. Disruption of the glymphatic system burdens the brain with accumulating waste and has been reported in aging as well as several neurological diseases.

  7. Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow and volume with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempp, K A; Brix, G; Wenz, F; Becker, C R; Gückel, F; Lorenz, W J

    1994-12-01

    Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV) with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. After bolus administration of a paramagnetic contrast medium, rapid T2*-weighted gradient-echo images of two sections were acquired for the simultaneous creation of concentration-time curves in the brain-feeding arteries and in brain tissue. Absolute rCBF and rCBV values were determined for gray and white brain matter in 12 subjects with use of principles of the indicator dilution theory. The mean rCBF value in gray matter was 69.7 mL/min +/- 29.7 per 100 g tissue and in white matter, 33.6 mL/min +/- 11.5 per 100 g tissue; the average rCBV was 8.0 mL +/- 3.1 per 100 g tissue and 4.2 mL +/- 1.0 per 100 g tissue, respectively. An age-related decrease in rCBF and rCBV for gray and white matter was observed. Preliminary data demonstrate that the proposed technique allows the quantification of rCBF and rCBV. Although the results are in good agreement with data from positron emission tomography studies, further evaluation is needed to establish the validity of method.

  8. Increased 20-HETE synthesis explains reduced cerebral blood flow but not impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression in rat cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordsmann, Jonas Christoffer; ko, Rebecca; Choi, Hyun B

    2013-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with release of arachidonic acid (AA), impaired neurovascular coupling, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), caused by cortical vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that the released AA is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme to produce...... neurovascular coupling after CSD. These findings suggest that CSD-induced increments in 20-HETE cause the reduction in CBF after CSD, and that the attenuation of stimulation-induced CBF responses after CSD has a different mechanism. We suggest that blockade of 20-HETE synthesis may be clinically relevant...

  9. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction by positron emission tomography: theoretical study and experimental evidence of cerebral blood flow measurement with the C15O2 continuous inhalation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinling, M.

    1983-01-01

    The method of the continuous inhalation technique of oxygen-15 labelled CO 2 coupled with positron emission tomography for the measurement of cerebral blood flow (C.B.F.) is described. An indirect experimental verification that this technique allowed the measurement of C.B.F. has been carried out in baboons by showing the expected change in the measured parameter with variations in the PaCO 2 . A critical investigation of the C 15 O 2 model was performed. The amount of tracer present in the cerebral vascular pool has a negligible effect on C.B.F. value. The use of a mean brain-blood partition coefficient of water instead of that specific to gray or to white matter is commented upon, and its influence on the final C.B.F. value is studied. Lastly, the problem of the limited diffusion of water across the blood-brain-barrier is discussed. The study of the combined effects of gray-white mixing and limited wates extraction of the C.B.F. value shows that the C 15 O 2 technique tends to understimate real C.B.F., and that this error is more severe with high flows and even gray white mixing. These limitations do not depart from the possibility to estimate in the same brain locus not only C.B.F. but oxygen utilization as well by the consecutive inhalation of C 15 O 2 and 15 O 2 . The advantages of this possibility has already been shown in a number of clinical studies [fr

  11. The role of sympathetic reflex control of cerebral blood flow and microcirculation during normoxia and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissen, I.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that there is sympathetic reflex regulation of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the utilization of microvessels during normoxia and hypoxia. Regional CBF was determined in conscious Long Evans rats with 4-iodo[N-methyl- 14 C]antipyrine. The percentage of the microvessels perfused as determined by comparing perfused microvessels (FITC-dextran), with the total microvasculature (alkaline phosphatase stain). To test this hypothesis, arcs of the proposed reflex were eliminated. The first experiment examined the effect of bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on CBF and microcirulation during normoxia and hypoxia. CBF increased during hypoxia from 67 ± 2 to 115 ± 3 ml/min/100 g in control, and from 77 ± 2 to 155 ± 6 ml/min/100 g in ganglionectomized animals. In control, hypoxic flow to caudal areas was higher than to rostral areas and that difference was prevented by ganglionectomy. Utilization of arterioles during hypoxia increased from 51 ± 2% to 63 ± 2% in control, and from 52 ± 1% to 77 ± 2% in ganglionectomized group. The percent perfused capillaries during normoxia was 49 ± 2% in control, and 52 ± 1% in ganglionectomized group, and during hypoxia it was 73 ± 2% in both groups. In the second study, cerebral vascular responses to hypoxia were determined after administration of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists N-methyl chlorpromazine (does not cross the blood-brain barrier), and phenoxybenzamine (crosses the blood-brain barrier). Neither phenoxybenzamine nor N-methyl chlorpromazine affected CBF and microcirculation during normoxia. During hypoxia, they similarly reversed the rostral to caudal gradient of flow, increased utilization of arterioles in rostral brain areas, and did not affect capillaries

  12. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmezoğlu, K; Sperling, B; Henriksen, T

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduct...

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow in various pediatric neurological patients using 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tohru; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Yamatani, Miwa; Okada, Toshio

    1988-01-01

    The recent development of a new radiopharmaceutical 123 I-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP), which is taken up by the brain from the blood flow, has offered a possibility of constructing scintigraphy maps of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission CT. We used this mehtod in various pediatric neurological diseases. Six patients with cerebro-vascular disorders (moya-moya disease 2, infarction 3 and HHE syndrome 1), 6 patients with infectious diseases of CNS (acute encephalitis 4, septic meningitis 1 and SSPE 1) and a miscellaneous group of six patients were studied. The rCBF abnormalities in cerebro-vascular diseases were more extensive and frequent than x-ray CT abnormalities. Repeated studies of IMP-SPECT revealed usefulness for the understanding of changeable hemodynamic pathophysiology and for the judgment of theraptic effectiveness and prognosis. The rCBF decrease in infectious diseases tended to be more diffuse and slight than that in cerebro-vascular diseases. In almost all patients, the area of rCBF decrease coincided with the area of EEG slowing evaluated by EEG topographic analysis. Brain imaging using 123 I-IMP SPECT may reveal functional abnormalities as well as organic lesions. 123 I-IMP SPECT has introduced a new era for the useful application of nuclear medicine to the investigation of pediatric neurological diseases. (author)

  14. Enhancement of automated blood flow estimates (ENABLE) from arterial spin-labeled MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Zahra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Chappell, Michael A; Ramirez, Joel; Schwindt, Graeme; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2018-03-01

    To validate a multiparametric automated algorithm-ENhancement of Automated Blood fLow Estimates (ENABLE)-that identifies useful and poor arterial spin-labeled (ASL) difference images in multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) acquisitions and thereby improve clinical ASL. ENABLE is a sort/check algorithm that uses a linear combination of ASL quality features. ENABLE uses simulations to determine quality weighting factors based on an unconstrained nonlinear optimization. We acquired a set of 6-PLD ASL images with 1.5T or 3.0T systems among 98 healthy elderly and adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. We contrasted signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cerebral blood flow (CBF) images obtained with ENABLE vs. conventional ASL analysis. In a subgroup, we validated our CBF estimates with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) CBF images. ENABLE produced significantly increased SNR compared to a conventional ASL analysis (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P < 0.0001) and this similarity was strongly related to ASL SNR (t = 24, P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that ENABLE improves CBF image quality from multiple PLD ASL in dementia cohorts at either 1.5T or 3.0T, achieved by multiparametric quality features that guided postprocessing of dementia ASL. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:647-655. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in various pediatric neurological patients using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tohru; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Yamatani, Miwa; Okada, Toshio

    1988-03-01

    The recent development of a new radiopharmaceutical /sup 123/I-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP), which is taken up by the brain from the blood flow, has offered a possibility of constructing scintigraphy maps of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission CT. We used this mehtod in various pediatric neurological diseases. Six patients with cerebro-vascular disorders (moya-moya disease 2, infarction 3 and HHE syndrome 1), 6 patients with infectious diseases of CNS (acute encephalitis 4, septic meningitis 1 and SSPE 1) and a miscellaneous group of six patients were studied. The rCBF abnormalities in cerebro-vascular diseases were more extensive and frequent than x-ray CT abnormalities. Repeated studies of IMP-SPECT revealed usefulness for the understanding of changeable hemodynamic pathophysiology and for the judgment of theraptic effectiveness and prognosis. The rCBF decrease in infectious diseases tended to be more diffuse and slight than that in cerebro-vascular diseases. In almost all patients, the area of rCBF decrease coincided with the area of EEG slowing evaluated by EEG topographic analysis. Brain imaging using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT may reveal functional abnormalities as well as organic lesions. /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT has introduced a new era for the useful application of nuclear medicine to the investigation of pediatric neurological diseases.

  16. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled...... to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples...... were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined...

  17. 133Xe blood flow monitoring during arteriovenous malformation resection: a case of intraoperative hyperperfusion with subsequent brain swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.L.; Solomon, R.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Ornstein, E.; Weinstein, J.; Stein, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the i.v. 133Xe technique was carried out during resection of a right temporooccipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with ipsilateral middle and posterior cerebral arterial supply. Intraoperatively, a rCBF detector was in place over the right frontotemporal area, about 5 to 6 cm from the border of the AVM. Anesthesia was 0.75% isoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide. After dural exposure, the rCBF was 27 ml/100 g/min at a pCO2 of 29 mm Hg and a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 90 mm Hg. The pCO2 was then elevated to 40 mm Hg, and the rCBF was increased to 55 ml/100 g/min at a MAP of 83 mm Hg. After AVM removal, the rCBF rose to 50 ml/100 g/min at a pCO2 of 27 mm Hg and a MAP of 75 mm Hg. The pCO2 was elevated to 33 mm Hg and the rCBF increased to 86 ml/100 g/min at a MAP of 97 mm Hg. During skin closure, the rCBF was 94 ml/100 g/min at a pCO2 of 26 mm Hg and a MAP of 97 mm Hg. The patient was neurologically normal postoperatively except for a mild, new visual field defect. After 2 to 3 days, the patient gradually developed lethargy, confusion, and nausea with relatively normal blood pressure. An angiogram revealed residual enlargement of the posterior cerebral artery feeding vessel. Computed tomography showed edema extending from the area of AVM resection as far as the frontal region, producing a significant midline shift anteriorly. Intraoperative rCBF monitoring revealed significant hyperperfusion after AVM resection, which was associated with signs and symptoms of the normal perfusion pressure breakthrough syndrome

  18. Usefulness of quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow by 123I-IMP SPECT reference sample method in various cerebrovascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tadaharu; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Yamanaka, Shigehito; Hasue, Masamichi; Ohtubo, Yutaka; Wada, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Hisashi; Nakamura, Tatuya; Itou, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively determined by N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodo-amphetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a rotating gamma camera. A ZLC 7500 unit (SIEMENS Inc.) was used for emission CT, and a SCINTIPAK-2400 (Shimadzu Corp. Ltd.) for data processing. For the quantitative determination of CBF, arterial blood samples were collected for 5 minutes during the intravenous injection of 111 MBq of IMP, and a reference sample method corrected by time-activity curve was used. The determination was carried out in 90 patients with various cerebrovascular diseases and 5 normal volunteers. Mean cerebral blood flow (m-CBF) in the normal cases as determined by the above method was 42.4±6.0 (ml/100g/min). In patients with acute phase subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), severity on CT was marked in patients with intracerebral hematomas greater than 45 mm in diameter. Patients with non-hemorrhagic arteriovenous malfomation (AVM) whose nidi were 30 mm or more in diameter showed a decrease in CBF on the afferent side. This decrease was caused by a steal phenomenon affecting CBF around the AVM. The size of cerebral infarction on CT was closely correlated with the decrease in CBF, and CBF in patients with stenosis and obstruction of the main trunks was less than that in patients without them. CBF was increased by 10-20% in patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy or superior temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis for obstruction or stenosis of the internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery. The quantitative determination of CBF by IMP SPECT reference sample method was useful for evaluating the morbid condition and estimating the prognosis of cerebrovascular diseases, and evaluating the effects of therapy. (J.P.N.)

  19. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki; Garcia, Benjamin; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2015-11-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to baseline with progressive dehydration (P dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus, fatigue is related to a reduction in CBF and extracranial perfusion rather than CMRO2 . Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating ("dynamic"), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1...... motor area on both sides by 34 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025)....

  1. The effect of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow in the normal aged volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Kohaku; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    They were divided into four groups of (1) 15 young smokers (mean age of 55 years), (2) 14 young non-smokers (mean age of 52 years), (3) 16 elderly smokers (mean age of 74 years), and (4) elderly non-smokers (mean age of 75 years). All subjects were healthy volunteers without any past history of cerebral and pulmonary diseases. The rCBF was measured by Xe 133 inhalation method using 16-ch-Novo-cerebrograph. Pulmonary functions such as FVC, FEV 1.0 %, %VC, FEV 1.0 , V 50 and V 25 were measured by Autospiror HI-498, and End-tidal partial pressures for carbon dioxide (PeCO 2 ) were monitored by capnograph (Normocap, Datex). The rCBF reduced significantly with advancing age. Although there was no significant difference in rCBF between young smokers and non-smokers, elderly smokers showed significantly lower rCBF than elderly non-smokers. There was no difference in vital capacity and FEV 1.0 % between smokers and non-smokers in both young and elderly people. Smokers group, however, showed significantly lower V 50 than non-smokers group. PeCO 2 in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. No significant differences were seen in hematocrit, antithrombin III, serum lipids, and blood pressure between two groups in the young and elderly. There was a significantly positive correlation between rCBF and PeCO 2 . Our finding showed smoking over a long period produces reductions in the cerebral blood flow. This was consistent with the reports by other researchers. In addition, the results of the present study suggested the possibility that the latent small airway disturbances resulting from long-term smoking also play a ole of leading to decreased PCO 2 and eventually cause reductions in rCBF. (author)

  2. Chronic hydrocephalus-induced changes in cerebral blood flow: mediation through cardiac effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephen M; Schenk, Soren; Leichliter, Anna; Leibson, Zack; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Luciano, Mark G

    2006-10-01

    Decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in hydrocephalus is believed to be related to increased intracranial pressure (ICP), vascular compression as the result of enlarged ventricles, or impaired metabolic activity. Little attention has been given to the relationship between cardiac function and systemic blood flow in chronic hydrocephalus (CH). Using an experimental model of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus developed in our laboratory, we investigated the relationship between the duration and severity of hydrocephalus and cardiac output (CO), CBF, myocardial tissue perfusion (MTP), and peripheral blood flow (PBF). Blood flow measures were obtained using the microsphere injection method under controlled hemodynamic conditions in experimental CH (n=23) and surgical control (n=8) canines at baseline and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Cardiac output measures were made using the Swan-Ganz thermodilution method. Intracranial compliance (ICC) via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bolus removal and infusion, and oxygen delivery in CSF and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were also investigated. We observed an initial surgical effect relating to 30% CO reduction and approximately 50% decrease in CBF, MTP, and PBF in both groups 2 weeks postoperatively, which recovered in control animals but continued to decline further in CH animals at 16 weeks. Cerebral blood flow, which was positively correlated with CO (P=0.028), showed no significant relationship with either CSF volume or pressure. Decreased CBF correlated with oxygen deprivation in PFC (P=0.006). Cardiac output was inversely related with ventriculomegaly (P=0.019), but did not correlate with ICP. Decreased CO corresponded to increased ICC, as measured by CSF infusion (P=0.04). Our results suggest that CH may have more of an influence on CO and CBF in the chronic stage than in the early condition, which was dominated by surgical effect. The cause of this late deterioration of cardiac function in hydrocephalus is uncertain, but may reflect

  3. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow during auditory cognitive tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Masashi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akiro; Senda, Michio.

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between auditory cognitive function and regional brain activation, we measured the changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) during the 'odd-ball' paradigm in ten normal healthy volunteers. The subjects underwent 3 tasks, twice for each, while the evoked potential was recorded. In these tasks, the auditory stimulus was a series of pure tones delivered every 1.5 sec binaurally at 75 dB from the earphones. Task A: the stimulus was a series of tones with 1000 Hz only, and the subject was instructed to only hear. Task B: the stimulus was a series of tones with 1000 Hz only, and the subject was instructed to push the button on detecting a tone. Task C: the stimulus was a series of pure tones delivered every 1.5 sec binaurally at 75 dB with a frequency of 1000 Hz (non-target) in 80% and 2000 Hz (target) in 20% at random, and the subject was instructed to push the button on detecting a target tone. The event related potential (P300) was observed in task C (Pz: 334.3±19.6 msec). At each task, the CBF was measured using PET with i.v. injection of 1.5 GBq of O-15 water. The changes in CBF associated with auditory cognition was evaluated by the difference between the CBF images in task C and B. Localized increase was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (in all subjects), the bilateral associate auditory cortex, the prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. The latter three areas had a large individual variation in the location of foci. These results suggested the role of those cortical areas in auditory cognition. The anterior cingulate was most activated (15.0±2.24% of global CBF). This region was not activated in the condition of task B minus task A. The anterior cingulate is a part of Papez's circuit that is related to memory and other higher cortical function. These results suggested that this area may play an important role in cognition as well as in attention. (author)

  4. Correlation of severity of aphasia with cerebral blood flow. A study with /sup 133/Xe inhalation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Sone, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tohru (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-11-01

    In 46 patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by /sup 133/Xe inhalation method, and relationship between severity of aphasia and degree of rCBF reduction was investigated. Measurements of rCBF were performed after 2 months of ictus in all patients. At the time of rCBF measurements, the severity of aphasia was mild in 13, moderate in 16 and severe in the other 17 patients. Control rCBF values were obtained from 16 subjects who had neither neurological deficits nor abnormal findings on CT scan. In control group, mean hemispheric rCBF values (mCBF), which were calculated from initial slope index, were 49.1 +- 3.8 and 49.4 +- 3.9 respectively in the right and left hemisphere. In all aphasic patients but two who had mild aphasia, mCBF in the left hemisphere showed lower values as compared to that in the right hemisphere. The mCBF in the left hemisphere was 46.5 +- 5.3 in the mild group, 41.3 +- 5.8 in the moderate group and 34.3 +- 5.0 in the severe group. The values in the moderate and severe groups were significantly reduced as compared to the control or those in the mild group. The mCBF in the severe group was also significantly lower than those in the moderate group. The mCBF in the right hemisphere was 48.4 +- 6.3 in the mild group, 45.6 +- 6.1 in the moderate group and 38.6 +- 4.9 in the severe group. The values in the severe group were significantly reduced as compared to those in the other groups as well as the control. The present study suggests that measurements of rCBF by /sup 133/Xe inhalation method are valid for the evaluation of severity of aphasia in stroke patients.

  5. Regional CBF in chronic stable TBI treated with hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K F; Masel, B; Patterson, J; Scheibel, R S; Corson, K P; Mader, J T

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBO2) could improve neurologic deficits and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in chronic traumatic brain injuries (TBI), the authors employed a nonrandomized control pilot trial. Five subjects, at least three years post head injury, received HBO2. Five head injured controls (HIC) were matched for age, sex, and type of injury. Five healthy subjects served as normal controls. Sixty-eight normal volunteers comprised a reference data bank against which to compare SPECT brain scans. HBO2 subjects received 120 HBO2 in blocks of 80 and 40 treatments with an interval five-month break. Normal controls underwent a single SPECT brain scan, HBO2, and repeat SPECT battery. TBI subjects were evaluated by neurologic, neuropsychometric, exercise testing, and pre and post study MRIs, or CT scans if MRI was contraindicated. Statistical Parametric Mapping was applied to SPECT scans for rCBF analysis. There were no significant objective changes in neurologic, neuropsychometric, exercise testing, MRIs, or rCBF. In this small pilot study, HBO2 did not effect clinical or regional cerebral blood flow improvement in TBI subjects.

  6. Noninvasive 133Xe inhalation method for cerebral blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shigeharu; Kobatake, Keitaro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Recent development of the 133 Xe inhalation technique has made it possible to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Recording of the head curves from the frontal and temporal areas during inhalation of 133 Xe, however, is contaminated by the artifact from the air passages. A method based on Fourier transforms was reported to be able to eliminate air passage artifact (APA) effectively. However, it was pointed out that such an algorithm does not give a complete correction if the artifact seen by the head detectors differs in shape from that recorded from the airways at the mouth, which may happen when there is a slow isotope convection in the nasal and sinus cavities. The purpose of this study was to compare the CBF values calculated by the Fourier method with those by the conventional method of Obrist (VM method). Mean hemispheric gray matter flow (F 1 ) calculated by the VM method in 11 subjects, including normal volunteers and patients with various neurological diseases, was 69.2±13.2 mg/100 g brain/ min, whereas F 1 calculated by the Fourier method in the same subjects was 64.4±13.5, indicating that APA can be effectively eliminated by the Fourier method. The F 1 values calculated by the Fourier method from the frontal and temporal regions were relatively high, and closer to the F 1 values calculated by the VM method. The size of the APA was large in these regions. It was concluded that the deformed APA contaminated the results in these regions, and could not be eliminated effectively by the Fourier method. It is suggested that the shape of the head curve and the size of APA should be carefully examined to ensure that CBF data are reliable. (author)

  7. Acute effect of glucose on cerebral blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pascual, Juan M; Xiao, Guanghua; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-02-01

    While it is known that specific nuclei of the brain, for example hypothalamus, contain glucose-sensing neurons thus their activity is affected by blood glucose level, the effect of glucose modulation on whole-brain metabolism is not completely understood. Several recent reports have elucidated the long-term impact of caloric restriction on the brain, showing that animals under caloric restriction had enhanced rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle flux accompanied by extended life span. However, acute effect of postprandial blood glucose increase has not been addressed in detail, partly due to a scarcity and complexity of measurement techniques. In this study, using a recently developed noninvasive MR technique, we measured dynamic changes in global cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) following a 50 g glucose ingestion (N = 10). A time dependent decrease in CMRO2 was observed, which was accompanied by a reduction in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with unaltered cerebral blood flow (CBF). At 40 min post-ingestion, the amount of CMRO2 reduction was 7.8 ± 1.6%. A control study without glucose ingestion was performed (N = 10), which revealed no changes in CMRO2 , CBF, or OEF, suggesting that the observations in the glucose study was not due to subject drowsiness or fatigue after staying inside the scanner. These findings suggest that ingestion of glucose may alter the rate of cerebral metabolism of oxygen in an acute setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cluster headache: transcranial Doppler ultrasound and regional cerebral blood flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, A.; Russell, D.; Nyberg-Hansen, R.; Rootwelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler and rCBF examinations were carried out in 25 cluster headache patients. Spontaneous glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) provoked attacks were accompanied by a bilateral decrease in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities. This decrease was more pronounced on the symptomatic side, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Mean hemispheric blood flow and rCBF were within normal limits during provoked attacks and similar to those found when patients were attack-free. During cluster periods middle cerebral artery velocities were significantly higher on the symptomatic side. Glyceryl trinitrate caused a bilateral middle cerebral artery velocity decrease which was significantly greater on the symptomatic side. Attacks provoked by glyceryl trinitrate appeared to begin when the vasodilatory effect of this substance was received. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. High frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Effect of cerebral blood flow in patients after open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittet, J.F.; Forster, A.; Suter, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Attenuation of ventilator-synchronous pressure fluctuations of intracranial pressure has been demonstrated during high frequency ventilation in animal and human studies, but the consequences of this effect on cerebral blood flow have not been investigated in man. We compared the effects of high frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation on CBF in 24 patients investigated three hours after completion of open-heart surgery. The patients were investigated during three consecutive periods with standard sedation (morphine, pancuronium): a. IPPV; b. HFJV; c. IPPV. Partial pressure of arterial CO 2 (PaCO 2 : 4.5-5.5 kPa) and rectal temperature (35.5 to 37.5 degree C) were maintained constant during the study. The CBF was measured by intravenous 133 Xe washout technique. The following variables were derived from the cerebral clearance of 133 Xe: the rapid compartment flow, the initial slope index, ie, a combination of the rapid and the slow compartment flows, and the ratio of fast compartment flow over total CBF (FF). Compared to IPPV, HFJV applied to result in the same mean airway pressure did not produce any change in pulmonary gas exchange, mean systemic arterial pressure, and cardiac index. Similarly, CBF was not significantly altered by HFJV. However, important variations of CBF values were observed in three patients, although the classic main determinants of CBF (PaCO 2 , cerebral perfusion pressure, Paw, temperature) remained unchanged. Our results suggest that in patients with normal systemic hemodynamics, the effects of HFJV and IPPV on CBF are comparable at identical levels of mean airway pressure

  10. A study of cerebral hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular disorders by means of rCBF measurement with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harano, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Xe-133 inhalation method, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured for the purpose of analyzing the pathophysiology of various cerebrovascular disorders. Included in this series were 38 normal volunteers (N), 72 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICD), 16 with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 9 with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 6 with Moyamoya disease (MD), and 4 with hypertensive intracerebral hematoma (HIH). In the N group, rCBF was independent of sex and laterality. Increased rCBF was observed in the frontal region, as compared with other regions. A significantly increased rCBF was observed in the thirties decade of life; the difference in rCBF was, however, not statistically significant above the age of 30 years. In the ICD group, rCBF decreased in association with severer disorder. In cases of severe disorder, a significantly decreased rCBF was observed in the whole area, as compared with the control group. SPECT allowed early detection of decreased rCBF due to vaso-spasm in the SAH group. The groups of AVM, MD, and HIH showed decreased rCBF in the surrounding areas of the lesions. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Xenon contrast CT-CBF measurements in patients with pre- and post-correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, and in the white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigekiyo

    2004-01-01

    About 10 years ago, the author found that, patients with headache, vertigo, dizziness and dementia, had a high prevalence (about 70%) of platelet hyper-aggregability which was especially prevalent (up to 100%) in Binswanger's dementia. Correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability in those patients led to remarkable improvement of symptoms. Based on this effective result with treatment of platelet hyper-aggregability, the author hypothesized that patients may show improvement or recovery of cerebral blood flow from the decreased blood flow by the correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability. The present report consist of two parts: 1) comparison of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, 2) measurements of CBF in patients with severe white matter lesions, and the CBF within white matter lesions. The results of 1) showed CBF was decreased by about 20 to 30% before treatment and marked increase to normal CBF after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, particularly in the thalamus and cortex. The increase was statistically significant except in bilateral frontal cortex and bilateral anterior white matter and left posterior white matter. From these results, it is confirmed that platelet hyper-aggregability is associated with decreased CBF, and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, CBF increases markedly. The results of 2) showed moderate to severe decreases of blood flow in all areas of the brain, and marked decreases of CBF in white matter lesions, 12.8±2.7 m1/100 g/min on average, which corresponded approximately to 60% of normal white matter CBF. (author)

  12. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow and intelligences in normal elderly people living in retirement house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Kazunori; Arimoto, Satao

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that the number of the neuron in the brain gradually reduced with advancing age, but speed of decline of brain functions differs among individuals. We have reported that social environmental factors had significant influences to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mental function. In this paper, we report 2.5 years longitudinal study concerning with CBF and intelligences in twenty normal elderly people, mean age of 76 years old at the first measurement, living in retirement house. 1) Mean CBF measured by Xe 133 inhalation method did not alter significantly during the observation period. 2) Performance intelligence evaluated by Kohs' block design test had reduced at the point of begining but no more reduction was observed during the period. 3) Verbal intelligence evaluated by Hasegawa's intelligence scale for aged which was within normal range at the begining, slightly (-7.5 %) but significantly (p < 0.05) reduced during the period. 4) Performance intelligence tended to reduce in subjects who showed reduction of CBF. There were no significant correlation between both intelligences and CBF. CBF could be maintained even in elderly people living in retirement house which has less social stimuli during relatively short observation period in so far as they maintain active daily life. The speed of reduction of performance intelligence may be getting slow after certain age and verbal intelligence gradually decreases perhaps by disuse of the mental function. (author)

  13. Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Ito, Susumu; Ikegami, Tadashi [Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patients: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p<0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p<0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (author)

  14. Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Ito, Susumu; Ikegami, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patients: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p<0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p<0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (author)

  15. Changes in cerebral blood flow after cognitive behavior therapy in patients with panic disorder: a SPECT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho-Jun; Choi, Young Hee; Chung, Yong-An; Rho, Wangku; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Aim Inconsistent results continue to be reported in studies that examine the neural correlates of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder. We examined the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with the alleviation of anxiety by CBT in panic patients. Methods The change in rCBF and clinical symptoms before and after CBT were assessed using single photon emission computed tomography and various clinical measures were analyzed. Results Fourteen subjects who completed CBT showed significant improvements in symptoms on clinical measures, including the Panic and Agoraphobic Scale and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised. After CBT, increased rCBF was detected in the left postcentral gyrus (BA 43), left precentral gyrus (BA 4), and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9 and BA 47), whereas decreased rCBF was detected in the left pons. Correlation analysis of the association between the changes in rCBF and changes in each clinical measure did not show significant results. Conclusion We found changes in the rCBF associated with the successful completion of CBT. The present findings may help clarify the effects of CBT on changes in brain activity in panic disorder. PMID:24790449

  16. Quantitative agreement between [(15)O]H2O PET and model free QUASAR MRI-derived cerebral blood flow and arterial blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijtel, D F R; Petersen, E T; Mutsaerts, H J M M; Bakker, E; Schober, P; Stevens, M F; van Berckel, B N M; Majoie, C B L M; Booij, J; van Osch, M J P; van Bavel, E T; Boellaard, R; Lammertsma, A A; Nederveen, A J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was an agreement between quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVA) measurements by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) and model-free QUASAR MRI. Twelve healthy subjects were scanned within a week in separate MRI and PET imaging sessions, after which quantitative and qualitative agreement between both modalities was assessed for gray matter, white matter and whole brain region of interests (ROI). The correlation between CBF measurements obtained with both modalities was moderate to high (r(2): 0.28-0.60, P QUASAR significantly underestimated CBF by 30% (P QUASAR yielding values that were only 27% of the [(15)O]H2O-derived values (P QUASAR MRI, indicating similar qualitative CBVA and CBF information by both modalities. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that QUASAR MRI and [(15)O]H2O PET provide similar CBF and CBVA information, but with systematic quantitative discrepancies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic method for assessing function. New procedures for the non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood volume and blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueckel, F.; Rempp, K.; Becker, G.; Koepke, J.; Loose, R.; Brix, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to the current status of cerebral blood volume and blood flow imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. A new method for the quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on the basis of the indicator dilution theory is described and preliminary quantitative results from healthy volunteers are presented. The mean values for the rCBV are 8,27±1,85 ml/100 g for grey matter and 3,78±1,34 ml/100 g for white matter. The mean values for the rCBF are 44,8±11,29 ml/min/100 g for the grey matter and 20,88±8,42 ml/min/100 g for the white matter. These results are in good agreement with PET results from the literature. (orig.) [de

  18. The effect of education on rCBF changes in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Sato, Tomohiko; Shimizu, Soichiro; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    To determine the relationship of differing levels of education on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fifty-three patients with AD followed-up for an average of 36 months were divided into the high-educated group (HE, ≥12 years of schooling) and low-educated group (LE, 123 I]-iodoamphetamine and the SPECT data were analyzed by 3D-stereotactic surface projections. At initial evaluation, the HE group had greater rCBF deficits in the parietotemporal regions than did the LE group, even though both groups had comparable MMSE and FAST scores. When compared with initial SPECT, follow-up SPECT showed a significant rCBF reduction in widespread regions, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, and limbic lobes of the HE group, while it a significant rCBF reduction in scattered and small regions of the parietotemporal, cingulate, and occipital areas of the LE group, as the HE group had faster cognitive and functional decline than the LE group. The HE group showed lower rCBF at initial SPECT than the LE group, suggesting more advanced AD pathology. As a result, the HE group demonstrated a more extensive and severe reduction of rCBF on follow-up SPECT in association with faster cognitive and functional decline than the LE group. Our SPECT study provides stronger support for the cognitive reserve effects of education in AD. (orig.)

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in patients with transient ischemic attacks studied by Xenon-133 inhalation and emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorstrup, S.; Hemmingsen, R.; Henriksen, L.; Lindewald, H.; Engell, H.C.; Lassen, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow CBF was studied in 14 patients with transient ischemic attacks TIA and arteriosclerotic neck vessel disease. CBF was measured by a rapidly rotating single photon emission computerized tomograph using Xenon-133 inhalation. This method yields images of 3 brain slices depicting CBF with a spatial resolution of 1.7 cm. Based primarily on the clinical evidence and on the angiographical findings embolism was considered the pathogenetic factor in 10 cases, whereas chronic hemodynamic insufficiency rendered symptomatic by postural factors probably accounted for the symptoms in 4 patients. Of the 14 patients, all studied days to weeks after the most recent TIA, four showed hypoperfused areas on the CBF-tomograms and with roughly the same location hypodense areas on CT-scanning, i.e. areas of complete infarction. However, an additional five patients showed reduction of CBF in areas with no abnormality on the CT-scan. The abnormal blood flow pattern was found to be unchanged after clinically successful reconstructive vascular surgery. This suggests the presence of irreversible ischemic tissue damage without gross emollition (incomplete infarction). It is concluded, that TIAs are often harmful events, as no less than 9 of the 14 patients studied had evidence of complete and/or incomplete infarction. Thorough examination and rational therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to prevent further ischemic lesions

  20. Cerebrovascular ETB, 5-HT1B, and AT1 receptor upregulation correlates with reduction in regional CBF after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Vikman, Petter; Nielsen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    with the reduction in regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH was induced by injecting 250 microl blood into the prechiasmatic cistern in rats. The cerebral arteries were removed 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after the SAH for functional and molecular studies...

  1. [Influence of Sympathetic Denervation of the Renal Artery on the Level of Arterial Blood Pressure, Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognitive Function In Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Y N; Lichikaki, A V; Lishmanov, B Y

    2017-07-01

    To study the effect of radiofrequency ablation of renal arteries on regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (AH). Transcatheter renal denervation (TRD) was performed in 17 patients with resistant AH. Examination before and after TRD included SPECT with mTc-HMPAO, 24-hours blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Fifteen patients without angiographic signs of carotid atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and AH, neurological and psychiatric disorders were investigated as control group. Compared with control group patients with AH had decreases of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in right (by 13.5%, p=0.00002) and left (by 15.5%, p=0.0006) inferior frontal lobes, in right temporal brain region (by 11.5%, p=0.008); in right and left occipital lobes (by 8.2%, p=0.04). In 6 months after TRD we observed significant improvement of cognitive function, parameters of 24-hour BP monitoring, and rCBF. We also noted definite close interdependence between changes of rCBF, indices of 24-hours BP monitoring, and dynamics of cognitive function. Improvement of long-term verbal memory correlated with increases of rCBF in left superior frontal and right occipital regions while dynamics of mentation and attention correlated positively with augmentation of rCBF in right posterior parietal region. Changes of perfusion in inferior parts of left frontal lobe and in right occipital region correlated with dynamics of index of diurnal diastolic hypertension time (R2=0.64, p=0.001, and R2=0.60, p=0.03, respectively). Our results suggest, that in patients with resistant AH positive effect of TRD on levels of 24-hour mean BP as well as on indices of BP load leads to in augmentation of rCBF and improvement of cognitive function.

  2. The evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with intracranial tumors by stable xenon CT; The effect of glycerol administration on regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, Masami; Kawamata, Fumio; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Mitsuru; Oda, Shinri; Shibuya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Isao; Sato, Osamu (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    In evaluating cerebral regional blood flow (rCBF), stable xenon-enhanced tomography (XeCT) study associated with simultaneous blood sampling was applied in 15 cases of intracranial neoplasms. The effect of intravenous glycerol infusion on rCBF was also investigated. The results indicated that intratumoral rCBF values were not only variable and unrelated to their histological types and grades, but also were not correlated with the vascularity of the lesion as demonstrated by angiography. When a tumor mass was enhanced after the injection of iodinated contrast media, it proved to be useful in distinguishing tumor mass and its associated edema that the rCBF of the peritumoral edematous region was predominantly low (10{plus minus}5 ml/100 g/min). The regional cerebral blood flow in remote areas, both ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion, was low in value, and there was no statistical significance between affected and sound sides. Following glycerol administration, rCBF was increased in the whole intracranial region, but not inside of the neoplasm, particularly when the intracranial pressure (ICP) was increased. It was assumed that the elevated rCBF after glycerol administration was due to the increase in the cerebral perfusion pressure resulting from the ICP reduction, the hemodilution effect, cerebral vessel dilatation after metabolic acidosis, and/or mechanically rectified microcirculation after edema reduction. (author).

  3. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa.; Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2±4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4±3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  4. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  5. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya; Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe; Lu, Hanzhang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui; Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-01-01

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO 2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min -1 100 g -1 , P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO 2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O 2 min -1 100 g -1 , P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO 2 . Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO 2 . There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO 2 . Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  6. Development of quantification analysis software for measuring regional cerebral blood flow by the modified split-dose method with 123I-IMP before and after acetazolamide loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaki, Akio; Kobara, Kouichi; Matsutomo, Norikazu

    2003-01-01

    We developed a quantification analysis software program for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and under acetazolamide (ACZ) stress by the modified split-dose (MSD) method with iodine-123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and compared the rCBF values measured by the MSD method and by the split dose 123 I-IMP SPECT (SD) method requiring one continuous withdrawal of arterial blood. Since the MSD method allows the input of two arterial blood sampling parameter values, the background subtraction procedure for obtaining ACZ-induced images in the MSD method is not identical to the procedure in the SD method. With our software program for rCBF quantification, the resting rCBF values determined by the MSD method were closely correlated with the values measured by the SD method (r=0.94), and there was also a good correlation between the ACZ-induced rCBF values obtained by the MSD method and by the SD method (r=0.81). The increase in rCBF under ACZ stress was estimated to be approximately 26% by the SD method and 38% by the MSD method, suggesting that the MSD method tends to overestimate the increase in rCBF under ACZ stress in comparison with the SD method, but the variability of the rCBF values at rest and during ACZ stress analyzed by the MSD method was smaller than the variability with the SD method. Further clinical studies are required to validate our rCBF quantification analysis program for the MSD method. (author)

  7. SPECT image analysis using SPM in patients with parkinson's disease and essential tremor : rCBF correlates of immediate surgical outcome following unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in PD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Nam Bum; Lee, Uhn

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with PD and essential tremor (ET) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and rCBF correlates of immediate surgical outcome following unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in patients with PD. Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 10 PD (60.5±8.7), 10 ET (55.5±17.7) patients and 10 healthy controls (56.2±12.0). Eight patients with PD following unilateral right thalamo-pallidotomy and five following unilateral left thalamo-pallidotomy underwent pre- and post-operative rCBF SPECT both one week before and after surgery. Acquisition were acquired within 30 min, 360 rotations with 90 projections were collected in a 128 x 128 matrix using a dual head gamma camera (Siemens, Multispect II). Data were analyzed using SPM 99. We found definite bilateral decreased rCBF in perfrontal cortex, bilateral increased rCBF in dentate nucleus of superomedial cerebellum in patients with PD and bilateral increased rCBF in lateral aspect of cerebellum in ET, respectively, compared with healthy controls. In addition, rCBF suspiciousely increased bilaterally in left dorsolateral frontal cortex in ET with equivocal clinical significance. Following 8 right and 5 left unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in PD patients, immediate postop declines in ipsilateral fronto-temporal and temporal cortical perfusion, respectively, as well as pallidothalamic hypoperfusion were significant. SPM analysis showed that significantly decreased rCBF in bilateral perfrontal cortex and increased rCBF in dentate uncleus of superomedial cerebellum in PD and increased bilateral rCBF in lateral aspect of cerebellum in ET. Unilateral thalamo-pallidotomy in PD patients reduced the immediate post-operative rCBF declines in ipsilateral temporal (frontal) cortex as well as pallidothalamic hypoperfusion which is suggestive of thalamo-cortical diaschisis

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow using 133Xenon intra-venous technique, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Masahiro; Teramoto, Shigeyoshi; Moriyama, Tadayoshi

    1990-01-01

    We used the noninvasive 133 Xenon venous technique to measure 3622 regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) in 1955 cases for last about six years. The majority of patients was in their fifties or sixties, and their diagnosis was ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Sixty-four healthy, non-hospitalized volunteers (10∼76 years) were studied as control value. The age-related curve of rCBF showed a rapid decrease in young age groups and a gradual decrease in older age groups. The curve was well fitted to the hyperbola (X-13.0621)(Y-42.6038)=556.493. The correlation coefficient was 0.93. This finding showed that the declined rCBF related with age was attributed to more than two factors. When cerebrovascular CO 2 reactivity was tested in the healthy control group, the rCBF on average increased to 90.5 ml/100 g/min from 70.2 ml/100 g/min (28.9%) being accompanied with the elevation of Pco 2 of 11.4 mmHg in arterial blood gas on average. The CO 2 reactivity index was 2.75 ± 1.65 on average. On the other hand, following an intravenous injection of Diamox (1 g) the rCBF increased to 80.0 ml/100 g/min from 59.6 ml/100 g/min (34.2%) on average in the control group. (author)

  9. Beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage: effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ment, L.R.; Stewart, W.B.; Duncan, C.C.; Scott, D.T.; Lambrecht, R.

    1983-01-01

    The newborn beagle puppy has been demonstrated to provide a good model for neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). A study was designed to determine if indomethacin can prevent IVH and if indomethacin would produce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Newborn beagle puppies were randomized by computer into two groups: one was pretreated with indomethacin, a known inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, and the other was saline. The dogs in both groups were then assigned either to undergo hemorrhagic hypotension/volume reexpansion insult or to receive no insult. Twenty percent of all pups receiving indomethacin and undergoing the insult experienced IVH, compared to 71% of the pups undergoing insult that had been pretreated with saline. Significant alterations in the blood pressure responses to the hemorrhagic hypotension/volume reexpansion insult were noted in the former group compared to the saline-pretreated pups subjected to insult. Finally, employing carbon-14 autoradiography for the determination of CBF, it was demonstrated that indomethacin decreases resting CBF of the newborn beagle pups and, in indomethacin-pretreated animals subjected to insult, prevents the increases in CBF seen in the saline-pretreated traumatized pups. 62 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  10. Task Related Cerebral Blood Flow Changes of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Arterial Spin Labeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Roland; Boissoneault, Jeff; Craggs, Jason G; Lai, Song; Robinson, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    One hallmark of chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is task related worsening of fatigue. Global brain hypoperfusion, abnormal regional activation, and altered functional connectivity of brain areas associated with cognition and memory have been reported but remain controversial. We enrolled 17 female participants fulfilling the CDC Criteria for ME/CFS and 16 matched healthy controls (HC). Using a 3T-Phillips Achieva MRI-scanner, pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling (pCASL), was used to study the dynamics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and their relationship to mental fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC during a demanding cognitive task, i.e. modified Paced-Auditory-Serial-Addition-Testing (PASAT). ME/CFS subjects reported more fatigue than HC at baseline (p fatigue in ME/CFS participants and HC. Although not different between groups, overall CBF significantly increased over the first 3 min of the PASAT and then decreased thereafter. Regional CBF (rCBF) changes were significantly different between groups during the post-task recovery period. Whereas improvement of fatigue of ME/CFS subjects was associated with decreased rCBF in both superior temporal gyri (STG), precuneus, and fusiform gyrus, it was associated with increased rCBF in the same areas in HC. Our results suggest that ME/CFS is associated with normal global CBF at rest and during a strenuous task (PASAT); however rCBF of several brain regions associated with memory, goal-oriented attention, and visual function was differentially associated with recovery from fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC.

  11. New blood flow radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T. III; Shulgin, A.T.; Mathis, C.A.; Budinger, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    Our program for research into the causes of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, manic depressive illness and senile dementia has led us to the development of a new radiopharmaceutical agent, IDNNA (4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine). A series of some 15 different 131 I labeled molecules with various substitutions on the amine were synthesized and tested, and the uptake of the 131 I labeled conpounds in rats was measured. The dimethyl amine (IDNNA) had the best brain uptake and brain/blood ratio. When injected into a dog and scanned with a whole-body scanner, the uptake in the brain could be clearly seen and quantified. Plasma sampling at the same time showed that the maximum brain/blood ratio of 8.7 occurred at 8 min after injection, and the concentration in brain remained high for at least 15 min. Labeling is achieved by reacting 131 ICl and the precursor, 2,5-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethyl amphetamine, in glacial acetic acid; the reaction is complete in less than one minute

  12. Clinical studies of cerebral blood flows using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), 1; The remote effects of tumors and the adverse effects of radiochemotherapy in the non-affected brain of patients with intracranial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yuzo (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    To examine remote effects of tumors on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and adverse effects of radiochemotherapy on cerebral and cerebellar blood flow (CeBF), mean CBF (mCBF) and mean CeBF (mCeBF) have been studied by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Xe-133. The subjects were 78 patients with brain tumor, whose ages ranged from 9 to 74 years. Forty normal volunteers served as controls. In the control group, both mCBF and mCeBF were significantly decreased with advancing age. Both ipsilateral and contralateral mCeBFs were significantly decreased in adult patients with bilateral cerebral tumor, as compared with the control group, which was dependent on tumor volume. mCeBF was significantly decreased on the contralataral side than on the ipsilataral side. Similarly, ipsilateral mCBF was significantly lower than that in the control group. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis occurred frequently associated with extensive involvement of tumor into the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. In adult patients, a decreased mCBF on the non-affected side before surgery was improved postoperatively. One month after irradiation, it transiently increased and decreased again. Three months after irradiation, mCBF was significantly decreased, as compared with that in the control group. The degree of atrophy and tumor volume influenced mCBF on the non-affected side. These factors were responsible for mCBF in younger patients for the adult group, and in older patients for the child group. For adult patients, radiation dose was also a contributing factor for mCBF. In the group given chemotherapy, mCBF was significantly decreased, as compared with the group without chemotherapy. (N.K.) 102 refs.

  13. Changes of cerebral blood flow during the secondary expansion of a cortical contusion assessed by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography in mice using a non-invasive protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Doortje C; Mies, Günter; Terpolilli, Nicole A; Trabold, Raimund; Loch, Alexander; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Weber, John T; Maas, Andrew I R; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2008-07-01

    Although changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in and around traumatic contusions are well documented, the role of CBF for the delayed death of neuronal cells in the traumatic penumbra ultimately resulting in secondary contusion expansion remains unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the relationship between changes of CBF and progressive peri-contusional cell death following traumatic brain injury (TBI). CBF and contusion size were measured in C57Bl6 mice under continuous on-line monitoring of (ETp)CO2 before, and at 15 min and 24 h following controlled cortical impact by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography (IAP-AR; n = 5-6 per group) and by Nissl staining, respectively. Contused and ischemic (CBF < 10%) tissue volumes were calculated and compared over time. Cortical CBF in not injured mice varied between 69 and 93 mL/100mg/min depending on the anatomical location. Fifteen minutes after trauma, CBF decreased in the whole brain by approximately 50% (39 +/- 18 mL/100mg/min; p < 0.05), except in contused tissue where it fell by more than 90% (3 +/- 2 mL/100mg/min; p < 0.001). Within 24 h after TBI, CBF recovered to normal values in all brain areas except the contusion where it remained reduced by more than 90% (p < 0.001). Contusion volume expanded from 24.9 to 35.5 mm3 (p < 0.01) from 15 min to 24 h after trauma (+43%), whereas the area of severe ischemia (CBF < 10%) showed only a minimal (+13%) and not significant increase (22.3 to 25.1 mm3). The current data therefore suggest that the delayed secondary expansion of a cortical contusion following traumatic brain injury may not be caused by a reduction of CBF alone.

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow patterns in extremely elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Kentaro; Hanyu, Haruo; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Soichiro; Sato, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and pathologic features in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients differ depending on the age of onset. The aim of our study was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns of younger, elderly, and extremely elderly patients with AD with that of controls to characterize the rCBF patterns in extremely elderly patients with AD. Single photon emission CT (SPECT) was performed in 113 patients with probable AD, including 34 younger (<70 years), 41 elderly (70-84 years), and 38 extremely elderly (≥85 years) patients divided according to age at examination. The SPECT data were analyzed using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP). No significant differences regarding gender, duration of disease, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination score were found among the groups. As compared with controls, younger and elderly AD demonstrated significant reduction of rCBF in the temporo-parietal areas, posterior cingulate cortices and precunei, which is considered to be a characteristic rCBF pattern in AD. On the other hand, the extremely elderly AD group demonstrated significant reduction of rCBF in the frontal and medial temporal areas, in addition to the temporo-parietal areas, posterior cingulate cortices and precunei, but the reductions were milder than in those in younger and elderly AD groups. The extremely elderly patients with AD showed atypical rCBF patterns in AD compared to younger and elderly patients with AD. Our data suggest that pathological features in extremely elderly AD may be different from those in younger and elderly AD and that diseases different from AD, such as senile dementia of the neurofibrillary tangle type may be clinically diagnosed as extremely elderly AD. (author)

  15. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using one-point venous blood sampling and causality model. Evaluation by comparing with conventional continuous arterial blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hiroaki; Sone, Teruki; Takahashi, Yoshitake

    2008-01-01

    Optimal setting of the input function is essential for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) based on the microsphere model using N-isopropyl-4-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), and usually the arterial 123 I-IMP concentration (integral value) in the initial 5 min is used for this purpose. We have developed a new convenient method in which 123 I-IMP concentration in arterial blood sample is estimated from that in venous blood sample. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-IMP was performed in 110 cases of central nervous system disorders. The causality was analyzed between the various parameters of SPECT data and the ratio of octanol-extracted arterial radioactivity concentration during the first 5 min (Caoct) to octanol-extracted venous radioactivity concentration at 27 min after intravenous injection of 123 I-IMP (Cvoct). A high correlation was observed between the measured and estimated values of Caoct/Cvoct (r=0.856) when the following five parameters were included in the regression formula: radioactivity concentration in venous blood sampled at 27 min (Cv), Cvoct, Cvoct/Cv, and total brain radioactivity counts that were measured by a four-head gamma camera 5 min and 28 min after 123 I-IMP injection. Furthermore, the rCBF values obtained using the input parameters estimated by this method were also highly correlated with the rCBF values measured using the continuous arterial blood sampling method (r=0.912). These results suggest that this method would serve as the new, convenient and less invasive method of rCBF measurement in clinical setting. (author)

  16. Semiquantifying regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Totaro; Kasahara, Eishi; Takahashi, Eriko; Kojima, Seiichi; Ogawa, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Keiko; Miyamae, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Setsuo.

    1990-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the semi-quantitative significance of the absolute value obtained by calculating the regional cerebral blood flow index (rCBFI) from dynamic CT in comparison with SPECT. rCBFI was calculated from mean transit time (MTT) and blood capacity index (BCI) obtained by rapidly infusing 50 ml of Omnipurk into the elbow vein by the use of Hitachi's W-600. [rCBFI=BCI/MTT unit/sec (U/S)] measurment of the rCBF by SPECT was made according to the semi-quantitative method by Matsuda et al. by the use of SHIMADZU's improved type HEADTOME SET-050 with rapid infusion of 123 I-IMP in 3.5 m Ci from the elbow vein. Patients in whom no abnormality was observed in the cardiopulmonary function were enrolled as subjects. The rCBFI in each intracranial site was calculated from dynamic CT in 10 normal adults (aged 35-60, averaging 46.7) as subjects and compared with the rCBF obtained from SPECT in the same cases and same site. Comparative investigation was made similarly between rCBFI and rCBF regarding 10 patients with tracranial diseases (age 29-65, averaging 51.2). The mean rCBFIs in the normal adults obtained from dynamic CT were 1.15±0.18 U/S in the frontal lobar cortex, 1.28±0.19 U/S in the temporal lobar cortex, 1.43±0.1 U/S in the occipital lobar cortex, 1.27±0.2 U/S in the basal ganglia region and 0.43±0.1 U/S in the white matter. On the other hand, the mean rCBFs by SPECT were 47.36±3.93 ml/100 g/min, 55.19±2.22 ml/100 g/min, 61.92±5.42 ml/100 g/min, 54.38±3.51 ml/100 g/min and 38.68±6.18 ml/100 g/min, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between rCBFIs and rCBFs of 10 normal adults and 10 patients with intracranial disease, totalling 20 cases (r=0.79, P<0.005). The rCBFI by dynamic CT has a correlation with the rCBF by SPECT, suggesting the possibility of its evaluation as an absolute value, though semi-quantitatively. (author)

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Kortekaas, Rudie; Kuipers, Rutger; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Pruim, Jan; Reinders, A A T Simone; Holstege, Gert

    2006-12-01

    There is a severe lack of knowledge regarding the brain regions involved in human sexual performance in general, and female orgasm in particular. We used [15O]-H2O positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy women during a nonsexual resting state, clitorally induced orgasm, sexual clitoral stimulation (sexual arousal control) and imitation of orgasm (motor output control). Extracerebral markers of sexual performance and orgasm were rectal pressure variability (RPstd) and perceived level of sexual arousal (PSA). Sexual stimulation of the clitoris (compared to rest) significantly increased rCBF in the left secondary and right dorsal primary somatosensory cortex, providing the first account of neocortical processing of sexual clitoral information. In contrast, orgasm was mainly associated with profound rCBF decreases in the neocortex when compared with the control conditions (clitoral stimulation and imitation of orgasm), particularly in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal pole. Significant positive correlations were found between RPstd and rCBF in the left deep cerebellar nuclei, and between PSA and rCBF in the ventral midbrain and right caudate nucleus. We propose that decreased blood flow in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex signifies behavioural disinhibition during orgasm in women, and that deactivation of the temporal lobe is directly related to high sexual arousal. In addition, the deep cerebellar nuclei may be involved in orgasm-specific muscle contractions while the involvement of the ventral midbrain and right caudate nucleus suggests a role for dopamine in female sexual arousal and orgasm.

  18. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by intravenous administation of 133 xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryding, E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviewing the background and the theory for rCFB measurements the following conditions are established for the use of flow measurement with 133-Xenon as a reliable indicator for indirect measurements of cerebral functional activity. 1. There is a strict coupling between rCBF and regional metabolism. This condition can only be considered to be fulfilled in the normal non-anoxic bran tissue. 2. There is a close correlation between the tissue and the venous concentration of 133-Xenin which can be reliably approximated by the blood-brain partition coefficient. This condition can be considered to be fullfilled in the normal flow range, but not in pathological conditions such as cerebrovascular occlusions. 3. Intercompartment diffusion of 133-Xenon has no significant effect upon the measurement of rCBF values. This condition appear to share its limitations for fulfilement with condition 2. 4. There is no significant contamination by the extracerebral flow components at IH or IV rCBF measurements. 5. There is a negligible 'look through' effect from surrounding areas to region with focal high or low blood flow. (U.W.)

  19. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujike, Takashi; Terashi, Akiro; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Iio, Masaaki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism were studied in three aged normal volunteers and 10 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) by Positron Emission Tomography using O-15. The diagnosis of MID was done according to the Loeb's modified ischemic score and X-ray CT findings. The MID patients, whose X-ray CT showed localized low density areas in the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia and thalamus, were studied. No occulusion was observed at anterior cerebral artery and/or middle cerebral artery on cerebral angiography. All cases of MID were mild dementias. Regional CBF, rOEF and rCMRO 2 were measured by the steady state technique described by Terry Jones et al. The values of rCBF in MID patients were significantly low compared with those of aged normal subjects in frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal cortices and thalamus. The values of CMRO 2 in MID were significantly low in frontal, temporal, occipital cortices and thalamus compared with normal subjects'. The OEF was 0.46 in aged normal subjects, and 0.52 in MID patients. The MID patients in the early stage of dementia showed the increased oxygen extraction fraction, and this fact suggests that ischemia is a significant pathogenic mechanism in the production and progression of multi-infarct dementia. The decrease of CBF and CMRO 2 in MID compared from normal subjects' were most remarkable in frontal cortex. The impairment of mental functions in MID should be caused by the decreased neuronal activities in frontal association cortex. (author)

  20. The baboon model under anaesthesia for in vivo cerebral blood flow studies using single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.; Redelinghuys, F.; Hugo, N.; Oliver, D.; Pilloy, W.

    1992-01-01

    Single photon computed tomography of the brain can be useful in animal experimentation directed towards cerebral conditions. A well established and understood baboon model, necessarily under anaesthesia, could especially be valuable in such investigations. Six normal baboons were studied under various anesthetic agents and their combinations: ketamine, thiopentone, pentobarbitone and halothane. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed with 99m Tc-HMPAO. CBF effects from various anaesthesia were detected, requiring careful choice of the anaesthesia for cerebral investigations. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. The baboon model under anaesthesia for in vivo cerebral blood flow studies using single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.; Redelinghuys, F.; Hugo, N. [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa); Oliver, D.; Pilloy, W. [Medical Univ. of Southern Africa (MEDUNSA), Pretoria (South Africa)

    1992-12-31

    Single photon computed tomography of the brain can be useful in animal experimentation directed towards cerebral conditions. A well established and understood baboon model, necessarily under anaesthesia, could especially be valuable in such investigations. Six normal baboons were studied under various anesthetic agents and their combinations: ketamine, thiopentone, pentobarbitone and halothane. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. CBF effects from various anaesthesia were detected, requiring careful choice of the anaesthesia for cerebral investigations. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  2. Low Cerebral Oxygen Consumption and Blood Flow in Patients With Cirrhosis and an Acute Episode of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby

    2009-01-01

    (15)O-water PET in 6 patients with liver cirrhosis and an acute episode of overt HE, 6 cirrhotic patients without HE, and 7 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Neither whole-brain CMRO(2) nor CBF differed significantly between cirrhotic patients without HE and healthy subjects, but were both significantly...... that the reductions in CMRO(2) and CBF in patients with HE were essentially generalized throughout the brain. CONCLUSIONS: The observations imply that reduced cerebral oxygen consumption and blood flow in cirrhotic patients with an acute episode of overt HE are associated with HE and not cirrhosis as such...

  3. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H. (Den Sundhedsfaglige Kandidatuddannelse, Aarhus Universitet Bygning 1264, Aarhus (Denmark); University College Nordjylland, Aalborg (Denmark)), Email: hnt@ucn.dk; Steffensen, E. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark)); Larsson, E. M. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Background. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in the evaluation of brain tumors. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is usually obtained by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI using normal appearing white matter as reference region. The emerging perfusion technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose. To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods. Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and rCBV maps, with contralateral normal appearing white matter and cerebellum as reference regions. Larger ROIs were drawn for histogram analyses. The type and grade of the gliomas were obtained by histopathology. Statistical comparison was made between diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastomas. Results. rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r = 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r = 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated (0.61 < r < 0.93), whereas for kurtosis and peak height, the correlation coefficient was about 0.3 when comparing rCBF and rCBV values for the same reference region. Neither rCBF nor rCBV quantification provided a statistically significant difference between the three types of gliomas. However, both rCBF and rCBV tended to increase with tumor grade and to be lower in patients who had undergone resection/treatment. Conclusion. rCBF measurements normalized to white matter

  4. Clinical study of cerebral blood flow in unilateral chronic subdural hematoma measured by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Tohru; Saito, Koji; Fukuyama, Kohichi; Yamamoto, Kouki; Morimoto, Mamoru [Kushiro Neurosurgical Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan); Aburano, Tamio

    2000-02-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT before operation was studied in 60 patients with unilateral chronic subdural hematoma. The regional CBF was measured in 26 regions of the fronto-occipital 10 cortices, putamen, thalamus and cerebellar hemisphere on both sides. Sixty cases with unilateral chronic subdural hematoma were classified into four groups on the basis of clinical symptoms: 17 cases with headache (headache group), 34 cases with hemiparesis (hemiparesis group) and 9 cases with consciousness disturbance or dementia (consciousness disturbance group), and into three groups on the basis of the degree of midline brain shift on MRI: 7 cases of mild shift group, 24 cases of moderate shift group and 29 cases of severe shift group. The average CBF in 60 patients in each region indicated that the regional CBF was reduced in frontal, occipital cortices and cerebellum on the non-hematoma side, and in putamen and thalamus on the hematoma side. In the headache group, the regional CBF reduction on the non-hematoma side was found in only frontal and occipital cortices compared with the corresponding regions on the hematoma side. In the hemiparesis group, the regional CBF was reduced in frontal and occipital cortices on the non-hematoma side and in putamen and thalamus on the hematoma side. The part of CBF reduction in both hemispheres was also noted in the hemiparesis group. In the consciousness disturbance group, the CBF reduction was markedly noted in whole brain. The CBF reductions in frontal and occipital cortices on the non-hematoma side and in putamen, thalamus and cerebellum on the hematoma side was not mutually related with the degree of midline brain shift. We concluded that the disturbance of CBF in chronic subdural hematoma was started from frontal and occipital cortices on the non-hematoma side observed in the headache group, and which was extended to putamen and thalamus on the hematoma side and a part of both hemispheres observed in

  5. Clinical study of cerebral blood flow in unilateral chronic subdural hematoma measured by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Tohru; Saito, Koji; Fukuyama, Kohichi; Yamamoto, Kouki; Morimoto, Mamoru; Aburano, Tamio

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT before operation was studied in 60 patients with unilateral chronic subdural hematoma. The regional CBF was measured in 26 regions of the fronto-occipital 10 cortices, putamen, thalamus and cerebellar hemisphere on both sides. Sixty cases with unilateral chronic subdural hematoma were classified into four groups on the basis of clinical symptoms: 17 cases with headache (headache group), 34 cases with hemiparesis (hemiparesis group) and 9 cases with consciousness disturbance or dementia (consciousness disturbance group), and into three groups on the basis of the degree of midline brain shift on MRI: 7 cases of mild shift group, 24 cases of moderate shift group and 29 cases of severe shift group. The average CBF in 60 patients in each region indicated that the regional CBF was reduced in frontal, occipital cortices and cerebellum on the non-hematoma side, and in putamen and thalamus on the hematoma side. In the headache group, the regional CBF reduction on the non-hematoma side was found in only frontal and occipital cortices compared with the corresponding regions on the hematoma side. In the hemiparesis group, the regional CBF was reduced in frontal and occipital cortices on the non-hematoma side and in putamen and thalamus on the hematoma side. The part of CBF reduction in both hemispheres was also noted in the hemiparesis group. In the consciousness disturbance group, the CBF reduction was markedly noted in whole brain. The CBF reductions in frontal and occipital cortices on the non-hematoma side and in putamen, thalamus and cerebellum on the hematoma side was not mutually related with the degree of midline brain shift. We concluded that the disturbance of CBF in chronic subdural hematoma was started from frontal and occipital cortices on the non-hematoma side observed in the headache group, and which was extended to putamen and thalamus on the hematoma side and a part of both hemispheres observed in the

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow and periventricular hyperintensity in silent cerebral infarction. Comparison with multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atushi; Tsuganesawa, Toshikazu; Terashi, Akiro

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the white matter lesions on MRI in silent cerebral infarction, we quantitatively measured rCBF by 123 I-IMP autoradiography method (IMP ARG method) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) in 36 patients with silent cerebral infarction (SCI group), 22 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID group), and 16 control subjects without periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) and lacunar infarction on MRI (CL group). Regions of interest (ROIs) on rCBF images were set in the frontal (F), temporal (T), parietal (P), occipital (O) cortex, and the cerebral white matter (W). The severity of PVH on MRI T 2 -weighted image was divided into four grades (grade 0-3). Though the frequency of hypertension was significantly higher in SCI group and MID group compared with CL group, no significant difference was seen in the mean age among these three groups. rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices except the occipital cortex in SCI group was significantly low compared with CL group (rCBF SCI /rCBF CL : W 0.87, F 0.87, T 0.87, P 0.88, O 0.92). rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices, especially in the white matter and frontal cortex, in MID group was significantly low compared with SCI group (rCBF MID /rCBF CL : W 0.69, F 0.71, T 0.74, P 0.75, O 0.81). The mean grade of PVH in MID group was significantly higher than that in SCI group (SCI 1.1 vs MID 2.5). The severity of PVH was significantly correlated with each rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices, especially in the white matter and frontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the quantitative measurement of rCBF by IMP ARG method is useful for the follow-up study in the patients with silent cerebral infarction as well as the evaluation of the severity of PVH on MRI. (author)

  7. Positron tomography investigation in humans of the local coupling among CBF, oxygen consumption and glucose utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J C; Rougemont, D; Soussaline, F; Crouzel, C; Bousser, M G; Comar, D

    1983-06-01

    Positron tomography investigation of the local coupling among cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) and glucose utilization (CMRGlc) was performed in 5 controls and 6 ischemic stroke patients, using oxygen 15 inhalation technique immediately followed by I.V. injection of /sup 18/F-Fluoro-Desoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG). The normal couple among all 3 variables was demonstrated; but on the other hand significant disruption of either or both the CBF-CMRGlc and the CMRO/sub 2/-CMRGlc couples was found in all 6 stroke patients. Comments on these new findings were made.

  8. Reliability and error analysis on xenon/CT CBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative error analysis of a simulation model of xenon/CT CBF in order to investigate the behavior and effect of different types of errors such as CT noise, motion artifacts, lower percentage of xenon supply, lower tissue enhancements, etc. A mathematical model is built to simulate these errors. By adjusting the initial parameters of the simulation model, we can scale the Gaussian noise, control the percentage of xenon supply, and change the tissue enhancement with different kVp settings. The motion artifact will be treated separately by geometrically shifting the sequential CT images. The input function is chosen from an end-tidal xenon curve of a practical study. Four kinds of cerebral blood flow, 10, 20, 50, and 80 cc/100 g/min, are examined under different error environments and the corresponding CT images are generated following the currently popular timing protocol. The simulated studies will be fed to a regular xenon/CT CBF system for calculation and evaluation. A quantitative comparison is given to reveal the behavior and effect of individual error resources. Mixed error testing is also provided to inspect the combination effect of errors. The experiment shows that CT noise is still a major error resource. The motion artifact affects the CBF results more geometrically than quantitatively. Lower xenon supply has a lesser effect on the results, but will reduce the signal/noise ratio. The lower xenon enhancement will lower the flow values in all areas of brain. (author)

  9. Post traumatic brain perfusion SPECT analysis using reconstructed ROI maps of radioactive microsphere derived cerebral blood flow and statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoron, Anthony J; Capille, Michael; Georgiou, Michael F; Sanchez, Pablo; Solano, Juan; Gonzalez-Brito, Manuel; Kuluz, John W

    2008-02-29

    Assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by SPECT could be important in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) because changes in regional CBF can affect outcome by promoting edema formation and intracranial pressure elevation (with cerebral hyperemia), or by causing secondary ischemic injury including post-traumatic stroke. The purpose of this study was to establish an improved method for evaluating regional CBF changes after TBI in piglets. The focal effects of moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) by SPECT cerebral blood perfusion (CBP) imaging in an animal model were investigated by parallelized statistical techniques. Regional CBF was measured by radioactive microspheres and by SPECT 2 hours after injury in sham-operated piglets versus those receiving severe TBI by fluid-percussion injury to the left parietal lobe. Qualitative SPECT CBP accuracy was assessed against reference radioactive microsphere regional CBF measurements by map reconstruction, registration and smoothing. Cerebral hypoperfusion in the test group was identified at the voxel level using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). A significant area of hypoperfusion (P TBI. Statistical mapping of the reference microsphere CBF data confirms a focal decrease found with SPECT and SPM. The suitability of SPM for application to the experimental model and ability to provide insight into CBF changes in response to traumatic injury was validated by the SPECT SPM result of a decrease in CBP at the left parietal region injury area of the test group. Further study and correlation of this characteristic lesion with long-term outcomes and auxiliary diagnostic modalities is critical to developing more effective critical care treatment guidelines and automated medical imaging processing techniques.

  10. Post traumatic brain perfusion SPECT analysis using reconstructed ROI maps of radioactive microsphere derived cerebral blood flow and statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoron, Anthony J; Capille, Michael; Georgiou, Michael F; Sanchez, Pablo; Solano, Juan; Gonzalez-Brito, Manuel; Kuluz, John W

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by SPECT could be important in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) because changes in regional CBF can affect outcome by promoting edema formation and intracranial pressure elevation (with cerebral hyperemia), or by causing secondary ischemic injury including post-traumatic stroke. The purpose of this study was to establish an improved method for evaluating regional CBF changes after TBI in piglets. The focal effects of moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) by SPECT cerebral blood perfusion (CBP) imaging in an animal model were investigated by parallelized statistical techniques. Regional CBF was measured by radioactive microspheres and by SPECT 2 hours after injury in sham-operated piglets versus those receiving severe TBI by fluid-percussion injury to the left parietal lobe. Qualitative SPECT CBP accuracy was assessed against reference radioactive microsphere regional CBF measurements by map reconstruction, registration and smoothing. Cerebral hypoperfusion in the test group was identified at the voxel level using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). A significant area of hypoperfusion (P < 0.01) was found as a response to the TBI. Statistical mapping of the reference microsphere CBF data confirms a focal decrease found with SPECT and SPM. The suitability of SPM for application to the experimental model and ability to provide insight into CBF changes in response to traumatic injury was validated by the SPECT SPM result of a decrease in CBP at the left parietal region injury area of the test group. Further study and correlation of this characteristic lesion with long-term outcomes and auxiliary diagnostic modalities is critical to developing more effective critical care treatment guidelines and automated medical imaging processing techniques

  11. Cerebral hemodynamic changes measured by gradient-echo or spin-echo bolus tracking and its correlation to changes in ICA blood flow measured by phase-mapping MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marstrand, J.R.; Rostrup, Egill; Garde, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by Acetazolamide (ACZ) were measured using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) with both spin echo (SE) EPI and gradient echo (GE) EPI, and related to changes in internal carotid artery (ICA) flow measured by phase-mapping. Also examined...... was the effect of repeated bolus injections. CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) were calculated by singular value decomposition (SVD) and by deconvolution using an exponential function as kernel. The results showed no dependency on calculation method. GE-EPI measured a significant...... increase in CBF and CBV in response to ACZ, while SE-EPI measured a significant increase in CBV and MTT. CBV and MTT change measured by SE-EPI was sensitive to previous bolus injections. There was a significant linear relation between change in CBF measured by GE-EPI and change in ICA flow. In conclusion...

  12. Regulation of pulpal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of blood flow of the dental pulp was investigated in dogs and rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Pulpal blood flow was altered by variations of local and systemic hemodynamics. Macrocirculatory blood flow (ml/min/100 g) in the dental pulp was measured with both the 133 Xe washout and the 15-microns radioisotope-labeled microsphere injection methods on the canine teeth of dogs, to provide a comparison of the two methods in the same tooth. Microcirculatory studies were conducted in the rat incisor tooth with microscopic determination of the vascular pattern, RBC velocity, and intravascular volumetric flow distribution. Pulpal resistance vessels have alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Activation of alpha-receptors by intra-arterial injection of norepinephrine (NE) caused both a reduction in macrocirculatory Qp in dogs and decreases in arteriolar and venular diameters and intravascular volumetric flow (Qi) in rats. These responses were blocked by the alpha-antagonist PBZ. Activation of beta-receptors by intra-arterial injection of isoproterenal (ISO) caused a paradoxical reduction of Qp in dogs. In rats, ISO caused a transient increase in arteriolar Qi followed by a flow reduction; arteriolar dilation was accompanied by venular constriction. These macrocirculatory and microcirculatory responses to ISO were blocked by the alpha-antagonist propranolol

  13. Vascular and parenchymal amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer disease knock-in mouse model: interplay with cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Guo, Qinxi; Inoue, Taeko; Polito, Vinicia A; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Hammer, Robert E; Pautler, Robia G; Taffet, George E; Zheng, Hui

    2014-08-09

    Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the parenchymal pathology, Aβ is known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a prominent feature in the majority of AD. Although impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been implicated in faulty Aβ transport and clearance, and cerebral hypoperfusion can exist in the pre-clinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is still unclear whether it is one of the causal factors for AD pathogenesis, or an early consequence of a multi-factor condition that would lead to AD at late stage. To study the potential interaction between faulty CBF and amyloid accumulation in clinical-relevant situation, we generated a new amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in allele that expresses humanized Aβ and a Dutch mutation in addition to Swedish/London mutations and compared this line with an equivalent knock-in line but in the absence of the Dutch mutation, both crossed onto the PS1M146V knock-in background. Introduction of the Dutch mutation results in robust CAA and parenchymal Aβ pathology, age-dependent reduction of spatial learning and memory deficits, and CBF reduction as detected by fMRI. Direct manipulation of CBF by transverse aortic constriction surgery on the left common carotid artery caused differential changes in CBF in the anterior and middle region of the cortex, where it is reduced on the left side and increased on the right side. However these perturbations in CBF resulted in the same effect: both significantly exacerbate CAA and amyloid pathology. Our study reveals a direct and positive link between vascular and parenchymal Aβ; both can be modulated by CBF. The new APP knock-in mouse model recapitulates many symptoms of AD including progressive vascular and parenchymal Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in the absence of APP overexpression.

  14. Cerebral blood flow measurement using 123I-IMP graph plot method with SPECT. Comparison with autoradiography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yuki; Kamitani, Hideki; Ishibashi, Minako; Ito, Satoru; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) values using 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) graph plot (GP) method with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), compared with autoradiography (ARG) method. IMP-SPECT by GP combined with ARG method at rest was performed in 40 patients to determine the equation of linear regression for GP method in our institution. In addition, we compared regional CBF (rCBF) values at rest between GP and ARG methods in 10 other patients. Among all 50 patients, acetazolamide (ACZ)-challenged SPECT by GP combined with ARG method using 2-day protocol was performed in 10 patients. We also compared the rCBF values after ACZ challenge between GP and ARG methods in these 10 patients. The equation of linear regression for GP method in our institution was y=1.945x+20.36 (R 2 =0.586, P 2 =0.624, P 2 =0.150, P<0.001). IMP-SPECT by GP method at rest is useful to measure reliable rCBF values without arterial blood sampling, although we need pay attention to interpret the result of 2-day protocol ACZ-challenged SPECT by GP method. (author)

  15. Global cerebral blood flow and metabolism during acute hyperketonemia in the awake and anesthetized rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Rasmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Topp, Simon

    2006-01-01

    and cerebral metabolism could not be explained by alterations in blood pH or arterial CO2 tension. By measuring cerebral intracellular pH by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, it could further be concluded that the brain pH was unchanged during acute hyperketonemia. These observations indicate......In the human setting, it has been shown that acute increase in the concentration of ketone bodies by infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) without affecting the overall cerebral metabolic activity. The mechanism by which this effect of ketone bodies was mediated...... that the mechanism responsible for the increase in CBF is rather a direct effect on the cerebral endothelium than via some metabolic interactions...

  16. Improvements in the Quantitative Assessment of Cerebral Blood Volume and Flow with the Removal of Vessel Voxels from MR Perfusion Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mu Huo Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To improve the quantitative assessment of cerebral blood volume (CBV and flow (CBF in the brain voxels from MR perfusion images. Materials and Methods. Normal brain parenchyma was automatically segmented with the time-to-peak criteria after cerebrospinal fluid removal and preliminary vessel voxel removal. Two scaling factors were calculated by comparing the relative CBV and CBF of the segmented normal brain parenchyma with the absolute values in the literature. Using the scaling factors, the relative values were converted to the absolute CBV and CBF. Voxels with either CBV > 8 mL/100 g or CBF > 100 mL/100 g/min were characterized as vessel voxels and were excluded from the quantitative measurements. Results. The segmented brain parenchyma with normal perfusion was consistent with the angiographic findings for each patient. We confirmed the necessity of dual thresholds including CBF and CBV for proper removal of vessel voxels. The scaling factors were 0.208 ± 0.041 for CBV, and 0.168 ± 0.037, 0.172 ± 0.037 for CBF calculated using standard and circulant singular value decomposition techniques, respectively. Conclusion. The automatic scaling and vessel removal techniques provide an alternative method for obtaining improved quantitative assessment of CBV and CBF in patients with thromboembolic cerebral arterial disease.

  17. Distinct pattern of cerebral blood flow alterations specific to schizophrenics experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations with and without insight: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rixing; Huang, Jiangjie; Jiang, Deguo; Lin, Xiaodong; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2018-01-23

    Schizophrenia is associated with widespread and complex cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbance. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and insight are the core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have assessed the CBF characteristics of the AVH suffered by schizophrenic patients with and without insight. Based on our previous findings, Using a 3D pseudo-continuous ASL (pcASL) technique, we investigated the differences in AVH-related CBF alterations in schizophrenia patients with and without insight. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM13) to perform the fMRI analysis. We found that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight showed an increased CBF in the left temporal pole and a decreased CBF in the right middle frontal gyrus when compared to AVH-schizophrenia patients with insight. Our novel findings suggest that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight possess a more complex CBF disturbance. Simultaneously, our findings also incline to support the idea that the CBF aberrant in some specific brain regions may be the common neural basis of insight and AVH. Our findings support the mostly current hypotheses regarding AVH to some extent. Although our findings come from a small sample, it provide the evidence that indicate us to conduct a larger study to thoroughly explore the mechanisms of schizophrenia, especially the core symptoms of AVHs and insight.

  18. Fibro-vascular coupling in the control of cochlear blood flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Dai

    Full Text Available Transduction of sound in the cochlea is metabolically demanding. The lateral wall and hair cells are critically vulnerable to hypoxia, especially at high sound levels, and tight control over cochlear blood flow (CBF is a physiological necessity. Yet despite the importance of CBF for hearing, consensus on what mechanisms are involved has not been obtained.We report on a local control mechanism for regulating inner ear blood flow involving fibrocyte signaling. Fibrocytes in the super-strial region are spatially distributed near pre-capillaries of the spiral ligament of the albino guinea pig cochlear lateral wall, as demonstrably shown in transmission electron microscope and confocal images. Immunohistochemical techniques reveal the inter-connected fibrocytes to be positive for Na+/K+ ATPase β1 and S100. The connected fibrocytes display more Ca(2+ signaling than other cells in the cochlear lateral wall as indicated by fluorescence of a Ca(2+ sensor, fluo-4. Elevation of Ca(2+ in fibrocytes, induced by photolytic uncaging of the divalent ion chelator o-nitrophenyl EGTA, results in propagation of a Ca(2+ signal to neighboring vascular cells and vasodilation in capillaries. Of more physiological significance, fibrocyte to vascular cell coupled signaling was found to mediate the sound stimulated increase in cochlear blood flow (CBF. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 was required for capillary dilation.The findings provide the first evidence that signaling between fibrocytes and vascular cells modulates CBF and is a key mechanism for meeting the cellular metabolic demand of increased sound activity.

  19. Evolution of cerebral blood flow between the acute stage and one month after a global transient amnesia: a study of 18 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, B.; Houzard, C.; Cinotti, L.; Croisile, B.

    2001-01-01

    We studied 18 patients within 24 hours of an idiopathic transient global amnesia and one month later using 133 Xe et 99m Tc-HMPAO for CBF measurements. Absolute hemispheric CBF obtained with the 133 Xe were initially: (right) = 46.9 ml/mn/100 g (s.d 6.6) and (left) = 47.9 (s.d 6.8). One month later, a significant increase of the right hemispheric CBF occurred (52.0 ± 6.9). Accordingly, absolute CBF increased bilaterally in the cerebellar and temporal regions. Local relative cerebral blood flow ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) allowed to reinforce these findings with increased resolution. They can also provide quantitative values thanks to the 133 Xe calibration. (authors)

  20. Functional response of cerebral blood flow induced by somatosensory stimulation in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Huang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Li, Pengcheng; Ma, Lianting; Lu, Jinling

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by cerebral vasospasm (CVS), which is the phenomenon of narrowing of large cerebral arteries, and then can produce delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) such as lateralized sensory dysfunction. CVS was regarded as a major contributor to DIND in patients with SAH. However, therapy for preventing vasospasm after SAH to improve the outcomes may not work all the time. It is important to find answers to the relationship between CVS and DIND after SAH. How local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated during functional activation after SAH still remains poorly understood, whereas, the regulation of CBF may play an important role in weakening the impact of CVS on cortex function. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the functional response of CBF in the activated cortex in an SAH animal model. Most evaluation of the effect of SAH is presently carried out by neurological behavioral scales. The functional imaging of cortical activation during sensory stimulation may help to reflect the function of the somatosensory cortex more locally than the behavioral scales do. We investigated the functional response of CBF in the somatosensory cortex induced by an electrical stimulation to contralateral forepaw via laser speckle imaging in a rat SAH model. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats from two groups (control group, n=10 and SAH group, n=9) were studied. SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. The same surgical procedure was applied in the control group without CSF aspiration or blood injection. Significant CVS was found in the SAH group. Meanwhile, we observed a delayed peak of CBF response in rats with SAH compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant difference was found in magnitude, duration, and areas under curve of relative CBF changes between the two groups. The results suggest that the regulation function of local CBF during

  1. Source Estimation for the Damped Wave Equation Using Modulating Functions Method: Application to the Estimation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-10-19

    In this paper, a method based on modulating functions is proposed to estimate the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). The problem is written in an input estimation problem for a damped wave equation which is used to model the spatiotemporal variations of blood mass density. The method is described and its performance is assessed through some numerical simulations. The robustness of the method in presence of noise is also studied.

  2. Study Impact of Gas Delivery Systems on Imaging Studies of Human Cerebral Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, J.R.; Parkes, L.M.; Jackson, A.; Parkes, L.M.; Eadsforth, P.; Beards, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    To compare a semiopen breathing circuit with a non-rebreathing (Hudson mask) for MRI experiments involving gas delivery. Methods and Materials. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by quantitative phase contrast angiography of the internal carotid and basilar arteries in 18 volunteers (20-31 years). In 8 subjects, gases were delivered via a standard non-re breathing (Hudson mask). In 10 subjects, gases were delivered using a modified “Mapleson A” semiopen anesthetic gas circuit and mouthpiece. All subjects were given 100% O 2 , medical air, and carbogen gas (95% O 2 and 5% CO 2 ) delivered at 15 L/min in a random order. Results. The Hudson mask group showed significant increases in CBF in response to increased FiCO 2 compared to air (+9.8%). A small nonsignificant reduction in CBF (-2.4%) was seen in response to increased inspired concentrations of oxygen (FiO 2 ). The Mapleson A group showed significantly larger changes in CBF in response to both increased inspired concentrations of carbon dioxide (FiCO 2 ) (+32.2%, Ρ<0.05) and FiO 2 (-14.6%, Ρ<0.01). Conclusions. The use of an anaesthetic gas delivery circuit avoids entrainment of room air and re breathing effects that may otherwise adversely affect the experimental results.

  3. Correlations of cerebral blood flow with language function in aphasic patients following cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Nagata, Ken; Uemura, Kazuo [Research Inst. for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    To elucidate the participation of the brain regions in language function, cerebral blood flow (CBF) which were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) were compared with the language scores based on the standard language test for aphasics in 97 right-handed patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction. PET studies were performed on 71.4{+-}107.3 days after onset. By the linear regression analysis, the aphasic scores were correlated with the regional CBF from 55 brain regions. CBF from the left frontal, left temporal, and left parietal lobes significantly correlated with language scores of auditory comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, calculation, and repetition. Highly significant correlation was obtained from the left posterior inferior frontal, superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri. CBF from the right inferior frontal, right superior temporal, right parahippocampal and right anterior cingulate gyri also correlated with the auditory comprehension, speaking and reading. Accordingly, in addition to the classical language areas which play an essential roles in language function, the extensive areas in the left hemisphere and some part of the right hemisphere may be related to the language processing and recovery from aphasia. (author)

  4. SPECT determination of regional cerebral blood flow in hypertensive patients before and after clonidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devous, M.D.; Reed, W.G.; Chehabi, H.H.; Bonte, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined by SPECT of 133-Xe inert gas washout in 18 hypertensive patients (PTS) upon admission and after treatment with oral clonidine (CL, 0.2 mg, then 0.1 mg/hr until diastolic pressure reached 105 mm Hg or fell by 30 mm Hg). CL reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 160 (200/140) to 133 (150/100) mm Hg over 4-6 hr. RCBF was quantitated in 14 gray matter regions from cross-sectional images and analyzed for differences from normal controls and changes with CL. Initial rCBF was lower in HI PTS than in either normal controls of LO PTS in all brain regions. CL lowered MAP in HI PTS by 52 +- 15 mm Hg and caused reduction in all gray matter regions except right frontal and right temporal (mean reduction 5 +- 2 ml/min/100 g, rho<.05). RCBF images were also evaluated by two trained observers for initial regional defects and for changes with CL. LO PTS were more likely to have defects in rCBF images at rest which would resolve with CL. HI PTS frequently had normal images at rest and developed defects with CL. In summary, the study suggests that SPECT may be useful in detecting rCBF abnormalities in hypertensive PTS at rest and following reductions in MAP

  5. The relationship between the cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism in primary degenerative dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masada, Kouji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The CBF, CMRO{sub 2} and CMRGlu were measured in patients with primary degenerative dementia including 5 patients with dementia of Alzheimer`s type and 4 patients with Pick`s disease, and then the correlation between the cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism was evaluated. The control subjects consisted of 5 age-matched normal volunteers. The CBF, CMRO{sub 2} and CMRGlu decreased in the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal regions in the patients with Alzheimer`s dementia, while they decreased in the bilateral frontal and temporal regions in the patients with Pick`s disease. Both the CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were closely correlated with each other. However, the CMRGlu was more severely impaired than the CBF or CMRO{sub 2} in both pathological conditions. These results suggested that CMRGlu began to decrease before the reduction of the aerobic metabolism and thus measuring the CMRGlu is considered to be the most sensitive method for detecting abnormal regions in primary degenerative dementia. (author).

  6. Correlations of cerebral blood flow with language function in aphasic patients following cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Nagata, Ken; Uemura, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the participation of the brain regions in language function, cerebral blood flow (CBF) which were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) were compared with the language scores based on the standard language test for aphasics in 97 right-handed patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction. PET studies were performed on 71.4±107.3 days after onset. By the linear regression analysis, the aphasic scores were correlated with the regional CBF from 55 brain regions. CBF from the left frontal, left temporal, and left parietal lobes significantly correlated with language scores of auditory comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, calculation, and repetition. Highly significant correlation was obtained from the left posterior inferior frontal, superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri. CBF from the right inferior frontal, right superior temporal, right parahippocampal and right anterior cingulate gyri also correlated with the auditory comprehension, speaking and reading. Accordingly, in addition to the classical language areas which play an essential roles in language function, the extensive areas in the left hemisphere and some part of the right hemisphere may be related to the language processing and recovery from aphasia. (author)

  7. Effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow in cerebral vascular disease patients and normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1987-01-01

    The chronic effect of smoking on the regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) was studied by 133-Xenon inhalation method and described with the Initial Slope Index (ISI). Fifty-two patients as the control group who had no abnormality neurologically or with CT scan, 32 patients with old cerebral infarction and 20 patients with old cerebral hemorrhage were introduced to the present study, and these patients were divided into smokers and non-smokers in each group. Those whose smoking index of 200 or more [(number of cigarettes/day) x (years of smoking history) ≥ 200] were designated as smokers. ISI values were decreased significantly in smokers than non-smokers in all groups. Mean ISI value of unaffected hemisphere in smokers decreased by 16 % in the infarction group and 22 % in the hemorrhage group comparing to the non-smokers', respectively. In the control group, mean ISI value of right hemisphere decreased by 15 % and left 14 % in smokers compared to the non-smokers. The r-CBF values in 44 of the 47 smokers were found to be lower than the expected age matched values in non-smokers. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol value in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. We demonstrated preliminarily that the smoking chronically reduced the r-CBF. Advanced atherosclerosis associated with the smoker was suggested to affect the CBF. (author)

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Differences in cerebral blood flow following risperidone treatment in children with autistic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Dilşad Foto; Karabacak, Neşe Ilgin; Akkaş, Burcu; Akdemir, Ozgür; Unal, Fatih; Senol, Selahattin

    2009-01-01

    Functional changes in the brains of autistic children due to risperidone treatment and theirs relationship to the symptom clusters are yet unknown. In this autistic disorder case series we aimed to comparatively evaluate the clinical findings before and after risperidone treatment, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT. Eleven autistic patients (age range: 6-7 years; 4 girls, 7 boys) received risperidone therapy (1.5-2.5 mg d(-1)) and were followed-up for 3 months. All the patients underwent neurologic examinations, psychometric examinations, and SPECT imaging, both at the start of risperidone treatment and 3 months after the treatment started. Clinical observations, and the observations of parents and teachers were recorded. These results were compared with cerebral perfusion indices obtained from SPECT data. After 3 months of treatment changes in rCBF were observed in various regions and to varying degrees. We observed relationships between clinical symptoms and pre-therapy rCBF findings, and between clinical improvement and rCBF changes. Findings in the present case series are the first to demonstrate a relationship between clinical improvement and regional perfusion patterns after risperidone treatment. We think that these findings may contribute to the understanding of the neurofunctional mechanisms and hypothetical models of autism.

  10. Quantitative assessment of blood flow reserve using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garai, I.; Varga, J.; Galuska, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary); Szomjak, E. [3. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary); Toth, C.; Olvaszto, S. [1. Department of Surgery, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary); Bank, J. [Department of Neurology, Kenezy Hospital (Hungary); Ficzere, A. [Department of Neurology, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Centre, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2002-02-01

    Dynamic imaging of the inflow of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) to the brain has been proved to allow estimation of the hemispherical cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the Patlak plot. In this study, we compared the hemispherical CBF (in ml/min/100 g) of different patient groups. A total of 25 patients (comprising 13 with migraine and 12 scheduled for endarterectomy owing to angiographically confirmed severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery on at least one side) underwent baseline and acetazolamide {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion studies. In addition, acetazolamide {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO studies were performed in 12 healthy subjects (no baseline study was performed for ethical reasons.) Dynamic studies were acquired by means of a dual-detector gamma camera with a large field of view (HELIX, Elscint). Special difference images were created to make definition of the aortic arch and hemispherical brain regions easier and more reproducible. A semi-automatic method was developed to determine the transit time from the aorta to the brain, making the generation of the Patlak plot even more robust. The baseline CBF values did not significantly depend on the disease (P>0.1), whereas the CBF values obtained after acetazolamide provocation did do so (ANOVA, P<0.001). Patients suffering from migraine showed a significant increase in global CBF values after acetazolamide provocation (paired t test, P<0.05), but we could not find any effect of the provocation in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy, indicating a lack of cerebrovascular reserve capacity. Comparison of the results of the acetazolamide study in patients and the control group revealed the CBF values to be significantly lower in patients with carotid stenosis (two-sample t-test, P<0.001), but not in those with migraine (P>0.1). In summary, using quantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain studies we could objectively compare the CBF of patients suffering from different diseases

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients with internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Dear Editor, Internet addiction (IA) has become a severe challenge of our modern world today, though little is known about its pathology. In this context, the interesting study by Liu et al. in the May-August 2016 issue of HJNM using 99m Tc-labelled ethylene biyldicysteinate dimer single photon emission tomography (SPET) at rest and after pharmaceutical (adenosine) stress is more than welcomed. As this seems to be the first perfusion SPET study in this indication, the obtained data may be discussed carefully. There are mainly the following questions: a) Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF): There is no description on how the rCBF was calculated: Was it scaled relatively to the whole brain mean value or to the cerebellar mean value? b) P value threshold and clusters: There is no indication of whether the authors are performing any kind of correction for multiple comparisons in the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) t-test. This, combined with the use of a really "liberal" voxel P value of only 0.01 could be subject to providing many false positive results. Generally a P value threshold of 0.001 should be used. In addition, there is no information related to the clusters. For the question of the validity of parametric statistical methods used for the analysis of functional neuroimaging data, we would like to mention the important recent paper by Eklund et al. 2016. c) Data analysis: The authors state (p. 97): "As some abnormal rCBF in adenosine-stressed state might relate with normal responses to adenosine compared to resting state, we excluded those regions that showed abnormal rCBF in stressed state in healthy controls (Table 4) from those in IA group (Table 5). The rest abnormal regions were compared between the IA group and the control group". For this, with SPM a flexible factorial design with all the data rather than only t-tests would have been interesting to find out whether the difference between the groups at stress is the same difference observed between

  12. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO 2 were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author)

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow in older patients with chronic subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Yutaka; Fuse, Masaaki; Iio, Masahiro; Fuziwara, Keigo; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro

    1978-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 4 regions (frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal) over the entire hemisphere using modified 133 Xe clearance method in 5 patients with chronic subdural hematoma. In 5 patients, rCBF was measured both pre- and postoperation and those values were compared. CBF (average cerebral blood flow) measurements were compared. CBF measurements were carried out in each patients respectively, that is before the operation and 3 weeks after the operation. Before the operation, the presence of chronic subdural hematoma, but brought about only slight or moderate generalized decrease in rCBF. The older patients presented subnormal values of 31.5 - 45.1 ml/100 g/min. Mean f sub(g) (the flow in the grey matter) of 5 patients was 66.8 +- 5.0 ml/100 g/min on the hematoma site, 58.1 +- 2.8 ml/100 g/min on the non-hematoma site before operation. Three weeks after operation mean f sub(g) was 65.5 +- 7.6 ml/100 g/min on the non-hematoma site, 64.2 +- 3.5 ml/100 g/min on the hematoma site, and CBFr of non-hematoma site was 40.2 +- 5.7 ml/100 g/min and that of hematoma site, 38.5 +- 8.8 ml/100 g/min. These figures are moderately smaller than that of the normal values. A comparison between regional flow values noted in patients of pre- and post-operation who has a removal of hematomas indicated that the flow values of non-hematoma site increased slightly 3 weeks after operation, inspite of the only slight or no improvement in neurological features. But the flow values (f sub(g), CBFr) of hematoma site decreased 3 weeks after operation. It seems that post-operative follow up of mean cerebral blood flow change might be of help in the assessment of prognosis of operation. (auth.)

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow in older patients with chronic subdural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Y; Fuse, M; Iio, M; Fuziwara, K; Kawaguchi, S [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Medical Center (Japan)

    1978-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 4 regions (frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal) over the entire hemisphere using modified /sup 133/Xe clearance method in 5 patients with chronic subdural hematoma. In 5 patients, rCBF was measured both pre- and postoperation and those values were compared. CBF (average cerebral blood flow) measurements were compared. CBF measurements were carried out in each patients respectively, that is before the operation and 3 weeks after the operation. Before the operation, the presence of chronic subdural hematoma, but brought about only slight or moderate generalized decrease in rCBF. The older patients presented subnormal values of 31.5 - 45.1 ml/100 g/min. Mean f sub(g) (the flow in the grey matter) of 5 patients was 66.8 +- 5.0 ml/100 g/min on the hematoma site, 58.1 +- 2.8 ml/100 g/min on the non-hematoma site before operation. Three weeks after operation mean f sub(g) was 65.5 +- 7.6 ml/100 g/min on the non-hematoma site, 64.2 +- 3.5 ml/100 g/min on the hematoma site, and CBFr of non-hematoma site was 40.2 +- 5.7 ml/100 g/min and that of hematoma site, 38.5 +- 8.8 ml/100 g/min. These figures are moderately smaller than that of the normal values. A comparison between regional flow values noted in patients of pre- and post-operation who has a removal of hematomas indicated that the flow values of non-hematoma site increased slightly 3 weeks after operation, inspite of the only slight or no improvement in neurological features. But the flow values (f sub(g), CBFr) of hematoma site decreased 3 weeks after operation. It seems that post-operative follow up of mean cerebral blood flow change might be of help in the assessment of prognosis of operation.

  15. Critical appraisal of cerebral blood flow measured from brain stem and cerebellar regions after 133 Xe inhalation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juge, O.; Meyer, J.S.; Sakai, F.; Yamaguchi, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Shaw, T.

    1979-01-01

    Validity of regional blood flow (rCBF) measurements recorded over the human posterior fossa after 133Xe inhalation was tested. Recording of counts from both brain stem and cerebellum (BSC) was reproducible and contamination by counts derived from surrounding anatomical structures was low and no greater than that found over hemispheres. BSC flow values showed significant correlation with the state of awareness as judged by clinical and EEG evaluation

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow during light sleep--a H(2)(15)O-PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Law, Ian; Wiltschiøtz, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    to other forms of altered awareness, for example, relaxation meditation than to deeper sleep stages. We are of the opinion that stage-1 sleep represents the dreaming state of wakefulness, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reflects the dreaming state of the unaware, sleeping brain.......This is the first report on the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes during stage-1 sleep or somnolence. Two hypotheses were tested: (A) that rCBF differed between the awake relaxed state and stage-1 sleep, (B) that hypnagogic hallucinations frequently experienced at sleep...... onset would be accompanied by measurable changes in rCBF using positron emission tomography (PET). Eight subjects were PET-scanned with (15)O-labeled water injection in three conditions: awake, stage-1 sleep with reportable experiences and stage-1 sleep without reportable experiences...

  17. Cerebral O2 metabolism and cerebral blood flow in humans during deep and rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    on examination of this question. We have now measured CBF and CMRO2 in young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep sleep (stage 3/4), and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep as verified by standard polysomnography...... associated with light anesthesia. During REM sleep (dream sleep) CMRO2 was practically the same as in the awake state. Changes in CBF paralleled changes in CMRO2 during both deep and REM sleep.......It could be expected that the various stages of sleep were reflected in variation of the overall level of cerebral activity and thereby in the magnitude of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The elusive nature of sleep imposes major methodological restrictions...

  18. The SPECT study on the regional cerebral blood flow of heroin addicts during cue-induced heroin craving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengqing; Liu Qinglong; Wang Yuhua; Wang Jinmin; Wang Shuo; Zhao Geyuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the character of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of heroin addicts during the exposure to the heroin-related cues. Methods: Twenty-five heroin dependent individuals undergoing detoxification for more than one month were enrolled in the present study. All subjects were exposed to the heroin-related cues for 15 min. The rCBF was measured in these patients before and after exposure to heroin-related cues. Result: The rCBF in the frontal, temporal cortex and amygdala was significantly increased during the exposure to heroin-related cues. Conclusion: The findings indicate that drug-related cues play a critical role in the relapse of drug dependence; and the frontal, temporal cortex and amygdala are involved in the relapsing process

  19. Changes in local cerebral blood flow by neuroactivation and vasoactivation in patients with impaired cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.H.; Dannenberg, C.; Marschall, B.; Zedlick, D.; Loeschmann, K.; Bettin, S.; Barthel, H.; Seese, A.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging of local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) may serve as an important supplementary tool in the aetiological assessment of dementias. In early or preclinical disease, however, there are less characteristic changes in lCBF. In the present study it was investigated whether vasoactivation or neuroactivation may produce more pronounced local lCBF deficits. Local CBF was investigated by using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in 80 patients (50 with mild cognitive impairment and 30 with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), all without evidence of cerebrovascular disease) at rest (baseline) and during activation. In 31 studies patients underwent vasomotor activation with acetazolamide, while 62 studies were performed under cognitive challenge (neuroactivation by labyrinth task). Cortical activity relative to that of cerebellum increased significantly in a right temporal region and tended to increase in other cortical regions upon vasoactivation. In contrast, neuroactivation reduced cortical activity relative to that of cerebellum in several left and right temporal and in left parietal regions. Visual classification of SPET images of patients with probable DAT by three observers resulted in a reduction of the number of definitely abnormal patterns from 9/12 to 4/12 by vasoactivation and an increase from 10/18 to 15/18 by neuroactivation. Correspondingly, abnormal ratings in patients with mild cognitive dysfunction were reduced form 7/19 to 5/19 by vasoactivation and were increased from 12/21 to 18/21 by neuroactivation. In conclusion, vasoactivation does not enhance local relative perfusion deficits in patients with cognitive impairment of non-vascular aetiology, whereas neuroactivation by labyrinth task produces more pronounced local flow differences and enhances abnormal patterns in lCBF imaging. (orig.)

  20. Memory functions and rCBF 99mTc-HMPAO SPET: developing diagnostics in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta; Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Aahlstroem, Katrine Riklund; Nyberg, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease of the brain. The prevalence increases with age, with devastating consequences for the individual and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with early AD show an altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) compared with control persons. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the correlation between rCBF in sublobar volumes of the brain and performance on memory tests. Memory tests were chosen to evaluate episodic and semantic memory. Fourteen patients (aged 75.2±8.8 years) with early AD and 15 control persons (aged 71.4±3.2 years) were included. rCBF measurements with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) were performed. The rCBF 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET images were spatially transformed to fit a brain atlas and normalised for differences in rCBF (Computerised Brain Atlas software). Cortical and subcortical volumes of interest (VOIs) were analysed and compared. Compared with the controls, AD patients showed a significantly lower rCBF ratio in temporoparietal regions, including the left hippocampus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for AD were high in temporoparietal regions. AD patients had significantly reduced performance on semantic and, in particular, episodic memory tests compared with age-matched normative data, and their performance on several episodic tests correlated with rCBF ratios in parietal and temporal regions, including the left hippocampus. The correlation between rCBF ratio and level of episodic memory performance suggests that abnormalities in rCBF pattern underlie impaired episodic memory functioning in AD. (orig.)

  1. Memory functions and rCBF-99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT: Developing diagnostics in Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, T.; Riklund Ahlstroem, K.; Elgh, E.; Naesman, B.; Nyberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease of the brain. The prevalence increases with age with devastating consequences for the individual and for the society. The aim of this study was to evaluate if patients with early AD show an altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) compared to control persons. The aim was furthermore to investigate the correlation between rCBF in sub-lobar volumes of the brain and performance on memory tests. Memory tests were chosen to evaluate episodic and semantic memory. Fourteen patients (75.2±8.8 yrs) with early AD, and 15 control persons (71.4±3.2 yrs) were included. rCBF measurements with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (HMPAO) were performed. The rCBF- 99m Tc-HMPAO-SPECT images were spatially transformed to fit a brain atlas and normalized for differences in rCBF (Computerized Brain Atlas software). Cortical and sub-cortical volumes of interests (VOI) were analyzed and compared. Compared to the controls, AD-patients showed a significantly lower rCBF ratio in temporoparietal regions including left hippocampus. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for AD were high in temporoparietal regions. AD-patients had significantly reduced performance on semantic and, in particular, episodic memory tests compared to age matched normative data, and their performance on several episodic tests correlated with rCBF ratios in parietal and temporal regions including left hippocampus. The correlation between rCBF ratio and level of episodic memory performance suggests that abnormalities in rCBF pattern underlie impaired episodic memory functioning in AD

  2. Effects of normal aging on regional CBF and CMRO2 in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantano, P.; Baron, J.C.; Lebrun-Grandie, P.; Duquesnoy, N.; Bousser, M.G.; Comar, D.

    1983-07-01

    The oxygen-15 continuous inhalation technique and positron emission tomography were used in order to investigate age-related changes of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ). 27 patients aged 19 to 76 years without evidence of dementia, brain disease or vascular risk factors, were studied. Regional CBF and CMRO 2 were calculated in seven different brain structures. In gray matter CBF and CMRO 2 decreased with aging (respectively 18% and 17%, p 2 was found to be diffuse but to affect principally the frontal and temporo-sylvian cortex. Neuronal loss and/or a diminished metabolic activity of residual neurons are the most likely hypotheses to explain these findings

  3. Cerebral blood-flow tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Henriksen, L; Holm, S

    1983-01-01

    . The Xe-133 flow maps are essentially based on the average Xe-133 concentration over the initial 2 min during and after an inhalation of the inert gas lasting 1 min. These maps agreed very well with the early IMP maps obtained over the initial 10 min following an i.v. bolus injection. The subsequent IMP......, and with low radiation exposure to patient and personnel. On the other hand, IMP gives an image of slightly higher resolution. It also introduces a new class of iodinated brain-seeking compounds allowing, perhaps, imaging of other functions more important than mere blood flow....

  4. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-( sup 123 I)iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Toshinori (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshinori

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs

  7. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Wakeful Rest in Older Subjects with Mild to Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. High-resolution (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. N/A. Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model applied to quantification of cerebral blood flow using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Yamazaki, Youichi; Shinohara, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in comparison with deconvolution analysis based on singular value decomposition (DA-SVD). Using computer simulations, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) modeled as a gamma-variate function under various CBFs, cerebral blood volumes and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for three different types of residue function (exponential, triangular, and box-shaped). We also considered the effects of delay and dispersion in AIF. The ARMA model and DA-SVD were used to estimate CBF values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIFs, and the estimated values were compared with the assumed values. We found that the CBF value estimated by the ARMA model was more sensitive to the SNR and the delay in AIF than that obtained by DA-SVD. Although the ARMA model considerably overestimated CBF at low SNRs, it estimated the CBF more accurately than did DA-SVD at high SNRs for the exponential or triangular residue function. We believe this study will contribute to an understanding of the usefulness and limitations of the ARMA model when applied to quantification of CBF with DSC-MRI. (author)

  9. Quantitative cerebral blood flow assessment in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia using sup 123 I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Hisayuki; Hanyu, Haruo; Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Uno, Masanobu; Hatano, Nobuyoshi; Shin, Kouichi; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takanari; Murayama, Hiroyasu [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1990-06-01

    In order to compare senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) from the standpoint of cerebral blood flow, a study was carried out by using single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine on 14 healthy aged subjects, 12 patients with SDAT, 8 patients with MID and 7 patients with multiple infarction (MI). The diagnosis of SDAT, MID and MI was based on a clinical history, X-ray CT findings and Hachinski's ischemic score. Venous blood sampling method of Matsuda et al. was used as quantitative cerebral blood flow measurements. The mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) values in controls was 52.1{plus minus}5.5 ml/100 g/min, while the corresponding values in SDAT, MI and MID were 36.9{plus minus}5.0, 41.0{plus minus}6.2, and 37.7{plus minus}4.3 ml/100 g/min. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was decreased mainly at bilateral frontal lobes in MID and at temporal and parietal lobes in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's dementia score) correlated with rCBF at frontal lobes in MID. These findings suggest that quantitative rCBF measurement by {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT is useful to differentiate MID from SDAT. (author).

  10. Clinical study of cerebral blood flow in bilateral chronic subdural hematoma measured by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Tohru; Saito, Koji; Fukuyama, Kohichi; Yamamoto, Kouki; Morimoto, Mamoru; Aburano, Tamio

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 34 patients with bilateral chronic subdural hematoma was measured by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT before operation. The regional CBF was measured in 26 regions of the 10 cortical regions, putamen, thalamus and cerebellar hemisphere on both sides. According to the thickness of subdural hematoma, the thicker hematoma side was measured and examined as the thick hematoma side, and the other side as the thin hematoma side. Thirty four cases with bilateral chronic subdural hematoma were classified into four groups on the basis of clinical symptoms :13 cases with headache (headache group), 10 cases with hemiparesis (hemiparesis group), 5 cases with tetraparesis (tetraparesis group) and 6 cases with consciousness disturbance or dementia (consciousness disturbance group), and into two groups according to the degree of midline brain shift on MRI: 14 cases of non-shifted group and 20 cases of shifted group. The average CBF of 34 patients in each region indicated a regional CBF reduction in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices on the thin hematoma side, and in the putamen on the thick hematoma side. In the headache group, the regional CBF reduction on the thin hematoma side was found in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices compared with the corresponding regions on the thick hematoma side, and in thalamus on the thick hematoma side. In the hemiparesis and tetraparesis groups, there was no statistically significant CBF reduction between the thick and thin hematoma sides. In the consciousness disturbance group, the CBF reduction in whole brain was remarkably significant. By the degree of the midline brain shift, the CBF reductions between the thick and thin hematoma sides were observed. Namely, in the shifted group, the CBF reductions were noted in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices in the thin hematoma side, and in the putamen in the thick hematoma side. We concluded that the CBF reduction of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma was

  11. Clinical study of cerebral blood flow in bilateral chronic subdural hematoma measured by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Tohru; Saito, Koji; Fukuyama, Kohichi; Yamamoto, Kouki; Morimoto, Mamoru [Kushiro Neurosurgical Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan); Aburano, Tamio

    2000-08-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 34 patients with bilateral chronic subdural hematoma was measured by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT before operation. The regional CBF was measured in 26 regions of the 10 cortical regions, putamen, thalamus and cerebellar hemisphere on both sides. According to the thickness of subdural hematoma, the thicker hematoma side was measured and examined as the thick hematoma side, and the other side as the thin hematoma side. Thirty four cases with bilateral chronic subdural hematoma were classified into four groups on the basis of clinical symptoms :13 cases with headache (headache group), 10 cases with hemiparesis (hemiparesis group), 5 cases with tetraparesis (tetraparesis group) and 6 cases with consciousness disturbance or dementia (consciousness disturbance group), and into two groups according to the degree of midline brain shift on MRI: 14 cases of non-shifted group and 20 cases of shifted group. The average CBF of 34 patients in each region indicated a regional CBF reduction in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices on the thin hematoma side, and in the putamen on the thick hematoma side. In the headache group, the regional CBF reduction on the thin hematoma side was found in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices compared with the corresponding regions on the thick hematoma side, and in thalamus on the thick hematoma side. In the hemiparesis and tetraparesis groups, there was no statistically significant CBF reduction between the thick and thin hematoma sides. In the consciousness disturbance group, the CBF reduction in whole brain was remarkably significant. By the degree of the midline brain shift, the CBF reductions between the thick and thin hematoma sides were observed. Namely, in the shifted group, the CBF reductions were noted in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices in the thin hematoma side, and in the putamen in the thick hematoma side. We concluded that the CBF reduction of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

  12. Study on the tomographic cerebral blood flow measurement with stable xenon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazumoto; Ueda, Yasuichi; Nagai, Masakatsu; Segawa, Hiromu.

    1983-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain quantitative values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by serial CT scanning during non radioactive xenon (Xe) inhalation. The present study provided not only rCBF map but build up rate (k) map and partition coefficient (lambda) map both in normal and pathological brain tissues. The lambda map can not be readily obtained by radioisotope (RI) or positron emission CT method. These maps provided high resolution enough to identify white matter, gray matter and even deep structure of the brain such as caudate nucles, thalums and internal capsule, and were directly compared with CT image. Resolution of each map permited visualization of small area as much as 1-3 mm in diameter. Blood flow for gray matter was 82+-11 and that for white matter was 24+-5 ml/100 g/min in seven normal subjects. The inhalation time of Xe gas and the scanning interval influenced the k, lambda, and rCBF map, respectively. In order to visualize the distribution of white matter on lambda map, it required more than 20 min inhalation of the gas. The scanning interval for good map was every 3 min in the first 9 min and every 5 min in the later period. (author)

  13. Priming within and across modalities: exploring the nature of rCBF increases and decreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgaiyan, R D; Schacter, D L; Alpert, N M

    2001-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that within-modality priming is associated with reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the extrastriate area, whereas cross-modality priming is associated with increased rCBF in prefrontal cortex. To characterize the nature of rCBF changes in within- and cross-modality priming, we conducted two neuroimaging experiments using positron emission tomography (PET). In experiment 1, rCBF changes in within-modality auditory priming on a word stem completion task were observed under same- and different-voice conditions. Both conditions were associated with decreased rCBF in extrastriate cortex. In the different-voice condition there were additional rCBF changes in the middle temporal gyrus and prefrontal cortex. Results suggest that the extrastriate involvement in within-modality priming is sensitive to a change in sensory modality of target stimuli between study and test, but not to a change in the feature of a stimulus within the same modality. In experiment 2, we studied cross-modality priming on a visual stem completion test after encoding under full- and divided-attention conditions. Increased rCBF in the anterior prefrontal cortex was observed in the full- but not in the divided-attention condition. Because explicit retrieval is compromised after encoding under the divided-attention condition, prefrontal involvement in cross-modality priming indicates recruitment of an aspect of explicit retrieval mechanism. The aspect of explicit retrieval that is most likely to be involved in cross-modality priming is the familiarity effect. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. The responsible region and the symptomatic threshold of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism for Broca's aphasia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kitamura, Shin; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the responsible region and the symptomatic flow and metabolism threshold for Broca's aphasia. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were measured by positron emission tomography (PET) using 15 O steady state method in eight patients with Broca's aphasia due to cerebral infarction and thirty patients without aphasia. During scanning, patients closed their eyes and were kept free from any stimuration. X-CT scan revealed abnormal low density in Broca's area which includes cortex and subcortex in the anterior region to Sylvian fissure in three patients with aphasia. In the other five patients with aphasia X-CT scan showed no abnormal low density in Broca's area, showed it in basal ganglionic region and subcortex. PET study revealed reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in Broca's area in all cases with Broca's aphasia. CBF and CMRO 2 of Broca's area of aphasic patients were compared to those of non aphasic patients to obtain the symptomatic threshold in CBF and CMRO 2 . The values of symptomatic threshold were 20 - 27 ml/100 g/min in CBF and 2.0 ml/100 g/min in CMRO 2 . The symptomatic threshold differed from the threshold for development of abnormal low density on X-CT, therefore the measurement of CBF and CMRO 2 were useful in studying the responsible region for aphasia. (author)

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of the pulsatile component of cerebral blood flow and volume from arterial oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, George; D'Arceuil, Helen; Diamond, Solomon G.; Thaker, Sonal; Huppert, Theodore J.; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method to noninvasively measure relative changes in the pulsate components of cerebral blood flow (pCBF) and volume (pCBV) from the shape of heartbeat oscillations. We present a model that is used and data to show the feasibility of the method. We use a continuous-wave NIRS system to measure the arterial oscillations originating in the brains of piglets. Changes in the animals' CBF are induced by adding CO2 to the breathing gas. To study the influence of scalp on our measurements, comparative, invasive measurements are performed on one side of the head simultaneously with noninvasive measurements on the other side. We also did comparative measurements of CBF using a laser Doppler system to validate the results of our method. The results indicate that for sufficient source-detector separation, the signal contribution of the scalp is minimal and the measurements are representative of the cerebral hemodynamics. Moreover, good correlation between the results of the laser Doppler system and the NIRS system indicate that the presented method is capable of measuring relative changes in CBF. Preliminary results show the potential of this NIRS method to measure pCBF and pCBV relative changes in neonatal pigs. PMID:17343508

  16. Cerebral Blood Flow Changes after Shunt in Hydrocephalus after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Analysis by statistical Parametric Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, I. Y.; Choi, W. S.; Pak, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after shunt operation in patients with hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage ba statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients (4 male, mean age 54 years) with hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a shunt operation. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within I week before, and 2 weeks after the shunt operation. All of the SPECT images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed, and globally normalized. After spatial and count normalization, rCBF of pre- and post- shunting Tc- 99m HMPAO SPECT was estimated at every voxel using t statistics. The voxels with a P value of less than 0.001 were considered to be significantly different. The shunt operation was effective in all patients. Pre-shunting Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT showed hypoperfusion, predominantly in the periventricular area. After shunt operation, periventricular low perfusion was disappeared. The results of this study show that periventricular CBF is impaired in hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Significant increase of periventricular CBF after shunt operation suggests the evaluation of periventricular CBF by SPM might be of value for the prediction of shunt effectiveness in hydrocephalus

  17. Cerebral Blood Flow Changes after Shunt in Hydrocephalus after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Analysis by statistical Parametric Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, I. Y.; Choi, W. S.; Pak, H. S. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Inhwa, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after shunt operation in patients with hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage ba statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients (4 male, mean age 54 years) with hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a shunt operation. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed within I week before, and 2 weeks after the shunt operation. All of the SPECT images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed, and globally normalized. After spatial and count normalization, rCBF of pre- and post- shunting Tc- 99m HMPAO SPECT was estimated at every voxel using t statistics. The voxels with a P value of less than 0.001 were considered to be significantly different. The shunt operation was effective in all patients. Pre-shunting Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT showed hypoperfusion, predominantly in the periventricular area. After shunt operation, periventricular low perfusion was disappeared. The results of this study show that periventricular CBF is impaired in hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Significant increase of periventricular CBF after shunt operation suggests the evaluation of periventricular CBF by SPM might be of value for the prediction of shunt effectiveness in hydrocephalus.

  18. Alterations of cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular res