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Sample records for blood eosinophil count

  1. Association of Blood Eosinophil and Blood Neutrophil Counts with Asthma Exacerbations in the Copenhagen General Population Study

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    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated...... with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma. We recorded baseline blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and asthma exacerbations during...... with blood eosinophil counts >0.29 × 10(9)/L (highest tertile) vs individuals with blood eosinophil counts

  2. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

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    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2  = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood eosinophil counts for the prediction of the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthma.

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    Koh, Y I; Choi, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that airway eosinophilic inflammation is associated with the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Blood eosinophils are known to be an indirect marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study is to investigate that a simple and easy blood test for blood eosinphil counts may predict the severity of EIB in asthma. Seventy-seven men with perennial asthma (age range 18-23 years) were included. Lung function test, skin prick test, and blood tests for eosinophils counts and total IgE levels were performed. Methacholine bronchial provocation test and, 24 h later, free running test were carried out. EIB was defined as a 15% reduction or more in post-exercise FEV1 compared with pre-exercise FEV1 value. Atopy score was defined as a sum of mean wheal diameters to allergens. EIB was observed in 60 (78%) of 77 subjects. Asthmatics with EIB showed significantly increased percentages of eosinophils (P 700 microl(-1) (36.9 +/- 12.7%) had significantly greater maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise than asthmatics with eosinophils of 350 microl(-1) yielded the specificity of 88% and positive predictive value of 93% for the presence of EIB. When a multiple regression analysis of maximal % fall in FEV1 according to log eosinophil counts, log PC20, log IgE and atopy score was performed, only blood eosinophil counts were significant factor contributing to the maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise. These findings not only suggest that a simple blood test for eosinophils may be useful in the prediction of the severity of EIB, but also reinforce the view that airway eosinophilic inflammation may play a major role in EIB in asthma.

  4. Blood Eosinophil and Basophil Values Before and After Surgery for Eosinophilic-type Sinonasal Polyps.

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    Brescia, Giuseppe; Parrino, Daniela; Zanotti, Claudia; Tealdo, Giulia; Barion, Umberto; Sfriso, Paolo; Marioni, Gino

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil and basophil levels have recently been considered for the purpose of endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Histologically, eosinophilic-type CRSwNPs have been associated with high recurrence rates after treatment. Objective The present study was the first to compare blood eosinophil and basophil counts in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods The study concerned 79 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. Results A significant drop in mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages occurred from before to after endoscopic sinus surgery in the cohort as a whole. Mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages were also reduced after surgery in the subcohorts of CRSwNP patients with (i) asthma, (ii) aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and (iii) no allergy. Although blood eosinophil and basophil counts correlated directly before and after surgery, a statistical reduction in blood basophil counts and percentages after surgery emerged only in the subcohort of nonallergic CRSwNP patients. Conclusion Endoscopic sinus surgery can clear polyps, remove inflammatory tissue, and reduce inflammatory cytokine levels. Consistently with the biological mechanism described, endoscopic sinus surgery could coincide with a reduction in blood eosinophils in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP.

  5. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watz, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Kay; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-01-01

    were seen with eosinophil cutoffs of 300 cells per μL and 400 cells per μL, and mutually exclusive subgroups. INTERPRETATION: Blood eosinophil counts at screening were related to the exacerbation rate after complete ICS withdrawal in patients with severe to very severe COPD and a history...... of exacerbations. Our data suggest that counts of 4% or greater or 300 cells per μL or more might identify a deleterious effect of ICS withdrawal, an effect not seen in most patients with eosinophil counts below these thresholds. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim....

  6. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  7. Comparison of the peripheral blood eosinophil count using near-patient testing and standard automated laboratory measurement in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects

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    Hambleton K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsty Hambleton, Clare M Connolly, Catherine Borg, Joanne H Davies, Helen P Jeffers, Richard EK Russell, Mona Bafadhel Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Near-patient testing (NPT allows clinical decisions to be made in a rapid and convenient manner and is often cost effective. In COPD the peripheral blood eosinophil count has been demonstrated to have utility in providing prognostic information and predicting response to treatment during an acute exacerbation. For this potential to be achieved having a reliable NPT of blood eosinophil count would be extremely useful. Therefore, we investigated the use of the HemoCue® WBC Diff System and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects. This method requires a simple skin prick of blood and was compared to standard venepuncture laboratory analysis. The HemoCue® WBC Diff System measured the peripheral blood eosinophil count in healthy, asthma and COPD subjects with very close correlation to the eosinophil count as measured by standard venepuncture. The correlations were unaffected by disease status. This method for the measurement of the peripheral blood eosinophil count has the potential to provide rapid near-patient results and thus influence the speed of management decisions in the treatment of airway diseases. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eosinophils, near-patient testing

  8. Blood eosinophil levels as a biomarker in COPD.

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    Brusselle, Guy; Pavord, Ian D; Landis, Sarah; Pascoe, Steven; Lettis, Sally; Morjaria, Nikhil; Barnes, Neil; Hilton, Emma

    2018-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder and patients respond differently to treatment. Blood eosinophils are a potential biomarker to stratify patient subsets for COPD therapy. We reviewed the value of blood eosinophils in predicting exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatment in the available literature (PubMed articles in English; keywords: "COPD" and "eosinophil"; published prior to May 2017). Overall, clinical data suggest that in patients with a history of COPD exacerbations, a higher blood eosinophil count predicts an increased risk of future exacerbations and is associated with improved response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (in combination with long-acting bronchodilator[s]). Blood eosinophils are therefore a promising biomarker for phenotyping patients with COPD, although prospective studies are needed to assess blood eosinophils as a biomarker of corticosteroid response for this. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eosinophil count, allergies, and rejection in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

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    Arbon, Kate S; Albers, Erin; Kemna, Mariska; Law, Sabrina; Law, Yuk

    2015-08-01

    Allograft rejection and long-term immunosuppression remain significant challenges in pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatric recipients are known to have fewer rejection episodes and to develop more allergic conditions than adults. A T-helper 2 cell dominant phenotype, manifested clinically by allergies and an elevated eosinophil count, may be associated with immunologic quiescence in transplant recipients. This study assessed whether the longitudinal eosinophil count and an allergic phenotype were associated with freedom from rejection. This single-center, longitudinal, observational study included 86 heart transplant patients monitored from 1994 to 2011. Post-transplant biannual complete blood counts, allergic conditions, and clinical characteristics related to rejection risk were examined. At least 1 episode of acute cellular rejection (ACR) occurred in 38 patients (44%), antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred in 11 (13%), and 49 patients (57%) were diagnosed with an allergic condition. Patients with ACR or AMR had a lower eosinophil count compared with non-rejectors (p = 0.011 and p = 0.022, respectively). In the multivariable regression analysis, the presence of panel reactive antibodies to human leukocyte antigen I (p = 0.014) and the median eosinophil count (p = 0.011) were the only independent covariates associated with AMR. Eosinophil count (p = 0.010) and female sex (p = 0.009) were independent risk factors for ACR. Allergic conditions or young age at transplant were not protective from rejection. This study demonstrates a novel association between a high eosinophil count and freedom from rejection. Identifying a biomarker for low rejection risk may allow a reduction in immunosuppression. Further investigation into the role of the T-helper 2 cell phenotype and eosinophils in rejection quiescence is warranted. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. External validation of blood eosinophils, FE(NO) and serum periostin as surrogates for sputum eosinophils in asthma.

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    Wagener, A H; de Nijs, S B; Lutter, R; Sousa, A R; Weersink, E J M; Bel, E H; Sterk, P J

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring sputum eosinophils in asthma predicts exacerbations and improves management of asthma. Thus far, blood eosinophils and FE(NO) show contradictory results in predicting eosinophilic airway inflammation. More recently, serum periostin was proposed as a novel biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation. Quantifying the mutual relationships of blood eosinophils, FE(NO), and serum periostin with sputum eosinophils by external validation in two independent cohorts across various severities of asthma. The first cohort consisted of 110 patients with mild to moderate asthma (external validation cohort). The replication cohort consisted of 37 patients with moderate to severe asthma. Both cohorts were evaluated cross-sectionally. Sputum was induced for the assessment of eosinophils. In parallel, blood eosinophil counts, serum periostin concentrations and FENO were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of these markers to identify eosinophilic asthma (sputum eosinophils ≥3%) was calculated using receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC AUC). In the external validation cohort, ROC AUC for blood eosinophils was 89% (peosinophilic from non-eosinophilic airway inflammation (ROC AUC=55%, p=0.44). When combining these three variables, no improvement was seen. The diagnostic value of blood eosinophils was confirmed in the replication cohort (ROC AUC 85%, peosinophils had the highest accuracy in the identification of sputum eosinophilia in asthma. The use of blood eosinophils can facilitate individualised treatment and management of asthma. NTR1846 and NTR2364. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

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    Younghak Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  12. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

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    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  13. The distribution of blood eosinophil levels in a Japanese COPD clinical trial database and in the rest of the world

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    Ishii, Takeo; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Midwinter, Dawn; James, Mark; Hilton, Emma; Jones, Paul W

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil measurements may help to guide physicians on the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Emerging data suggest that COPD patients with higher blood eosinophil counts may be at higher risk of exacerbations and more likely to benefit from combined ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment than therapy with a LABA alone. This analysis describes the distribution of blood eosinophil count at baseline in Japanese COPD patients in comparison with non-Japanese COPD patients. Methods A post hoc analysis of eosinophil distribution by percentage and absolute cell count was performed across 12 Phase II–IV COPD clinical studies (seven Japanese studies [N=848 available absolute eosinophil counts] and five global studies [N=5,397 available eosinophil counts] that included 246 Japanese patients resident in Japan with available counts). Blood eosinophil distributions were assessed at baseline, before blinded treatment assignment. Findings Among Japanese patients, the median (interquartile range) absolute eosinophil count was 170 cells/mm3 (100–280 cells/mm3). Overall, 612/1,094 Japanese patients (56%) had an absolute eosinophil count ≥150 cells/mm3 and 902/1,304 Japanese patients (69%) had a percentage eosinophil ≥2%. Among non-Japanese patients, these values were 160 (100–250) cells/mm3, 2,842/5,151 patients (55%), and 2,937/5,155 patients (57%), respectively. The eosinophil distribution among Japanese patients was similar to that among non-Japanese patients. Within multi-country studies with similar inclusion criteria, the eosinophil count was numerically lower in Japanese compared with non-Japanese patients (median 120 vs 160 cells/mm3). Interpretation The eosinophil distribution in Japanese patients seems comparable to that of non-Japanese patients; although within multi-country studies, there was a slightly lower median eosinophil count for Japanese patients compared with

  14. Association of sputum and blood eosinophil concentrations with clinical measures of COPD severity: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

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    Hastie, Annette T; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Hansel, Nadia N; Christenson, Stephanie; Putcha, Nirupama; Ortega, Victor E; Li, Xingnan; Barr, R Graham; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Couper, David J; Cooper, Christopher B; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric; O'Neal, Wanda K; Paine, Richard; Peters, Stephen P; Alexis, Neil E; Woodruff, Prescott G; Han, MeiLan K; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2017-12-01

    Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (George Respiratory Questionnaire symptom scores (p=0·037), and increased wheezing (p=0·018), but no evidence of an association with COPD exacerbations (p=0·35) or the other indices of COPD severity, such as emphysema measured by CT density, COPD assessment test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts

  15. The distribution of blood eosinophil levels in a Japanese COPD clinical trial database and in the rest of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes N

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neil Barnes,1,2 Takeo Ishii,3,4 Nobuyuki Hizawa,5 Dawn Midwinter,6 Mark James,3 Emma Hilton,1 Paul Jones1,71Respiratory Medicine Franchise, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK; 2William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK; 3Medical Affairs, GlaxoSmithKline K.K., Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan; 6Global Respiratory Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Stockley Park, UK; 7Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George’s University of London, London, UK Background: Blood eosinophil measurements may help to guide physicians on the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Emerging data suggest that COPD patients with higher blood eosinophil counts may be at higher risk of exacerbations and more likely to benefit from combined ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA treatment than therapy with a LABA alone. This analysis describes the distribution of blood eosinophil count at baseline in Japanese COPD patients in comparison with non-Japanese COPD patients.Methods: A post hoc analysis of eosinophil distribution by percentage and absolute cell count was performed across 12 Phase II–IV COPD clinical studies (seven Japanese studies [N=848 available absolute eosinophil counts] and five global studies [N=5,397 available eosinophil counts] that included 246 Japanese patients resident in Japan with available counts. Blood eosinophil distributions were assessed at baseline, before blinded treatment assignment.Findings: Among Japanese patients, the median (interquartile range absolute eosinophil count was 170 cells/mm3 (100–280 cells/mm3. Overall, 612/1,094 Japanese patients (56% had an absolute eosinophil count ≥150 cells/mm3 and 902/1,304 Japanese patients (69% had a percentage eosinophil ≥2%. Among non

  16. Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality

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    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans K

    2015-01-01

    Blood eosinophilia (≥0.5 × 109/l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. Fr...

  17. Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow

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    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years. These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV, which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow.

  18. Eosinophil count is positively correlated with coronary artery calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Muhei; Fukui, Michiaki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Oda, Yohei; Nakamura, Naoto; Tomiyasu, Ki-ichiro; Akabame, Satoshi; Nakano, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that allergic disorders and increased eosinophil count were associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between eosinophil count and coronary artery calcification (CAC). We performed a cross-sectional study in 1363 consecutive participants with clinical suspicion of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the relationships between CAC score determined by multislice CT and peripheral eosinophil count as well as major cardiovascular risk factors, including age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Sex (P=0.0004), hypertension (P=0.0002), dyslipidemia (P=0.0004) and DM (P=0.0061) were associated with log (CAC+1), respectively. Positive correlations were found between log (CAC+1), and age (r=0.325, P<0.0001) and eosinophil count (r=0.165, P<0.0001). Negative correlations were found between log (CAC+1) and eGFR (r=-0.166, P<0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that age (β=0.314, P<0.0001), sex (β=0.124, P<0.0001), hypertension (β=0.084, P=0.0008), DM (β=0.108, P<0.0001), eGFR (β=-0.079, P=0.0021) and eosinophil count (β=0.147, P<0.0001) were independent determinants of log (CAC+1). In conclusion, eosinophil count correlated positively with CAC in participants with clinical suspicion of CHD. (author)

  19. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

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    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole......-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10-16, N = 103,104), and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10-4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977). Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non...

  20. Elevated blood eosinophils in early infancy are predictive of atopic dermatitis in children with risk for atopy.

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    Rossberg, Siri; Gerhold, Kerstin; Geske, Thomas; Zimmermann, Kurt; Menke, Georg; Zaino, Mohammad; Wahn, Ulrich; Hamelmann, Eckard; Lau, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    Accessible markers to predict the development of atopic diseases are highly desirable but yet matter of debate. We investigated the role of blood eosinophils at 4 weeks and 7 months of life and their association with developing atopic dermatitis (AD) in a birth cohort of children with atopic heredity. Infant blood samples for eosinophil counts were taken from 559 infants at 4 weeks and from 467 infants at 7 month of life with at least one atopic parent. Elevation of blood eosinophils was defined as ≥ 5% of total leukocytes and the asscociation for the occurrence of AD was assessed by entering 2 × 2 tables and the odds ratios were estimated followed by hypothesis testing against the alternate working hypothesis: odds ratio 1. Survival analysis was carried out estimating the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator from the life-time table of AD score and time to AD manifestation stratified by the eosinophil binary score. Elevated blood eosinophils observed at 4 weeks were significantly associated with the occurrence of AD in the whole cohort at the age of 7 months (p = 0.007), 1 year (p = 0.004), 2 years (p = 0.007) and 3 years (p = 0.006) of life. AD occurred app. 12 weeks earlier in infants with elevated blood eosinophils at 4 weeks of life. Blood eosinophil counts ≥5% at 7 months of life failed to show significance for AD; for eosinophils at 4.5% a significant association at 7 months (p = 0.005), and 1 year of life (p = 0.039), 2 years (p = 0.033) and 3 years (p = 0.034) was observed. Elevated blood eosinophils at age 4 weeks have a predictive value for the onset of atopic dermatitis in infancy and early childhood in children with high risk for atopy. Early eosinophil counts may therefore be helpful for counseling parents to provide infant skincare but furthermore identify individuals for interventional trials aiming at allergy prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.

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    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced activation of eosinophils in peripheral blood and implications for eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosis.

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    Botan, Valéria; Dos Santos Borges, Tatiana Karla; Rocha Alves, Érica Alessandra; Claudino Pereira Couto, Shirley; Bender Kohnert Seidler, Heinrich; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2017-07-01

    Eosinophils are markers of the eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) disease, and this work aimed to assess whether activation of eosinophils could be a noninvasive test to contribute for EoE diagnosis. The activation state of peripheral blood eosinophils in EoE patients and control subjects was assessed based on the morphological aspects of the eosinophil after adherence to slide. Cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase expressions were evaluated by means of immunofluorescence microscopy to verify if and which eicosanoid pathway is triggered in eosinophils in blood in EoE. The eosinophils of patients with EoE were significantly more activated than those of control individuals. The lowest percentage of normal eosinophils for control subjects was 40%, while the highest percentage of eosinophils of normal aspect for patients with EoE was 32%. Considering 36% as a cutoff for normal eosinophils, this value differentiated all individuals with EoE from individuals without the disease with a sensitivity of 100%, considering the diagnosis of EoE as currently defined. Eosinophils of EoE patients showed higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 than those of control subjects. The quantification of morphological changes in eosinophils is a feasible, easy, and reliable manner to identify EoE patients. Therefore, patients with symptoms of esophageal dysfunction showing higher than 36% activated eosinophils in peripheral blood could be a useful way to help definition and diagnostic criterion for EoE. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Eosinophil autofluorescence and its use in isolation and analysis of human eosinophils using flow microfluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, G.J.; Chused, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Unstained human eosinophils exhibit unusually bright autofluorescence, which allows them to be distinguished from other leukocytes using fluorescence microscopy. Eosinophil fluorescence is associated with the cytoplasmic granules of the cells. Eosinophil granule extracts, containing an as-yet-undefined eosinophil fluorescence factor, exhibited excitation maxima at 370 nm and 450 nm, with maximum emission at 520 nm. Eosinophils adhering to opsonized parasites in vitro deposit fluorescent material onto the parasite surface. Eosinophil fluorescence was of sufficient intensity to allow the preparation of viable, highly enriched (greater than or equal to 98%), eosinophil suspensions from peripheral blood of normal and eosinophilic donors using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Quantitative studies of eosinophil autofluorescence were performed using flow microfluorometry. Fluorescence intensity of blood eosinophils from normal volunteers and eosinophilic patients varied inversely with the log of the donor's absolute eosinophil count regardless of clinical diagnosis

  4. Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma

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    Johansson, Mats W.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodeling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or “primed”, or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil-surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including αM integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil-surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of β1 and β2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease. PMID:24552191

  5. Ancestry informative markers and complete blood count parameters in Brazilian blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E. S. Felix

    Full Text Available A complete blood count is very useful in clinical diagnoses when reference ranges are well established for the population. Complete blood counts and allele frequencies of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs were analyzed in Brazilians with the aim of characterizing the hematological values of an admixed population. Positive associations were observed between gender and neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and platelet counts. No significant differences were found for age, alcohol consumption, educational status, ethnicity, smoking in respect to the complete blood count values. In general, men had higher red blood cell values, while women had higher values for white blood cells and platelets. The study of the population was highly heterogeneous with mean proportions (± SE of African, European and Amerindian ancestry being 49.0 ± 3.0%, 44.0 ± 9.0% and 7.0 ± 9.0%, respectively. Amerindian ancestry showed limited contribution to the makeup of the population, but estimated ancestral proportions were statistically significant (r = 0.9838; P<0.001. These hematologic values are similar to Afro-Americans, another admixed population.

  6. The Significance of Mast Cells and Eosinophils Counts in Surgically Resected Appendix

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    Ashwini Kolur

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: The material for study consisted of appendix specimens received for histopathological examination in the Department of pathology. A 5 year study was conducted, 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective. Results: Out of 777 cases studied the incidence of appendicitis is high, in the first and second decades of life and slightly higher in females. Recurrent appendicitis was more common when compared to other inflamed appendices. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts in all the layers were very high in acute eosinophilic appendicitis compared to normal appendices. A higher mast cell count was seen in acute eosinophilic appendicitis and recurrent appendicitis. No correlation was found between mast cell and eosinophilic density. Our observations support the allergic theory of appendicitis rather than the obstructive theory. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 150-153

  7. External validation of blood eosinophils, FE(NO) and serum periostin as surrogates for sputum eosinophils in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, A. H.; de Nijs, S. B.; Lutter, R.; Sousa, A. R.; Weersink, E. J. M.; Bel, E. H.; Sterk, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring sputum eosinophils in asthma predicts exacerbations and improves management of asthma. Thus far, blood eosinophils and FE(NO) show contradictory results in predicting eosinophilic airway inflammation. More recently, serum periostin was proposed as a novel biomarker for eosinophilic

  8. Combination of CD157 and FLAER to Detect Peripheral Blood Eosinophils by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, Giovanni; Marini, Alessandra; Sammuri, Paola; Domenichini, Cristiana; Ottaviano, Virginia; Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The identification of eosinophils by flow cytometry is difficult because most of the surface antigens expressed by eosinophils are shared with neutrophils. Some methods have been proposed, generally based on differential light scatter properties, enhanced autofluorescence, lack of CD16 or selective positivity of CD52. Such methods, however, show several limitations. In the present study we report a novel method based on the analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked molecules. The combination of CD157 and FLAER was used, since FLAER recognizes all GPI-linked molecules, while CD157 is absent on the membrane of eosinophils and expressed by neutrophils. Peripheral blood samples from normal subjects and patients with variable percentages of eosinophils (n = 31), and without any evidence for circulating immature myeloid cells, were stained with the combination of FLAER-Alexa Fluor and CD157-PE. A FascCanto II cytometer was used. Granulocytes were gated after CD33 staining and eosinophils were identified as CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events. Neutrophils were identified as CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events. The percentages of eosinophils detected by this method showed a very significant correlation both with automated counting and with manual counting (r = 0.981 and 0.989, respectively). Sorting assays were carried out by a S3 Cell Sorter: cytospins obtained from CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events consisted of 100% eosinophils, while samples from CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events were represented only by neutrophils. In conclusion, this method shows high sensitivity and specificity in order to distinguish eosinophils from neutrophils by flow cytometry. However, since CD157 is gradually up-regulated throughout bone marrow myeloid maturation, our method cannot be applied to cases characterized by immature myeloid cells.

  9. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk...... in a subgroup of 203 COPD individuals with clinical COPD, defined as participants with ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1

  10. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  11. Clinical features of so-called eosinophilic rhinosinusitis. With a view to screening for eosinophilic rhinosinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yasunori; Ishitoya, Junichi; Kimura, Machiko; Hirose, Shouji; Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    The concept of so-called eosinophilic sinusitis has recently come to be understood, but since the definition and the diagnostic criteria for this intractable form of sinusitis are unclear, we reviewed the clinical features of 104 patients (16 with eosinophilic sinusitis and 88 with non-eosionphilic sinusitis) who underwent endonasal sinus surgery in our department. So-called eosinophilic sinusitis was usually accompanied by severe bronchial asthma, and the characteristic clinical findings of so-called eosinophilic sinusitis were an increase in peripheral blood eosinophil count, a paranasal sinus shadow in computed tomograms (CT score), and a high ethmoid sinus/maxillary sinus score ratio (E/M ratio) in our study. We determined the cutoff value to review sensitivity, specificity and correct diagnosis rate in screening for eosinophilic sinusitis. When we judged using three cutoff values, a peripheral blood eosinophil count≥500/μ1, CT score≥13 and E/M ratio≥1, a sensitivity of 69%, specificity of 97% and correct diagnosis rate of 81%. On the other hand, when we judged using two cutoff value, peripheral blood eosinophil count≥500/μ1 and E/M ratio≥1, sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 94% and correct diagnosis rate of 88%. Because all three studies can be performed in outpatient clinics, we concluded that they are useful as a method of screening for so-called eosinophilic sinusitis without the need for histological examinations for eosinophil infiltration of nasal polyps in biopsy specimens. (author)

  12. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period defined from over 63 000 records in a multihospital health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R D; Jensen, J; Maheshwari, A; Henry, E

    2010-08-01

    Blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes are part of the complete blood count. Reference ranges for these concentrations during the neonatal period, established by very large sample sizes and modern methods, are needed for identifying abnormally low or high values. We constructed reference ranges for eosinophils per microl and monocytes per microl among neonates of 22 to 42 weeks of gestation, on the day of birth, and also during 28 days after birth. Data were obtained from archived electronic records over an eight and one-half-year period in a multihospital health-care system. In keeping with the reference range concept, values were excluded from neonates with a diagnosis of infection or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Eosinophils and monocytes per microl of blood were electronically retrieved from 96 162 records, of which 63 371 that lacked a diagnosis of infection or NEC were included in this reference range report. The mean value for eosinophils per microl on the day of birth increased linearly between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation, as did the 5 and 95% values. The reference range at 40 weeks was 140 to 1300 microl(-1) (mean 550 microl(-1)). Similarly, the mean value for monocytes increased linearly over this interval, with a reference range at 40 weeks of 300 to 3300 microl(-1) (mean 1400 microl(-1)). Over the first 4 weeks after birth, no appreciable change was observed in 5% limit and mean eosinophil count, with a slight increase in the 95% limit in week 4. A slight increase in monocyte count was observed during the first 2 weeks after birth. The results of this analysis describe reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period. Additional study is needed for determining the relevance of values falling outside the reference range.

  13. [Complete blood count reference values of donated cord blood from Korean neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Byoung Jae; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Kim, Jin Ju; Roh, Eun Youn

    2009-06-01

    In the public cord blood (CB) banks, only safe CB units with adequate cell doses are processed and stored. Complete blood count (CBC) of CB is crucial for estimating total nucleated cells (TNC) and screening suitable CB units without hematologic abnormalities. We analyzed CBC parameters of the donated CB from healthy Korean neonates to establish CBC reference values. A total of 2,129 Korean CB units, donated and processed during the period from August 2007 to December 2007, were enrolled. We measured hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, differential count of WBC, platelets and nucleated red blood cell (nRBC) count by XE-2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Japan), and estimated reference value of each parameter by using parametric (Mean+/-2SD) and/or non-parametric methods (2.5-97.5 percentile). And also, we compared the result of each parameter in relation to sex of neonates and delivery method. Because the differences of CBC values among different subgroups were not remarkable, we established the reference intervals as follows without subgroup division: Hb, 9.0-14.4 g/dL; WBC count, 5.6-18.5 x 10(3)/microL; differential count of WBC (neutrophils, 40.8-72.4%; lymphocytes, 17.2-46.7%; monocytes, 4.9-12.8%; eosinophils, 0.7-7.0%; basophils, 0.0-1.6%); platelet, 130-287 x 10(3)/microL; nRBCs, 0.0-13.1/100 WBC. We established cord blood CBC reference values of healthy Korean neonates using a large-scale CB units. The established CBC reference values from our study will be useful as basic data for CBC interpretation and assessment of transplant suitability of donated CB.

  14. Predictive value of eosinophils and neutrophils on clinical effects of ICS in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartjes, Floor J; Vonk, Judith M; Faiz, Alen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is present to a variable degree and composition in patients with COPD. This study investigates associations between both eosinophils and neutrophils in blood, sputum, airway wall biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their potential use as biomarkers...... and BAL were evaluated at baseline. In addition, at baseline, 6 and 30 months, forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1 ), residual volume/total lung capacity (hyperinflation) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire were evaluated. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses at baseline showed that higher blood eosinophils were...... significantly associated with higher eosinophil counts in sputum, biopsies and BAL. However, blood neutrophils did not significantly correlate with neutrophil counts in the other compartments. Baseline eosinophils and neutrophils, in whichever compartment measured, did not predict longitudinal FEV1 changes...

  15. Eosinophilic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eosinophils per microliter of blood). Low number of eosinophils A low number of eosinophils in the blood ( ... the normal number of eosinophils. High number of eosinophils The most common causes of a high number ...

  16. Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubuisi C. Okafor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE. We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%–30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate.

  17. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    blood cell counts and a screening for common respiratory viruses and bacteria. An eosinophilic exacerbation (EE) was defined as having sputum eosinophils ≥ 3% and a non-eosinophilic exacerbation as NEE). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled; 37 (79%) had successful sputum induction...... at baseline, of whom 43% had sputum eosinophils ≥3% (EE). Patients with EE had a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) % predicted (70.8%, P = 0.03) than patients with NEE (83.6%). Furthermore, EE patients were more likely to require supplemental oxygen during admission (63% vs 14%, P...... = 0.002). The prevalence of respiratory viruses was the same in EE and NEE patients (44% vs 52%, P = 0.60), as was bacterial infection (6% vs 14%, P = 0.44). Fractional expiratory nitric oxide (FeNO) correlated with sputum %-eosinophils (ρ = 0.57, P

  18. Eosinophils, pruritus and psoriasis: effects of treatment with etretinate or cyclosporin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, R E; Hultsch, T; Lotz, J; Bräutigam, M

    1998-11-01

    The antipsoriatic drugs cyclosporin A (CyA) and etretinate have been found to influence proinflammatory eosinophilic leukocytes and pruritus. We compared the number of blood eosinophils, concentration of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and pruritus in patients with psoriasis treated with either CyA or etretinate. Patients with psoriasis vulgaris were randomly assigned to treatment for 10 weeks with either CyA (n = 21) or etretinate (n = 10). The psoriasis area-and-severity index (PASI-score) and pruritus (according to a 0-3 scale) served as clinical parameters, the blood esosinophil counts (Coulter Counter) and the serum ECP (RIA, Pharmacia) as laboratory parameters. After CyA treatment the PASI-score amounted to 24 +/- 4%, after etretinate to 56 +/- 6% of the initial values (mean +/- SEM). One week after CyA treatment, esosinophils dropped from 190 +/- 21 to 137 +/- 16/microliter (P = 0.038, Wilcoxon test), after 10 weeks to 127 +/- 18/microliter (P = 0.006). By contrast, under etretinate blood eosinophil counts only changed marginally. Before treatment, ECP concentrations of 15.71 +/- 1.30 (CyA) and 15.3 +/- 5.53 micrograms/l (etretinate) were measured (normal range 3-16 micrograms/l), ECP remained constant under both CyA and etretinate or tended to increase after 10 weeks; about 50% of the patients exhibited elevated ECP concentrations. Pruritus diminished more with CyA than etretinate therapy. PASI-scores and pruritus were directly proportional. We conclude that treatment of psoriasis with CyA leads to a rapid drop of blood eosinophils and that the activation state of eosinophils does not decrease after antipsoriatic treatment. Pruritus in psoriasis is coupled to disease severity. The underlying antipsoriatic mechanisms of CyA may be linked to lowering the number of blood eosinophils.

  19. Correlation of the severity of atopic dermatitis with absolute eosinophil counts in peripheral blood and serum IgE levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .

  20. Effect of cigarette smoke on counts of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils on the nasal mucosa in young patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño-Velázquez, Bertha Beatriz; Flores-Rojas, Eulalia Beatriz; García-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Jurado-Hernandez, Silvio; Venancio Hernández, Marco Antonio; Alanis Flores, Angélica Kathya; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine

    In teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis, exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke increases the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa; the recruitment of eosinophils arises from the combined action of a number of cellular and molecular signals, including eotaxin. To assess the effect of exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke on the count of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils on the nasal mucosa of children and teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis. In a cross-sectional study, forty-four patients were evaluated (aged 7-19 years old): 22 with and 22 with no exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke. After replying to 2 validated questionnaires, on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and on the severity of nasal symptoms, nasal mucosal samples were obtained by scraping the middle one-third of the inferior turbinates. Then counts of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Patients with exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke showed higher cell counts of both eotaxin-1 and eosinophils than patients with no exposure to the smoke, with no correlation between the two variables. However, both counts, of eotaxin-1 and eosinophils, were related to the cotinine/creatinine ratio. Exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke can increase eotaxin-1 and the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa of young patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harissios Vliagoftis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils circulate in the blood and are recruited in tissues during allergic inflammation. Gap junctions mediate direct communication between adjacent cells and may represent a new way of communication between immune cells distinct from communication through cytokines and chemokines. We characterized the expression of connexin (Cx43 by eosinophils isolated from atopic individuals using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy and studied the biological functions of gap junctions on eosinophils. The formation of functional gap junctions was evaluated measuring dye transfer using flow cytometry. The role of gap junctions on eosinophil transendothelial migration was studied using the inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid. Peripheral blood eosinophils express Cx43 mRNA and protein. Cx43 is localized not only in the cytoplasm but also on the plasma membrane. The membrane impermeable dye BCECF transferred from eosinophils to epithelial or endothelial cells following coculture in a dose and time dependent fashion. The gap junction inhibitors 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid and octanol did not have a significant effect on dye transfer but reduced dye exit from eosinophils. The gap junction inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited eosinophil transendothelial migration in a dose dependent manner. Thus, eosinophils from atopic individuals express Cx43 constitutively and Cx43 may play an important role in eosinophil transendothelial migration and function in sites of inflammation.

  2. BLOOD EOSINOPHIL NUMBERS AND ACTIVITY DURING 24 HOURS - EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; KOETER, GH; HAKANSSON, L; VENGE, P; POSTMA, DS

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral long-acting beta-agonist bambuterol on circadian variation of blood eosinophil numbers, serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), serum eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA), and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA)

  3. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Increased Activity and Apoptosis of Eosinophils in Blister Fluids, Skin and Peripheral Blood of Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Judith; Rüdrich, Urda; Behrens, Georg; Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Gehring, Manuela; Kapp, Alexander; Raap, Ulrike

    2017-04-06

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease that is more common in elderly individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the functional activity of eosinophils in patients with BP compared with healthy donors. Blood, skin and blister-derived eosinophils were strongly activated in patients with BP, seen by increased surface expression of CD69 compared with controls. CD11b was also increased in BP blood eosinophils, which may explain the striking accumulation of eosinophils in BP (1×106 per ml blister fluid). Furthermore, CCL26 was expressed by activated eosinophils in BP skin and in blister fluid. BP eosinophils also released IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1α in BP blister fluids. Apoptosis in cultivated BP eosinophils was increased and accompanied by enhanced surface externalization of CD95. Caspase 3 positive eosinophils in lesional BP skin and blister fluid also showed the initiation of apoptosis. These results reveal novel pathophysiological aspects of BP, with a strong activation pattern and increased apoptosis of eosinophils in the peripheral blood, skin and blister fluids.

  5. The hematology of captive Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa): blood counts, light microscopy, cytochemistry, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Cheryl A; Gaál, Tibor; Mills, Jennifer N

    2016-12-01

    Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) are native to Australia. The only previous study on the hematology of this species documented just 6 animals. The aims of this study were to characterize the light microscopy, ultrastructure and cytochemistry of blood cells, and evaluate CBCs of captive Bobtail lizards. Over 2 consecutive summers, heparinized venous blood was collected from the ventral coccygeal vein of 46 clinically healthy, captive indoor- or outdoor-housed adult Bobtails. Complete blood cell counts and smear evaluations were performed, and cytochemical stains and transmission electron microscopy were used to further characterize blood cells. The eosinophils of this species were uniformly vacuolated: a unique feature not previously reported in reptiles. Heterophils were the predominant leukocyte, with fewer lymphocytes, azurophilic and nonazurophilic monocytes, occasional eosinophils, and basophils. Thrombocytes were frequently clumped. Slight polychromasia (0-15% of erythrocytes) was typically present. Hemogregarine parasites were seen on some smears. The range of CBC results was often wide. The PCV ranged from 11% to 38%. Total plasma proteins by refractometry were between 3.5 and 7.8 g/dL. Hemoglobin ranged between 2.6 and 12.6 g/dL by the modified hemoglobin-hydroxylamine method. Manual RBC count was 0.35-1.27 × 10 6 /μL, and WBC count was 2.86-22.66 × 10 3 /μL. Bobtail lizards housed outdoors had lower PCVs than indoor-housed animals. Bobtails with hemogregarine infections had lower PCVs than noninfected lizards. Ranges for CBC data were often very wide, influenced by preanalytic and analytic factors. Hemogregarine infection is associated with a decreased PCV, suggesting that some hemogregarine species are pathogenic in this population. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Shall We Focus on the Eosinophil to Guide Treatment with Systemic Corticosteroids during Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)? CON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Pedro J; López-Campos, José Luis

    2018-06-08

    The employment of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve airway limitation, decrease treatment failure and risk of relapse, and may improve symptoms in addition to decreasing the length of hospital stay. Nowadays, all clinical guidelines recommend systemic corticosteroids to treat moderate or severe COPD exacerbations. However, their use is associated with potential side effects, mainly hyperglycemia. In the era of precision medicine, the possibility of employing blood eosinophil count has emerged as a potential way of optimizing therapy. Issues regarding the intra-individual variability of blood eosinophil count determination, a lack of clear data regarding the real prevalence of eosinophilic acute exacerbations, the fact that previously published studies have demonstrated the benefit of systemic corticosteroids irrespective of eosinophil levels, and especially the fact that there is only one well-designed study justifying this approach have led us to think that we are not ready to use eosinophil count to guide treatment with systemic corticosteroids during acute exacerbations of COPD.

  7. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β- and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma.

  8. Successful Treatment For Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL With Imatinib Mesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane da Silva Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL with mutation in alfa PDGFR gene exhibiting a satisfactory response to treatment with imatinib mesylate. A 25-year-old man presented in a hematology service with a persistent cough and hemogram alterations. His blood count showed a hemoglobin level of 12.5 g/dL and a white blood cell count of 94,030/mm3, eosinophils were 68% of all cells. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hypercellularity with marked eosinophilia (77% and erythroid differentiation series was hypocellular with normoblast maturation. The immunohistochemically of the bone biopsy was positive for myeloperoxidase and negative for CD34/CD99, consistent with CEL. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for the beta-fraction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRβ and Philadelphia chromosome (Ph 1 were negative and the alfa PDGFR (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor was positive and showed heterozygosis in c.2531T>C on 18 Exon and homozygous in C.2562+1G>A at the region of the splicing site at the 18 intron. Treatment was initiated and maintained by administering 400mg/day imatinib mesylate. Laboratory findings returned to normal ranges, with clinical improvement and a hematological response observed after the second month of therapy. Currently, the patient’s blood count shows the white blood cell count (5,400 total leukocytes, eosinophils (8.6/mm3, hemoglobin (15.5 g/dl, hematocrit (45.4% and platelets (298,000/mm3 within normal ranges. The mutation search was negative in in peripheral blood one year after the initial treatment. Our work corroborates other studies on the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of patients with CSF PDGFR alpha positive. We emphasize the importance of molecular studies, considering its relevance for the correct staging of the disease. Since CEL is a rare disease, it is important to define its etiology and anticipate its treatment, thus minimizing the damage induced by

  9. Comparison of Toxocariasis Frequency in Hyper- eosinophilic and Non-Eosinophilic Individuals Referred to Abadan Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Maraghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminthic infection of humans and animals caused by the larvae of intestinal parasites of dogs and cats (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, respectively. These nematodes develop in to their adult stage in the intestines of cats and dogs. Three clinical entities have been recognized in humans; visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans and covert toxocariasis. Eosinophilia is a common finding in infected patients Objectives: In this study the frequency of toxocariasis in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic individuals referred to the laboratory of Abadan health centers was compared. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from individuals attending the laboratory of health centers for any medical problem and were tested for complet blood count (CBC. The samples of patients were divided in to two groups, those with more than 10% peripheral eosinophils, as the eosinophilic group (n = 54 and those with normal eosinophils (0-3% as the non-eosinophilic group (n = 54. Samples were examined for anti-oxocara IgG by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and confirmed western blotting. Results: Anti-oxocara IgG was detected in the sera of six (11.11% cases from the eosinophilic group and two (3.7% of the non-eosinophilic group by the ELISA method, but all had negative results for the western blot analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that the eosinophilic individuals might beexposed to other helminthic infections or allergic agents. Further studies are required with more samples with different ages and occupations.

  10. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  11. Bronchodilator responses after methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges in children with asthma: their relationships with eosinophil markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Seo, Sung Chul; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Bo Hyun; Song, Dae Jin; Choung, Ji Tae

    2012-09-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) and eosinophilic inflammation are characteristic features of asthma. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of BDR after methacholine challenge or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenge to blood eosinophil markers in children with asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenges were performed on 69 children with mild intermittent to moderate persistent asthma. BDR was calculated as the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, expressed as percentage change of the value immediately after the each challenge and the value after inhalation of salbutamol. Serum total IgE levels, blood eosinophil counts, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were determined for each subject. A positive relationship between serum total IgE levels and BDR was found only after the AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.345, p = .001) rather than after the methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.007, p = .495). Peripheral blood eosinophil counts correlated more significantly with BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.212, p = .001) than BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.002, p = .724). Both BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.063, p = .038) and BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.192, p = .001) were significantly correlated with serum ECP levels. BDR after AMP challenge may be more closely related to eosinophilic inflammation, compared with that after methacholine challenge.

  12. Peritumoral eosinophils predict recurrence in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Lars; Pollheimer, Marion J; Kornprat, Peter; Lindtner, Richard A; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langner, Cord

    2015-03-01

    In colorectal cancer, the presence and extent of eosinophil granulocyte infiltration may render important prognostic information. However, it remains unclear whether an increasing number of eosinophils might simply be linked to the overall inflammatory cell reaction or represent a self-contained, antitumoral mechanism that needs to be documented and promoted therapeutically. Peri- and intratumoral eosinophil counts were retrospectively assessed in 381 primary colorectal cancers from randomly selected patients. Tumors were diagnosed in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) stage I in 21%, stage II in 32%, stage III in 33%, and stage IV in 14%. Presence and extent of eosinophils was related to various histopathological parameters as well as patients' outcome. Overall, peri- and intratumoral eosinophils were observed in 86 and 75% cancer specimens. The peritumoral eosinophil count correlated strongly with the intratumoral eosinophil count (R=0.69; Peosinophil counts were significantly associated with lower T and N classification, better tumor differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, as well as improved progression-free and cancer-specific survival. However, only peritumoral eosinophils, but not intratumoral, were an independent prognosticator of favorable progression-free (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.98; P=0.04) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.93; P=0.01)-independent of the intensity of overall inflammatory cell reaction. This was also found for patients with AJCC/UICC stage II disease, wherein the presence of peritumoral eosinophils was significantly associated with favorable outcome. In conclusion, the number of peritumoral eosinophils had a significant favorable impact on prognosis of colorectal cancer patients independent of the overall tumor-associated inflammatory response. Evaluation of peritumoral eosinophils represents a promising

  13. Association of interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 gene polymorphisms with eosinophilic phenotype in Japanese adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hideki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Morishima, Toshitaka; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Wenzel, Sally E; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-11-01

    IL1RL1 (ST2) is involved in Th2 inflammation including eosinophil activation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL1RL1 gene are associated with asthma development and increased peripheral blood eosinophil counts. However, the association between IL1RL1 SNPs and eosinophilic phenotype among adults with asthma remains unexplored. In a primary cohort of 110 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma, we examined the associations between IL1RL1 SNPs and clinical measurements including forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ), airway reversibility of FEV 1 , exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum soluble-ST2 (sST2) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil differentials and serum total IgE level. The findings in the primary cohort were confirmed in a validation cohort of 126 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. Patients with minor alleles in 3 SNPs (rs17026974, rs1420101, and rs1921622) had high FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 , but low levels of serum sST2 and FEV 1 . Minor alleles of rs1041973 were associated with low serum sST2 levels alone. In the validation cohort, minor alleles of rs1420101 were associated with high FeNO and blood eosinophil differentials, whereas minor alleles of rs17026974 and rs1921622 were associated with high blood eosinophil differentials and FeNO, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the minor allele of rs1420101 additively contributed to the FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 . The minor alleles of IL1RL1 SNPs were associated with high FeNO and peripheral blood eosinophilia among adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. IL1RL1 SNPs may characterize the eosinophilic phenotype with greater eosinophilic inflammation in the Japanese asthma cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of number of cigarettes smoked per day on red blood cell, lecocyte and platelet count in adult Indian male smokers – A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Anil Sherke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cigarette smoking are fatal. Present study was done to compare cell counts of blood in males smoking different number of cigarettes per day and non smokers of Hyderabad city. 150 consenting subjects of which 30 controls (non-smokers and 120 cases (smokers were studied. Smokers were divided into four groups based on number of cigarettes smoked per day. Blood samples processed using Hematology analyser (ABX Micros60®, HORIBA, Kyoto, Japan. The smokers had significantly different red blood cell counts (p<0.0001, white blood cells counts (p<0.0001 including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. This effect was significant irrespective of the number of cigarettes. There was no significant change in the percentage of basophils and platelet counts. Conclusion: Our findings showed that cigarette smoking has a significant effect on hematological cell counts and these counts changed significantly with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  15. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

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    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 years (range 15-60 years. Main symptomatologies were fever, severe headache, body pain, abdominal pain and arthralgia. One patient was in akinetic rigid state with coma. All patients had peripheral eosinophilia. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of all patients showed eosinophilic pleocytosis. The mean CSF white cell count was 588 cells. CSF differential count showed 50-70% eosinophils. CSF glucose levels were normal but proteins were markedly raised (mean CSF protein was 180 mg/dl. MRI brain showed T2 hyperintensities diffusely in periventricular white matter in the comatose patient. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain was normal in others. All eight male patients gave history of eating "raw flesh of Monitor Lizard" (Iguana some three to fourteen days prior to the onset of symptoms. There was no such history for the female patients. Considering the history of exposure and eosinophilic meningitis we suspected a meningoencephalitis with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and treated them with albendazole, steroid and other supportive measures. All of them recovered. Conclusion: Eosinophilic meningitis (EM is a rare condition and in this locality, a CNS infection with Agiostrongylus cantonensis is highly likely. AC is a parasite in monitor lizard. Human infection occurs from consumption of uncooked flesh or blood of infected lizards. Physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion and enquire for any exposure to uncooked meat or blood of monitor lizard when faced with EM

  16. Exosomes from eosinophils autoregulate and promote eosinophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, José Antonio; Sastre, Beatriz; Mazzeo, Carla; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Rodrigo-Muñoz, José Manuel; González-Guerra, Andrés; Izquierdo, Manuel; Barranco, Pilar; Quirce, Santiago; Sastre, Joaquín; Del Pozo, Victoria

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophils are able to secrete exosomes that have an undefined role in asthma pathogenesis. We hypothesized that exosomes released by eosinophils autoregulate and promote eosinophil function. Eosinophils of patients with asthma ( n = 58) and healthy volunteers ( n = 16) were purified from peripheral blood, and exosomes were isolated and quantified from eosinophils of the asthmatic and healthy populations. Apoptosis, adhesion, adhesion molecules expression, and migration assays were performed with eosinophils in the presence or absence of exosomes from healthy and asthmatic individuals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by flow cytometry with an intracellular fluorescent probe and nitric oxide (NO) and a colorimetric kit. In addition, exosomal proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Eosinophil-derived exosomes induced an increase in NO and ROS production on eosinophils. Moreover, exosomes could act as a chemotactic factor on eosinophils, and they produced an increase in cell adhesion, giving rise to a specific augmentation of adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1 and integrin α2. Protein content between exosomes from healthy and asthmatic individuals seems to be similar in both groups. In conclusion, we found that exosomes from the eosinophils of patients with asthma could modify several specific eosinophil functions related to asthma pathogenesis and that they could contribute fundamentally to the development and maintenance of asthma. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems characterized by having an increased number of eosinophils (white blood cells) in the lungs. These white ... category of pneumonias that feature increased numbers of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Pneumonia is an inflammatory ...

  18. [Full blood count reference values in children of 8 to 12 years old residing at 2,760 m above sea level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando García-Miranda, L; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-04-01

    To determine reference values for full blood count parameters in a population of children 8 to 12 years old, living at an altitude of 2760 m above sea level. Our sample consisted of 102 individuals on whom a full blood count was performed. The parameters included: total number of red blood cells, platelets, white cells, and a differential count (millions/μl and %) of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Additionally, we obtained values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin and red blood cell distribution width. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric test, to divide the sample in quartiles and obtain the lower and upper limits for our intervals. Moreover, the values for the intervals obtained from this analysis were compared to intervals obtained estimating+- 2 standard deviations above and below from our mean values. Our results showed significant differences compared to normal interval values reported for the adult Mexican population in most of the parameters studied. The full blood count is an important laboratory test used routinely for the initial assessment of a patient. Values of full blood counts in healthy individuals vary according to gender, age and geographic location; therefore, each population should have its own reference values. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Automated Slide-Based Technology for Visualization, Counting, and Characterization of the Formed Elements of Blood: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, James W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Zahniser, David J

    2017-08-01

    - A novel automated slide-based approach to the complete blood count and white blood cell differential count is introduced. - To present proof of concept for an image-based approach to complete blood count, based on a new slide preparation technique. A preliminary data comparison with the current flow-based technology is shown. - A prototype instrument uses a proprietary method and technology to deposit a precise volume of undiluted peripheral whole blood in a monolayer onto a glass microscope slide so that every cell can be distinguished, counted, and imaged. The slide is stained, and then multispectral image analysis is used to measure the complete blood count parameters. Images from a 600-cell white blood cell differential count, as well as 5000 red blood cells and a variable number of platelets, that are present in 600 high-power fields are made available for a technologist to view on a computer screen. An initial comparison of the basic complete blood count parameters was performed, comparing 1857 specimens on both the new instrument and a flow-based hematology analyzer. - Excellent correlations were obtained between the prototype instrument and a flow-based system. The primary parameters of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts resulted in correlation coefficients (r) of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Other indices included hemoglobin (r = 0.99), hematocrit (r = 0.99), mean cellular volume (r = 0.90), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r = 0.97), and mean platelet volume (r = 0.87). For the automated white blood cell differential counts, r values were calculated for neutrophils (r = 0.98), lymphocytes (r = 0.97), monocytes (r = 0.76), eosinophils (r = 0.96), and basophils (r = 0.63). - Quantitative results for components of the complete blood count and automated white blood cell differential count can be developed by image analysis of a monolayer preparation of a known volume of peripheral blood.

  20. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the eosinophil response to Plasmodium falciparum infection a cohort of initially parasite-free Ghanaian children was followed for 3 months. Seven of nine children who acquired an asymptomatic P. falciparum infection showed increase in eosinophil counts, while a decrease was found in seven...... of nine children with symptomatic malaria, and no change was observed in 14 children who remained parasite-free. In a hospital-based study, paediatric patients with cerebral malaria (CM), severe anaemia (SA), or uncomplicated malaria (UM) had uniformly low eosinophil counts during the acute illness...... followed by eosinophilia 30 days after cure. Plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) were measured as indicators of eosinophil activation. In spite of the low eosinophil counts, ECP levels were increased on day 0 and significantly higher in patients with CM...

  1. Eosinophils from eosinophilic oesophagitis patients have T cell suppressive capacity and express FOXP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, C; Wallander, J; Ingelsten, M; Bergquist, H; Bove, M; Saalman, R; Welin, A; Wennerås, C

    2017-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an antigen-driven T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory disease where food and environmental antigens are thought to have a role. Human eosinophils express the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10 and have T cell suppressive capacity similar to regulatory T cells (T regs ). We hypothesized that one function of eosinophils in EoE might be to regulate the T cell-driven inflammation in the oesophagus. This was tested by evaluating the suppressive capacity of eosinophils isolated from the blood of adult EoE patients in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In addition, eosinophilic expression of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), the canonical transcription factor of T regs , was determined by conventional and imaging flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), confocal microscopy and immunoblotting. It was found that blood eosinophils from EoE patients had T cell suppressive capacity, and that a fraction of the eosinophils expressed FOXP3. A comparison of EoE eosinophils with healthy control eosinophils indicated that the patients' eosinophils had inferior suppressive capacity. Furthermore, a higher percentage of the EoE eosinophils expressed FOXP3 protein compared with the healthy eosinophils, and they also had higher FOXP3 protein and mRNA levels. FOXP3 was found in the cytosol and nucleus of the eosinophils from both the patients and healthy individuals, contrasting with the strict nuclear localization of FOXP3 in T regs . To conclude, these findings suggest that the immunoregulatory function of eosinophils may be impaired in EoE. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Increased CD69 Expression on Peripheral Eosinophils from Patients with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Taizo; Matsuda, Yusuke; Toma, Tomoko; Koizumi, Eiko; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon, non-IgE-mediated food allergy. We recently described a significant increase in fecal eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) after ingestion of the causative food. However, little is known about the activation status of circulating eosinophils in patients with an acute FPIES reaction. Surface CD69 expression was assessed by flow cytometry on peripheral eosinophils from 5 patients with FPIES before and after ingestion of the causative food. Fecal EDN was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No eosinophil activation was observed before ingestion; however, a significant increase in CD69 expression on eosinophils after an acute FIPES reaction was demonstrated in all of the patients. There was no significant change in absolute eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. The levels of fecal EDN increased on the day after ingestion of the causative food in all patients. These results suggest that circulating eosinophils as well as eosinophils in the intestinal mucosal tissue are activated in acute FPIES reactions and might be associated with systemic immune events in FPIES. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link) Genetic Testing Registry: Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Cancer.Net: Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Treatment MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Eosinophil Count - Absolute Seattle ...

  4. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  5. Role of eosinophils in airway inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashkin DP

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald P Tashkin,1 Michael E Wechsler2 1Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: COPD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In some patients with COPD, eosinophils contribute to inflammation that promotes airway obstruction; approximately a third of stable COPD patients have evidence of eosinophilic inflammation. Although the eosinophil threshold associated with clinical relevance in patients with COPD is currently subject to debate, eosinophil counts hold potential as biomarkers to guide therapy. In particular, eosinophil counts may be useful in assessing which patients may benefit from inhaled corticosteroid therapy, particularly regarding exacerbation prevention. In addition, several therapies targeting eosinophilic inflammation are available or in development, including monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL5 ligand, the IL5 receptor, IL4, and IL13. The goal of this review was to describe the biologic characteristics of eosinophils, their role in COPD during exacerbations and stable disease, and their use as biomarkers to aid treatment decisions. We also propose an algorithm for inhaled corticosteroid use, taking into consideration eosinophil counts and pneumonia history, and emerging eosinophil-targeted therapies in COPD. Keywords: lung disease, pulmonary diseases, corticosteroids, asthma, pneumonia

  6. Mast cells and eosinophils in invasive breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Rose-Marie; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Nevanlinna, Heli; Carvalho, Ricardo; Salonen, Laura; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory cells in the tumour stroma has gained increasing interest recently. Thus, we aimed to study the frequency and prognostic impact of stromal mast cells and tumour infiltrating eosinophils in invasive breast carcinomas. Tissue microarrays containing 234 cases of invasive breast cancer were prepared and analysed for the presence of stromal mast cells and eosinophils. Tumour infiltrating eosinophils were counted on hematoxylin-eosin slides. Immunostaining for tryptase was done and the total number of mast cells were counted and correlated to the proliferation marker Ki 67, positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors, clinical parameters and clinical outcome. Stromal mast cells were found to correlate to low grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. There was a total lack of eosinophils in breast cancer tumours. A high number of mast cells in the tumours correlated to low-grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. Eosinophils are not tumour infiltrating in breast cancers

  7. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood Count Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish WBC count (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Blood Count Tests ... WBC count Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Laboratory Tests National Institutes of ...

  9. Association of blood eosinophils and plasma periostin with FEV1 response after 3-month inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist treatment in stable COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Yun; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Seonwoo; Jeong, Ina; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Woo Jin; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Sin, Don D; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Sang-Do

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients with increased airway eosinophilic inflammation show a favorable response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation of sputum eosinophilia with blood eosinophils and periostin. We investigated whether high blood eosinophils and plasma periostin were associated with an improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 3-month treatment with ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) in stable COPD patients. Blood eosinophils and plasma periostin levels were measured in 130 stable COPD subjects selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Subjects began a 3-month ICS/LABA treatment after washout period. High blood eosinophils (>260/µL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.009) and high plasma periostin (>23 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.013) were significantly associated with FEV1 responders (>12% and 200 mL increase in FEV1 from baseline after treatment). Moreover, the addition of high blood eosinophils to age, baseline positive bronchodilator response, and FEV1 eosinophils and high plasma periostin were associated with improved lung function after 3-month ICS/LABA treatment. In particular, high blood eosinophils, in combination with age and baseline lung function parameters, might be a possible biomarker for identification of COPD patients with favorable FEV1 improvement in response to ICS/LABA treatment.

  10. Proteomics of Eosinophil Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane F. Mosher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.

  11. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  12. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  13. Purinergic P2Y12 Receptor Activation in Eosinophils and the Schistosomal Host Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Valdirene S; Baptista-Dos-Reis, Renata; Benjamim, Claudia F; Mata-Santos, Hilton A; Pyrrho, Alexandre S; Strauch, Marcelo A; Melo, Paulo A; Vicentino, Amanda R R; Silva-Paiva, Juliana; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T; Neves, Josiane S

    2015-01-01

    Identifying new target molecules through which eosinophils secrete their stored proteins may reveal new therapeutic approaches for the control of eosinophilic disorders such as host immune responses to parasites. We have recently reported the expression of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) in human eosinophils; however, its functional role in this cell type and its involvement in eosinophilic inflammation remain unknown. Here, we investigated functional roles of P2Y12R in isolated human eosinophils and in a murine model of eosinophilic inflammation induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection. We found that adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced human eosinophils to secrete eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in a P2Y12R dependent manner. However, ADP did not interfere with human eosinophil apoptosis or chemotaxis in vitro. In vivo, C57Bl/6 mice were infected with cercariae of the Belo Horizonte strain of S. mansoni. Analyses performed 55 days post infection revealed that P2Y12R blockade reduced the granulomatous hepatic area and the eosinophilic infiltrate, collagen deposition and IL-13/IL-4 production in the liver without affecting the parasite oviposition. As found for humans, murine eosinophils also express the P2Y12R. P2Y12R inhibition increased blood eosinophilia, whereas it decreased the bone marrow eosinophil count. Our results suggest that P2Y12R has an important role in eosinophil EPO secretion and in establishing the inflammatory response in the course of a S. mansoni infection.

  14. Nutritional management of Eosinophilic Gastroenteropathies: Case series from the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilious Alfred

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic colitis, have classically been treated with swallowed inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. More recent studies have found elimination and elemental diets to be effective treatment alternatives to steroids. In this case series we describe the treatment of three children using nutritional management in a community setting. Elimination diets and elemental diets based on patch testing and skin prick tests reduced the eosinophil counts to normal levels in all three children. Food items which tested positive were then reintroduced while symptoms and eosinophil counts were monitored. Nutritional management of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic colitis was found to be effective in reducing symptoms. However, obstacles facing patients who choose this type of therapy include limitations due to the cost of repeated endoscopies, palatability of elimination/elemental diets and the availability of subspecialists trained in management (e.g. Allergy, Gastroenterology, and Pathology. It may be a worthwhile endeavour to overcome these obstacles as nutritional management minimizes the potential long-term effects of chronic steroid therapy.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of human eosinophil cationic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venge, P.; Roxin, L.E.; Olsson, I.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunosorbent assay has been developed which allows the detection in serum of a cationic protein derived from eosinophil granulocytes. In 34 healthy individuals the mean level was 31 μg/l. with a range of 5 to 55 μg/l. The serum concentration of 'eosinophil' cationic protein was correlated (P<0.001) to the number of eosinophil granulocytes in peripheral blood. Quantitiation of 'eosinophil' cationic protein in serum might be useful in the study of eosinophil granulocyte turnover and function in vivo. (author)

  16. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  17. Human eosinophils modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell response to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweyongyere, R; Namanya, H; Naniima, P; Cose, S; Tukahebwa, E M; Elliott, A M; Dunne, D W; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    High numbers of eosinophils are observed in parasitic infections and allergic diseases, where they are proposed to be terminally differentiated effector cells that play beneficial role in host defence, or cause harmful inflammatory response. Eosinophils have been associated with killing of schistosomulae in vitro, but there is growing evidence that eosinophils can play additional immuno-regulatory role. Here, we report results of a study that examines peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine responses to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (SWA) when stimulated alone or enriched with autologous eosinophils. Production of the Th-2 type cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 was lower (P = 0·017, 0·018 and eosinophil cultures than in PBMC-only cultures stimulated with SWA. Substantial levels of IL-13, IL-10, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha were recorded in cultures of eosinophils, but none of these cytokines showed significant association with the observed eosinophil-induced drop in cytokine responses of PBMC. Transwell experiments suggested that the observed effect is due to soluble mediators that downmodulate production of Th-2 type cytokines. This study shows that eosinophils may down-modulate schistosome-specific Th-2 type cytokine responses in S. mansoni-infected individuals. The mechanism of this immune modulation remains to be elucidated. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double...... and sputum analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data were pooled and demonstrated that 10 subjects had baseline sputum eosinophilia >or= 5%. Only high-dose ICS therapy (ie, 160 and 320 microg) significantly attenuated the sputum eosinophil percentage. Sputum eosinophil percentage significantly correlated...... eosinophil counts. In contrast, high-dose ICS therapy provided a significantly greater improvement in EIB in subjects with sputum eosinophilia compared to those with an eosinophil count of eosinophilic groups in the magnitude of improvement in EIB was evident after the first...

  19. Further investigations on the influence of ultraviolet irradiation on blood corpuscles hemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolukbasi, F.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet irradiation, applied for one hour, with a relatively high enerqy output of 95.5x10 3 erg. cm -2 . sn -1 , on some biological parameters of chicken's blood was determined. At the 24th hour after irradiation erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and percentages of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were decreased, but total leucocyte, thrombocyte counts and percentage of pseudoeosinophils were increased, significantly (P< 0,01). No significant changes were obtained in all parameters, at the 24th hour after a second irradiation. There were also found no differences between the values obtained at 24th hour after the second, and at 48th hour after the single irradiation, but all these values had a tendency taward the initial determinations

  20. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  1. Eosinophilic Pancreatitis: A Rare Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Reppucci

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic pancreatitis is a rare form of recurrent acute pancreatitis that demonstrates distinct histologic features, including diffuse, periductal, acinar, and septal inflammatory infiltrates comprised of a pure or predominant population of eosinophils, eosinophilic phlebitis and arteritis, and localized eosinophilic infiltrates with pseudocyst formation. It is associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels, an elevated eosinophil count with systemic manifestations, and eosinophilic infiltrates in other organs of the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of eosinophilic pancreatitis in a 44-year-old man who was diagnosed after pancreatic resection for recurrent bouts of acute pancreatitis. While the gross and histologic evaluations matched other reported cases of eosinophilic pancreatitis, our patient had only minimal peripheral eosinophilia, no reported history of symptoms related to elevated eosinophilia or immunoglobulin E, and only mild eosinophilic infiltrates in his gallbladder.

  2. Decline of blood leukocyte counts 1947-59, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ueda, Shoichi; Blaisdell, R K

    1963-03-03

    Earlier reports of progressive decline in leukocyte counts in Hiroshima from about 1948 to 1954 have been confirmed. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Nagasaki. Analysis indicates that this decline in white cell count with time is not related to exposure to the 1945 atomic bombs, to sex, to age, to commonly diagnosed diseases, or to the disproportionate influence of a subgroup. The principal white cells affected were neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. The precise etiologic factors accounting for the decline, and the biological significance of the present lower range of leukocyte values in Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain to be determined. 16 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral

  4. Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjic-Hösli, Susanne; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In 1846, T. Wharton-Jones described a coarsely granular stage in the development of granulocytic cells in animal and human blood. Shortly thereafter, Max Schultze redefined the coarsely granular cells as a type distinct from finely granular cells, rather than just a developmental stage. It was, however, not until 1879, when Paul Ehrlich introduced a method to distinguish granular cells by the staining properties of their granules, that a classification became possible. An intensive staining for eosin, among other aniline dyes, was eponymous for the coarsely granular cell type, which thereupon became referred to as eosinophil granulocyte. Eosinophilia had already been described in many diseases by the late 19th century. The role of these cells, however, today remains a matter of continuing speculation and investigation. Many functions have been attributed to the eosinophil over the years, often linked to increasing knowledge about the granular and cytoplasmatic contents. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of eosinopoiesis has led to the development of knock-out mice strains as well as therapeutic strategies for reducing the eosinophil load in patients. The effect of these therapeutics and the characterization of the knock-out phenotypes have led to a great increase in the knowledge of the role of the eosinophil in disease. Today we think of the eosinophil as a multifunctional cell involved in host defense, tissue damage and remodeling, as well as immunomodulation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Asthma Control and Sputum Eosinophils: A Longitudinal Study in Daily Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarche, Sophie F; Schleich, Florence N; Paulus, Virginie A; Henket, Monique A; Van Hees, Thierry J; Louis, Renaud E

    Longitudinal trials have suggested that asthma control may be influenced by fluctuations in eosinophilic inflammation. This association has however never been confirmed in daily practice. To investigate the relationship between asthma control and sputum eosinophils in clinical practice. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on 187 patients with asthma with at least 2 successful sputum inductions at our Asthma Clinic. Linear mixed models were used to assess the relationship between asthma control and individual changes in sputum eosinophils. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed to define minimal important differences (MIDs) of sputum eosinophils associated with a change of at least 0.5 in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score. Then, a validation cohort of 79 patients with asthma was recruited to reassess this relationship and the accuracy of the MID values. A multivariate analysis showed that asthma control was independently associated with individual fluctuations in sputum eosinophil count (P eosinophilic asthma, we calculated a minimal important decrease of 4.3% in the percentage of sputum eosinophils (area under the curve [AUC], 0.69; P eosinophils and the accuracy of the MIDs of sputum eosinophils were confirmed in the validation cohort. At the individual level, asthma control was associated with fluctuations in sputum eosinophil count over time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN). Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and purification from normal human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Minuva, U; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN) is one of the cationic proteins found in the granules of the human eosinophilic granulocytes. EPX was purified from extracts of granules isolated from blood buffy coat cells of healthy donors. Polyclonal anti-EPX antibodies were...

  7. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts.......2 x 10(-10) and 6.5 x 10(-19), respectively). A SNP at IL1RL1 associated with asthma (P = 5.5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated...

  8. Sinusitis with eosinophilic otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshiro; Ishitoya, Junichi; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media is an intractable inflammation of the middle ear combined with bronchial asthma. According to a national epidemiological investigation on eosinophilic otitis media, it is assumed that eosinophilic otitis media are combined with sinusitis in about 74% of their cases. On the other hand, organizational images of eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic sinusitis are similar, and steroid therapy is effective together, and it is thought that they are involved in the idea of one airway one disease, but the details of sinusitis combined with the eosinophilic otitis media are unidentified. Therefore, we examined the kinds of the sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. We diagnosed 18 cases (male: 2 cases, female: 16 cases) (average age: 54.6 years old) as eosinophilic otitis media according to the diagnostic criteria. And, by the CT views of a paranasal sinus, blood tests, existence of the nasal polyp, etc, we investigated the kinds of sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. It turned out that bronchial asthma was combined with eosinophilic otitis media in 17 of 18 cases (airway hypersensitivity did sthenia of one case, but the asthma did not yet developed), and 6 cases were combined with aspirin induced asthma (AIA), and 3 cases were combined with Churg-Strauss syndromes (CSS). 10 case (55.6%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. And 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with chronic sinusitis, 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were not combined with sinusitis. We concluded that eosinophilic otitis media was not always combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. The idea of one airway one disease was not applied to this examination. (author)

  9. Sinusitis with eosinophilic otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshiro; Ishitoya, Junichi [Yokohama City Univ., Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tsukuda, Mamoru [Yokohama City Univ., Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media is an intractable inflammation of the middle ear combined with bronchial asthma. According to a national epidemiological investigation on eosinophilic otitis media, it is assumed that eosinophilic otitis media are combined with sinusitis in about 74% of their cases. On the other hand, organizational images of eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic sinusitis are similar, and steroid therapy is effective together, and it is thought that they are involved in the idea of one airway one disease, but the details of sinusitis combined with the eosinophilic otitis media are unidentified. Therefore, we examined the kinds of the sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. We diagnosed 18 cases (male: 2 cases, female: 16 cases) (average age: 54.6 years old) as eosinophilic otitis media according to the diagnostic criteria. And, by the CT views of a paranasal sinus, blood tests, existence of the nasal polyp, etc, we investigated the kinds of sinusitis combined with eosinophilic otitis media. It turned out that bronchial asthma was combined with eosinophilic otitis media in 17 of 18 cases (airway hypersensitivity did sthenia of one case, but the asthma did not yet developed), and 6 cases were combined with aspirin induced asthma (AIA), and 3 cases were combined with Churg-Strauss syndromes (CSS). 10 case (55.6%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. And 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were combined with chronic sinusitis, 4 cases (22.2%) of 17 eosinophilic otitis media were not combined with sinusitis. We concluded that eosinophilic otitis media was not always combined with eosinophilic sinusitis. The idea of one airway one disease was not applied to this examination. (author)

  10. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Case Report and Review in Search for Diagnostic Key Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo López-Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is considered an uncommon disease with a low incidence rate that remains as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, in spite of the fact that seventy years have passed since its original description. Hereby we present the case of a 29-year-old male without history of allergies who was evaluated for unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, without relevant findings on physical examination and presenting an initial complete blood count (CBC with severe eosinophilia. The patient was evaluated and the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed by histopathological findings. The relevance of the case resides in highlighting the lack of guidelines or consensus for histological diagnosis being virtually the only one available. To a similar extent, treatment evidence is based on case series with a reasonable number of patients and case reports.

  11. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Case Report and Review in Search for Diagnostic Key Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Medina, Guillermo; Gallo, Manuel; Prado, Alejandro; Vicuña-Honorato, Iliana; Castillo Díaz de León, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is considered an uncommon disease with a low incidence rate that remains as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, in spite of the fact that seventy years have passed since its original description. Hereby we present the case of a 29-year-old male without history of allergies who was evaluated for unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, without relevant findings on physical examination and presenting an initial complete blood count (CBC) with severe eosinophilia. The patient was evaluated and the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed by histopathological findings. The relevance of the case resides in highlighting the lack of guidelines or consensus for histological diagnosis being virtually the only one available. To a similar extent, treatment evidence is based on case series with a reasonable number of patients and case reports. PMID:26075112

  12. The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-10-01

    Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity. The immunologic regulation of eosinophils extends from innate immunity to adaptive immunity and also involves non-immune cells. Herein, we summarize recent findings regarding novel roles of murine and human eosinophils, focusing on interactions with other hematopoietic cells. We also review new experimental tools available and remaining questions to uncover a greater understanding of this enigmatic cell.

  13. Protective Role of Eosinophils and TNFa after Ozone Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B; Wicher, Sarah A

    2017-03-01

    air for 4 hours and measured changes in cell numbers and airway responses 1 or 3 days later. They counted the numbers of eosinophils and other white blood cells (macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes) in bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lung lavage fluid. The investigators also measured important physiological responses, including bronchoconstriction. Some animals were pretreated with etanercept and monoclonal anti-IL-5, which block tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) and IL-5, respectively. TNFa and IL-5 blockers have been used to treat patients with asthma. A key feature of the study was a technique to distinguish which white blood cells were synthesized after exposure from those that already existed, by injecting animals with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU is a thymidine analogue that is incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells, serving as a marker of newly produced cells. Therefore, a snapshot can be obtained of the proportion of newly synthesized (BrdU-positive) versus pre-existing (BrdU-negative) cell types. 1. Allergic and normal animals differed in the time course of bronchoconstriction and changes in cell types after ozone exposure. In normal animals, bronchoconstriction increased substantially at day 1 but decreased by day 3 after ozone exposure. In contrast, in allergic animals bronchoconstriction remained high at day 3. Ozone also increased the percentage of newly formed, BrdU2 positive eosinophils in the bone marrow and lungs of normal but not allergic animals. 2. Pretreatment with the TNFa blocker etanercept had complex effects, which differed between normal and allergic animals. In normal animals, etanercept decreased ozone-induced new synthesis of eosinophils in the bone marrow and blocked eosinophil migration to the lung; it also increased bronchoconstriction at day 3 (relative to day 1 without etanercept). In allergic animals, etanercept had no effect on any cell type in the bone marrow or lung after exposure to ozone and did not change

  14. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  15. A pilot study of omalizumab in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Loizou

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE, once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy.

  16. The effects of Strongylus vulgaris parasitism on eosinophil distribution and accumulation in equine large intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, A K; Freeman, D E; Constable, P D; Moore, R M; Eurell, J C; Wallig, M A; Hubert, J D

    2008-06-01

    Eosinophilic granulocytes have been associated with parasite or immune-mediated diseases, but their functions in other disease processes remain unclear. Cause and timing of eosinophil migration into the equine gastrointestinal mucosa are also unknown. To determine the effects of intestinal parasitism on eosinophils in equine large intestinal mucosa. Large intestinal mucosal samples were collected from horses and ponies (n = 16) from the general veterinary hospital population, ponies (n = 3) raised in a parasite-free environment, ponies experimentally infected with 500 infective Strongylus vulgaris larvae and treated with a proprietary anthelmintic drug (n = 14), and a similar group of ponies (n = 7) that received no anthelmintic treatment. Total eosinophil counts and eosinophil distribution in the mucosa were determined by histological examination. A mixed model analysis was performed and appropriate Bonferroni adjusted P values used for each family of comparisons. Pvulgaris and those raised in a parasite-free environment. Experimental infection with S. vulgaris, with or without subsequent anthelmintic treatment, did not change eosinophil counts, and counts were similar to those for horses from the general population. Migration of eosinophils to the equine large intestinal mucosa appears to be independent of exposure to parasites. Large intestinal mucosal eosinophils may have more functions in addition to their role in defence against parasites.

  17. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10 9 L -1 ), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an Italian experience Esofagitis eosinofílica: una experiencia italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vindigni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: eosinophilic esophagitis is an esophageal disorder characterized by esophageal and/or upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, and by dense esophageal eosinophilia associated with a normal gastric and duodenal mucosa. Prevalently reported in children, eosinophilic esophagitis has recently been reported with increased frequency also in adults. Aims: the purpose of this study was to report our experience with eosinophilic esophagitis in Italy, since there are only very few series of such patients in our country. Patients and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the histological data of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophagitis or reflux disease in the period September 2004-September 2008. Eosinophils were counted where they appeared most numerous in the biopsy, with a cutoff > 15 eosinophils in more than one high-power field as diagnostic of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients were excluded if gastric or duodenal biopsies showed a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Results: twenty two patients (14 adults, 8 children, age range 2-59 years were identified according to the above criteria. The average eosinophil count was 86/ high-power field (range 31-150, associated with other pathologic features (eosinophilic microabscesses eosinophil degranulation, basal zone hyperplasia, papillary elongation. The main clinical complaints were dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn, and endoscopic findings consisted of mucosal thickening and inelasticity, longitudinal shearing, rings, and white specks, without difference between adults and children for both clinical and endoscopic variables. Conclusions: eosinophilic esophagitis is not rare in Italy, and displays clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features similar to those described in other countries.

  19. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  20. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C.; Klion, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides. PMID:25003763

  1. Independent prognostic value of eosinophil and mast cell infiltration in colorectal cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hansen, Ulla; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    -assisted microscope, which allowed semi-automated quantification of cells within a fixed area. Total white cells and individual counts of eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were evaluated in every tumour specimen. Stratification into four groups with similar numbers of events was used...... age ( p=0.0003), and tumour location in the rectum predicted poor survival, while high counts of eosinophils ( p=0.006) and mast cells ( p=0.02) predicted good survival. Tumour-associated eosinophilia and mastocytosis appear to be independent prognostic variables in colorectal cancer. Future studies...... should investigate the potential biological role of tumour tissue eosinophils and mast cells in the modulation of tumour growth....

  2. Prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms: A cross-sectional study from a tertiary care hospital in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Bhaskarjyoti; Kumar, Tarun; Das, Prasenjit; Thakur, Bhaskar; Sreenivas, Vishnubatla; Ahuja, Vineet; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Makharia, Govind K

    2017-09-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is being recognized increasingly all over the globe; Indian data is however sparse. We screened patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for presence of EoE in them. Consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD underwent gastroduodenoscopy and esophageal biopsies, obtained from both the upper esophagus (5 cm below the upper esophageal sphincter) and lower esophagus (5 cm above gastroesophageal junction), as well as from any other endoscopically visible abnormal mucosa. Demographic and clinical characteristics, endoscopic findings, peripheral blood eosinophilic count, and history of use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) were analyzed. Stool examination was done to rule out parasitoids. EoE was diagnosed if number of mucosal eosinophil infiltrate was >20 per high-power field. In the latter, Warthin-Starry stain was performed to rule out presence of H elicobacter pylori. Of 190 consecutive patients with symptoms of GERD screened, esophageal biopsies were available in 185 cases. Of them, 6 had EoE, suggesting a prevalence of 3.2% among patients with GERD. On univariate analysis, history of allergy, non-response to PPI, and absolute eosinophil counts and on multivariable analysis, history of allergy and no response to PPIs were significant predictors of EoE. Presence of EOE did not correlate with severity of reflux symptoms. In this hospital-based study from northern part of India, prevalence of EoE in patients with GERD was 3.2%. EoE should be considered as a diagnostic possibility, especially in those with history of allergy, no-response to PPI, and absolute eosinophil count of ≥250/cumm.

  3. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  4. Topical corticosteroids do not revert the activated phenotype of eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis but decrease surface levels of CD18 resulting in diminished adherence to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Bergquist, Henrik; Johnsson, Marianne; Sundström, Patrik; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Bove, Mogens; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Swallowed topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults. Eosinophils in the blood of untreated EoE patients have an activated phenotype. Our aim was to determine if corticosteroids restore the phenotype of eosinophils to a healthy phenotype and if certain cell-surface molecules on blood eosinophils correlate with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Levels of eight surface markers on eosinophils from treated and untreated EoE patients were determined by flow cytometry and analyzed using multivariate methods of pattern recognition. Corticosteroid-treated EoE patients' eosinophils had decreased levels of CD18 compared to both untreated patients and healthy controls, but maintained their activated phenotype. CD18 expression correlated positively with eosinophil numbers in the esophagus and promoted the adherence of eosinophils to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and to endothelial cells. The diminished expression of CD18 may be one mechanism behind the reduced entry of eosinophils into the esophagus in corticosteroid-treated EoE patients.

  5. Anti-IL-5 attenuates activation and surface density of β2-integrins on circulating eosinophils after segmental antigen challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats W.; Gunderson, Kristin A.; Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-5 activates αMβ2 integrin on blood eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following segmental antigen challenge have activated β2-integrins. Objective To identify roles for IL-5 in regulating human eosinophil integrins in vivo. Methods Blood and BAL eosinophils were analyzed by flow cytometry in ten subjects with allergic asthma who underwent a segmental antigen challenge protocol before and after anti-IL-5 administration. Results Blood eosinophil reactivity with monoclonal antibody (mAb) KIM-127, which recognizes partially activated β2-integrins, was decreased after anti-IL-5. Before anti-IL-5, surface densities of blood eosinophil β2, αM, and αL integrin subunits increased modestly post-challenge. After anti-IL-5, such increases did not occur. Before or after anti-IL-5, surface densities of β2,αM, αL, and αD and reactivity with KIM-127 and mAb CBRM1/5, which recognizes high-activity αMβ2, were similarly high on BAL eosinophils 48 h post-challenge. Density and activation state of β1-integrins on blood and BAL eosinophils were not impacted by anti-IL-5, even though anti-IL-5 ablated a modest post-challenge increase on blood or BAL eosinophils of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a receptor for P-selectin that causes activation of β1-integrins. Forward scatter of blood eosinophils post-challenge was less heterogeneous and on the average decreased after anti-IL-5; however, anti-IL-5 had no effect on the decreased forward scatter of eosinophils in post-challenge BAL compared to eosinophils in blood. Blood eosinophil KIM-127 reactivity at the time of challenge correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in BAL post-challenge. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance IL-5 supports a heterogeneous population of circulating eosinophils with partially activated β2-integrins and is responsible for upregulation of β2-integrins and PSGL-1 on circulating eosinophils following segmental antigen challenge but has

  6. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  7. A Pilot Study of Omalizumab in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Denise; Enav, Benjamin; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Hider, Pamela; Kim-Chang, Julie; Noonan, Laura; Taber, Tabitha; Kaushal, Suhasini; Limgala, Renuka; Brown, Margaret; Gupta, Raavi; Balba, Nader; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Khojah, Amer; Alpan, Oral

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01040598 PMID:25789989

  8. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  9. Eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Ghobrial, Peter; Liron, Pantanowitz

    2010-09-17

    There is a broad etiology for effusion eosinophilia that includes allergic, reactive, infectious, immune, neoplastic, and idiopathic causes. We report and describe the cytomorphologic findings of a rare case of eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis. A 17-year-old male manifested acutely with eosinophilic ascites due to severe biopsy-proven subserosal eosinophilic ileitis. Isolated peritoneal fluid submitted for cytologic evaluation revealed that 65% eosinophils were present in a bloody background. The patient responded to corticosteroids, with complete resolution of his ascites. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with subserosal involvement should be added to the list of causes for eosinophils in peritoneal fluid. The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disease with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. It is classified as a scleroderma-like syndrome. The disease is characterized by fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with significant thickening of fascia. Visceral involvement is rare. Characteristic feature in laboratory tests is peripheral blood eosinophilia. Differential diagnosis should be performed, including ruling out systemic sclerosis, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, scleromyxedema, hypereosinophilic syndrome or Churg-Strauss syndrome. Final diagnosis is confirmed by histopathological examination. In treatment of the disease corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs are used. Some other drugs showed activity in this disease e.g. dapsone, infiximab or rituximab. Prognosis is rather good but sometimes a long-term treatment is necessary. In this paper we summarized the current knowledge on eosinophilic fasciitis.

  11. Eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Namrata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a broad etiology for effusion eosinophilia that includes allergic, reactive, infectious, immune, neoplastic, and idiopathic causes. We report and describe the cytomorphologic findings of a rare case of eosinophilic ascites due to severe eosinophilic ileitis. Case Presentation: A 17-year-old male manifested acutely with eosinophilic ascites due to severe biopsy-proven subserosal eosinophilic ileitis. Isolated peritoneal fluid submitted for cytologic evaluation revealed that 65% eosinophils were present in a bloody background. The patient responded to corticosteroids, with complete resolution of his ascites. Conclusion: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with subserosal involvement should be added to the list of causes for eosinophils in peritoneal fluid. The finding of eosinophilic ascites, with appropriate clinical and laboratory findings, may warrant the need to perform laparoscopic intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis.

  12. Immunophenotyping of eosinophils recovered from blood and BAL of allergic asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengelers, H. J.; Maikoe, T.; Brinkman, L.; Hooibrink, B.; Lammers, J. W.; Koenderman, L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with allergic asthma have demonstrated active migration of eosinophils into the bronchial lumen after allergen challenge. The mechanisms mediating this eosinophil infiltration and cell activation are largely unexplained. The expression of

  13. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  14. Regulatory Eosinophils Suppress T Cells Partly through Galectin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Jennie; Andersson, Kerstin; Wennerås, Christine

    2017-06-15

    Eosinophils have the capacity to regulate the function of T cell subsets. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of a regulatory subset of eosinophils. Human eosinophils were incubated with T cells that were stimulated with allogeneic leukocytes or CD3/CD28 cross-linking. After 2 d of coculture, 11% of the eosinophils gained CD16 expression. A CD16 hi subset of eosinophils, encompassing 1-5% of all eosinophils, was also identified in the blood of healthy subjects. FACS sorting showed that these CD16 hi eosinophils were significantly stronger suppressors of T cell proliferation than were conventional CD16 neg eosinophils. Human eosinophils contain stores of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10. We found that Ab-mediated neutralization of galectin-10 partially abrogated the suppressive function of the eosinophils. Moreover, recombinant galectin-10 by itself was able to suppress T cell proliferation. Finally, we detected galectin-10-containing immune synapses between eosinophils and lymphocytes. To conclude, we describe a subset of suppressive eosinophils expressing CD16 that may escape detection because CD16-based negative selection is the standard procedure for the isolation of human eosinophils. Moreover, we show that galectin-10 functions as a T cell-suppressive molecule in eosinophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Culicoides antigen extract stimulates equine blood mononuclear (BMN) cell proliferation and the release of eosinophil adherence-inducing factor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckelvie, J; Foster, A P; Hamblin, A S; Cunningham, F M

    2001-04-01

    Intradermal injection of a Culicoides antigen extract (CAgX) induces T lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the skin of horses with sweet itch. Blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from normal ponies proliferate when stimulated by mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA) or antigen (tetanus toxoid, TT) and, as shown here, release soluble factor(s) that induce eosinophil adherence. CAgX also caused concentration dependent proliferation of BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies [stimulation index: 29 (13) and 17 (7) for BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies, respectively during the active phase of disease; 4 microg protein ml(-1)CAgX; 168 h]. A heat labile factor(s) which caused eosinophil adherence was also released [sweet itch ponies: 6.0 (1.6) per cent adherence versus 1.3 (0.4) per cent; normal ponies: 6.6 (0.5) per cent adherence versus 0.9 (0.1) per cent for supernatants from CAgX (4 microg protein ml(-1); 48 hours) stimulated versus unstimulated BMN cells, respectively]. These results suggest that soluble proteins released from T lymphocytes could affect eosinophil function in the lesional skin of sweet itch horses. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Methimazole associated eosinophilic pleural effusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-da-Costa, Pedro; Duarte Silva, Filipa; Henriques, Júlia; do Vale, Sónia; Braz, Sandra; Meneses Santos, João; M M Victorino, Rui

    2017-03-21

    Adverse reactions associated to anti-thyroid drugs include fever, rash, arthralgia, agranulocytosis and hepatitis that are thought to be hypersensitivity reactions. Five cases of pleural effusion associated to thionamides have also been reported, two with propylthiouracil and three with carbimazole. We report here a case of a 75-year-old man admitted because of unilateral pleural effusion. The patient had a recent diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and 6 days after starting methimazole complained of pleuritic chest pain. He had elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and normal white blood cell count and liver enzymes. Chest radiography showed a moderate right pleural effusion and the ultrasound revealed a loculated effusion that was shown to be an eosinophilic exudate. The temporal relationship between methimazole intake and the development of pleural effusion combined with the extensive exclusion of alternative causes, namely infectious, neoplastic and primary auto-immune diseases, led to the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to methimazole. The thionamide was stopped and corticosteroid was started with complete resolution of the pleural effusion in 3 months. Awareness of this rare adverse reaction of anti-thyroid drugs is important and methimazole can be added to the list of possible etiologies of drug-induced eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  17. Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis: a clinical study of 42 consecutive cases in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Ghawche, Frédéric; Delattre, Alex; Berberian, Anthony; Levy, Marc; Valour, Florent

    2014-06-01

    In endemic areas, eosinophilic meningitis is mainly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We describe a series of this poorly-known condition. Retrospective cohort study (2000-2012) including all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis in French Polynesia. Forty-two patients (males: 61.9%, age: 22 (IQR 17-32)) were diagnosed with a serologically proven (n=13) or probable A. cantonensis meningitis, mostly during the dry season (66.6%) and following the consumption of or prolonged contact with an intermediate/paratenic host (64.3%). No differential diagnosis was found in probable cases, in whom serological tests were performed earlier (7.5 days (6.5-10)) compared to positive patients (7.5 (6.5-10) versus 11 (7-30) days, p=0.02). The most commonly reported symptom was headache (92.8%). Fever (7.1%) and biological inflammatory syndrome (14.3%) were rare. Blood eosinophil count was 1200/mm(3) (900-2548). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis disclosed a protein level of 0.9 g/L (0.7-1.1), a CSF/plasma glucose ratio of 0.50 (0.40-0.55), and 500 leucocytes/mm(3) (292-725; eosinophils: 42.0% (29.5-60); lymphocytes: 46.5% (32.5-59.0)). Thirteen cases (31.0%) were severe, with 11 focal neurological deficits. A delayed hospital referral (OR 1.13, p=0.05) was associated with severity. A. cantonensis meningitis must be evocated in young patients with meningitic syndrome, severe headache, and CSF inflammation with predominance of eosinophils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel antagonist of CRTH2 blocks eosinophil release from bone marrow, chemotaxis and respiratory burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royer, J F; Schratl, P; Lorenz, S

    2007-01-01

    developed small molecule antagonist of CRTH2, Cay10471, on eosinophil function with respect to recruitment, respiratory burst and degranulation. METHODS: Chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils were determined using microBoyden chambers. Eosinophil release...... from bone marrow was investigated in the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. Respiratory burst and degranulation were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Cay10471 bound with high affinity to recombinant human and guinea pig CRTH2, but not DP, receptors. The antagonist prevented the PGD......(2)-induced release of eosinophils from guinea pig bone marrow, and inhibited the chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils. Pretreatment with PGD(2) primed eosinophils for chemotaxis towards eotaxin, and this effect was prevented by Cay10471. In contrast...

  19. Association of blood eosinophils and plasma periostin with FEV1 response after 3-month inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist treatment in stable COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hye Yun Park,1 Hyun Lee,1 Won-Jung Koh,1 Seonwoo Kim,2 Ina Jeong,3 Hyeon-Kyoung Koo,4 Tae-Hyung Kim,5 Jin Woo Kim,6 Woo Jin Kim,7 Yeon-Mok Oh,8 Don D Sin,9 Seong Yong Lim,10,* Sang-Do Lee8,* On behalf of the KOLD Study Group 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Biostatistics Team, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do, Korea; 6Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Uijeongbu St Mary’s Hospital, Gyunggi-do, Korea; 7Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Korea; 8Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 9Respiratory Division, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 10Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD patients with increased airway eosinophilic inflammation show a favorable response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation of sputum eosinophilia with blood eosinophils and periostin. We investigated whether high blood eosinophils and plasma periostin were associated

  20. Effects of Septrin Administration on Blood Cells Parameters in Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased (p<0.05), especially after 7-10 days of septrin administration, compared to the control values. On the other hand, the reticulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and prothrombin time ...

  1. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  2. Haematological and biochemical characteristics of the splenic effluent blood in schistosomal patients undergoing splenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess hematological and biochemical features of splenic effluent blood and their influence on the rise of hematological values after splenectomy. METHODS: we studied 20 patients undergoing surgical treatment for schistosomatic portal hypertension. We collected blood samples for CBC, coagulation, bilirubin and albumin in the splenic vein (perioperative and peripheral blood (immediately pre and postoperative periods. RESULTS: the splenic blood showed higher values of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, as well as reduction of laboratory coagulation parameters in relation to peripheral blood collected preoperatively. In the postoperative peripheral blood there was an increase in the overall leukocytes and in their neutrophil component, and decreased levels of basophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes. The other postoperative variables of complete blood count and coagulation tests were not different compared with the splenic blood. The albumin values were lower postoperatively when compared to preoperative and splenic blood. There were higher values of direct bilirubin in the postoperative period when compared with the preoperative and splenic blood. Postoperative indirect bilirubin was lower compared to its value in the splenic blood. CONCLUSION: hematological and biochemical values of splenic effluent blood are higher than those found in peripheral blood in the presence of schistosomal splenomegaly. However, the splenic blood effluent is not sufficient to raise the blood levels found after splenectomy.

  3. Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda Gambogi; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Lima, Xinaida Taligare; Antunes, Edson; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM. In 15 patients with the acute form of the disease, we detected expression of MBP, CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) in biopsies of lymph nodes and liver. In addition, there were higher levels of chemokines and granule proteins in the peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Isolation of eosinophils from blood revealed a higher frequency of CD69+ and TLR2+ eosinophils in patients compared to controls, and a lower population of CD80+ cells. We also evaluated the fungicidal capacity of eosinophils in vitro. Our results revealed that eosinophils from PCM patients and controls exhibit similar ability to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells, although eosinophils of patients were less responsive to IL-5 stimulation than controls. In conclusion, we suggest that eosinophils might play a role in the host response to fungi and in the pathophysiology of PCM by inducing an intense and systemic inflammatory response in the initial phase of the infection.

  4. EOSINOPHILS: MULTIFACETED BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES AND ROLES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. PMID:21682744

  5. Detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Venge, P; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a highly basic and potent cytotoxic single-chain zinc-containing protein present in the granules of the eosinophilic granulocytes. ECP appears to be involved in defence against parasites and in the tissue damage seen in subjects with allergic and inflammatory...... disease. To investigate ECP release from in vitro activated human eosinophils and to study the involvement of eosinophils in health and disease, we have developed a sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassay. ECP was purified from normal human peripheral blood eosinophils and polyclonal antibodies to ECP...

  6. Eosinophils from Physiology to Disease: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Ripa, Marco; Mannina, Daniele; Cariddi, Adriana; Saporiti, Nicoletta; Ciceri, Fabio; Castagna, Antonella; Dagna, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Despite being the second least represented granulocyte subpopulation in the circulating blood, eosinophils are receiving a growing interest from the scientific community, due to their complex pathophysiological role in a broad range of local and systemic inflammatory diseases as well as in cancer and thrombosis. Eosinophils are crucial for the control of parasitic infections, but increasing evidence suggests that they are also involved in vital defensive tasks against bacterial and viral pathogens including HIV. On the other side of the coin, eosinophil potential to provide a strong defensive response against invading microbes through the release of a large array of compounds can prove toxic to the host tissues and dysregulate haemostasis. Increasing knowledge of eosinophil biological behaviour is leading to major changes in established paradigms for the classification and diagnosis of several allergic and autoimmune diseases and has paved the way to a “golden age” of eosinophil-targeted agents. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update on the pathophysiological role of eosinophils in host defence, inflammation, and cancer and discuss potential clinical implications in light of recent therapeutic advances. PMID:29619379

  7. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...... showed only slight eosinophilia. Perforation of the small intestine is a rare but serious complication in eosinophilic gastroenteritis....

  8. Eosinophilic pleural effusion: incidence, etiology and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Alvarez-Dobaño, José Manuel; Golpe, Antonio; Gude, Francisco; Anchorena, Christian; Pereyra, Marco F; Zamarrón, Carlos; Valdés, Luis

    2011-10-01

    Eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) has been associated with less risk for malignancy with a potential causal relationship with the presence of air and/or blood in the pleural space. However, these theories have fallen by the wayside in the light of recent publications. To determine the incidence and etiology of EPE and to observe whether the eosinophils in the pleural liquid (PL) increase in successive thoracocenteses. We analyzed 730 PL samples from 605 patients hospitalized between January 2004 and December 2010. We identified 55 samples with EPE from 50 patients (8.3%). The most frequent etiologies of EPE were: unknown (36%) and neoplasm (30%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of neoplasms between the non-eosinophilic pleural effusions (non-EPE) (25.9%) and the EPE (30%) (p=0.533). One hundred patients (16.5%) underwent a second thoracocentesis. Out of the 9 who had EPE in the first, 6 maintained EPE in the second. Out of the 91 with non-EPE in the first thoracocentesis, 8 (8.8%) had EPE in the repeat thoracocentesis. The percentage of eosinophils did not increase in the successive thoracocenteses (p=0.427). In the EPE, a significant correlation was found between the number of hematites and eosinophils in the PL (r=0.563; p=0.000). An EPE cannot be considered an indicator of benignancy, therefore it should be studied as any other pleural effusion. The number of eosinophils does not seem to increase with the of repetition of thoracocentesis and, lastly, the presence of blood in the PL could explain the existence of EPE. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

  10. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    morphological changes in juveniles and adults ticks parasitizing animals which consumed the biotherapic. This observation suggests a negative interference of the biotherapic in the biological cycle of the tick, decreasing its population and consequently his control’s necessity. Comparing the blood cells counts of the first and the twelfth month, a raise of 23% (P> 0.05 in the eosinophils and 8% (P< 0.05 in the platelets was observed in the T1 animals. No changes in liver enzymes were observed. The increase in eosinophils and platelets found in this experiment suggests that biotherapic ingested by the animals strengthens the defense system and the clotting cascade.Key words: bovinos

  11. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP. The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term ''eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'' (ECRS was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001.ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States. KEY WORDS: chronic rhinosinusitis, clinical feature, diagnosis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophils

  12. The expanding role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Helmers, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Surprisingly, the role(s) of eosinophils in health and disease is often summarized by clinicians and basic research scientists as a pervasive consensus opinion first learned in medical/graduate school. Eosinophils are rare white blood cells whose activities are primarily destructive and are only relevant in parasitic infections and asthma. However, is this consensus correct? This review argues that the wealth of available studies investigating the role(s) of eosinophils in both health and disease demonstrates that the activities of these granulocytes are far more expansive and complex than previously appreciated. In turn, this greater understanding has led to the realization that eosinophils have significant contributory roles in a wide range of diseases. Furthermore, published studies even implicate eosinophil-mediated activities in otherwise healthy persons. We suggest that the collective reports in the literature showing a role for eosinophils in an ever-increasing number of novel settings highlight the true complexity and importance of this granulocyte. Indeed, discussions of eosinophils are no longer simple and more often than not now begin with the question/statement “Did you know …?” PMID:22936660

  13. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  14. DEXTRAN SEDIMENTATION INDUCES A DIFFERENCE IN THE PERCENTAGE OF HYPODENSE EOSINOPHILS IN PERIPHERAL-BLOOD BETWEEN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC-ASTHMA AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, MO; DIJKHUIZEN, B; GERRITSEN, J; KAUFMAN, HF

    1994-01-01

    Considerable differences in the percentage of hypodense eosinophils in the peripheral blood of asthmatics have been reported by different investigators. In these previous studies dextran sedimentation was used for removal of erythrocytes prior to density centrifugation. We hypothesized that the

  15. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  16. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hariman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α.

  17. The counting of native blood cells by digital microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbin, S. O.; Doubrovski, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.; Tsareva, O. E.

    2017-03-01

    An algorithm for photographic images processing of blood samples in its native state was developed to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cells' samples. Special "photo templates" were suggested to use in order to identify red blood cells. The effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was found by authors, was used to increase the accuracy of this type of cells counting. Finally to raise the resolution of platelets from leukocytes the areas of their photo images were used, but not their sizes. It is shown that the accuracy of cells counting for native blood samples may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies for smears. At the same time the proposed native blood analysis simplifies greatly the procedure of sample preparation in comparison to smear, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratio to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  18. GPNMB promotes proliferation of developing eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae Mi; Kang, Jin Hyun; Kim, Bo Kyum; Uhm, Tae Gi; Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Hyune-Hwan; Binas, Bert; Chung, Il Yup

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a type I transmembrane protein that is expressed in a wide variety of cell types, including haematopoietic lineages. We previously demonstrated that GPNMB is one of the most highly expressed genes at an early and intermediate stage of eosinophil development. We herein examined GPNMB expression and its possible functional effect using cord blood (CB) CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells differentiating toward eosinophils during a 24-day culture period. Western blot and confocal microscopy analyses showed that GPNMB reached its highest levels at day 12 with most GPNMB-positive cells also expressing major basic protein 1 (MBP1), an eosinophil granule protein. GPNMB declined thereafter, but was still present at an appreciable level at day 24, the time when CB eosinophils most abundantly expressed MBP1 and were thus considered fully differentiated. When the developing CB cells were cultured in the presence of a blocking anti-GPNMB antibody, cell proliferation was significantly reduced. In agreement, ectopic expression of GPNMB in heterologous cells resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation, while small interfering RNA of GPNMB inhibited the GPNMB-mediated proliferation. Thus, GPNMB is expressed in a temporal manner during eosinophil development and delivers a proliferative signal upon activation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Eosinophils from hematopoietic stem cell recipients suppress allogeneic T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jennie; Cromvik, Julia; Ingelsten, Madeleine; Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilia has been associated with less severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that eosinophils diminish allogeneic T cell activation in patients with chronic GVHD. The capacity of eosinophils derived from healthy subjects and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant recipients, with or without chronic GVHD, to reduce allogeneic T cell proliferation was evaluated using a mixed leukocyte reaction. Eosinophil-mediated inhibition of proliferation was observed for the eosinophils of both healthy subjects and patients who underwent HSC transplantation. Eosinophils from patients with and without chronic GVHD were equally suppressive. Healthy eosinophils required cell-to-cell contact for their suppressive capacity, which was directed against CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. Neither eosinophilic cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, or increased numbers of regulatory T cells could account for the suppressive effect of healthy eosinophils. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed significantly increased mRNA levels of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10 in the eosinophils of both chronic GVHD patients and patients without GVHD, as compared with those from healthy subjects. The upregulation of galectin-10 expression in eosinophils from patients suggests a stimulatory effect of HSC transplantation in itself on eosinophilic galectin-10 expression, regardless of chronic GVHD status. To conclude, eosinophils from HSC transplant recipients and healthy subjects have a T cell suppressive capacity. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. World Health Organization-defined eosinophilic disorders: 2017 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Jason

    2017-11-01

    The eosinophilias encompass a broad range of nonhematologic (secondary or reactive) and hematologic (primary, clonal) disorders with potential for end-organ damage. Hypereosinophilia has generally been defined as a peripheral blood eosinophil count greater than 1500/mm 3 and may be associated with tissue damage. After exclusion of secondary causes of eosinophilia, diagnostic evaluation of primary eosinophilias relies on a combination of morphologic review of the blood and marrow, standard cytogenetics, fluorescent in situ-hybridization, flow immunocytometry, and T-cell clonality assessment to detect histopathologic or clonal evidence for an acute or chronic myeloid or lymphoproliferative disorder. Disease prognosis relies on identifying the subtype of eosinophilia. After evaluation of secondary causes of eosinophilia, the 2016 World Health Organization endorses a semi-molecular classification scheme of disease subtypes which includes the major category "myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 or with PCM1-JAK2," and the "MPN subtype, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified" (CEL, NOS). Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia is an aberrant T-cell clone-driven reactive eosinophila, and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a diagnosis of exclusion. The goal of therapy is to mitigate eosinophil-mediated organ damage. For patients with milder forms of eosinophilia (e.g., watch and wait approach with close-follow-up may be undertaken. Identification of rearranged PDGFRA or PDGFRB is critical because of the exquisite responsiveness of these diseases to imatinib. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for patients with lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia and HES. Hydroxyurea and interferon-alpha have demonstrated efficacy as initial treatment and steroid-refractory cases of HES. In addition to hydroxyurea, second line cytotoxic chemotherapy agents and hematopoietic cell transplant have been used

  1. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  2. Eosinophils are rare in biopsy specimens of psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriela; Fernandez, Anthony P; Schneider, Sarah; Billings, Steven D

    2017-12-01

    Histological features of lesional biopsies can be helpful in distinguishing psoriasis subtypes from disease mimickers. However, occasionally, classic histological features are not sufficient for distinction, and additional clues would be useful. There is a common belief that the presence of eosinophils in skin biopsies argues against psoriasis, but actual literature is scant. Skin biopsies with a diagnosis of psoriasis from 2013 to 2016 were reviewed. For inclusion, both histological and clinical features were required to be consistent with psoriasis. For biopsies meeting inclusion criteria, a detailed evaluation for typical histological parameters of psoriasis, as well as presence of dermal eosinophils, was performed. Of 85 cases meeting inclusion criteria, all had either individual or grouped intracorneal neutrophils and dilated papillary blood vessels. Diminished or complete loss of the granular cell layer was seen in 83 cases (98%), and parakeratosis was seen in 84 cases (99%). Alternatively, dermal eosinophils were seen in only 15 cases (18%). Of cases with eosinophils, none had more than 3 eosinophils upon examination of the entire dermis. Active treatment did not appear to impact presence/absence or numbers of eosinophils. Eosinophils are uncommon in psoriasis biopsies, and when present, they are found in small numbers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Time-dependent labelling course of human eosinophilic granulocytes after 3H thymidine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    After intravenous injection of 0.1 μCi/g body weight 3 H-Thymidine and taking of blood samples in intervals of 6-12 hrs. on three test persons with healthy blood, the labelling course of the eosinophilic granulocytes was studied. The cells were classified in four groups, according to the relative frequency of the different degrees of labelling. The time-dependent labelling index curves showed a nawe-sheped course. Elimination of the eosinophilics from the blood is carried out according to the 'At-random'-principle. 12 hrs. p.i. already 10% of the eosinophilics in the blood were labelled with maximally 5 grains. The cell flow-in phase of 13 hrs. was succeeded by a flow-out phase of nearly the same duration, afthr the first labelling maximum of 17%. 80 hrs. p.i. the first massive in-flow of high-labelled cells containing more than 30 grains. After reaching the labelling maximum of 58%, the labelling index values decreased continuously. Until the 11th day p.i., appr. 50% of the eosinophilics were still labelled, after 17 days appr. 25%, more than 65% of which consisted of cells with only 2-4 grains. Comparison of the labelling index curves of the grain groups with each other shows at first a synchronous, then an increasingly asynchronous course, according to the desynchronization of the several eosinophilic generation cycles in the bone marrow which gets more significant in the course of time. (orig.) [de

  4. Peak-counts blood flow model-errors and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Ekas, R.D.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions

  5. [Increased expressions of substance P and neurokinin/tachykinin receptor 1 in eosinophils of patients with psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhe; Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zheng, Wenjiao; Zhang, Zenan; He, Shaoheng

    2017-07-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of substance P (SP) and its receptor neurokinin/tachykinin receptor 1 (NK1R) in peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with psoriasis. Methods The levels of SP and NK1R in the peripheral blood of both patients with psoriasis and healthy people were detected by flow cytometry. This method was again used to detect the levels of SP and NK1R in the peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with psoriasis after stimulated with the crude extracts of Artemisia pollen, dust mite and Platanus pollen (all at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 μg/mL). Results Compared with the healthy controls, the percentages of SP + and NK1R + eosinophils in psoriasis patients increased up to 2.7 and 0.5 folds, respectively. Moreover, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of SP + and NK1R + eosinophils of psoriasis patients were elevated by 1.5 and 0.2 folds, respectively. The percentage of SP + eosinophils in psoriasis were down-regulated by 60% after the stimulation with Platanus pollen extract (1 μg/mL), while 0.1 μg/mL Platanus pollen extract induced a 0.6-fold increase in the percentage of NK1R + eosinophis. Conclusion The expressions of SP and NK1R are up-regulated in peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with psoriasis.

  6. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: the Aftermath of Eosinophil Extracellular Trap Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Ohta, Nobuo; Takeda, Masahide; Konno, Yasunori; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a refractory disease characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in middle ear effusion and mucosa. We summarize current knowledge regarding the clinical characteristics and management of EOM. Although eosinophil activation in inflamed foci is involved in the pathogenesis of EOM, little is known about the fate of the eosinophils and aftermath of their cell death. We discuss the possibility that eosinophils undergo non-apoptotic cell death that worsens tissue damage and increases effusion viscosity. Unlike chronic otitis media, EOM is strongly associated with an allergic background. Corticosteroids are currently the only effective pharmacological treatment, and surgical intervention is often required. Mucosal eosinophils infiltrate extensively into the middle ear cavity where they are stimulated by locally produced activators including interleukin-5 and eotaxin. The eosinophils undergo cytolysis in the effusion, which represents a major fate of activated eosinophils in vivo. Recent data revealed cytolysis could be renamed as extracellular trap cell death (ETosis). ETosis represents suicidal cell death involving total cell degranulation and development of sticky chromatin structures (extracellular traps (ETs)). The characteristics of eosinophil- and neutrophil-derived ET polymers might contribute to the difference in viscosity of secretions between EOM and common chronic otitis media. The extracellular products remaining after eosinophil ETosis are an important aspect of EOM pathology. The concept of ETosis also has novel implications for potential therapeutic modalities in various eosinophilic disorders.

  7. Notch signaling mediates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor priming-induced transendothelial migration of human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L Y; Wang, H; Xenakis, J J; Spencer, L A

    2015-07-01

    Priming with cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances eosinophil migration and exacerbates the excessive accumulation of eosinophils within the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics. However, mechanisms that drive GM-CSF priming are incompletely understood. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that regulates cellular processes, including migration, by integrating exogenous and cell-intrinsic cues. This study investigates the hypothesis that the priming-induced enhanced migration of human eosinophils requires the Notch signaling pathway. Using pan Notch inhibitors and newly developed human antibodies that specifically neutralize Notch receptor 1 activation, we investigated a role for Notch signaling in GM-CSF-primed transmigration of human blood eosinophils in vitro and in the airway accumulation of mouse eosinophils in vivo. Notch receptor 1 was constitutively active in freshly isolated human blood eosinophils, and inhibition of Notch signaling or specific blockade of Notch receptor 1 activation during GM-CSF priming impaired priming-enhanced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro. Inclusion of Notch signaling inhibitors during priming was associated with diminished ERK phosphorylation, and ERK-MAPK activation was required for GM-CSF priming-induced transmigration. In vivo in mice, eosinophil accumulation within allergic airways was impaired following systemic treatment with Notch inhibitor, or adoptive transfer of eosinophils treated ex vivo with Notch inhibitor. These data identify Notch signaling as an intrinsic pathway central to GM-CSF priming-induced eosinophil tissue migration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Establishment of reference intervals for complete blood count parameters during normal pregnancy in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiwei; Yang, Shuo; Zhang, Jie; Qiao, Rui

    2017-11-01

    To observe the changes of complete blood count (CBC) parameters during pregnancy and establish appropriate reference intervals for healthy pregnant women. Healthy pregnant women took the blood tests at all trimesters. All blood samples were processed on Sysmex XE-2100. The following CBC parameters were analyzed: red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), white blood cell count (WBC), and leukocyte differential count. Reference intervals were established using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of the distribution. Complete blood count parameters showed dynamic changes during trimesters. RBC, Hb, Hct declined at trimester 1, reaching their lowest point at trimester 2, and began to rise again at trimester 3. WBC, neutrophil count (Neut), monocyte count (MONO), RDW, and PDW went up from trimester 1 to trimester 3. On the contrary, MCHC, lymphocyte count (LYMPH), PLT, and MPV gradually descended during pregnancy. There were statistical significances in all CBC parameters between pregnant women and normal women, regardless of the trimesters (Ppregnancy) as follows: RBC 4.50 vs 3.94×10 12 /L, Hb 137 vs 120 g/L, WBC 5.71 vs 9.06×10 9 /L, LYMPH% 32.2 vs 18.0, Neut% 58.7 vs 75.0, and PLT 251 vs 202×10 9 /L. The changes of CBC parameters during pregnancy are described, and reference intervals for Beijing pregnant women are demonstrated in this study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskjær; Husby, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is characterised by age-dependent symptoms mimicking gastrooesophageal reflux disease, a distinct endoscopic appearance and a histological picture with extensive infiltration of eosinophils in the oesophageal mucosa. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is more frequently seen...... in males, and patients often belong to the paediatric or adolescence age groups. The exact prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis is unknown, but it has been suggested that the United States has a higher prevalence than Europe. Several treatment algorithms have been suggested, including elemental diets......, oral steroids, inhaled (swallowed) steroids, and leucotriene receptor antagonists. Detailed information on the eosinophilic inflammatory processes in the oesophageal mucosa was initially obtained from animal models, in particular with regard to the role of interleukin-5 and the chemokine eotaxin-1...

  10. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia presenting with ipsilateral pleural effusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; La, Hanh H; Albertson, Timothy E

    2016-08-12

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare idiopathic interstitial lung disease. The nearly pathognomonic radiographic finding is the peripheral distribution of alveolar opacities. Pleural effusions are rarely seen. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia with transudative eosinophilic pleural effusion. A 57-year-old Hispanic woman, a nonsmoker with a history of controlled asthma, presented to the hospital with unresolving pneumonia despite three rounds of antibiotics over a 2-month period. She was later diagnosed with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia based on the presence of peripheral blood eosinophilia, the peripheral distribution of alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph, and a lung parenchymal biopsy with infiltrates of eosinophils. Upon presentation, our patient had a right-sided moderate-sized pleural effusion. The pleural fluid profile was consistent with a transudative effusion with eosinophil predominance. Our patient responded promptly to oral corticosteroid treatment in a few days. The pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion subsided on a 1-month follow-up chest radiograph after starting corticosteroid treatment. We report the first case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia presenting with pneumonia with ipsilateral transudative eosinophilic pleural effusion. Like other cases of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, early recognition and diagnosis is essential and prompt treatment with corticosteroids is the mainstay of therapy. Pleural effusion resolved without the further need for therapeutic thoracentesis.

  11. Impact of valproates on haemostasis and blood cell count in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igrutinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is a highly prevalent disease affecting 0.5-1.5% of the world's population. One of the most frequently used antiepileptics are valproates. These medicines show a negative impact on haemostasis and peripheral blood count. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine the negative impact of valproates on haemostasis and peripheral blood count in children and to analyse whether these disturbances were dependent on the dosage of valproates and drug level in blood. METHOD A two-year research was conducted. The research included: 35 children using valproates, 12 children using the therapy of both valproates and carbamazepine and 30 healthy children. Complete peripheral blood count, screening tests of haemostasis (bleeding time, prothrombin time, prothrombin ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and capacity of thrombocyte aggregation research were done in all the children. RESULTS We found significantly more common frequency of leukopenia and neutropenia in children using valproates in comparison with the healthy children group. We also found the more common frequency of eosinophilia in comparison with healthy children. The children with the valproate therapy have lower approximate values of the number of platelets, fibrinogen and platelet aggregation in comparison with healthy children, but they have a higher approximate value of bleeding time and prothrombin time. These disturbances are in correlation with the dosage and the level of the medicine in blood. CONCLUSION Valproates have a negative effect on certain blood count parameters and haemostasis in children. Drug dosage and blood drug level are correlated with their negative impact on haemostasis parameters.

  12. Human eosinophils constitutively express a unique serine protease, PRSS33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Sumika; Okada, Naoko; Matsuda, Akio; Morita, Hideaki; Saito, Hirohisa; Fujisawa, Takao; Nakae, Susumu; Karasuyama, Hajime; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Eosinophils play important roles in asthma, especially airway remodeling, by producing various granule proteins, chemical mediators, cytokines, chemokines and proteases. However, protease production by eosinophils is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the production of eosinophil-specific proteases/proteinases by transcriptome analysis. Human eosinophils and other cells were purified from peripheral blood by density gradient sedimentation and negative/positive selections using immunomagnetic beads. Protease/proteinase expression in eosinophils and release into the supernatant were evaluated by microarray analysis, qPCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining before and after stimulation with eosinophil-activating cytokines and secretagogues. mRNAs for extracellular matrix proteins in human normal fibroblasts were measured by qPCR after exposure to recombinant protease serine 33 (PRSS33) protein (rPRSS33), created with a baculovirus system. Human eosinophils expressed relatively high levels of mRNA for metalloproteinase 25 (MMP25), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8 (ADAM8), ADAM10, ADAM19 and PRSS33. Expression of PRSS33 was the highest and eosinophil-specific. PRSS33 mRNA expression was not affected by eosinophil-activating cytokines. Immunofluorescence staining showed that PRSS33 was co-localized with an eosinophil granule protein. PRSS33 was not detected in the culture supernatant of eosinophils even after stimulation with secretagogues, but its cell surface expression was increased. rPRSS33 stimulation of human fibroblasts increased expression of collagen and fibronectin mRNAs, at least in part via protease-activated receptor-2 activation. Activated eosinophils may induce fibroblast extracellular matrix protein synthesis via cell surface expression of PRSS33, which would at least partly explain eosinophils' role(s) in airway remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier

  13. Complete blood count reference values of cord blood in Taiwan and the influence of gender and delivery route on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Wang, Tso-Fu; Lin, Teng-Yi; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Shu-Huey

    2011-06-01

    Cord blood banking has become more popular in recent years. Checking cord blood complete blood count (CBC) and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts (DCs) is essential before cryopreserving the cord blood units. Therefore, establishing the normal reference values of cord blood CBC and WBC DC is important in clinical practice and research. To obtain a large-scale population-based normal CBC and WBC DC reference values of healthy neonates' cord blood from a public cord blood bank and to investigate the influence of the gender and delivery route. From September 2001 to November 2006, the cord blood of healthy Taiwanese neonates with gestational age 36 weeks and more were collected by Tzu Chi Cord Blood Bank with written informed consents. All cord blood samples were analyzed by Sysmex XE2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) to obtain the CBC. The WBC DC was calculated by manual method. We used Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test for investigating the influences of gender and delivery route on the CBC and WBC DC reference values. The results were presented by mean±standard deviation or 2.5-97.5th percentiles. In the study period, totally 5602 cord blood samples were collected eligibly for analysis. The cord blood CBC and WBC DC normal reference values were calculated. The female neonates had significantly higher mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, and WBC count, but lower red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, and mean corpuscular Hb concentration values (pTaiwan. Gender and delivery routes were important confounding factors that influenced the cord blood CBC and WBC DC values. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Short-term effects of regional irradiation on lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazarin, C.; Roche, H.; Bugat, R.; Pris, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cancer patients treated only by regional irradiation were studied. Radiotherapy was delivered to the pelvis in 14 patients and to the mediastinum in 9. T lymphocytes were evaluated with the Jondal technique. Before treatment, lymphocyte counts were identical in patients and control. Decreases in total lymphocytes and T lymphocytes became significant in both groups after 40 Gy. Significant rises in eosinophil counts were found only after abdominal irradiation and seemed unrelated to variations in lymphocyte counts [fr

  15. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  16. Exosome secretion by eosinophils: A possible role in asthma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Carla; Cañas, José Antonio; Zafra, Maria Paz; Rojas Marco, Ainara; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Sanz, Veronica; Mittelbrunn, María; Izquierdo, Manuel; Baixaulli, Francesc; Sastre, Joaquín; Del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophils secrete several granules that are involved in the propagation of inflammatory responses in patients with pathologies such as asthma. We hypothesized that some of these granules are exosomes, which, when transferred to the recipient cells, could modulate asthma progression. Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood and cultured with or without IFN-γ or eotaxin. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in eosinophils were studied by using fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometry. Exosome secretion was measured and exosome characterization was performed with TEM, Western blotting, and NanoSight analysis. Generation of MVBs in eosinophils was confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and corroborated by means of TEM. Having established that eosinophils contain MVBs, our aim was to demonstrate that eosinophils secrete exosomes. To do this, we purified exosomes from culture medium of eosinophils and characterized them. Using Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that eosinophils secreted exosomes and that the discharge of exosomes to extracellular media increases after IFN-γ stimulation. We measured exosome size and quantified exosome production from healthy and asthmatic subjects using nanotracking analysis. We found that exosome production was augmented in asthmatic patients. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that eosinophils contain functional MVBs and secrete exosomes and that their secretion is increased in asthmatic patients. Thus exosomes might play an important role in the progression of asthma and eventually be considered a biomarker. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential activation of airway eosinophils induces IL-13-mediated allergic Th2 pulmonary responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, E A; Doyle, A D; Colbert, D C; Zellner, K R; Protheroe, C A; LeSuer, W E; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Wild-type or cytokine-deficient (IL-13(-/-) or IL-4(-/-) ) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophil deficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or in the lung draining lymph nodes (LDLN), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLN. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4, and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4(+) T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13, whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Eosinophilic spleen colonies are produced in rat-marrow-transplanted but not in murine-marrow-transplanted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.G.; Kelemen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Differential counts of about 5000 splenic clusters and colonies developing in whole-body-irradiated mice and rats were made, using semi-serial histological sections prepared 9 to 12 d after transplantation with bone marrow haemopoietic cells. The investigated mouse and rat spleens were from syngeneically, allogeneically, or xenogeneically transplanted recipients. Splenic eosinophil clusters were always found when rat eosinophil-producing progenitors were present in the inoculum, whereas murine inocula failed to produce splenic eosinophilic clusters even in the syngeneic mouse. The limiting factor in the production pf splenic eosinophilic clusters was the appropriate donor progenitor/committed stem cell itself. Changes in the percentages of eosinophil clusters with the number of injected cells and with increased doses of irradiation, as well as formation of rat eosinophil colonies in mice, as against mainly clusters in rats, themselves show that regulatory mechanisms of the recipients also play a role. These regulatory mechanisms cannot be attributed to the splenic microenvironment. (author)

  19. Differential Activation of Airway Eosinophils Induces IL-13 Mediated Allergic Th2 Pulmonary Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, EA; Doyle, AD; Colbert, DC; Zellner, KR; Protheroe, CA; LeSuer, WE; Lee, NA.; Lee, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Methods Wild type or cytokine deficient (IL-13−/− or IL-4−/−) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. Results In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophildeficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLNs. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4+ T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13 whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. Conclusion The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. PMID:26009788

  20. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  1. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  2. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using one-point arterial blood sampling and microsphere model with 123I-IMP. Correction of one-point arterial sampling count by whole brain count ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Kenichi; Masuda, Yasuhiko; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    The experimental subjects were 189 patients with cerebrovascular disorders. 123 I-IMP, 222 MBq, was administered by intravenous infusion. Continuous arterial blood sampling was carried out for 5 minutes, and arterial blood was also sampled once at 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP administration. Then the whole blood count of the one-point arterial sampling was compared with the octanol-extracted count of the continuous arterial sampling. A positive correlation was found between the two values. The ratio of the continuous sampling octanol-extracted count (OC) to the one-point sampling whole blood count (TC5) was compared with the whole brain count ratio (5:29 ratio, Cn) using 1-minute planar SPECT images, centering on 5 and 29 minutes after 123 I-IMP administration. Correlation was found between the two values. The following relationship was shown from the correlation equation. OC/TC5=0.390969 x Cn-0.08924. Based on this correlation equation, we calculated the theoretical continuous arterial sampling octanol-extracted count (COC). COC=TC5 x (0.390969 x Cn-0.08924). There was good correlation between the value calculated with this equation and the actually measured value. The coefficient improved to r=0.94 from the r=0.87 obtained before using the 5:29 ratio for correction. For 23 of these 189 cases, another one-point arterial sampling was carried out at 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 minutes after the administration of 123 I-IMP. The correlation coefficient was also improved for these other point samplings when this correction method using the 5:29 ratio was applied. It was concluded that it is possible to obtain highly accurate input functions, i.e., calculated continuous arterial sampling octanol-extracted counts, using one-point arterial sampling whole blood counts by performing correction using the 5:29 ratio. (K.H.)

  3. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will fabricate and test microfluidic designs for a micro-electromechanical system based complete blood count (CBC) analysis in separate modules and integrate them...

  4. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Čiháková

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  5. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diny, Nicola L.; Rose, Noel R.; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs. PMID:28496445

  6. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A pediatric case of Fascioliasis with eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Batur, Abdulsamet; Taylan-Özkan, Ayşegül; Demirören, Kaan; Beyhan, Yunus Emre

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolia spp. are common trematode infestations worldwide. Fasciolia spp. may lead to hepatic diseases in the acute phase and may cause biliary diseases in the chronic phase. In addition, Fasciolia spp. may rarely cause extrahepatic signs and symptoms. The clinical manifestations of fascioliasis are divided into three groups: typical, atypical, and ectopic. Eosinophilic pneumonia is an atypical presentation of acute fascioliasis and it has been reported very rarely. Herein, we report a boy with marked blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pneumonia who was diagnosed with fascioliasis by serologic tests and abdominal USG. The patient recovered completely following triclabendazole treatment.

  8. Nucleated red blood cells count in pregnancies with idiopathic intra-uterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Davari-Tanha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR. To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR.Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups.NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001. pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference.Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention.

  9. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RMD proposes to develop a MEMS based complete blood count (CBC) instrument that can be used aboard a spacecraft. We will produce a microfluidic scale combination...

  10. Effective antigen presentation to helper T cells by human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Ruhaifah K; Vickers, Mark A; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Hall, Andrew M; Barker, Robert N; Walsh, Garry M

    2016-12-01

    Although eosinophils are inflammatory cells, there is increasing attention on their immunomodulatory roles. For example, murine eosinophils can present antigen to CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, but it remains unclear whether human eosinophils also have this ability. This study determined whether human eosinophils present a range of antigens, including allergens, to activate Th cells, and characterized their expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules required for effective presentation. Human peripheral blood eosinophils purified from non-allergic donors were pulsed with the antigens house dust mite extract (HDM), Timothy Grass extract (TG) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD), before co-culture with autologous CD4 + Th cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were measured, with eosinophil expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 determined by flow cytometry. Eosinophils pulsed with HDM, TG or PPD drove Th cell proliferation, with the response strength dependent on antigen concentration. The cytokine responses varied with donor and antigen, and were not biased towards any particular Th subset, often including combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Eosinophils up-regulated surface expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ, CD80, CD86 and CD40 in culture, increases that were sustained over 5 days when incubated with antigens, including HDM, or the major allergens it contains, Der p I or Der p II. Human eosinophils can, therefore, act as effective antigen-presenting cells to stimulate varied Th cell responses against a panel of antigens including HDM, TG or PPD, an ability that may help to determine the development of allergic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Is it possible to claim or refute sputum eosinophils ≥ 3% in asthmatics with sufficient accuracy using biomarkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarche, Sophie F; Schleich, Florence N; Paulus, Virginie A; Henket, Monique A; Van Hees, Thierry J; Louis, Renaud E

    2017-07-03

    The concept of asthma inflammatory phenotypes has proved to be important in predicting response to inhaled corticosteroids. Induced sputum, which has been pivotal in the development of the concept of inflammatory phenotypes, is however not widely available. Several studies have proposed to use surrogate exhaled or blood biomarkers, like fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), blood eosinophils and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, taken alone, each of these biomarkers has moderate accuracy to identify sputum eosinophilia. Here, we propose a new approach based on the likelihood ratio to study which thresholds of these biomarkers, taken alone or in combination, were able to rule in or rule out sputum eosinophils ≥3%. We showed in a large population of 869 asthmatics that combining FENO, blood eosinophils and total serum IgE could accurately predict sputum eosinophils ≥ or <3% in 58% of our population.

  12. A Case Report of Eosinophilic Esophagitis Accompanying Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahreema Jawairia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow with persistent peripheral eosinophilia, associated with organ damage by the release of eosinophilic mediators. Although HES can involve multiple organ systems, GI tract involvement is very rare. Few cases of HES presenting with gastritis or enteritis have been reported worldwide. To date, HES presenting with esophagus involvement has only been reported once. Here, we present a 39-year-old Hispanic female patient with history of HES presenting with complaints of dysphagia and generalized pruritus.

  13. Diagnostic value of inflammatory markers (complete blood count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers [complete blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),. C-reactive protein (CRP)] for the differentiation of acute appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children. Patients and methods In this prospective ...

  14. Diagnostic value of inflammatory markers (complete blood count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers [complete blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP)] for the differentiation of acute appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children. Patients and methods In this prospective ...

  15. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  16. Detailed Histologic Evaluation of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric Patients Presenting with Dysphagia or Abdominal Pain and Comparison of the Histology between the Two Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumazhisai S. Gunasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EoE in children presents with four main symptoms. Most common symptoms exhibited by our clinic population are dysphagia (D and abdominal pain (AP. Despite similar treatments, we found in an earlier study that the outcomes between these two groups were different. Therefore, we investigated if there exist any histological differences between these groups that could further our knowledge of EoE. Aim. To compare esophageal histology in detail, apart from the eosinophil count, between EoE-D and EoE-AP. Method. Biopsies of patients with EoE-D and EoE-AP were reevaluated for 10 additional histological criteria, in addition to the eosinophil count. Results. Both groups had 67 patients; peak mean eosinophil was 33.9 and 31.55 for EoE-D and EoE-AP (p<0.05. Eosinophilic microabscesses, superficial layering of eosinophils, and epithelial desquamation were twice as common and significant in EoE-D group than EoE-AP. Eosinophil distribution around rete pegs was also significantly higher in EoE-D group. The remaining criteria were numerically higher in EoE-D, but not significant, with the exception of rete peg elongation. Conclusion. EoE-D patients have significantly higher eosinophils compared to EoE-AP, and the level of inflammation as seen from eosinophil microabscesses, superficial layering, desquamation, and the distribution around rete pegs is significantly higher.

  17. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  18. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Sattar, H.; Miah, R.A.; Saleh, A.A.; Hassan, R.; Salam, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  19. The investigation of complete blood counting parameters in deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Çalışkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role of inflammation in the deep venous thrombosis (DVT process has been explained in various studies. Hence, the role of inflammatory markers in this illness has been researched previouslyin the literature. Recent years, such as parameters, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR, among complete blood count have been frequently started to use as an expression of inflammatory marker. In the current study, the relation between complete blood count parameters and DVT was investigated. Methods: 50 patients admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of acute DVT (28 female, 22 male were included in the study. The patients were diagnosed by clinical symptoms and Doppler USG. Patients with additional illness that can form an inflammatory response were excluded. 30 healthy volunteers were included as a control group. Routine complete blood counts of these patients were examined retrospectively. Routine complete blood counts and nonselective inflammatory markers, red cell distribution width (RDW, white cells (WBC, NLR, and PLR measurements were examined statistically. Results: The mean age of patients included in study was 46.2±14.2 and 53% of them were female. When the groups were examined in terms of hematological parameters, lymphocyte (2.6±0.8 and 2.1±0.7, p=0.003 and platelet (322±144 and 264±66, p=0.042 values were detected to be higher. Hemoglobin (13.2±2.0 and 14.6±1.5, p=0.002 and hematocrit (38.7±5.1 and 42.8±6.9, p<0.001 values were detected to be less while the WBC, neutrophil, NLR, RDW and PLR were similar. Regarding the two groups with and without anticoagulant therapy, in the DVT group, there were no significant differences detected in terms of age, gender, and hematological parameters. Conclusion: In this study, there were no significant differences between healthy volunteers blood count parameters of patients taken into consideration with pure DVT. There is no significant change shown.

  20. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.D.; Hasselbalch, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing...... was increased with mild eosinophilia [OR 1.93 (CI 1.29-2.89), p = 0.0013]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for the remaining solid cancers. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associates with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize...... that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance or neoplastic evolution....

  1. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  2. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A.; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J.; Willeit, Johann; Stark, Konstantin; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Collins, Peter W.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L.; Lee, James J.; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase–derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:28566277

  3. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT. However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR. Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications.

  4. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Kroidl, Inge; Schunk, Mirjam; Alberer, Martin; Beissner, Marcus; Pritsch, Michael; Kroidl, Arne; Fröschl, Günter; Hanus, Ingrid; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2014-04-23

    Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.

  5. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  6. Eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome with markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Iwase, Takashi; Kadota, Muneyuki; Bando, Mika; Ogasawara, Kozue; Bando, Sachiko; Ise, Takayuki; Niki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yuka; Tomita, Noriko; Taketani, Yoshio; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with asthma visited our hospital with increasing dyspnea and new-onset paresthesia and purpura in her legs. Physical examination showed a wheeze, pretibial edema, and surrounding purpura. Chest X-rays showed cardiac decompensation and an electrocardiogram revealed a new ST-T change. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia (10,450/μL), troponin T(+), elevated BNP, and markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (> 150 ng/mL). Echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis (ejection fraction 30%) with increased wall thickness. Coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging implied diffuse myocardial edema and subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement. Skin biopsy of purpura showed superfi cial perivascular dermatitis with remarkable eosinophilic infiltrations. No evidence of drug allergies, parasitic infection, or myeloproliferative disorder was detected. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome was considered. She was administered prednisolone at a dose of 1 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide, and diuretics. Several markers of eosinophilic myocarditis and heart failure gradually improved, including ECP. She was discharged 30 days later with no cardiac event. Eosinophilic myocarditis is characterized by predominantly eosinophilic infi ltration. Eosinophilic granule proteins, such as ECP and major basic protein, play important roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic myocarditis. We experienced a rare case of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome. Markedly elevated ECP played an important role in the early diagnosis and subsequent reduction in ECP served as a marker of monitoring. In an asthmatic patient with dyspnea, hypereosinophilia, and vasculitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome with eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered.

  7. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kartini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. Methods An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. Results Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. Conclusion The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  8. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. METHODS An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. RESULTS Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. CONCLUSION The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  9. Effect of fractionated regional external beam radiotherapy on peripheral blood cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, B.; Jacob, S.S.; Gwede, C.; Cantor, A.; Patil, J.; Casey, L.; Zachariah, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for obtaining weekly complete blood count (CBC) values and to identify the pattern of changes in CBC during regional conventional fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of CBC data on 299 adult cancer patients who received definitive conventional radiotherapy to head and neck (n=95), chest (n=96), and pelvis (n=108) was performed. Temporal patterns and magnitude of change in white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets during radiotherapy were examined. Results: There were statistically significant declines in all counts, albeit not clinically significant. Notable differences between disease sites were found. The greatest weekly interval change in counts occurred during the first week of radiotherapy for all groups of patients. The mean WBC nadir values during treatment were 5.8 for head and neck, 6.8 for chest, and 5.4 for pelvis. The nadirs for all counts occurred toward the middle-to-end of radiotherapy. Lymphocytes were found to be more sensitive to radiotherapy than other leukocyte subcomponents. Conclusion: Our study suggests that weekly CBC monitoring is not necessary for all patients undergoing standard fractionated radiotherapy. Baseline blood counts may be used to determine an optimal schedule for monitoring CBCs in patients receiving conventional radiation alone. Reduced monitoring of CBC may result in significant financial savings

  10. Activated Eosinophils are Present in Esophageal Muscle in Patients with Achalasia of the Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Li-li

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to undertake a histological evaluation of the presence of eosinophils in esophageal muscle in patients with achalasia before treatment with peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), with clinical follow-up at one year. Material/Methods Before treatment, esophageal biopsies including mucosa and esophageal muscle were obtained from 28 patients with achalasia. Nine patients who had undergone esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma were included in the control group. The Eckardt Score was used to evaluate the clinical symptoms of achalasia. Histology of routinely processed tissue sections was used to perform eosinophil cell counts (0 to +++), and immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), and S100 protein in cases of achalasia (n=28) and controls (n=9). The findings in patients with achalasia were compared before and one year following POEM. Results Esophageal tissue from patients with achalasia showed eosinophils infiltrating into the muscularis externa in 85.7% (24/28), into the muscularis propria in 28.6% (8/28), and in 89% (25/28) there were few remaining myenteric ganglion cells, before POEM. The extent of inflammation was similar in all regions of the esophagus and between subtypes of achalasia. At one year following POEM, the Eckardt Scores between the former eosinophil (0) group and the eosinophil (+++) group were significantly different (Z=3.50, P=0.030). Conclusions Achalasia of the esophagus was associated with infiltration of the esophageal muscle by activated eosinophils and a decrease in the density of ganglion cells in the myenteric esophageal plexus. PMID:29672471

  11. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is increased in children with asthma and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeta; Ragazzo, Vincenzo; Costella, Silvia; Piacentini, Giorgio; Boner, Attilio; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Kantar, Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    Asthma is associated with food allergies in a significant number of children, with evidence linking allergies to asthma severity and morbidity. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that the eosinophilic lower airway inflammation is higher in asthmatic children with food allergies. The aims of the study were to compare the eosinophilic inflammatory markers in asthmatic children with and without food allergies. Children with asthma, with (n = 22) and (n = 53) without food allergies were included. All subjects were classified according to the GINA guidelines (2009) and had received at least 3 months of anti-inflammatory therapy prior to testing. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum differential counts were performed using standard techniques.   Children with asthma and food allergies had significantly higher fractional exhaled nitric oxide median (range) [(22.4 (6.1-86.9) vs. 10.3 (2.7-38.7) (p = 0.01)] and sputum eosinophil percentage [15.5 (5.0-53.0) vs. 2.0 (0-20) (p allergies. These results suggest that the children with asthma and food allergies have increased eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and ...

  13. Eosinophilic cystitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Li Yuhua; Wang Qiuyan; Xie Hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical manifestations and CT findings of eosinophilic cystitis in children. Methods: Nine cases including Six boys and 3 girls, three to 13 years old, mean age of 8.3- year, have symptoms of hematuria, irritative voiding, dysuria and abdominal pain. The eosinophilic cystitis was pathologically proved in 7 patients and eosinophilic granulomatous cystitis in 2 patients, which based on cystoscopic tissue biopsy or surgery retrospectively. Results: Local thickened bladder walls or nodular and sessile masses along the bladder dome showed in four cases with eosinophilic granulomatous cystitis, and the diffusely irregularly thickened bladder wails showed on CT scans in the rest 5 cases with eosinophilic cystitis. Conclusion: CT findings are helpful to reveal the site, size and other features of eosinophilic cystitis in children. But biopsy of the lesion is necessary to rule out other bladder tumor and selecting the proper management. (authors)

  14. Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Asthma: Implications for Eosinophilic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redwan Moqbel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the treatment and management of asthma have suggested that leukotriene (LT receptor antagonists may be very beneficial as a second generation therapy with steroid-sparing properties and negligible side effects. These agents have shown interesting effects on peripheral blood and sputum eosinophils. A major contributor to the damage in the airway of asthmatic patients is the eosinophil, which, upon activation, releases a battery of granule-associated cytotoxic, cationic proteins, including the major basic protein and eosinophil peroxidase, and membrane-derived de novo-synthesized bioactive lipid mediators, including LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, as well as platelet activating factor. These products have deleterious effects on the airway tissue including mucosal and smooth muscle layers. Accumulating evidence suggests that these agents may also influence the accumulation and maintenance of eosinophilic responses at the site of inflammation. This article reviews the possible anti-inflammatory mode of action of these therapies. It also discusses where there may be a gap in the knowledge regarding the potential direct and indirect effects of LT modifiers on eosinophil function and recruitment.

  15. Eosinophilic myositis: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Trallero-Araguás, E; Grau, J M

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia-associated myopathies are clinically and pathologically heterogeneous conditions characterized by the presence of peripheral and/or muscle eosinophilia. There are at least three distinct subtypes: focal eosinophilic myositis, eosinophilic polymyositis, and eosinophilic perimyositis. Infiltrating eosinophils are not always identified in conventional muscle histologic examination, but the eosinophil major basic protein, whose extracellular diffusion is considered a hallmark of eosinophilic cytotoxicity, is usually detected by immunostaining in muscle biopsy. Whereas focal eosinophilic myositis seems to be a benign and isolated condition, and perimyositis is usually related with the inflammatory infiltrate due to fasciitis, eosinophilic polymyositis can be associated with muscular dystrophy or be a feature of multiorgan hypereosinophilic syndrome. Muscle biopsy remains the cornerstone for the diagnosis. Parasitic infections, connective tissue disorders, hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, drugs, and toxic substances are the main etiologic agents of eosinophilia-associated myopathy. However, in some cases, no known etiologic factor is identified, and these are considered idiopathic. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay therapy in idiopathic forms. Imatinib and mepolizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal antibody, may be useful in patients with eosinophilic myositis as part of a hypereosinophilic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnig, Cindy; Alsaleh, Ghada; Jung, Nicolas; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach-in a limited number of patients and controls-to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology.

  17. Expression and functional roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Mami; Konno, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Takeda, Masahide; Itoga, Masamichi; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Chihara, Junichi; Ueki, Shigeharu

    2014-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in asthma links the estrogen and allergic immune responses. The function of estrogen was classically believed to be mediated through its nuclear receptors, i.e., estrogen receptors (ERs). However, recent studies established the important roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) as a novel membrane receptor for estrogen. To date, the role of GPER in allergic inflammation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether GPER might affect the functions of eosinophils, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here, we demonstrated that GPER was expressed in purified human peripheral blood eosinophils both at the mRNA and protein levels. Although GPER agonist G-1 did not induce eosinophil chemotaxis or chemokinesis, preincubation with G-1 enhanced eotaxin (CCL11)-directed eosinophil chemotaxis. G-1 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and caspase-3 activities. The anti-apoptotic effect was not affected by the cAMP-phospodiesterase inhibitor rolipram or phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. In contrast to resting eosinophils, G-1 induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activities when eosinophils were co-stimulated with IL-5. No effect of G-1 was observed on eosinophil degranulation in terms of release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). The current study indicates the functional capacities of GPER on human eosinophils and also provides the previously unrecognized mechanisms of interaction between estrogen and allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  19. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  20. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section 864.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual...

  1. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kourosh; Atla, Pradeep R; Haq, Tahmina; Sheikh, Muhammad Y

    2015-01-01

    Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as "Valley Fever," is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA). A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG), PMN count >250/mm(3), and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  2. Allergen-Induced Increases in Interleukin-25 and Interleukin-25 Receptor Expression in Mature Eosinophils from Atopic Asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Smith, Steven G; Salter, Brittany; Oliveria, John Paul; Mitchell, Patrick; Nusca, Graeme M; Howie, Karen; Gauvreau, Gail M; O'Byrne, Paul M; Sehmi, Roma

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-25 plays a pivotal role in type 2 immune responses. In a baseline cross-sectional study, we previously showed that IL-25 plasma levels and IL-25 receptor (IL-25R: IL-17RA, IL-17RB, and IL-17RA/RB) expression on mature blood eosinophils are increased in atopic asthmatics compared to normal nonatopic controls. This study investigated allergen-induced changes in IL-25 and IL-25R expression in eosinophils from asthmatics. Dual responder atopic asthmatics (n = 14) were enrolled in this randomized diluent-controlled crossover allergen challenge study. Blood was collected before and 24 h after the challenge. The surface expression of IL-25R was evaluated by flow cytometry on eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. In addition, plasma levels of IL-25 were measured by ELISA, and functional responses to IL-25 including type 2 cytokine expression, degranulation, and the migrational responsiveness of eosinophils were evaluated in vitro. Following the allergen but not the diluent inhalation challenge, significant increases in the expression of IL-17RB and IL-17RA/B were found on eosinophils but not on Th2 memory cells. IL-25 plasma levels and the number of eosinophils but not of Th2 memory cells expressing intracellular IL-25 increased significantly in response to the allergen but not the diluent challenge. Stimulation with physiologically relevant concentrations of IL-25 in vitro caused (i) degranulation of eosinophils (measured by eosinophil peroxidase release), (ii) enhanced intracellular expression of IL-5 and IL-13, and (iii) priming of eosinophil migration to eotaxin. IL-25 stimulated intracellular cytokine expression, and the migration of eosinophils was blocked in the presence of a neutralizing IL-25 antibody. Our findings suggest that the IL-25/IL-25R axis may play an important role in promoting the recruitment and proinflammatory function of eosinophils in allergic asthma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Human Eosinophils Express Functional CCR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Estanislau, Jessica; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Human eosinophils display directed chemotactic activity toward an array of soluble chemokines. Eosinophils have been observed to migrate to draining lymph nodes in experimental models of allergic inflammation, yet it is unknown whether eosinophils express CCR7, a key chemokine receptor in coordinating leukocyte trafficking to lymph nodes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate expression of CCR7 by human eosinophils and functional responses to CCL19 and CCL21, the known ligands of CCR7. Human eosinophils were purified by negative selection from healthy donors. CCR7 expression of freshly purified, unstimulated eosinophils and of IL-5–primed eosinophils was determined by flow cytometry and Western blot. Chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21 was measured in transwell assays. Shape changes to CCL19 and CCL21 were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Calcium fluxes of fluo-4 AM–loaded eosinophils were recorded by flow cytometry after chemokine stimulation. ERK phosphorylation of CCL19- and CCL21-stimulated eosinophils was measured by Western blot and Luminex assay. Human eosinophils expressed CCR7 as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blots. Eosinophils exhibited detectable cell surface expression of CCR7. IL-5–primed eosinophils exhibited chemotaxis toward CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon stimulation with CCL19 or CCL21, IL-5–primed eosinophils demonstrated dose-dependent shape changes with polarization of F-actin and exhibited calcium influxes. Finally, primed eosinophils stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21 exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to both CCR7 ligands. We demonstrate that human eosinophils express CCR7 and have multipotent responses to the known ligands of CCR7. PMID:23449735

  4. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  5. Predictive Value of Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts in Cord and Peripheral Blood of Asphyxiated Term Neonates in the First Week of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bahman Bijari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC circulating in the blood of neonates can be associated with relative hypoxia and adverse outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the NRBC count during the first week of life in neonates diagnosed with asphyxia as compared to healthy neonates and to determine the short-term morbidity and mortality for the affected babies. Methods: The cross-sectional study compared 15 healthy neonates with 15 neonates diagnosed with asphyxia confirmed by pH of cord blood or Apgar scores. The nucleated red blood cell (NRBC counts were calculated right after birth, and on days 3 and 7, and the hematological parameters of umbilical cord blood were also evaluated. The infants were followed for mortality and associated morbidity. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test, analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The initial NRBC counts were significantly higher in the asphyxiated group than in the control group and the difference remained significant through the end of first week. All of the umbilical cord blood parameters were significantly lower in the study group and were negatively correlated with the NRBC count. At birth, higher NRBC count correlated with higher mortality. conclution: Results show that NRBC count is a useful predictive factor for neonatal asphyxia through the end of the first week of life, although a larger study population and a longer follow up period seems to be necessary.

  6. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  7. Improved recovery of functionally active eosinophils and neutrophils using novel immunomagnetic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kiho; Mukherjee, Manali; McIntyre, Brendan A S; Eguez, Jose C; Radford, Katherine; LaVigne, Nicola; Ethier, Caroline; Davoine, Francis; Janssen, Luke; Lacy, Paige; Nair, Parameswaran

    2017-10-01

    Clinically relevant and reliable reports derived from in vitro research are dependent on the choice of cell isolation protocols adopted between different laboratories. Peripheral blood eosinophils are conventionally isolated using density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunomagnetic selection (positive/negative) while neutrophils follow a more simplified dextran-sedimentation methodology. With the increasing sophistication of molecular techniques, methods are now available that promise protocols with reduced user-manipulations, improved efficiency, and better yield without compromising the purity of enriched cell populations. These recent techniques utilize immunomagnetic particles with multiple specificities against differential cell surface markers to negatively select non-target cells from whole blood, greatly reducing the cost/time taken to isolate granulocytes. Herein, we compare the yield efficiencies, purity and baseline activation states of eosinophils/neutrophils isolated using one of these newer protocols that use immunomagnetic beads (MACSxpress isolation) vs. the standard isolation procedures. The study shows that the MACSxpress method consistently allowed higher yields per mL of peripheral blood compared to conventional methods (Peosinophils (95.0±1.7%) and neutrophils (94.2±10.1%) assessed by two methods: Wright's staining and flow cytometry. In addition, enumeration of CD63 + (marker for eosinophil activation) and CD66b + (marker for neutrophil activation) cells within freshly isolated granulocytes, respectively, confirmed that conventional protocols using density-gradient centrifugation caused cellular activation of the granulocytes at baseline compared to the MACSxpress method. In conclusion, MACSxpress isolation kits were found to be superior to conventional techniques for consistent purifications of eosinophils and neutrophils that were suitable for activation assays involving degranulation markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Synergic production of neutrophil chemotactic activity by colonic epithelial cells and eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Gordon; Loweth, Sam C; Hasan, Anwar Matar; Leslie, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The presence of eosinophils in the lumen and mucosa of the intestine is characteristic of both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). There is evidence of eosinophil activation in the intestine during acute inflammatory episodes of these diseases; these episodes are also characterized by an influx of neutrophils, which have the potential to cause extensive tissue damage. We undertook a study to determine whether eosinophils in contact with colonic epithelial cells produce factors that may attract neutrophils in response to immunological stimulation. Neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) and concentrations of three neutrophil-attracting CXC chemokines - CXCL1 (Groα), CXCL5 (Ena78) and CXCL8 (IL8) - were measured in supernatants of T84 colonic epithelial cells and blood eosinophils or eosinophil-like myeloid leukaemia cells (AML14.3D10), alone or in combination. Cells were stimulated with serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ) particles. NCA (Peosinophil co-cultures were significantly higher than in the supernatants of either cell type alone. Release of CXCL1 (Peosinophils but not higher than from OZ-stimulated epithelial cells. Eosinophils and colonic epithelial cells exhibit synergy in production of neutrophil chemoattractants in response to immunological stimulation. This may represent a mechanism for exaggerated recruitment of neutrophils to the intestine in response to acute infection in conditions that are characterized by the presence of eosinophils in the bowel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Repair of changes in peripheral blood count of rats after chronic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovsky, O; Praslicka, M; Chlebovska, K [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1980-01-01

    Changes are described in the peripheral blood count of rats irradiated during 120 days with doses of 95.7, 191.4, 258.4, 344.5 and 507.2 mGy/day; during 15 days with a dose of 1004.8 mGy and examined till the 180th day after termination of irradiation. The course of repair can be divided into two phases, namely: phase 1 till the 40th day after termination of irradiation when leukocyte and platelet counts reach approximately 50% of control values; this phase lasts until the 100th day after cessation of irradiation; phase 2 from the 100th till the 180th day when these peripheral blood element counts attain the level of control values. Thus in the stated conditions of irradiation, 150 to 180 days are required for radiation damage to the hemopoietic system to repair.

  10. Changes in eosinophil and corticosterone levels and catecholamine metabolism during emotionalpainful stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.V.; Manukhin, B.N.; Petrova, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study blood levels of eosinophils, corticosterone (CS), adrenalin, noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) during the development of the stress reaction, and also to study neuronal uptake and synthesis of catecholamines in the adrenals and heart. In some animal groups, the neuronal uptake of 3 H-NA and the intensity of 3 H-Na and 3 H-DA synthesis from 3 H-tyrosine were investigated by a method described previously, 2 h after the end of induction of emotional-painful stress (EPS). Radioactivity was measured on an SL-30 liquid scintillation counter. A regular relationship was found between changes in blood eosinophil level, the CH concentration, and catecholamine metabolism in the course of EPS

  11. Eosinophils in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Phillip J; Wolz, Michael M; Peters, Margot S

    2015-10-01

    The classic histopathologic features of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LS) include lymphoplasmacytic inflammation below a zone of dermal edema and sclerosis. The presence of eosinophils in LS has received little attention, but the finding of tissue eosinophils, particularly eosinophilic spongiosis in LS, has been suggested as a marker for the coexistence of autoimmune bullous disease or allergic contact dermatitis (or both). We sought to determine whether the histopathologic presence of dermal eosinophils or eosinophilic spongiosis (or both) in biopsies from patients with LS is associated with autoimmune bullous disease, autoimmune connective tissue disease or allergic contact dermatitis. A retrospective review of the histopathology and medical records of 235 patients with LS who were evaluated from June 1992 to June 2012 was performed. Sixty-nine patients (29%) had eosinophils on histopathology. Among patients with associated diseases, a statistically significant association between the eosinophil cohort and the cohort without eosinophils was not detected. The importance of eosinophils is uncertain, but our data suggest that the finding of tissue eosinophils alone is not sufficient to prompt an extensive workup for additional diagnoses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. ... It, therefore, is imperative to put measures in place to counteract the drop in any of these parameters, with season, if productivity of the indigenous goats is to be maintained. Further studies are required to determine the ...

  13. Microfluidic cartridges for automated, point-of-care blood cell counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Suzanne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disposable, low-cost microfluidic cartridges for automated blood cell counting applications are presented in this article. The need for point-of-care medical diagnostic tools is evident, particularly in low-resource and rural settings, and a full...

  14. Evidence for a role of eosinophils in blister formation in bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graauw, E; Sitaru, C; Horn, M; Borradori, L; Yousefi, S; Simon, H-U; Simon, D

    2017-07-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous disease of the skin characterized by subepidermal blister formation due to tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to the hemidesmosomal antigens BP180 and BP230. Although eosinophils and their toxic mediators are found abundantly in BP lesions, their role in blister formation has remained unclear. To investigate the role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of BP with a specific focus on blister formation and to define conditions inducing dermal-epidermal separation (DES). In an ex vivo human model of BP, normal human skin cryosections were incubated with purified human peripheral blood eosinophils with or without activation in the presence or absence of BP autoantibodies, brefeldin A, diphenyleneiodonium, DNase or blocking F(ab') 2 fragments to CD16, CD18, CD32 and CD64. Dermal-epidermal separation was assessed by light microscopy studies and quantified using Fiji software. Following activation with IL-5 and in the presence of BP autoantibodies, eosinophils induced separation along the dermal-epidermal junction of ex vivo skin. Dermal-epidermal separation was significantly reduced by blocking any of the following: Fcγ receptor binding (P = 0.048), eosinophil adhesion (P = 0.046), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (P = 0.002), degranulation (P eosinophil extracellular trap (EET) formation (P = 0.048). Our results provide evidence that IL-5-activated eosinophils directly contribute to BP blister formation in the presence of BP autoantibodies. Dermal-epidermal separation by IL-5-activated eosinophils depends on adhesion and Fcγ receptor activation, requires elevated ROS production and degranulation and involves EET formation. Thus, targeting eosinophils may be a promising therapeutic approach for BP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Activation of Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils by Cytokines in a Comparative Time-Course Proteomic/Phosphoproteomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Kizhake V; Stafford, Susan J; Pazdrak, Konrad; Wu, Zheng; Luo, Xuemei; White, Wendy I; Wiktorowicz, John E; Calhoun, William J; Kurosky, Alexander

    2017-08-04

    Activated eosinophils contribute to airway dysfunction and tissue remodeling in asthma and thus are considered to be important factors in asthma pathology. We report here comparative proteomic and phosphoproteomic changes upon activation of eosinophils using eight cytokines individually and in selected cytokine combinations in time-course reactions. Differential protein and phosphoprotein expressions were determined by mass spectrometry after 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) and by LC-MS/MS. We found that each cytokine-stimulation produced significantly different changes in the eosinophil proteome and phosphoproteome, with phosphoproteomic changes being more pronounced and having an earlier onset. Furthermore, we observed that IL-5, GM-CSF, and IL-3 showed the greatest change in protein expression and phosphorylation, and this expression differed markedly from those of the other five cytokines evaluated. Comprehensive univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to evaluate the comparative results. We also monitored eosinophil activation using flow cytometry (FC) analysis of CD69. In agreement with our proteomic studies, FC indicated that IL-5, GM-CSF, and IL-3 were more effective than the other five cytokines studied in stimulating a cell surface CD69 increase indicative of eosinophil activation. Moreover, selected combinations of cytokines revealed proteomic patterns with many proteins in common with single cytokine expression patterns but also showed a greater effect of the two cytokines employed, indicating a more complex signaling pathway that was reflective of a more typical inflammatory pathology.

  16. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) presenting as diffuse myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marc-Etienne; Larue, Sandrine; Ellezam, Benjamin

    2014-11-21

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a complex multisystemic syndrome with heterogeneous presentation. Most often, there is a clinical history of asthma or other atopic conditions, and current presentation generally includes signs of cutaneous or pulmonary involvement. Very few reports described myalgia or weakness as the chief complaint. Of these, only a few included muscle biopsy evaluation and none showed convincing evidence of primary myositis. We believe this report is the first to demonstrate true myositis in the setting of early eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. This report describes a 74 year old Caucasian man, with no known allergies, presenting severe myalgia, muscle weakness, jaw claudication, and fever. Blood work showed marked eosinophilia and high creatine kinase levels. Biceps brachialis muscle biopsy revealed eosinophilic necrotizing vasculitis and true myositis with myophagocytosis of non-necrotic fibers and strong sarcolemmal MHC-1 overexpression by immunohistochemistry. This patient was successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine. Our finding of true myositis in a case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis suggests that primary auto-immunity against muscle fibers, distinct from the secondary effects of vasculitis, can occur in this entity and may represent an overlap syndrome. Early recognition of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in patients presenting with myositis may provide an opportunity to treat the vasculitis before onset of severe multisystemic disease. We recommend the use of muscle biopsy with immunohistochemistry for MHC-1 to confirm the diagnosis of myositis in the setting of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

  17. Eosinophilic panniculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlaska, C P; de Lorimier, A J; Heldman, L S

    1995-03-01

    Eosinophillic panniculitis is a poorly defined entity with variable clinical features. We report a case of rapidly enlarging, asymptomatic subcutaneous scalp nodules in a 6-year-old black boy with atopic dermatitis. The nodules resolved spontaneously over two to three days. Biopsy specimens were remarkable for eosinophilic panniculitis without evidence of epidermal change or vasculitis. We believe that this is the youngest reported patient with this disorder.

  18. Eosinophils, probiotics, and the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Masterson, Joanne C; Furuta, Glenn T

    2016-11-01

    There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria. Among topics for future research, it will be important to determine whether homeostatic mechanisms involve direct interactions between eosinophils and bacteria or whether they involve primarily eosinophil-mediated responses to cytokine signaling in the local microenvironment. Likewise, although is it clear that eosinophils can and do interact with bacteria in vivo, their ability to discern between pathogenic and probiotic species in various settings remains to be explored. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  19. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  20. Eosinophils as a novel cell source of prostaglandin D2: autocrine role in allergic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Gomes, Tatiana; Magalhães, Kelly G; Mesquita-Santos, Fabio P.; Bakker-Abreu, Ilka; Samico, Rafaela F.; Molinaro, Raphael; Calheiros, Andrea S.; Diaz, Bruno L.; Bozza, Patrícia T.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is a key mediator of allergic inflammatory diseases that is mainly synthesized by mast cells, which constitutively express high levels of the terminal enzyme involved in PGD2 synthesis, the hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS). Here, we investigated whether eosinophils are also able to synthesize, and therefore, supply biologically active PGD2. PGD2 synthesis was evaluated within human blood eosinophils, in vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils, and eosinophils infiltrating inflammatory site of mouse allergic reaction. Biological function of eosinophil-derived PGD2 was studied by employing inhibitors of synthesis and activity. Constitutive expression of H-PGDS was found within non-stimulated human circulating eosinophils. Acute stimulation of human eosinophils with A23187 (0.1 – 5 μM) evoked PGD2 synthesis, which was located at the nuclear envelope and was inhibited by pre-treatment with HQL-79 (10 μM), a specific H-PGDS inhibitor. Pre-stimulation of human eosinophils with arachidonic acid (AA; 10 μM) or human eotaxin (6 nM) also enhanced HQL-79-sensitive PGD2 synthesis, which, by acting on membrane-expressed specific receptors (DP1 and DP2), displayed an autocrine/paracrine ability to trigger leukotriene (LT)C4 synthesis and lipid body biogenesis, hallmark events of eosinophil activation. In vitro-differentiated mouse eosinophils also synthesized paracrine/autocrine active PGD2 in response to AA stimulation. In vivo, at late time point of the allergic reaction, infiltrating eosinophils found at the inflammatory site appeared as an auxiliary PGD2-synthesizing cell population. Our findings reveal that eosinophils are indeed able to synthesize and secrete PGD2, hence representing during allergic inflammation an extra cell source of PGD2, which functions as an autocrine signal for eosinophil activation. PMID:22102725

  1. Cells identification and counting in blood native state on the basis of digital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubrovski V.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to develop an algorithm for the processing of photo images of native blood samples to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cell samples. Materials and Methods. The objects of investigation were the samples of the whole donated blood, diluted 400 times by saline. Special "photo templates", the effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was detect by authors, and the resolution of platelets from leukocytes by the areas of their photo images were suggested for identification of the cells. Results. 80 photo images of native blood solutions were selected for computer processing, while the total number of cells counted was: erythrocytes — 4184, platelets — 292 and leukocytes — 84, total — 4560 blood cells. Comparison of the results achieved with ones obtained by "manual" account or by the device for formed elements counting Sysmex XT-400i gives satisfactory results. Conclusion. It is shown that the accuracy of counting of the native blood cells may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies by means of smears. At the same time the proposed analysis of native blood simplifies greatly the samples preparation in comparison to smears, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratios to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  2. Early Colorectal Cancer Detected by Machine Learning Model Using Gender, Age, and Complete Blood Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Goshen, Ran; Choman, Eran; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Kinar, Yaron; Liles, Elizabeth G; Rust, Kristal C

    2017-10-01

    Machine learning tools identify patients with blood counts indicating greater likelihood of colorectal cancer and warranting colonoscopy referral. To validate a machine learning colorectal cancer detection model on a US community-based insured adult population. Eligible colorectal cancer cases (439 females, 461 males) with complete blood counts before diagnosis were identified from Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region's Tumor Registry. Control patients (n = 9108) were randomly selected from KPNW's population who had no cancers, received at ≥1 blood count, had continuous enrollment from 180 days prior to the blood count through 24 months after the count, and were aged 40-89. For each control, one blood count was randomly selected as the pseudo-colorectal cancer diagnosis date for matching to cases, and assigned a "calendar year" based on the count date. For each calendar year, 18 controls were randomly selected to match the general enrollment's 10-year age groups and lengths of continuous enrollment. Prediction performance was evaluated by area under the curve, specificity, and odds ratios. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for detecting colorectal cancer was 0.80 ± 0.01. At 99% specificity, the odds ratio for association of a high-risk detection score with colorectal cancer was 34.7 (95% CI 28.9-40.4). The detection model had the highest accuracy in identifying right-sided colorectal cancers. ColonFlag ® identifies individuals with tenfold higher risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer at curable stages (0/I/II), flags colorectal tumors 180-360 days prior to usual clinical diagnosis, and is more accurate at identifying right-sided (compared to left-sided) colorectal cancers.

  3. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

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    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults.

  4. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong

    1995-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults

  5. Functions of tissue-resident eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Peter F; Spencer, Lisa A

    2017-12-01

    Eosinophils are a prominent cell type in particular host responses such as the response to helminth infection and allergic disease. Their effector functions have been attributed to their capacity to release cationic proteins stored in cytoplasmic granules by degranulation. However, eosinophils are now being recognized for more varied functions in previously underappreciated diverse tissue sites, based on the ability of eosinophils to release cytokines (often preformed) that mediate a broad range of activities into the local environment. In this Review, we consider evolving insights into the tissue distribution of eosinophils and their functional immunobiology, which enable eosinophils to secrete in a selective manner cytokines and other mediators that have diverse, 'non-effector' functions in health and disease.

  6. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand [125I]pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed

  7. Detection of eosinophilic myocarditis using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Murakami, Y.; Shimada, T.; Kashima, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Inoue, S.-I.; Sugamori, T.; Katoh, H.; Ishibashi, Y.; Maruyama, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by idiopathic eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and multiorgan dysfunction secondary to mature eosinophil infiltration. It is essential to diagnose myocardial involvement in the early stage of the disease when active myocarditis due to cardiotoxic substances from eosinophils is still taking place, but clinical tools for the diagnosis of myocardial lesions in patients without overt cardiac dysfunction are not yet available. We present a case of successful detection of myocarditis due to hypereosinophilic syndrome by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaascetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (author)

  8. Detection of eosinophilic myocarditis using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N.; Murakami, Y.; Shimada, T.; Kashima, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Inoue, S.-I.; Sugamori, T.; Katoh, H.; Ishibashi, Y. [Shimane Medical Univ., The Fourth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Izumo City, Shimane (Japan); Maruyama, R. [Shimane Medical Univ., Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Izumo City, Shimane (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by idiopathic eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and multiorgan dysfunction secondary to mature eosinophil infiltration. It is essential to diagnose myocardial involvement in the early stage of the disease when active myocarditis due to cardiotoxic substances from eosinophils is still taking place, but clinical tools for the diagnosis of myocardial lesions in patients without overt cardiac dysfunction are not yet available. We present a case of successful detection of myocarditis due to hypereosinophilic syndrome by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaascetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (author)

  9. Functional analysis of free fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human eosinophils: implications in metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system.

  10. The role of the eosinophil-selective chemokine, eotaxin, in allergic and non-allergic airways inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy Dolores M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood eosinophilia and tissue infiltration by eosinophils are frequently observed in allergic inflammation and parasitic infections. This selective accumulation of eosinophils suggested the existence of endogenous eosinophil-selective chemoattractants. We have recently discovered a novel eosinophil-selective chemoattractant which we called eotaxin in an animal model of allergic airways disease. Eotaxin is generated in both allergic and non-allergic bronchopulmonary inflammation. The early increase in eotaxin paralled eosinophil infiltration in the lung tissue in both models. An antibody to IL-5 suppressed lung eosinophilia, correlating with an inhibition of eosinophil release from bone marrow, without affecting eotaxin generation. This suggests that endogenous IL-5 is important for eosinophil migration but does not appear to be a stimulus for eotaxin production. Constitutive levels of eotaxin observed in guinea-pig lung may be responsible for the basal lung eosinophilia observed in this species. Allergen-induced eotaxin was present mainly in the epithelium and alveolar macrophages, as detected by immunostaining. In contrast there was no upregulation of eotaxin by the epithelial cells following the injection of Sephadex beads and the alveolar macrophage and mononuclear cells surrounding the granuloma were the predominant positive staining cells. Eotaxin and related chemokines acting through the CCR3 receptor may play a major role in eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation and parasitic diseases and thus offer an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human eosinophils from asthmatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Xia, Yu; Simayi, Mihereguli; Ikramullah, Syed; He, Yuanbing; Cui, Shihong; Li, Shuang; Wushouer, Qimanguli

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophils exert a number of inflammatory effects through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, and are considered to be key effector cells in allergic disorders, including asthma. In order to investigate the regulatory effects of the natural polyphenol, resveratrol, on eosinophils derived from asthmatic individuals, the cell counting Kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in these cells, respectively. Cellular apoptosis was detected using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double‑staining. The protein expression levels of p53, p21, cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin A, cyclin E, Bim, B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot analysis following resveratrol treatment. The results indicated that resveratrol effectively suppressed the proliferation of eosinophils from asthmatic patients in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner. In addition, resveratrol was observed to arrest cell cycle progression in G1/S phase by increasing the protein expression levels of p53 and p21, and concurrently reducing the protein expression levels of CDK2, cyclin A and cyclin E. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment significantly induced apoptosis in eosinophils, likely through the upregulation of Bim and Bax protein expression levels and the downregulation of Bcl‑2 protein expression. These findings suggested that resveratrol may be a potential agent for the treatment of asthma by decreasing the number of eosinophils.

  12. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as “Valley Fever,” is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA. A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG, PMN count >250/mm3, and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  13. The impact of preapheresis white blood cell count on autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection efficiency and HSC infusion side effect rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Araci M; Kondo, Andrea T; Yokoyama, Ana Paula H; Lira, Sanny M C; Bub, Carolina B; Souza, Aline M; Cipolletta, Andrea N F; Alvarez, Kelen C; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kutner, Jose M; Chiattone, Carlos S

    2018-01-19

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) collection efficiency (CE) is reportedly affected by the patient's blood properties; however, studies to identify factors correlated with CE have shown inconsistent results. Additionally, variables such as stem cell graft granulocyte content and patient age, sex, and underlying disease, may be associated with hematopietic stem cell (HSC) infusion-related adverse reactions. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of preleukapheresis PB granulocyte count and PBSC harvest variables with CD34 + collection yield and efficiency, and thawed HSC infusion side effect occurrence. We evaluated data from 361 patients who had undergone autologous PBSC transplant. Large volume leukapheresis was the method for PBSC collection. Complete Blood Count and CD34 + cell enumeration were performed in the preapheresis PB and the apheresis product sample. The PBSC grafts were submitted to non-controlled rate freezing after addition of 5% DMSO plus 6% hidroxyethylstarch as a cryoprotectant solution. The cryopreserved graft was thawed in a 37°C water bath and then infused without further manipulation. The CD34 + yield was associated with preapheresis PB CD34 + count and immature granulocyte count. The PBSC CE was negatively correlated with preapheresis white blood cell (WBC), immature granulocyte and granulocyte count. The leukapheresis product total nucleated cell (TNC) and granulocyte content was correlated with the thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. This study has shown that preapheresis PB WBC and granulocyte counts were associated with leukapheresis CE. Additionally, the leukapheresis product TNC and granulocyte content was correlated with thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Severe Eosinophilic Syndrome Associated with the Use of Probiotic Supplements: A New Entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian A. Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe eosinophilic syndromes related to the administration or use of unsuspected immunogenic substances have been described previously. Many of these diseases presented initially as clusters or isolated cases. The spanish toxic oil syndrome, the eosinophilia myalgia syndrome, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis are examples of such diseases. We describe 2 cases of a severe eosinophilic syndrome characterized by marked peripheral blood eosinophilia (>15,000 cells/ml, mononeuritis multiplex, and necrotizing vasculitis which developed in a close temporal association with the recent onset use of nonprescription probiotics. There was no history of a prior autoimmune disease. Although both cases had prompt response to immunosuppression with rapid resolution of peripheral blood eosinophilia and accompanying constitutional symptoms, they remained with permanent neurological deficits.

  15. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific responses in allergy? » Dietary Therapy and Nutrition Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Work Group Report of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology » Eosinophilic esophagitis can ...

  16. Reliability of histologic assessment in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners, M J; Ambarus, C A; Bredenoord, A J; Verheij, J; Lauwers, G Y; Walsh, J C; Katzka, D A; Nelson, S; van Viegen, T; Furuta, G T; Gupta, S K; Stitt, L; Zou, G; Parker, C E; Shackelton, L M; D Haens, G R; Sandborn, W J; Dellon, E S; Feagan, B G; Collins, M H; Jairath, V; Pai, R K

    2018-04-01

    The validity of the eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) has been demonstrated, but only preliminary reliability data exist. Formally assess the reliability of the EoEHSS and additional histologic features. Four expert gastrointestinal pathologists independently reviewed slides from adult patients with EoE (N = 45) twice, in random order, using standardised training materials and scoring conventions for the EoEHSS and additional histologic features agreed upon during a modified Delphi process. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for scoring the EoEHSS, a visual analogue scale (VAS) of overall histopathologic disease severity, and additional histologic features were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Almost perfect intra-rater reliability was observed for the composite EoEHSS scores and the VAS. Inter-rater reliability was also almost perfect for the composite EoEHSS scores and substantial for the VAS. Of the EoEHSS items, eosinophilic inflammation was associated with the highest ICC estimates and consistent with almost perfect intra- and inter-rater reliability. With the exception of dyskeratotic epithelial cells and surface epithelial alteration, ICC estimates for the remaining EoEHSS items were above the benchmarks for substantial intra-rater, and moderate inter-rater reliability. Estimation of peak eosinophil count and number of lamina propria eosinophils were associated with the highest ICC estimates among the exploratory items. The composite EoEHSS and most component items are associated with substantial reliability when assessed by central pathologists. Future studies should assess responsiveness of the score to change after a therapeutic intervention to facilitate its use in clinical trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  18. The effect of thermal shock on morphological characteristics of blood cells in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Wlasow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thermal shock on morphotic blood elements in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii triploids. The thermal shock (37 °C for 2 min was applied in the 18th min after fertilization. Blood was sampled from parallel cultured ten triploids and ten diploids on day 70 after hatching. Ploidy was assessed with the cytogenetic method and measurements of cellular nuclei. In the blood of triploids, significant dominance of immature red blood cells, erythrocytes with a displaced nucleus, microcytes and erythroplastids were observed. The blood of triploids was also characterized by a reduced number of lymphocytes. The percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes was elevated; increased share of neutrophil granulocytes with a 4-, 5- or 6-segmented nucleus and eosinophil granulocytes with a nucleus consisting of three and more segments was observed. Disturbances in the picture of red blood cells can be considered as an expression of intensification of end-stage changes in triploids. The response to these changes in the blood of triploid Siberian sturgeon is an increase in the share of polymorphonuclear PMN, cells counted as microphages. Frequent presence of immature red blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon is a process that aims at counterbalancing the loss among these blood cells. It is the first report on morphological changes and proportions among blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon.

  19. Relationship of bone marrow dose to eosinophilia following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murohashi, Ikuo; Gomi, Hiromichi; Nakano, Takashi; Morita, Shinroku; Arai, Tatsuo; Jinnai, Itsuro; Nara, Nobuo; Bessho, Masami; Hirashima, Kunitake.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute blood eosinophils were counted prior to and during radiotherapy in a total of 380 patients with carcinoma in the chest, pelvis, or abdomen. The patients were divided into 5 groups by types of cancer, and these groups differed in the irradiation sites or the sizes of radiation field. Accumulated bone marrow dose from the start of radiotherapy to the time when eosinophil count during radiotherapy reached its peak was simultaneously determined. In each group, maximum eosinophil count during radiotherapy was significantly increased compared with the value before radiotherapy. In all groups except one, the increase in eosinophil count following radiotherapy was directly proportional to the bone marrow dose. However, in the most heavily irradiated ovarian cancer group, the increase in eosinophil count was markedly lower. In contrast, neutrophils were reduced in numbers in all groups. These results suggest that bone marrow (red marrow) damage by irradiation results in eosinophilia, and that unimpaired hemopoiesis is also indispensable for such an eosinophil response. Accumulated bone marrow doses of 800 - 900 rad given during 4 weeks fractionated irradiation caused the most prominent eosinophilia. (author)

  20. Eosinophilic peritonitis: An unusual manifestation of tuberculous peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hui Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic peritonitis is an uncommon clinical entity with diagnostic considerations separate from those of tuberculous peritonitis. We report a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD with eosinophilic peritonitis resulting from tuberculous peritonitis. Acid-fast stain and mycobacterial culture of peritoneal dialysis effluent were both negative result. In the peritoneal dialysis effluent and blood samples, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by polymerase chain reaction analyses. The initiation of antituberculous therapy resulted in resolution of the eosionphilia in the dialysis effluent. After 14 days of antituberculous therapy, the polymerase chain reaction analyses of tuberculosis were negative for both the blood and peritoneal dialysis effluents. Evaluation of tuberculosis infection is necessary if the CAPD-related peritonitis presents with an unusual and unexplained clinical course. Polymerase chain reaction can play an important role in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis in patients undergoing CAPD.

  1. Long-term health effects of thorium compounds on exposed workers: the complete blood count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conibear, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred seventy-three men exposed to thorium and other rare earths between 1940 and 1973 at a plant which refined monazite sand were studied at Argonne National Laboratory from 1976 to 1980. In vivo measurements of body burden were made by counting gamma rays emitted by daughter products of retained thorium and by measuring exhaled thoron. Health status was ascertained through questionnaire, physical examination, and clinical laboratory tests. Measured body burden was found to be higher in those with a history of longer exposure. All parameters of the complete blood count were examined for evidence of an effect due to thorium. Comparisons of high and low body burden groups showed that only age and cigarette smoking had an effect on complete blood count parameters

  2. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Lae Won [Busan Nationa University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal [Busan Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection.

  3. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Lae Won; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal

    1974-01-01

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection

  4. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B.; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.; Melo, Rossana C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  5. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B. [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  6. Differentiation of eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells into eosinophils induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Aki; Kaneko, Motoko; Sugeno, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hong, JangJa; Zee, OkPyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2007-03-06

    EoL-1 cells differentiate into eosinophils in the presence of n-butyrate, but the mechanism has remained to be elucidated. Because n-butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases, we hypothesized that the inhibition of histone deacetylases induces the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils. In this study, using n-butyrate and two other histone deacetylase inhibitors, apicidin and trichostatin A, we have analyzed the relationship between the inhibition of histone deacetylases and the differentiation into eosinophils in EoL-1 cells. It was demonstrated that apicidin and n-butyrate induced a continuous acetylation of histones H4 and H3, inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells without attenuating the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRA mRNA, and induced the expression of markers for mature eosinophils such as integrin beta7, CCR1, and CCR3 on EoL-1 cells, while trichostatin A evoked a transient acetylation of histones and induced no differentiation into eosinophils. These findings suggest that the continuous inhibition of histone deacetylases in EoL-1 cells induces the differentiation into mature eosinophils.

  7. Reduction of bioactive substances in stored donor blood: prestorage versus bedside leucofiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J H; Mynster, T; Reimert, C M

    1999-01-01

    Leucocyte filtration has been suggested to improve transfusion products. We studied the effect of prestorage versus bedside leucofiltration on reduction of bioactive substances and leucocyte content in donor blood. Forty-five units of whole blood from healthy blood donors were studied....... Of these units, 9 were stored under standard conditions for 35 d, 9 were leucofiltered after donation and then stored for 35 d, and 3x9 units were stored for 7, 21 and 35 d, respectively, before leucofiltration. Samples were collected from blood units immediately after donation, and before and after...... leucofiltration, and analysed by ELISA and RIA methods for extracellular content of myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), histamine (HIS) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Leucocyte content was counted in all samples. In non-filtered blood extracellular MPO, ECP, HIS and PAI-1...

  8. Humoral immunity provides resident intestinal eosinophils access to luminal antigen via eosinophil-expressed low affinity Fc gamma receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalmia M.; Rahman, Raiann S.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract, and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g. food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct antigen engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions including degranulation and antigen presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food antigens by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food antigens. Using an intestinal ligated loop model in mice, here we determined that resident intestinal eosinophils acquire antigen from the lumen of antigen-sensitized but not naïve mice in vivo. Antigen acquisition was immunoglobulin-dependent; intestinal eosinophils were unable to acquire antigen in sensitized immunoglobulin-deficient mice, and passive immunization with immune serum or antigen-specific IgG was sufficient to enable intestinal eosinophils in otherwise naïve mice to acquire antigen in vivo. Intestinal eosinophils expressed low affinity IgG receptors, and the activating receptor FcγRIII was necessary for immunoglobulin-mediated acquisition of antigens by isolated intestinal eosinophils in vitro. Our combined data suggest that intestinal eosinophils acquire lumen-derived food antigens in sensitized mice via FcγRIII antigen focusing, and may therefore participate in antigen-driven secondary immune responses to oral antigens. PMID:27683752

  9. Humoral Immunity Provides Resident Intestinal Eosinophils Access to Luminal Antigen via Eosinophil-Expressed Low-Affinity Fcγ Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalmia M; Rahman, Raiann S; Spencer, Lisa A

    2016-11-01

    Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g., food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct Ag engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions, including degranulation and Ag presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food Ags by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food Ags. Using an intestinal ligated loop model in mice, in this study we determined that resident intestinal eosinophils acquire Ag from the lumen of Ag-sensitized but not naive mice in vivo. Ag acquisition was Ig-dependent; intestinal eosinophils were unable to acquire Ag in sensitized Ig-deficient mice, and passive immunization with immune serum or Ag-specific IgG was sufficient to enable intestinal eosinophils in otherwise naive mice to acquire Ag in vivo. Intestinal eosinophils expressed low-affinity IgG receptors, and the activating receptor FcγRIII was necessary for Ig-mediated acquisition of Ags by isolated intestinal eosinophils in vitro. Our combined data suggest that intestinal eosinophils acquire lumen-derived food Ags in sensitized mice via FcγRIII Ag focusing and that they may therefore participate in Ag-driven secondary immune responses to oral Ags. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, W Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. Adaptive and automatic red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Zhou, Mei; Qiu, Song; Sun, Li; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cell counting, as a routine examination, plays an important role in medical diagnoses. Although automated hematology analyzers are widely used, manual microscopic examination by a hematologist or pathologist is still unavoidable, which is time-consuming and error-prone. This paper proposes a full-automatic red blood cell counting method which is based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging of blood smears and combines spatial and spectral information to achieve high precision. The acquired hyperspectral image data of the blood smear in the visible and near-infrared spectral range are firstly preprocessed, and then a quadratic blind linear unmixing algorithm is used to get endmember abundance images. Based on mathematical morphological operation and an adaptive Otsu’s method, a binaryzation process is performed on the abundance images. Finally, the connected component labeling algorithm with magnification-based parameter setting is applied to automatically select the binary images of red blood cell cytoplasm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can perform well and has potential for clinical applications.

  12. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  13. Murine eosinophils labeled with indium-111 oxine: localization to delayed hypersensitivity reactions against a schistosomal antigen and to lymphokine in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Runge, V.; English, D.; Colley, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated a method for quantitation of eosinophil migration to stimuli in vivo. Upon transfusion into normal syngeneic mice, 111In-labeled eosinophils had an intravascular half-life of 9.5 hr and distributed predominantly into spleen, bone marrow, and liver. In either Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice or recipients of lymphoid cells from infected mice, intradermal (ear pinna) injection of the schistosomal egg antigenic preparation (SEA) elicited time-dependent accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils detectable by either gamma scintillation counting of tissue samples or by nuclear medicine external imaging. Intradermal administration of a lymphokine fraction (containing eosinophil stimulation promoter activity) similarly caused accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils. Both reactions depended on the concentration of stimulus (SEA or lymphokine). 111In-labeled neutrophils or macrophages or 125I-albumin did not preferentially accumulate at the reactions examined to the extent found with 111In-labeled eosinophils, indicating that localization of label depends on an active process and is due to eosinophils rather than a contaminating cell type. The method was used to estimate how long eosinotactic lymphokine remained at dermal sites: 60% of initial activity was present 12 hr after injection. The model is discussed with regard to the role of lymphokines in hypersensitivity reactions with eosinophil involvement, such as the granulomatous response to S. mansoni eggs

  14. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Lívia A S; Dias, Felipe F; Malta, Kássia K; Amaral, Kátia B; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F; Melo, Rossana C N

    2015-10-01

    SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for eosinophil recruitment, leukotriene B4 production and mast cell hyperplasia following Toxocara canis infection in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophilia is a key pathogenetic component of toxocariasis. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is an association between peritoneal and blood eosinophil influx, mast cell hyperplasia and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 production after Toxocara canis infection. Oral inoculation of 56-day-old Wistar rats (N = 5-7 per group with 1000 embryonated eggs containing third-stage (L3 T. canis larvae led to a robust accumulation of total leukocytes in blood beginning on day 3 and peaking on day 18, mainly characterized by eosinophils and accompanied by higher serum LTB4 levels. At that time, we also noted increased eosinophil numbers in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we observed increased peritoneal mast cell number in the peritoneal cavity, which correlated with the time course of eosinophilia during toxocariasis. We also demonstrated that mast cell hyperplasia in the intestines and lungs began soon after the T. canis larvae migrated to these compartments, reaching maximal levels on day 24, which correlated with the complete elimination of the parasite. Therefore, mast cells appear to be involved in peritoneal and blood eosinophil infiltration through an LTB4-dependent mechanism following T. canis infection in rats. Our data also demonstrate a tight association between larval migratory stages and intestinal and pulmonary mast cell hyperplasia in the toxocariasis model.

  16. Accuracy of eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein to predict steroid improvement in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Kauffman, HF; Arends, LR; Koeter, GH; Kerstjens, HAM

    Background There is a large variability in clinical response to corticosteroid treatment in patients with asthma. Several markers of inflammation like eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), as well as exhaled nitric oxide (NO), are good candidates to predict clinical response. Aim We

  17. Association between red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbanraja, S. N.; Siregar, D. I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell indices, hemoglobin, and hematocrit reflect rapidity of HIV disease progression. This study aims to determine red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women. This study was a cross sectional study conducted at AIDS outpatient clinic at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan Indonesia. All seropositive reproductive women within antiretroviral therapy consented for blood count and CD4 examination. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. In subjects with CD4≤350 mm3, mean hemoglobin was 10.95 ± 2.01, hematocrit was 31.83 ± 5.04%, MCV was 84.17 ± 11.41, MCH was 25.98 ± 2.65, and MCHC was 32.18 ± 2.17. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCH value was significantly lower in subjects with CD4 ≤350 mm3 (p=0.014; p=0.001; p=0.01; respectively). Lower Hb, Ht, and MCH associated with thelower CD4 count.

  18. Esophageal motor disorders in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Fouad J; Maydonovitch, Corinne L; Veerappan, Ganesh R; Bassett, John T; Lake, Jason M; Wong, Roy K H

    2011-05-01

    An association between eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and esophageal motility disorders has been described in small studies. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of esophageal motor disorders in a large cohort of adults with EoE and examine whether an association exists between esophageal dysmotility and dysphagia. A retrospective review of esophageal manometry studies in adult EoE patients was performed. Tracings were reviewed for abnormalities including nutcracker esophagus and ineffective swallows, defined as low amplitude peristalsis (esophagus was found in three patients. There was no significant difference in eosinophil count among the motility groups: normal 46.5 ± 3.1, mild IEM 56.9 ± 36.9, moderate IEM 45.5 ± 23.7, severe IEM 34.3 ± 12.6 (P = 0.157). In this cohort of EoE patients, the majority had normal esophageal motility studies, although a subset of these patients had some esophageal dysmotility. It is unlikely that esophageal dysmotility is a major contributing factor to dysphagia, although it is reasonable to consider esophageal manometry testing in EoE patients to identify potential abnormalities of the smooth muscle esophagus.

  19. Quantification of Eosinophilic Granule Protein Deposition in Biopsies of Inflammatory Skin Diseases by Automated Image Analysis of Highly Sensitive Immunostaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiehl

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulocytes are major effector cells in inflammation. Extracellular deposition of toxic eosinophilic granule proteins (EGPs, but not the presence of intact eosinophils, is crucial for their functional effect in situ. As even recent morphometric approaches to quantify the involvement of eosinophils in inflammation have been only based on cell counting, we developed a new method for the cell‐independent quantification of EGPs by image analysis of immunostaining. Highly sensitive, automated immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin sections of inflammatory skin diseases with 4 different primary antibodies against EGPs. Image analysis of immunostaining was performed by colour translation, linear combination and automated thresholding. Using strictly standardized protocols, the assay was proven to be specific and accurate concerning segmentation in 8916 fields of 520 sections, well reproducible in repeated measurements and reliable over 16 weeks observation time. The method may be valuable for the cell‐independent segmentation of immunostaining in other applications as well.

  20. Production of monoclonal antibodies reactive with ovine eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Els NT

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence implicating eosinophils in host defence against parasites as well as allergic disease pathologies. However, a lack of reagents such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific for eosinophils has made it difficult to confirm the functional role of eosinophils in such disease conditions. Using an established mammary model of allergic inflammation in sheep, large numbers of inflammatory cells enriched for eosinophils were collected from parasite-stimulated mammary glands and used for the generation of mAbs against ovine eosinophils. Results A panel of mAbs was raised against ovine eosinophils of which two were shown to be highly specific for eosinophils. The reactivity of mAbs 3.252 and 1.2 identified eosinophils from various cell and tissue preparations with no detectable reactivity on cells of myeloid or lymphoid lineage, tissue mast cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells or other connective tissues. Two other mAbs generated in this study (mAbs 4.4 and 4.10 were found to have reactivity for both eosinophils and neutrophils. Conclusion This study describes the production of new reagents to identify eosinophils (as well as granulocytes in sheep that will be useful in studying the role of eosinophils in disease pathologies in parasite and allergy models.

  1. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from

  2. Eosinophils: The unsung heroes in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Loffredo, Stefania; Lucarini, Valeria; Marone, Giancarlo; Mattei, Fabrizio; Marone, Gianni; Schiavoni, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged low-grade inflammation or smoldering inflammation is a hallmark of a cancer. Eosinophils are components of the immune microenvironment that modulates tumor initiation and progression. Although canonically associated with a detrimental role in allergic disorders, these cells can induce a protective immune response against helminthes, viral and bacterial pathogens. Eosinophils are a source of anti-tumorigenic (e.g., TNF-α, granzyme, cationic proteins, and IL-18) and protumorigenic molecules (e.g., pro-angiogenic factors) depending on the milieu. In several neoplasias (e.g., melanoma, gastric, colorectal, oral and prostate cancer) eosinophils play an anti-tumorigenic role, in others (e.g., Hodgkin's lymphoma, cervical carcinoma) have been linked to poor prognosis, whereas in yet others they are apparently innocent bystanders. These seemingly conflicting results suggest that the role of eosinophils and their mediators could be cancer-dependent. The microlocalization (e.g., peritumoral vs intratumoral) of eosinophils could be another important aspect in the initiation/progression of solid and hematological tumors. Increasing evidence in experimental models indicates that activation/recruitment of eosinophils could represent a new therapeutic strategy for certain tumors (e.g., melanoma). Many unanswered questions should be addressed before we understand whether eosinophils are an ally, adversary or neutral bystanders in different types of human cancers.

  3. Modulation of eosinophil generation and migration by Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Rogerio, Alexandre P; Medeiros, Alexandra I; Fabris, Viciany E; Andreu, Gilberto P; Rivera, Dagmar G; Delgado, René; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    The effects of Vimang, an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), on cell migration in an experimental model of asthma was investigated. In vivo treatment of Toxocara canis-infected BALB/c mice for 18 days with 50 mg/kg Vimang reduced eosinophil migration into the bronchoalveolar space and peritoneal cavity. Also, eosinophil generation in bone marrow and blood eosinophilia were inhibited in infected mice treated with Vimang. This reduction was associated with inhibition of IL-5 production in serum and eotaxin in lung homogenates. In all these cases the effects of Vimang were more selective than those observed with dexamethasone. Moreover, Vimang treatment is not toxic for the animals, as demonstrated by the normal body weight increase during infection. These data confirm the potent anti-inflammatory effect of Vimang and support its potential use as an alternative therapeutic drug to the treatment of eosinophilic disorders including those caused by nematodes and allergic diseases.

  4. A study on radiation hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rong-Chan

    1982-01-01

    Effect of X-rays on peripheral blood after local irradiation is presented in this paper. Irradiation was given with 200 kVp X-rays to the mandible of adult dogs. Variations of peripheral blood were compared with those of the group of osteoradionecrosis and those of the group of non-osteoradionecrosis. Results are as follows: 1. In the group which developed osteoradionecrosis, the red blood cell count decreased after development of osteoradionecrosis, and hemoglobin and hematocrit also showed a decrease in number. In the group of non-osteoradionecrosis, the red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit increased in number after X-ray irradiation. 2. In the group which developed osteoradionecrosis, the white blood cell count increased markedly after development of osteoradionecrosis, but no variation of the white blood cell count was seen in the group of non-osteoradionecrosis. 3. In the group which developed osteoradionecrosis, the differential count of white blood cells showed the normal ratio of lymphocytes, but showed a low ratio of eosinophils. In the group of non-osteoradionecrosis, the differential count showed high ratios of lymphocytes and eosinophils, but showed a low ratio of neutrophils after X-ray irradiation. (author)

  5. Signatures of reproductive events on blood counts and biomarkers of inflammation: Implications for chronic disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Cramer

    Full Text Available Whether inflammation mediates how reproductive events affect chronic-disease risk is unclear. We studied inflammatory biomarkers in the context of reproductive events using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data. From 15,986 eligible women from the 1999-2011 data cycles, we accessed information on reproductive events, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP, and total homocysteine (tHCY. We calculated blood-count ratios including: platelet-lymphocyte (PLR, lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR, platelet-monocyte (PMR, and neutrophil-monocyte (NMR. Using sampling weights per NHANES guidelines, means for counts, ratios, or biomarkers by reproductive events were compared using linear regression. We performed trend tests and calculated p-values with partial sum of squares F-tests. Higher PLR and lower LMR were associated with nulliparity. In postmenopausal women, lower PMR was associated with early age at first birth and higher NMR with later age at and shorter interval since last birth. Lower PNR and higher neutrophils and tHCY were associated with early natural menopause. In all women, the neutrophil count correlated positively with CRP; but, in premenopausal women, correlated inversely with tHCY. Reproductive events leave residual signatures on blood counts and inflammatory biomarkers that could underlie their links to chronic disease risk.

  6. Is automated platelet counting still a problem in thrombocytopenic blood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Antônio Gomes Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Reliable platelet counting is crucial for indicating prophylactic platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision and accuracy of platelet counting for thrombocytopenic patients, using four different automated counters in comparison with the Brecher & Cronkite reference method recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH. TYPE OF STUDY: Automated platelet counting assessment in thrombocytopenic patients. SETTING: Hematology Laboratory, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, and the Hematology Division of Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Brecher & Cronkite reference method and four different automated platelet counters. PARTICIPANTS: 43 thrombocytopenic patients with platelet counts of less than 30,000/µl RESULTS: The ADVIA-120 (Bayer, Coulter STKS, H1 System (Technicom-Bayer and Coulter T-890 automatic instruments presented great precision and accuracy in relation to laboratory thrombocytopenic samples obtained by diluting blood from normal donors. However, when thrombocytopenic patients were investigated, all the counters except ADVIA (which is based on volume and refraction index showed low accuracy when compared to the Brecher & Cronkite reference method (ICSH. The ADVIA counter showed high correlation (r = 0.947. However, all counters showed flags in thrombocytopenic samples. CONCLUSION: The Brecher & Cronkite reference method should always be indicated in thrombocytopenic patients for platelet counts below 30,000 plt /µl obtained in one dimensional counters.

  7. Eosinophils mediate protective immunity against secondary nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Luber, Kierstin L; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are versatile cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity, influence metabolism and tissue repair, and contribute to allergic lung disease. Within the context of immunity to parasitic worm infections, eosinophils are prominent yet highly varied in function. We have shown previously that when mice undergo primary infection with the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, eosinophils play an important immune regulatory role that promotes larval growth and survival in skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to address the function of eosinophils in secondary infection with T. spiralis. By infecting eosinophil-ablated mice, we found that eosinophils are dispensable for immunity that clears adult worms or controls fecundity in secondary infection. In contrast, eosinophil ablation had a pronounced effect on secondary infection of skeletal muscle by migratory newborn larvae. Restoring eosinophils to previously infected, ablated mice caused them to limit muscle larvae burdens. Passive immunization of naive, ablated mice with sera or Ig from infected donors, together with transfer of eosinophils, served to limit the number of newborn larvae that migrated in tissue and colonized skeletal muscle. Results from these in vivo studies are consistent with earlier findings that eosinophils bind to larvae in the presence of Abs in vitro. Although our previous findings showed that eosinophils protect the parasite in primary infection, these new data show that eosinophils protect the host in secondary infection. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

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    Nguyen-Thi-Bich H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanh Nguyen-Thi-Bich,1 Huong Duong-Thi-Ly,2 Vu Thi Thom,2 Nhung Pham-Thi-Hong,2 Long Doan Dinh,2 Huong Le-Thi-Minh,1 Timothy John Craig,3 Sy Duong-Quy3,4 1Department of Immunology, Allergology, and Rheumatology, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Department of Medicine, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 4Department of Respiratory Diseases, Lam Dong Medical College, Dalat, Vietnam Introduction: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam, were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT, and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results: Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05. FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004. Five of the 32 subjects (15.6% had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP. In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05. The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of

  9. A Survey Of Normal Haematological Variables Among Adults In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Main outcome measures: Haematological values of the following blood parameters were determined; Haemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit(PCV), Erythrocyte (RBC) count, Leucocyte (WBC) count, Platelet count and the differential cells count (consisting of the Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophiles, Lymphocytes and Monocyte ...

  10. [Non allergic simple eosinophilic pneumonia--Löffler syndrome--a case report study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-Jevtović, Ivana; Tomović, Miroslav S; Mojsilović, Slavica; Petrović, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Löffler syndrome is an acute, pneumonia of unknown ethiology. This disease is not often associated with bronchial asthma. In its asymptomatic form, this disease is reversible, transient, self-limited with no requests for specific therapy regimen. In the symptomatic form, as well as during its progression, treatment with steroids is very effective. Furthermore, in both acute eosinophilic and idiopathic chronic eosinophilic form, this kind of therapy ensures survival. The case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman was presented with 2-month history of low grade fever, shortness of breath, cough and reduced exercise tolerance. Although she had an allergic accident on insects in history, non allergy reactions as well as an obstructive disease with that kind of origin were not detected on admission. The diagnosis of simple eosinophilic pneumonia (SEP) (Löffler's syndrome) was confirmed by transbronchial biopsy and by sternal testing. The peripheral blood eosinophilia with pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates on X ray chest radiography were observed during clinical examination. Biopsy specimen of the lung parenchym showed changes associated with Löffler's syndrome. The diagnosis was, also, confirmed according to the radiographic findings of unilateral migratory infiltrates consistent pneumonia. Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS) has to be considered in this differential diagnosis. Frequently, this disease has extrinsic bronchial asthma with eosinophilic pneumonia in history: asthma is often associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In the reported case, treatment with steroids resulted in a marked clinical improvement compared to nonsteroid therapy.

  11. Peripheral blood leukocyte count as an index of defense status in the leukopenic host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, S.; Findon, G.; Miller, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    These experimental studies have investigated the reliability of the peripheral blood leukocyte count to predict whether the leukopenic host can contain or eliminate infection. Additionally, we have investigated the possibility that determination of leukocyte recruitment, supplementary to peripheral blood leukocyte counts, might allow individuals with neutropenia at risk from serious infection to be distinguished with greater certainty. Varying doses of radiation, cyclophosphamide, and methylprednisolone were used to induce distinct levels of leukopenia in rats. Leukocyte recruitment was measured by quantifying the response of neutropenic animals to evocative, subcutaneous stimuli, and the results of this assay were then compared with circulating leukocyte counts in the same individuals. Six models of experimentally induced infection were used to compare circulating and recruitable leukocytes as indicators of the susceptibility of the leukopenic host to infection. Response curves relating leukocyte numbers to host resistance were similar when circulating or recruitable leukocytes were used as an index of defense capability. These findings support the use of peripheral blood leukocyte numbers as an index of resistance to infection in individuals with leukopenia and suggest that functional analyses such as leukocyte recruitment are unlikely to provide additional information

  12. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of scaling and root planing on blood counts in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis

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    Devinder Singh Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many systemic diseases have been implicated as risk factors in periodontal disease. Studies suggest that periodontal infection can adversely affect systemic health; by inference periodontal disease will also have an effect on blood values, but the data available is not conclusive. Aim: This clinical study was designed to evaluate the effect of treatment of plaque induced periodontitis on commonly assessed blood parameters. Materials and Method: 37 males and 31 females aged between 20 and 50 years in good general health but suffering from plaque induced chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The selected patients were assessed for ESR, TLC, PMN count, lymphocyte count from DLC, HB, BT and their periodontal condition before the start of the study. SCRP was carried out and patients were reassessed for the same clinical and hematological parameters 21 days after the periodontal therapy (SCRP. Results: A highly significant reduction in the counts of PMNs and the values of ESI was seen after SCRP. Furthermore a significant reduction in TLC, lymphocytes count, and BT and a non significant decrease in Hb were also observed. Conclusion: SCRP done in patients of chronic periodontitis has a considerable affect on the assessed blood parameters.

  14. Relationship between radiation dose and changes of blood cells in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenzheng

    1984-01-01

    The hematological changes of 2867 cases of medical X-ray workers and 1152 cases of non-X-ray medical workers were compared. It was shown that the total number of leukocytes, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets were significantly lower in X-ray workers than those in controls. However, the percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and the concentration of hemoglobin were higher in the irradiated group. the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The degree of changes in the number of blood cells was dose-dependent. A negative correlation could be found between the changes of leukocyte and neutrophil counts and cumulative dose (<250 mGy), annual dose (<15 mGy/a) and length of service of the X-ray workers; and a positive correlation existed between the percentages of basophils, eosinophils and monocytes, and the radiation dose. The abnormality rate of blood picture in the irradiated group was higher than that in the control group. Most X-ray workers with abnormal blood picture were distributed in low-dose group. The data also showed that radiation effect on male X-ray workers was greater than that on female workers. (Author)

  15. Study on the peripheral white blood cell count in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with microangiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wenpin; Zhu Pinghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible role played by peripheral white blood cells in the development of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and complication of microvascular pathological changes. Methods: White blood cell count and metabolism related parameters (FBG, 2hPBG, 2h Pinsulin, TCH, HDL, LDL, TG, HbA1c, BMI, age) were examined in 33 DM2 patients without complication, 41 DM2 patients with micro-angiopathy and 31 controls. Results: The white blood cell counts in both DM2 patients with no complication and the DM2 with microvascular pathological changes were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). The white blood cell counts were positively correlated with age,body metabolism index (BMI), triglyceride (TG), 2h glucose (PBG) and 2h insulin (the r value 0.248, 0.201, 0.435, 0.225, 0.352 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion: Peripheral white blood cells possibly played some role in development of DM2 and microvascular pathological changes and might be of some predictive importance. (authors)

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid suppresses eosinophilic airway inflammation by inhibiting the function of dendritic cells through the nuclear farnesoid X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willart, M A M; van Nimwegen, M; Grefhorst, A; Hammad, H; Moons, L; Hoogsteden, H C; Lambrecht, B N; Kleinjan, A

    2012-12-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only known beneficial bile acid with immunomodulatory properties. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents eosinophilic degranulation and reduces eosinophil counts in primary biliary cirrhosis. It is unknown whether UDCA would also modulate eosinophilic inflammation outside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as eosinophilic airway inflammation seen in asthma. The working mechanism for its immunomodulatory effect is unknown. The immunosuppressive features of UDCA were studied in vivo, in mice, in an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven eosinophilic airway inflammation model. To study the mechanism of action of UDCA, we analyzed the effect of UDCA on eosinophils, T cells, and dendritic cell (DCs). DC function was studied in greater detail, focussing on migration and T-cell stimulatory strength in vivo and interaction with T cells in vitro as measured by time-lapse image analysis. Finally, we studied the capacity of UDCA to influence DC/T cell interaction. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of OVA-sensitized mice prior to OVA aerosol challenge significantly reduced eosinophilic airway inflammation compared with control animals. DCs expressed the farnesoid X receptor for UDCA. Ursodeoxycholic acid strongly promoted interleukin (IL)-12 production and enhanced the migration in DCs. The time of interaction between DCs and T cells was sharply reduced in vitro by UDCA treatment of the DCs resulting in a remarkable T-cell cytokine production. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated DCs have less capacity than saline-treated DCs to induce eosinophilic inflammation in vivo in Balb/c mice. Ursodeoxycholic acid has the potency to suppress eosinophilic inflammation outside the GI tract. This potential comprises to alter critical function of DCs, in essence, the effect of UDCA on DCs through the modulation of the DC/T cell interaction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in a Developing Country: Is It Different from Developed Countries?

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    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Despite the extensive reporting of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE from industrialized developed countries, reports from developing countries are rare. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic features of EoE and response to therapy in children and adults from a developing country, Saudi Arabia. Methods. We identified patients diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2011. EoE was defined as esophageal mucosal infiltration with a peak eosinophil count ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field. Results. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EoE (37 children and 8 adults; 36 males; median age 10.5 years, range from 1–37 years. Feeding difficulty, vomiting/regurgitation, and failure to thrive predominated in young children, whereas dysphagia and food impactions predominated in older children and adults. Allergy testing revealed food sensitization in 12 of 15 patients (80%; 3 responded to elemental formula, while 8 failed to respond to dietary manipulation after the allergy testing. Thirty-nine patients achieved remission by swallowed inhaled fluticasone. The majority of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms upon the discontinuation of fluticasone. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EoE is increasingly recognized in Saudi Arabia and show many similarities to data from North America and Europe.

  18. Ascites in a Young Woman: A Rare Presentation of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Santos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE is a rare idiopathic disease that can affect one or more organs of the digestive tract. It has an estimated incidence of 1–20 cases per 100,000 patients. Klein et al. classified EGE into 3 subtypes: predominant mucosal, muscular, or subserosal. Clinical Case. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman, who presented with diffuse abdominal pain, nausea, postprandial infarction, diarrhea, and moderate ascites of three-week evolution. The rest of physical examination did not show alterations. The past medical history was unremarkable. Laboratory test results revealed peripheral blood eosinophilia. Abdominal CT scan revealed diffuse and concentric parietal thickening of the distal 2/3 of esophagus, moderate volume ascites, and small bowel wall thickening and distension on the left quadrants. The paracentesis revealed 93.3% of eosinophils. The colon biopsies evidenced an increase in the number of eosinophils. Secondary causes of eosinophilia were excluded. The patient was treated with oral prednisolone 40 mg/day with immediate clinical and analytical improvement. Conclusion. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition with a nonspecific and highly variable clinical presentation, which requires a high level of clinical suspicion. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. Secondary causes of eosinophilia such as intestinal tuberculosis, parasitosis, and malignant neoplasms should be excluded.

  19. Human and Mouse Eosinophils Have Antiviral Activity against Parainfluenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew G; Bivins-Smith, Elizabeth R; Proskocil, Becky J; Nie, Zhenying; Scott, Gregory D; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A; Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory viruses cause asthma exacerbations. Because eosinophils are the prominent leukocytes in the airways of 60-70% of patients with asthma, we evaluated the effects of eosinophils on a common respiratory virus, parainfluenza 1, in the lung. Eosinophils recruited to the airways of wild-type mice after ovalbumin sensitization and challenge significantly decreased parainfluenza virus RNA in the lungs 4 days after infection compared with nonsensitized animals. This antiviral effect was also seen in IL-5 transgenic mice with an abundance of airway eosinophils (NJ.1726) but was lost in transgenic eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL) and in IL-5 transgenic mice crossed with eosinophil-deficient mice (NJ.1726-PHIL). Loss of the eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase, using eosinophil peroxidase-deficient transgenic mice, did not reduce eosinophils' antiviral effect. Eosinophil antiviral mechanisms were also explored in vitro. Isolated human eosinophils significantly reduced parainfluenza virus titers. This effect did not involve degradation of viral RNA by eosinophil granule RNases. However, eosinophils treated with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor lost their antiviral activity, suggesting eosinophils attenuate viral infectivity through production of nitric oxide. Consequently, eosinophil nitric oxide production was measured with an intracellular fluorescent probe. Eosinophils produced nitric oxide in response to virus and to a synthetic agonist of the virus-sensing innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7. IFNγ increased expression of eosinophil TLR7 and potentiated TLR7-induced nitric oxide production. These results suggest that eosinophils promote viral clearance in the lung and contribute to innate immune responses against respiratory virus infections in humans.

  20. IL-5-stimulated eosinophils adherent to periostin undergo stereotypic morphological changes and ADAM8-dependent migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M W; Khanna, M; Bortnov, V; Annis, D S; Nguyen, C L; Mosher, D F

    2017-10-01

    IL-5 causes suspended eosinophils to polarize with filamentous (F)-actin and granules at one pole and the nucleus in a specialized uropod, the "nucleopod," which is capped with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). IL-5 enhances eosinophil adhesion and migration on periostin, an extracellular matrix protein upregulated in asthma by type 2 immunity mediators. Determine how the polarized morphology evolves to foster migration of IL-5-stimulated eosinophils on a surface coated with periostin. Blood eosinophils adhering to adsorbed periostin were imaged at different time points by fluorescent microscopy, and migration of eosinophils on periostin was assayed. After 10 minutes in the presence of IL-5, adherent eosinophils were polarized with PSGL-1 at the nucleopod tip and F-actin distributed diffusely at the opposite end. After 30-60 minutes, the nucleopod had dissipated such that PSGL-1 was localized in a crescent or ring away from the cell periphery, and F-actin was found in podosome-like structures. The periostin layer, detected with monoclonal antibody Stiny-1, shown here to recognize the FAS1 4 module, was cleared in wide areas around adherent eosinophils. Clearance was attenuated by metalloproteinase inhibitors or antibodies to disintegrin metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8), a major eosinophil metalloproteinase previously implicated in asthma pathogenesis. ADAM8 was not found in podosome-like structures, which are associated with proteolytic activity in other cell types. Instead, immunoblotting demonstrated proteoforms of ADAM8 that lack the cytoplasmic tail in the supernatant. Anti-ADAM8 inhibited migration of IL-5-stimulated eosinophils on periostin. Migrating IL-5-activated eosinophils on periostin exhibit loss of nucleopodal features and appearance of prominent podosomes along with clearance of the Stiny-1 periostin epitope. Migration and epitope clearance are both attenuated by inhibitors of ADAM8. We propose, therefore, that eosinophils remodel and migrate

  1. CORD BLOOD NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELL COUNT: A SIMPLE BEDSIDE TEST OF PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH IMMEDIATE OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Asphyxia is a leading cause of foetal neonatal mortality and morbidity. Nucleated red blood cell count (NRBC produced as compensatory response to asphyxia in foetus and NRBC level can be correlated to asphyxia. Because the present indices are unhelpful in the diagnosis and prediction of the severity of asphyxia, we wished to investigate the relationship between the nucleated RBC count and the severity & immediate outcome of perinatal asphyxia. METHOD This prospective comparative study was conducted in maternity ward of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department and Paediatric Department of GSVM Medical College, Kanpur (Central UP, from January 2014 to September 2014. Newborns of term gestation were selected after satisfying inclusion criteria and were divided in 2 groups. The control group consisted 60 normal newborns and case group had 60 asphyxiated newborns. The cord blood was collected soon after birth, investigated for pH and making smears that were stained with Leishman’s stain. NRBCs were counted against 100 WBCs. The statistical analysis was done using IMSTAT. RESULTS The mean NRBC count in the study group was 22.63±6.95 as compared to 4.75±2.04 in the control group (p=<0.0001. The NRBC count was significantly higher in low pH, neonates with low Apgar scores of < 3 at 1 minutes, newborns with HIE stage III & in neonates who were neurological abnormal at discharge (P=0.0001. CONCLUSIONS A simple, easy to do, cost effective bedside test, such as NRBC count at time of delivery is a good marker of perinatal asphyxia & its forthcoming immediate neurological outcome.

  2. Relationship between blood eosinophils, clinical characteristics, and mortality in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zysman M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maeva Zysman,1 Gaëtan Deslee,2 Denis Caillaud,3 Pascal Chanez,4 Roger Escamilla,5 Isabelle Court-Fortune,6 Pascale Nesme-Meyer,7 Thierry Perez,8 Jean-Louis Paillasseur,9 Christophe Pinet,10 Gilles Jebrak,11 Nicolas Roche,12,* Pierre-Régis Burgel12,* On behalf of the Initiatives BPCO (broncho-pneumopathie chronique obstructive Scientific Committee and Investigators 1Pulmonary Dpt, Nancy, Inserm U955, team 04, Créteil, France; 2Pulmonary Dpt, Maison Blanche University Hospital, INSERM U903, Reims, France; 3Pulmonary Dpt, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 4Pulmonary Dpt, APHM, INSERM U1077, CNRS UMR 7733 Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; 5Pulmonary Dpt, Larrey University Hospital, Toulouse, France; 6Pulmonary Dpt, University Hospital, Saint-Etienne, France; 7Pulmonary Dpt, La Croix Rousse University Hospital, Lyon, France; 8Clinique des Maladies Respiratoires, Albert Calmette University Hospital, Lille, France; 9EFFI-STAT, Paris, France; 10Service de pneumologie, polyclinique Les Fleurs, Ollioules, France; 11Pulmonary Dpt, Bichat Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France; 12Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine Dpt, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP and Paris Descartes University (EA2511, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In patients with COPD, there is controversy regarding the association of blood eosinophil (Eos levels with 1 exacerbation frequency and 2 the effect of inhaled corticosteroids for prevention of exacerbations. To determine whether Eos define subgroups of patients exhibiting attributes of COPD clinical phenotypes, we compared clinical features and mortality rates in COPD patients from the Initiatives BPCO French cohort categorized using different thresholds of blood Eos levels. The following data were collected at inclusion: medical and smoking history, occupational exposures, dyspnea, cough and sputum production, exacerbations

  3. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Jeong Hee; Lim, Jong Nam; Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Hae Jeong [College of Medicine, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare disease characterized by chronic infiltration of the lung with eosinophils, usually associated with peripheral eosinophilia. In 65% of cases, the chest radiograph shows typical nonsegmental air-space consolidation confined to the outer third of the lung, and in 25% of cases, the 'photographic negative of pulmonary edema' Typical lung manifestations with peripheral eosinophilia are characteristic of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In the remaining cases, radiographic findings are nonspecific and require lung biopsy for confirmation. We report a case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia in which chest radiograph and CT scans revealed bilateral patchy or diffuse opacity with nodules scattered throughout the lungs.

  4. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (psepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eosinophils in helminth infection: defenders and dupes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Appleton, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a central feature of the host response to helminth infection. Larval stages of parasitic worms are killed in vitro by eosinophils in the presence of specific antibodies or complement. These findings established host defense as the paradigm for eosinophil function. Recently, studies in eosinophil-ablated mouse strains have revealed an expanded repertoire of immunoregulatory functions for this cell. Other reports document crucial roles for eosinophils in tissue homeostasis and metabolism, processes that are central to the establishment and maintenance of parasitic worms in their hosts. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the significance of eosinophils at the host-parasite interface, highlighting their distinct functions during primary and secondary exposure. PMID:27262918

  6. In vivo changes of hemopoietic progenitors and the expression of the interleukin 5 gene in eosinophilic mice infected with Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y; Matsui, T; Kasahara, T; Etoh, S; Tominaga, A; Takatsu, K; Miura, Y; Suda, T

    1990-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that purified recombinant interleukin 5 (rIL-5) supports the terminal differentiation and proliferation of eosinophilic precursors in vitro and plays an important role in increasing the functional activities of eosinophils. In this study, we examined the hemopoietic changes and analyzed murine (m) IL-5 mRNA expression in eosinophilic mice infected with the helminth Toxocara canis. In eosinophilic mice, eosinophils increased in number in both bone marrow and spleen. However, the number of eosinophilic precursors increased markedly in spleen cells of eosinophilic mice but remained relatively constant in the bone marrow. In the presence of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), the number of granulocytic precursors increased in the spleen cells of eosinophilic mice. From these findings, the condition of eosinophilopoiesis in eosinophilic mice is accompanied by an increase in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors as well as eosinophil progenitors. Using Northern blot analysis, a weak but definite band corresponding to mIL-5 mRNA was detected in spleen cells of mice 4 and 5 days after helminthic infection. In addition, these data were confirmed by in vitro polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of mRNA obtained from these spleen cells. Finally, injections of a monoclonal antibody against mIL-5 completely suppressed the blood eosinophilia in mice infected with T. canis. In conclusion, IL-5 is suggested to play a major role in eosinophilopoiesis in vivo.

  7. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  8. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  9. The effect of tributyltin on human eosinophilic [correction of eosinophylic] leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jolanta; Włosiak, Przemysław; Wilk, Anna; Antonik, Justyna; Czyz, Jarosław; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Organotin compounds are chemicals that are widely used in industry and agriculture as plastic stabilizers, catalysts and biocides. Many of them, including tributyltin (TBT), have been detected in human food and, as a consequence, detectable levels have been found in human blood. As organotin compounds were shown to possess immunotoxic activity, we focused our attention on the effect of TBT on the basic determinants of the function of eosinophils, i.e. cell adhesiveness and motility. We used human eosinophylic leukemia EoL-1 cells, a common in vitro cellular model of human eosinophils. Here, we demonstrate that TBT causes a dose-dependent decrease in the viability of EoL-1 cells. When administered at sub-lethal concentrations, TBT significantly decreases the adhesion of EoL-1 cells to human fibroblasts (HSFs) and inhibits their migration on fibroblast surfaces. Since the basic function of eosinophils is to invade inflamed tissues, our results indicate that TBT, and possibly other organotin compounds, may affect major cellular properties involved in the determination of in vivo eosinophil function.

  10. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Eosinophilic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  11. Neutropenia Prediction Based on First-Cycle Blood Counts Using a FOS-3NN Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize A. Shirdel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delivery of full doses of adjuvant chemotherapy on schedule is key to optimal breast cancer outcomes. Neutropenia is a serious complication of chemotherapy and a common barrier to this goal, leading to dose reductions or delays in treatment. While past research has observed correlations between complete blood count data and neutropenic events, a reliable method of classifying breast cancer patients into low- and high-risk groups remains elusive. Patients and Methods. Thirty-five patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer under the care of a single oncologist are examined in this study. FOS-3NN stratifies patient risk based on complete blood count data after the first cycle of treatment. All classifications are independent of breast cancer subtype and clinical markers, with risk level determined by the kinetics of patient blood count response to the first cycle of treatment. Results. In an independent test set of patients unseen by FOS-3NN, 19 out of 21 patients were correctly classified (Fisher’s exact test probability P<0.00023 [2 tailed], Matthews’ correlation coefficient +0.83. Conclusions. We have developed a model that accurately predicts neutropenic events in a population treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the first cycle of a 6-cycle treatment.

  12. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  13. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  14. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of adequacy of hematopoietic stem cell collection for autologous transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combariza, Juan F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to carry out an autologous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells should be mobilized to peripheral blood and later collected by apheresis. The CD34+ cell count is a tool to establish the optimal time to begin the apheresis procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between peripheral blood CD34+ cell count and the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Materials and methods: A predictive test evaluation study was carried out to establish the usefulness of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of successful stem cell collection in patients that will receive an autologous transplantation. Results: 77 patients were included (median age: 49 years; range: 5-66. The predominant baseline diagnosis was lymphoma (53.2 %. The percentage of patients with successful harvest of hematopoietic stem cells was proportional to the number of CD34+cells in peripheral blood at the end of the mobilization procedure. We propose that more than 15 CD34+cells/μL must be present in order to achieve an adequate collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Conclusion: Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count is a useful tool to predict the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells.

  15. Generation and partial characterization of an eosinophil chemotactic cytokine produced by sensitized equine mononuclear cells stimulated with Strongylus vulgaris antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Chapman, M R

    1993-07-01

    Supernatants generated by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Strongylus vulgaris sensitized or immunized ponies were assayed in vitro for eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA) using the filter system in blind well chambers. The supernatants from these cultures were chemotactic for eosinophils, but not for neutrophils. Supernates from cultures of unsensitized PBMC stimulated with S. vulgaris antigen were not chemotactic for eosinophils. ECA was first detected in culture supernatants after 1.5 h of incubation and was dependent on both antigen and PBMC concentrations, but independent of serum concentrations. Both female and male S. vulgaris worm antigens stimulated ECA production from sensitized PBMC. ECA was not induced by in vitro stimulation of sensitized S. vulgaris PBMC by female Strongylus edentatus worm antigen. Partial characterization of the eosinophil chemotactic cytokine showed it to be nondialyzable, greater than 8000 molecular weight (MW), and sensitive to heating (56 and 95 degrees C), trypsin, and sodium metaperiodate treatments, suggesting that the cytokine is a protein containing some essential carbohydrate moieties. The cytokine described in this paper could partially contribute to the in vivo blood and tissue eosinophilia in experimental S. vulgaris infection.

  16. Imipenem/cilastatin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Kap Sum; Lee, Ashley; Pekez, Marijeta; Bin, Wei

    2016-03-04

    Drugs, toxins, and infections are known to cause acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Daptomycin and minocycline are the commonly reported antibiotics associated with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. In this study, we present a case of imipenem/cilastatin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The patient presented with fever, acute hypoxic respiratory distress, and diffuse ground-glass opacities on the chest CT a day after the initiation of imipenem/cilastatin. Patient also developed peripheral eosinophilia. A reinstitution of imipenem/cilastatin resulted in recurrence of the signs and symptoms. A bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage showed 780 nucleated cells/mm(3) with 15% eosinophil. The patient's clinical condition improved significantly after the discontinuation of imipenem/cilastatin therapy and the treatment with corticosteroid. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Effect of the addition of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC for up to 7 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complete blood count is one of the most common routine tests. This study aimed to evaluate possible effects of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC over seven days. METHODS: Venous blood samples of 25 healthy males were distributed into two sets of tubes with each set of four tubes containing 50 µL of solutions with zero, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, 10 g/L taurine. The tubes were kept at room temperature or at 4ºC. Complete blood counts were performed on seven successive days. The mean percentage changes [Δ = (mean value - mean baseline value / mean baseline value x 100] were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Complete blood count parameters exhibited different patterns of behavior which were affected by the storage temperature, time and taurine concentration. Taurine at room temperature significantly enhancedthe stability of: the platelet count over seven days (Δ7 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 5.45, 6.11, and 5.80 x 10(9 cells/L, respectively; the red blood cell count over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 1.59, 2.79, and 1.98 x 10(12 cells/L, respectively; mean corpuscular hemoglobin over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were -0.91,-1.52 and -0.84 fl respectively; and red cell distribution width over two days (Δ2 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 0.90%, 1.30% and -0.1%, respectively. No additional stabilizing effects of taurine were reported for the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and hemoglobin, while it negatively affected the white blood cell stability. CONCLUSION: Complete blood count parameters exhibited variable stability patterns in respect to temperature, time and taurine concentration.

  18. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  19. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (Pissues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Haematological and biochemical changes in dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum before and after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willesen, Jakob; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2009-01-01

    eosinophilia, whereas increased total white blood cell (WBC) counts and neutrophilia were observed in only 4.2%. WBC counts and concentrations of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes decreased significantly from days 0 to 42, indicating that, even in dogs without elevated absolute blood values, a low grade...

  1. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (ptesticular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

  2. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  4. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count probability, white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability, the estimated risk of AAS based on the number of alterations amongst white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  5. Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Foster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils have been traditionally perceived as largely end-stage, cytotoxic effector cells. Recent studies have profoundly altered this simplistic view of eosinophils and their function. New insights into the molecular basis of development, trafficking and degranulation of eosinophils have provided a better understanding of the role of these cells in promoting homeostasis through their immunomodulatory functions. Likewise, recent developments have generated a more sophisticated view of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of disease, including asthma and primary hypereosinophilic syndromes, and also a more complete appreciation of their activities in parasitic infection. PMID:23154224

  6. Esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M A; Daneman, A

    1983-02-01

    The radiologic appearance of esophageal involvement due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 15-year-old boy is presented. The lower two thirds of the esophagus was narrowed and the peristalsis diminished. The mucosa appeared smooth. This is the fourth reported case of esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  7. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Adachi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is clinically characterized by symmetrical scleroderma-like indurations of the skin with pain. The histological features are fascial inflammation with lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as thickened and fibrotic fascia. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of the underlying muscle are rarely observed. We report a 69-year-old Japanese woman who presented with multiple areas of glossy induration and painful peau d'orange-like lesions on the chest and four extremities. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hyperintense thickening of the fascia of the lower extremities. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen from the induration showed marked fibrinoid degeneration of the fascia and the neighboring muscle with mixed cellular infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. The predominant CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates were observed by immunohistological study. A diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis with myositis was made. Oral administration of prednisolone and discontinuation of exercise significantly improved the lesions and pain.

  8. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  9. Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P; Condjella, Rachel M; Doyle, Alfred D; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Willetts, Lian; Lesuer, William E; Colbert, Dana C; Helmers, Richard A; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils, their effector functions, or both. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide experimental details comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in human subjects versus mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy-to-use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that although differences exist, more often than not, their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function but instead species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship of white blood cell counts, haemoglobin and ESR with IHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.; Shahzad Tawwab, S.; Abbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    To find any association of white blood cells, haemoglobin and ESR with ischemic heart disease in high risk native population. Methodology: The study included 93 male patients with Ischemic heart disease, between 40 and 60 years of age; 96 age and gender matched subjects. All study participants were non-diabetics. Complete blood cells count, haemoglobin and ESR levels were compared between the patient and control groups. Results: Total leukocyte counts along with neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control population (p<0.001) and lymphocytes were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Haemoglobin levels were significantly lower (p<0.001) and ESR was higher (p=0.030) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Although, our findings of the study variables extend previous reports, the prevalence and prognostic importance of theses variables in IHD should be assessed in future experimental studies. These parameters could be important in public health because they are routinely measured by clinicians and may be helpful to predict the risk of future and secondary ischemic events in a high risk population. (author)

  11. The effect of omalizumab on eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupryś-Lipińska, Izabela; Molińska, Katarzyna; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically. Transbronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage performed in patients with steroid-resistant asthma have demonstrated higher levels of eosinophils and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) compared to steroid-sensitive patients. Clinical studies have confirmed that the very effective treatment in these cases is therapy with omalizumab - an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The paper discusses the efficacy of omalizumab in reducing eosinophil number in peripheral blood and in the airways of asthmatic patients based on basic, clinical, observational studies and case reports. The significance of omalizumab therapy in asthma control and mechanisms that regulate the effects of omalizumab on eosinophils are evaluated.

  12. Bach2 Controls Homeostasis of Eosinophils by Restricting the Type-2 Helper Function of T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Kato, Hiroki; Ebina-Shibuya, Risa; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Bach2 is a transcription factor which represses its target genes and plays important roles in the differentiation of B and T lymphoid cells. Bach2-deficient (KO) mice develop severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which is associated with increased numbers of granulocytes and T cells. Bach2 is essential for the regulation of T cells, but its role in the regulation of granulocytes is not clear. Here, we observed increased numbers of eosinophils but not neutrophils in the bone marrow, spleen, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of Bach2 KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. Upon co-transplantation of the bone marrow cells from CD45.2 Bach2 KO and CD45.1/CD45.2 double-positive WT mice to irradiated WT CD45.1/CD45.2 mice, the reconstituted numbers of eosinophils were similar between Bach2 KO and WT cells. These results showed that the deficiency of Bach2 in eosinophils did not directly drive the differentiation of eosinophils. To investigate the effect of Bach2 KO CD4 + T cells upon eosinophils, we analyzed Rag2/Bach2-double deficient (dKO) mice which lack lymphocytes including CD4 + T cells. Rag2/Bach2 dKO mice did not show any increase in the numbers of eosinophils. Importantly, Bach2 KO mice showed an increase of interleukin-5 (Il-5) in the sera compared with WT mice. These results suggest that up-regulated functions of CD4 + T cells including secretion of Il-5 resulted in proliferation and/or migration to peripheral tissues of eosinophils in Bach2 KO mice. We propose that Bach2 controls homeostasis of eosinophils via restricting the production of Il-5 in CD4 + T cells.

  13. Application of blood cell count and retrospective biodosimetry for health protection in industrial radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Jae; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yang, Soo San; Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Young Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Industrial radiography is known to be one of the most vulnerable lines of work among the range of different radiation work. According to the relevant law in Korea, every worker registered in this work should check their blood cell counts every year in addition to their thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses. Cytogenetic dosimetry has been employed for several decades as a method for estimating the dose of ionizing radiation (IR) received by an individual. In cases of recent acute exposure, the most reliable method is to score dicentric chromosomes in solid-stained metaphase cells. Dicentric aberrations are unstable because their frequency decrease with time after IR exposure. The purpose of the present study was to review the effectiveness of the current regulation that requires all registered radiation workers to check their blood counts every year in order to screen for exposed workers. In addition, the clinical usefulness of cytogenetic dosimetry as a retrospective tool for dose estimation has been evaluated. From this study, we hope to make practical recommendations for improving the current radiation protection regulation. We ascertain that reviewing consecutive results of blood cell counts and retrospective biodosimetry are useful complementary tools to TLD doses for health protection regulation. Several confounding factors including work duration and previous medical history need to be considered for the interpretation of cytogenetic dosimetry results.

  14. Application of blood cell count and retrospective biodosimetry for health protection in industrial radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seong Jae; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yang, Soo San; Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Young Woo

    2017-01-01

    Industrial radiography is known to be one of the most vulnerable lines of work among the range of different radiation work. According to the relevant law in Korea, every worker registered in this work should check their blood cell counts every year in addition to their thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses. Cytogenetic dosimetry has been employed for several decades as a method for estimating the dose of ionizing radiation (IR) received by an individual. In cases of recent acute exposure, the most reliable method is to score dicentric chromosomes in solid-stained metaphase cells. Dicentric aberrations are unstable because their frequency decrease with time after IR exposure. The purpose of the present study was to review the effectiveness of the current regulation that requires all registered radiation workers to check their blood counts every year in order to screen for exposed workers. In addition, the clinical usefulness of cytogenetic dosimetry as a retrospective tool for dose estimation has been evaluated. From this study, we hope to make practical recommendations for improving the current radiation protection regulation. We ascertain that reviewing consecutive results of blood cell counts and retrospective biodosimetry are useful complementary tools to TLD doses for health protection regulation. Several confounding factors including work duration and previous medical history need to be considered for the interpretation of cytogenetic dosimetry results.

  15. Human vs. Mouse Eosinophils: “That which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P.; Condjella, Rachel M.; Doyle, Alfred D.; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Willetts, Lian; LeSuer, William E.; Colbert, Dana C.; Helmers, Richard A.; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The respective life histories of humans and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiological pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils and/or their effector functions. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide the experimental details, comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in humans vs. mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy to use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that while differences exist, more often than not their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function, but instead, species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. PMID:22935586

  16. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  17. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophagitis (EoE) (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) Also in Spanish Latest News Eosinophilic Esophagitis May ... Pediatric and Adolescent Patients (American College of Gastroenterology) Topic Image Related Health Topics Eosinophilic Disorders Esophagus Disorders ...

  18. Blood neutrophil counts in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: association with sputum mycobacterial load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients.Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×10(9/L (IQR, 96-232 and median ANC was 2.6×10(9/L (IQR, 1.9-3.6. Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×10(9/L (IQR, 2.4-5.1 compared to 2.5×10(9/L (IQR, 1.8-3.4 among those who were culture negative (p7.5×10(9/L; p = 0.0005. Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ≥2.6×10(9/L and with neutrophilia.Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB.

  19. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  20. Effect of blood collection technique in mice on clinical pathology parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Michael A; Hardy, Christine; Hawley, Melanie; Propert, Kathleen Joy; Wilson, James M

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in normal healthy C57BL/6 mice to determine the effect of method of blood collection on clinical pathology parameters and to provide value ranges for these parameters. Males and females were used and were randomly assigned to treatment groups based upon phlebotomy method. The blood was collected using one of four methods: intracardiac (IC), a single attempt at collection from the caudal vena cava (VC), collection from the caudal vena cava with collection of any extravasated blood from the peritoneum (MC), or retroorbital phlebotomy (RO). Evaluation of blood and serum samples was conducted for a number of serum biochemistries including liver function tests and complete blood count with differentials and platelet counts. Female mice demonstrated higher values for red blood cell number, hemoglobin (p values for platelet counts, specific white blood cell numbers (total, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts), globulin, amylase, and the BUN/creatinine ratio. Overall, the VC method was associated with the least variation in both sexes and appeared slightly better than the IC method for the parameters evaluated. The largest difference between groups was noted for the transaminase levels. While alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were similar between the IC and VC groups, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values were associated with less variation for the VC method. Transaminase levels for the MC and RO groups were associated with relatively large ranges and variation. ALT results from the RO method, the only method amenable to repetitive sample collection used in this evaluation, indicate that this is an acceptable method. The results demonstrate the substantial impact that phlebotomy method has on the assay results and that the VC or IC methods provide the most consistent results. The ranges by collection method and sex provided here can be used to select the preferred method of collection when designing a study and for comparison of data

  1. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.W.; Cruise, K.M.; Mitchell, G.F.; Watt, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 x 10 7 eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where nescessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10 8 eosinophils (purity >95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 x 10 4 cells/minute, purity >99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (between 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation, by using 125 I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125 I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights >50,000). No 125 I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). (author)

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Dietary therapy and nutrition management of eosinophilic esophagitis: ... of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract . 2017;5(2): ...

  3. Atypical presentations of eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulin Ergun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disease that may mimic and overlap with other sclerosing disorders such as morphea and lichen sclerosus. Herein, we report four patients (two men and two women, aged 16-64 yeas with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was overlap with both morphea and lichen sclerosus in 2 patients and with morphoea alone in 1 patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for diagnosis in three patients and for assessing treatment response in one patient. Eosinophilic fasciitis may co-exist with morhoea and lichen sclerosus. In view of the overlapping clinical and histopathological features of these disorders, MRI may be helful in delineating the conditions by detecting involvement of fascia.

  4. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Evaluating the Role of Immunological Cells (Tissue Eosinophils and Mast Cells) in Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S; Singh, A; Singh, P; Sundaragiri, K S; Sankhla, B; Bhargava, A

    2018-04-01

    Mast cells and eosinophils are increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma. The significance of such an association has been variably thought to be either a potential diagnostic tool for stromal invasion or as a prognostic indicator. The aim of the study was to study the mast cells and eosinophils between normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and to study the significance of mast cells in the progression of the lesion. A retrospective study was done on archival tissue received from January 2015 to December 2015, in the Department of Oral Pathology, RUHS College of Dental Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Seventy (70) cases were studied (30 cases each of leukoplakia and carcinoma and 10 cases of control group), sections were stained with toluidine blue solution to reveal mast cells. Eosinophils were studied in Haematoxylin & Eosin stained sections. Mast cell density significantly increased from: normal mucosa to oral leukoplakia to carcinoma, suggesting a role of the mast cells in the development of these lesions. The higher eosinophil counts in carcinoma group compared to dysplasia group proved that they might have a role in stromal invasion. The assessment of these could become, in the future, useful for therapeutic approaches in this subset of the patient.

  7. Comparison of hematologic values in blood samples with lithium heparin or dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulants in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Mitchell, Mark A; Gaunt, Stephen D; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and were divided into tubes that contained dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) and lithium heparin. Complete blood cell counts were determined in each sample within 2 hours of collection. The level of agreement in results was moderate for plasma protein, packed cell volume (PCV), and leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts between the anticoagulants. Plasma protein and PCV values were significantly lower in samples with lithium heparin than in those with K2EDTA, whereas lymphocyte numbers were significantly higher in lithium heparin samples than in K2EDTA samples. The level of agreement was good for the other cell types (heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) when comparing the different anticoagulants. The poor level of agreement between anticoagulants with the increase in thrombocyte clumping in lithium heparin samples indicates that the use of lithium heparin as anticoagulant may affect thrombocyte count. No negative effects on morphology and staining of blood cells were apparent in smears from heparin samples compared with K2EDTA samples. Within the different values compared, the limits of agreement are small enough to be confident that lithium heparin can be used for routine CBC counts in a clinical setting. The use of the same anticoagulant should be recommended to follow trends within the same patient, especially when considering plasma protein concentration, PCV, and lymphocyte count.

  8. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

  9. Impaired CD23 and CD62L expression and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases secretion by eosinophils in adults with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Titz, T; Orfali, R L; de Lollo, C; Dos Santos, V G; da Silva Duarte, A J; Sato, M N; Aoki, V

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional, polymorphonuclear leucocytes that secrete proteins within cytoplasmic granules, such as cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases (MMPs) and metalloproteinases tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Although eosinophilia is a hallmark of atopic dermatitis (AD), several functional aspects of eosinophils remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the phenotype and functional response of eosinophils under staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/6 (FSL-1) stimulation in the secretion of CCL5, MMPs and TIMPs in adults with AD. Forty-one adult patients with AD and 45 healthy controls enrolled for the study. Phenotype of eosinophils from granulocytes of peripheral blood was analysed by flow cytometry. We performed evaluation of CCL5 (cytometric bead array), MMP and TIMP (ELISA) secretion, in culture supernatants of purified eosinophils stimulated with SEB or TLR2/6 agonist (FSL-1). We found a higher frequency of LIN1 - CCR3 + eosinophils, and decreased expression of CD23 and CD62L receptors in eosinophils of AD patients. There was no difference in MMP and TIMP serum levels between the evaluated groups. However, we detected decreased basal levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and CCL5 in culture supernatants from purified, unstimulated eosinophils from AD patients. In adults with AD, phenotypical features of eosinophils reveal decreased expression of early activation and L-selectin receptors. Regarding the functional profile of purified eosinophils related to tissue remodelling in atopic dermatitis, innate immune stimulation (TLR2/6 agonist and SEB) did not affect the ratio of MMP/TIMPs secretion in AD. Our findings reinforce the potential breakdown in tissue remodelling process mediated by eosinophils in AD. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Decrease of Airway Allergies After Lung Transplantation Is Associated With Reduced Basophils and Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, M; Yamada, Y; Inci, I; Weder, W; Jungraithmayr, W

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are hypersensitive reactions of the immune system on antigen exposure similar to immune reactions after transplantation (Tx). Their activity can change after Tx. The lung as a transplantable organ is challenged two-fold, by antigens from the blood and the air environment. Herein we analyzed if airway allergies change after lung Tx. We systematically reviewed patients' airway allergies before and after lung Tx between 1992 and 2014. The course of lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes, among them neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, was analyzed in patients in whom airway allergies have changed and in whom they did not change. From 362 lung transplanted patients, 44 patients had suffered from allergies before Tx (12.2%). In 20 of these patients (45.5%), airway allergies disappeared completely within 1 year after lung Tx and were persistently absent thereafter. In these patients, basophils and eosinophils decreased significantly (P allergies did not disappear. Leukocytes overall, and in particular, neutrophils, decreased significantly in patients whose allergy disappeared (P allergies disappeared in almost half of cases after lung Tx. Along with this reduction, basophils and eosinophils decreased as potentially responsible cells for this phenomenon. These findings may stimulate intensified research on basophils and eosinophils as major drivers of airway allergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. T-helper 2 cytokines, transforming growth factor β1, and eosinophil products induce fibrogenesis and alter muscle motility in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEFs), human esophageal muscle cells (HEMCs), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. Biopsy specimens were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEFs and HEMCs. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were secreted spontaneously in mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEFs and HEMCs to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEFs and HEMCs to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEFs and HEMCs increased after incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased after blockade of transforming growth factor β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase blockade. Eosinophil products reduced

  12. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  13. Prevalence and clinical significance of neutropenia discovered in routine complete blood cell counts: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Tesfa, D.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutropenia, defined as an absolute blood neutrophil count (ANC) neutropenia detected in a routine complete blood cell count is poorly understood. METHODS: Using a primary care resource, comprising...... more than 370 000 individuals, we assessed the association with a number of previously recognized conditions as well as all-cause mortality in the 4 years following the identification of neutropenia. By matching laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers, risk estimates were assessed....... RESULTS: Neutropenia was observed in approximately 1% of all individuals and was associated dose dependently with viral infections, haematological malignancies (but not autoimmune disorders or solid cancers) and mortality. Neutropenia was particularly associated with HIV, acute leukaemias...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  15. Effect of a 21-day balneotherapy program on blood cell counts, ponogen levels, and blood biochemical indexes in servicemen in sub-health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wu, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xing, Wenrong; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Shu; Su, Zongyi

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to explore the changes in the blood of servicemen in sub-health conditions during a 21-day balneotherapy program. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 129 servicemen in sub-health condition were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into either the balneotherapy group (70) or the control group (59). Subjects in the balneotherapy group received whole-body immersion bath therapy in thermomineral water (30 min daily) for 21 days. Their blood samples were examined 1 day before and after balneotherapy. The parameters studied included mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), lactic acid (LAC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose (GLU), and triglycerides (TG) levels. [Results] After 21 days of balneotherapy, MCH levels and MCHC increased significantly and WBC counts increased significantly. LAC levels decreased significantly. ALT, GLU, and TG levels decreased significantly. In the control group, there were no statistical differences before and after tap water baths following the same procedure. [Conclusion] A 21-day balneotherapy program significantly improved blood cell counts and blood biochemical indexes and reduced ponogen levels in servicemen in sub-health condition.

  16. Elevations in vascular markers and eosinophils in chronic spontaneous urticarial weals with low-level persistence in uninvolved skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, AB; Ying, S; Ardelean, E; Mlynek, A; Kita, H; Clark, P; Maurer, M

    2014-01-01

    Background In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) mast cell activation together with inflammatory changes in the skin are well documented and may play an important role in mechanisms of tissue oedema. Objectives To confirm and extend these observations by measuring microvascular markers, leucocytes and mast cell numbers in lesional and uninvolved skin and to compare findings with a control group. Methods Paired biopsies (one from 4–8-h spontaneous weals and one from uninvolved skin) were taken from eight patients with CSU and nine control subjects and studied using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy using the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1). Results Lesional skin in CSU contained significantly more CD31+ endothelial cells; CD31+ blood vessels, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and macrophages; and CD3+ T cells than nonlesional skin. Increased vascularity was confirmed by confocal imaging using the lectin UEA-1. Uninvolved skin from CSU contained significantly more CD31+ endothelial cells, CD31+ blood vessels and eosinophils compared with the control subjects. There was a threefold increase in mast cell numbers when CSU was compared with controls but no difference was observed between lesional and uninvolved skin. Conclusions Increased vascular markers together with eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration are features of lesional skin in CSU and might contribute to tissue oedema. Eosinophils and microvascular changes persist in uninvolved skin, which, together with increased mast cells, suggests that nonlesional skin is primed for further wealing. PMID:24665899

  17. Roles and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Eosinophils in Immunity and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils have been considered to be destructive end-stage effector cells that have a role in parasitic infections and allergy reactions by the release of their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins. However, an increasing number of experimental observations indicate that eosinophils also are multifunctional leukocytes involved in diverse inflammatory and physiologic immune responses. Under homeostatic conditions, eosinophils are particularly abundant in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract where their involvement in various biological processes within the gastrointestinal tract has been posited. In this review, we summarize the molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and describe eosinophil trafficking to the gastrointestinal tract. We synthesize the current findings on the phenotypic and functional properties of gastrointestinal eosinophils and the accumulating evidence that they have a contributory role in gastrointestinal disorders, with a focus on primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, we discuss the potential role of eosinophils as modulators of the intestinal immune system. PMID:25049430

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis-endoscopic distinguishing findings

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, Ana Célia; Gonçalves, Raquel; Rolanda, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is the most frequent condition found in a group of gastrointestinal disorders called eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. The hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism is related to a hypersensitivity reaction. Gastroesophageal reflux disease- like complaints not ameliorated by acid blockade or occasional symptoms of dysphagia or food impaction are likely presentations of EE. Due to its unclear pathogenesis and unspecific symptoms, it is difficult to diagnose ...

  19. Characterization of a receptor for interleukin-5 on human eosinophils and the myeloid leukemia line HL-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingley, E.; Young, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes the growth and differentiation of human eosinophils and may regulate the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in certain diseases. Radiolabeled recombinant human IL-5 (hIL-5) was used to characterize the IL-5 receptor present on normal human eosinophils and on the myeloid leukemia line HL-60, which can be induced to differentiate into eosinophilic cells. Binding studies with eosinophils and HL-60 cells grown under alkaline conditions demonstrated similar high-affinity binding sites for hIL-5 on both cell types with kd values of approximately 400 pmol/L. The binding observed was specific in that it was not inhibited by hIL-3, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or hIL-2. Binding studies with a number of other human cell lines, including a B-lymphoma line, and with lymphocyte and neutrophil preparations were also performed, but IL-5 receptors were not detectable on these cells. The number of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells could be correlated with its propensity to differentiate towards an eosinophilic cell type. Expression of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells was upregulated by butyric acid under alkaline conditions, downregulated by hIL-3, virtually eliminated by dimethyl sulfoxide and hIL-5, while hIL-2 had no detectable effect. One major 125I-hIL-5-crosslinked complex of 75 to 85 Kd in Mr was detected on HL-60 cells using crosslinking agents giving a molecular mass of 55 to 60 Kd for the hIL-5 receptor itself. Studies using cellular autoradiography showed that IL-5 receptors were evenly distributed on eosinophils but that receptor distribution on HL-60 cells was noticeably heterogeneous. Eosinophils were the only cells in slides prepared from peripheral blood that had detectable levels of IL-5 receptors in agreement with the specific action of IL-5 on the human eosinophil lineage

  20. Management guidelines of eosinophilic esophagitis in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, A; Koletzko, S; Heuschkel, R

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. With few exceptions, 15 eosinophils per high-power field...... was obtained during 3 face-to-face meetings of the Gastroenterology Committee and 1 teleconference. RESULTS: The cornerstone of treatment is an elimination diet (targeted or empiric elimination diet, amino acid-based formula) and/or swallowed, topical corticosteroids. Systemic corticosteroids are reserved...

  1. Thrombomodulin inhibits the activation of eosinophils and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeen, Ziaurahman; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Onishi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Yasuma, Taro; Urawa, Masahito; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils and mast cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Activation of both cells leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in the airway of asthmatic patients. Recently, we have shown that inhaled thrombomodulin inhibits allergic bronchial asthma in a mouse model. In the present study, we hypothesize that thrombomodulin can inhibit the activation of eosinophils and mast cells. The effect of thrombomodulin on the activation and release of inflammatory mediators from eosinophils and mast cells was evaluated. Thrombomodulin inhibited the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis, upregulation of CD11b and degranulation of eosinophils. Treatment with thrombomodulin also significantly suppressed the degranulation and synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in eosinophils and mast cells. Mice treated with a low-dose of inhaled thrombomodulin have decreased number of eosinophils and activated mast cells and Th2 cytokines in the lungs compared to untreated mice. The results of this study suggest that thrombomodulin may modulate allergic responses by inhibiting the activation of both eosinophils and mast cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Significado clínico y fisiopatológico del eosinófilo Clinical and physiopathological significance of the eosinophil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Torres Hernández

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El eosinófilo es una célula con funciones protectoras y beneficiosas especificas pero que en algunas circunstancias Interviene como mediador en diferentes procesos fisiopatológicos. Un recuento aumentado en la sangre periférica (mayor de 500 células/mm cúbico siempre debe investigarse porque puede ser el Indicador precoz de una enfermedad o la guía para llegar a un diagnóstico.

    The eosinophil is a cell with specific protective and beneficial functions but In some circumstances It acts as a mediator in different physiopathologic processes. Increased periphery blood counts (more than 500 cells/cubic mm should always be investigated since they may be the earliest indication of a disease or represent an important diagnostic guide.

  3. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W; Baker, I A; Sweetnam, P M; Bainton, D; O'Brien, J R; Whitehead, P J; Elwood, P C

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hemostatic factors and white blood cell count are predictive of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relations of fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count to the incidence of IHD in the Caerphilly and Speedwell prospective studies are described. The two studies have a common core protocol and are based on a combined cohort of 4,860 middle-aged men from the general population. The first follow-up was at a nearly constant interval of 5.1 years in Caerphilly and 3.2 years in Speedwell; 251 major IHD events had occurred. Age-adjusted relative odds of IHD for men in the top 20% of the distribution compared with the bottom 20% were 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.5) for fibrinogen, 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.4) for viscosity, and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.9) for white blood cell count. Associations with IHD were similar in men who had never smoked, exsmokers, and current smokers, and the results suggest that at least part of the effect of smoking on IHD is mediated through fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis shows that white blood cell count is an independent risk factor for IHD as is either fibrinogen or viscosity, or possibly both. Jointly, these three variables significantly improve the fit of a logistic regression model containing all the main conventional risk factors. Further, a model including age, smoking habits, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count predicts IHD as well as one in which the three hemostatic/rheological variables are replaced by total cholesterol, diastolic pressure, and body mass index. Jointly, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are important risk factors for IHD.

  4. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Hu

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM.Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital.Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001.The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  6. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shidong; Zou, Zhenyu; Li, Hao; Zou, Guijun; Li, Zhao; Xu, Jian; Wang, Lingde; Du, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China) between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital. Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P colon cancer (OR: 0.078, 95%CI: 0.020~0.309, P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001). The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  7. Simvastatin Inhibits IL-5-Induced Chemotaxis and CCR3 Expression of HL-60-Derived and Human Primary Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Tsai, Wan-Chun; Lee, Ta-Jen; Huang, Chi-Che; Chang, Po-Hung; Su Pang, Jong-Hwei

    2016-01-01

    IL-5-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils is an important feature of allergic airway inflammatory diseases. Simvastatin, a lipid lowering agent, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Our aim was to investigate the effect of simvastatin on IL-5-induced eosinophil chemotaxis and its regulatory mechanisms. Eosinophils were derived by treating HL-60 clone 15 (HC15) cells with butyric acid (BA) in an alkaline condition or through direct isolation from human peripheral blood. The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and interleukin (IL)-5 receptors (IL5Rα and β) were analyzed using RT/real-time PCR. The granular proteins were stained using fast green. Eotaxin-induced chemotaxis was measured using a transwell migration assay. CCR3 protein expression was revealed by immunocytochemistry. An animal model of allergic rhinitis was established by challenging Sprague-Dawley® rats repeatedly with ovalbumin. Butyric acid significantly increased the expression of IL5Rα and IL5Rβ, CCR3 and granular proteins in HC15 cells, indicating the maturation of eosinophils (BA-E cells). IL-5 further enhanced the CCR3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis of BA-E cells. Simvastatin inhibited the effects of IL-5 on BA-E cells, but not in the presence of mevalonate. Similar results were also exhibited in human primary eosinophils. In vivo animal studies further confirmed that oral simvastatin could significantly suppress the infiltration of eosinophils into turbinate tissues of allergic rats. Therefore, simvastatin was demonstrated to inhibit IL-5-induced CCR3 expression and chemotaxis of eosinophils mediated via the mevalonate pathway. We confirmed that simvastatin also reduced eosinophilic infiltration in allergic rhinitis.

  8. Regulation of Spontaneous Eosinophil Apoptosis—A Neglected Area of Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinja Ilmarinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in the airways in most phenotypes. Eosinophils are inflammatory cells that require an external survival-prolonging stimulus such as granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interleukin (IL-5, or IL-3 for survival. In their absence, eosinophils are programmed to die by spontaneous apoptosis in a few days. Eosinophil apoptosis can be accelerated by Fas ligation or by pharmacological agents such as glucocorticoids. Evidence exists for the relevance of these survival-prolonging and pro-apoptotic agents in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in inflamed airways. Much less is known about the physiological significance and mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis even though it forms the basis of regulation of eosinophil longevity by pathophysiological factors and pharmacological agents. This review concentrates on discussing the mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis compared to those of glucocorticoid- and Fas-induced apoptosis. We aim to answer the question whether the external apoptotic stimuli only augment the ongoing pathway of spontaneous apoptosis or truly activate a specific pathway.

  9. Eosinophilic cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease. We describe three cases, where presentations of the disease are similar. To highlight probable causes of the disease, symptoms, clinical findings and treatment modalities, we reviewed 56 cases over a 10-year period. The most common symptoms were...

  10. Esophagitis dissecans associated with eosinophilic esophagitis in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie-Anne R. Guerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis dissecans superficialis and eosinophilic esophagitis are distinct esophageal pathologies with characteristic clinical and histologic findings. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis is a rare finding on endoscopy consisting of the peeling of large fragments of esophageal mucosa. Histology shows sloughing of the epithelium and parakeratosis. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an allergic disease of the esophagus characterized by eosinophilic inflammation of the epithelium and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Both of these esophageal processes have been associated with other diseases, but there is no known association between them. We describe a case of esophagitis dissecans superficialis and eosinophilic esophagitis in an adolescent patient. To our knowledge, this is the first case describing an association between esophageal dissecans superficialis and eosinophilic esophagitis.

  11. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. INTRODUCTION. Asthma is recognized as an eosinophil mediated inflammation of the airways1. Eosinophils are major contributors to the damage in the airways of asthmatic patients which when activated, degranulate and release ...

  12. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN. A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of

  13. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  14. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  15. IL-3 maintains activation of the P90S6K/RPS6 pathway and increases translation in human eosinophils1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, Stephane; Kelly, Elizabeth A.B.; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Johansson, Mats W.; Malter, James S.; Jarjour, Nizar N.

    2015-01-01

    IL-5 is a major therapeutic target to reduce eosinophilia. However, all of the eosinophil-activating cytokines IL-5, IL-3, and GM-CSF are typically present in atopic diseases including allergic asthma. Due to the functional redundancy of these 3 cytokines on eosinophils and the loss of IL-5 receptor on airway eosinophils, it is important to take IL-3 and GM-CSF into account to efficiently reduce tissue eosinophil functions. Moreover, these 3 cytokines signal through a common β-chain receptor, and yet differentially affect protein production in eosinophils. Notably, the increased ability of IL-3 to induce production of proteins such as semaphorin-7A without affecting mRNA level suggests a unique influence by IL-3 on translation. The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanisms by which IL-3 distinctively affects eosinophil function compared to IL-5 and GM-CSF, with a focus on protein translation. Peripheral blood eosinophils were used to study intracellular signaling and protein translation in cells activated with IL-3, GM-CSF or IL-5. We establish that, unlike GM-CSF or IL-5, IL-3 triggers prolonged signaling through activation of ribosomal protein (RP) S6 and the upstream kinase, p90S6K. Blockade of p90S6K activation inhibited phosphorylation of RPS6 and IL-3-enhanced semaphorin-7A translation. Furthermore, in an allergen-challenged environment, in vivo phosphorylation of RPS6 and p90S6K was enhanced in human airway compared to circulating eosinophils. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying differential activation of eosinophils by IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5. These observations place IL-3 and its downstream intracellular signals as novel targets that should be considered to modulate eosinophil functions. PMID:26276876

  16. Sex differences in step count-blood pressure association: a preliminary study in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Manjoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking and cardiovascular mortality are inversely associated in type 2 diabetes, but few studies have objectively measured associations of walking with individual cardiovascular risk factors. Such information would be useful for "dosing" daily steps in clinical practice. This study aimed to quantify decrements in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (A1C per 1,000 daily step increments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two hundred and one subjects with type 2 diabetes underwent assessments of step counts (pedometer-measured, blood pressure, A1C and anthropometric parameters. Due to missing data, the final analysis was conducted on 83 women and 102 men, with a mean age of 60 years. Associations of daily steps with blood pressure and A1C were evaluated using sex-specific multivariate linear regression models (adjusted for age, ethnicity, and BMI. Potential sex differences were confirmed in a combined model (women and men with interaction terms. Mean values for daily steps, blood pressure, A1C and BMI were 5,357 steps/day; 137/80 mm Hg; 7.7% and 30.4 kg/m(2 respectively. A 1,000 daily step increment among women was associated with a -2.6 (95% CI: -4.1 to -1.1 mm Hg change in systolic and a -1.4 (95% CI: -2.2 to -0.6 mm Hg change in diastolic blood pressure. Among men, corresponding changes were -0.7 (95% CI: -2.1 to 0.7 and -0.6 (95% CI: -1.4 to 0.3 mm Hg, respectively. Sex differences were confirmed in combined models. Step counts and A1C did not demonstrate clinically important associations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A 1,000 steps/day increment is associated with important blood pressure decrements among women with type 2 diabetes but the data were inconclusive among men. Targeted "dose increments" of 1,000 steps/day in women may lead to measurable blood pressure reductions. This information may be of potential use in the titration or "dosing" of daily steps. No associations were found between step count increments and A1C.

  17. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  18. Proposed criteria to differentiate heterogeneous eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders of the esophagus, including eosinophilic esophageal myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Nakajima, Nao; Takahashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Go; Mizuno, Ken-ichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kazunao; Honda, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Junji; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    AIM To define clinical criteria to differentiate eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EoGD) in the esophagus. METHODS Our criteria were defined based on the analyses of the clinical presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), subepithelial eosinophilic esophagitis (sEoE) and eosinophilic esophageal myositis (EoEM), identified by endoscopy, manometry and serum immunoglobulin E levels (s-IgE), in combination with histological and polymerase chain reaction analyses on esophageal tissue samples. RESULTS In five patients with EoE, endoscopy revealed longitudinal furrows and white plaques in all, and fixed rings in two. In one patient with sEoE and four with EoEM, endoscopy showed luminal compression only. Using manometry, failed peristalsis was observed in patients with EoE and sEoE with some variation, while EoEM was associated with hypercontractile or hypertensive peristalsis, with elevated s-IgE. Histology revealed the following eosinophils per high-power field values. EoE = 41.4 ± 7.9 in the epithelium and 2.3 ± 1.5 in the subepithelium; sEoE = 3 in the epithelium and 35 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy); EoEM = none in the epithelium, 10.7 ± 11.7 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection) and 46.8 ± 16.5 in the muscularis propria (peroral esophageal muscle biopsy). Presence of dilated epithelial intercellular space and downward papillae elongation were specific to EoE. Eotaxin-3, IL-5 and IL-13 were overexpressed in EoE. CONCLUSION Based on clinical and histological data, we identified criteria, which differentiated between EoE, sEoE and EoEM, and reflected a different pathogenesis between these esophageal EoGDs. PMID:28428721

  19. Proposed criteria to differentiate heterogeneous eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders of the esophagus, including eosinophilic esophageal myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Nakajima, Nao; Takahashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Go; Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kazunao; Honda, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Junji; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2017-04-07

    To define clinical criteria to differentiate eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EoGD) in the esophagus. Our criteria were defined based on the analyses of the clinical presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), subepithelial eosinophilic esophagitis (sEoE) and eosinophilic esophageal myositis (EoEM), identified by endoscopy, manometry and serum immunoglobulin E levels (s-IgE), in combination with histological and polymerase chain reaction analyses on esophageal tissue samples. In five patients with EoE, endoscopy revealed longitudinal furrows and white plaques in all, and fixed rings in two. In one patient with sEoE and four with EoEM, endoscopy showed luminal compression only. Using manometry, failed peristalsis was observed in patients with EoE and sEoE with some variation, while EoEM was associated with hypercontractile or hypertensive peristalsis, with elevated s-IgE. Histology revealed the following eosinophils per high-power field values. EoE = 41.4 ± 7.9 in the epithelium and 2.3 ± 1.5 in the subepithelium; sEoE = 3 in the epithelium and 35 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy); EoEM = none in the epithelium, 10.7 ± 11.7 in the subepithelium (conventional biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection) and 46.8 ± 16.5 in the muscularis propria (peroral esophageal muscle biopsy). Presence of dilated epithelial intercellular space and downward papillae elongation were specific to EoE. Eotaxin-3, IL-5 and IL-13 were overexpressed in EoE. Based on clinical and histological data, we identified criteria, which differentiated between EoE, sEoE and EoEM, and reflected a different pathogenesis between these esophageal EoGDs.

  20. Eosinophilic esophagitis: manometric and pHmetric findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Cardoso Monnerat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Eosinophilic esophagitis is an entity characterized by an esophageal inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, manifested by dysphagia, intermittent food impactions and symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, that predominantly affects young adults. There may be association of eosinophilic esophagitis with GERD, and motor abnormalities have been described. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are to describe the findings at esophageal manometry and pH monitoring in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 20 patients with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, submitted to esophageal manometry and 24h pH monitoring. Were analysed the manometric changes and the presence of abnormal reflux on pH monitoring. RESULTS: Twenty patients (15 men, 5 women had a mean age of 29 years. Motility disorders were found in 25% (5/20 patients with ineffective esophageal motility being the most common finding. pH monitoring revealed abnormal reflux on 25%, without any relationship with manometric findings. CONCLUSIONS: Manometric abnormalities were observed in 25% of patients and abnormal reflux on pH monitoring also in 25%. This study showed no relationship between abnormal reflux and the presence of manometric changes.

  1. 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

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    Marco Astegiano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease.

  2. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Is an Important Cause of Eosinophilic Meningitis in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Angela; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Anh, Nguyen To; Thanh, Tran Tan; Van, Tran Thi Hue; Xuan, Le Thi; Sieu, Tran Phu Manh; Thai, Le Hong; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Day, Jeremy; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Tan, Le Van

    2017-06-15

    We utilized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to demonstrate that Angiostrongylus cantonensis was responsible for 67.3% of 55 cases of eosinophilic meningitis from a cohort of 1,690 adult patients with CNS infection at a tertiary hospital in southern Vietnam. Longer duration of illness, depressed consciousness, and peripheral blood eosinophilia were associated with PCR positivity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with Splendore-Hoeppli material in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Palley, L S; Rose, R

    1992-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, focal or diffuse with eosinophilic infiltrations of the stomach or intestine, has been described in human beings, cats, dogs, and horses. In this paper, we describe infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract with eosinophils accompanied by a circulating eosinophilia in six ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Clinical signs included chronic weight loss, anorexia, and diarrhea. The small intestines from five ferrets had diffuse infiltrates of eosinophils. This resulted in focal or multifocal loss of the muscular tunic in three ferrets. Two of these ferrets also had eosinophilic gastritis. Eosinophilic granulomas with Splendore-Hoeppli material were present in mesenteric lymph nodes in four ferrets. Two ferrets had multiple organ involvement; one had eosinophilic granulomas in the liver, mesentery, and choroid plexus as well as moderate parapancreatic segmental arteritis with infiltration of eosinophils and mural thrombosis. The second ferret had, in addition to moderate diffuse gastric and small intestinal eosinophilic mucosal infiltrations, interstitial eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrates. Examination of all tissues failed to reveal an infectious agent.

  4. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanned Alhussien

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM, and 8 clinically mastitis (CM groups of Karan Fries (KF cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05 decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05 in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05 in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows.

  5. Emerging Roles for Eosinophils in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Hadar; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Munitz, Ariel

    2016-11-01

    Eosinophils are evolutionary conserved cells largely studied in the context of allergy. Although eosinophils were first described in tumors more than 120 years ago, their roles in cancer are often overlooked. This is puzzling given their potent immune modulatory, cytotoxic, and/or tissue repair capabilities, and recent studies demonstrating key roles for eosinophils in contexts far beyond their 'classical' field (e.g., metabolism, thermogenesis, and tissue regeneration). Recent data suggest that this frequently ignored cell is emerging as a potent immune effector and immune modulator in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses the relevance of eosinophils to tumorigenesis and the potential to harness their function in cancer therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM.

  7. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. IgE-dependent activation of human mast cells and fMLP-mediated activation of human eosinophils is controlled by the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Anja; Feilhauer, Katharina; Bischoff, Stephan C; Froy, Oren; Lorentz, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of allergic attacks frequently exhibit diurnal variations. Accordingly, we could recently demonstrate that mast cells and eosinophils - known as major effector cells of allergic diseases - showed an intact circadian clock. Here, we analyzed the role of the circadian clock in the functionality of mast cells and eosinophils. Human intestinal mast cells (hiMC) were isolated from intestinal mucosa; human eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood. HiMC and eosinophils were synchronized by dexamethasone before stimulation every 4h around the circadian cycle by FcɛRI crosslinking or fMLP, respectively. Signaling molecule activation was examined using Western blot, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR, and mediator release by multiplex analysis. CXCL8 and CCL2 were expressed and released in a circadian manner by both hiMC and eosinophils in response to activation. Moreover, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, known to be involved in activation of hiMC and eosinophils, showed circadian rhythms in both cell types. Interestingly, all clock genes hPer1, hPer2, hCry1, hBmal1, and hClock were expressed in a similar circadian pattern in activated and unstimulated cells indicating that the local clock controls hiMC and eosinophils and subsequently allergic reactions but not vice versa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endogenous secreted phospholipase A2 group X regulates cysteinyl leukotrienes synthesis by human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstrand, Teal S; Lai, Ying; Hooper, Kathryn A; Oslund, Rob C; Altemeier, William A; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Gelb, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2s mediate the rate-limiting step in the formation of eicosanoids such as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Group IVA cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) is thought to be the dominant PLA2 in eosinophils; however, eosinophils also have secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) activity that has not been fully defined. To examine the expression of sPLA2 group X (sPLA2-X) in eosinophils, the participation of sPLA2-X in the formation of CysLTs, and the mechanism by which sPLA2-X initiates the synthesis of CysLTs in eosinophils. Peripheral blood eosinophils were obtained from volunteers with asthma and/or allergy. A rabbit polyclonal anti-sPLA2-X antibody identified sPLA2-X by Western blot. We used confocal microscopy to colocalize the sPLA2-X to intracellular structures. An inhibitor of sPLA2-X (ROC-0929) that does not inhibit other mammalian sPLA2s, as well as inhibitors of the mitogen-activated kinase cascade (MAPK) and cPLA2α, was used to examine the mechanism of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-mediated formation of CysLT. Eosinophils express the mammalian sPLA2-X gene (PLA2G10). The sPLA2-X protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, and granules of eosinophils and moves to the granules and lipid bodies during fMLP-mediated activation. Selective sPLA2-X inhibition attenuated the fMLP-mediated release of arachidonic acid and CysLT formation by eosinophils. Inhibitors of p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and cPLA2α also attenuated the fMLP-mediated formation of CysLT. The sPLA2-X inhibitor reduced the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 MAPK) as well as cPLA2α during cellular activation, indicating that sPLA2-X is involved in activating the MAPK cascade leading to the formation of CysLT via cPLA2α. We further demonstrate that sPLA2-X is activated before secretion from the cell during activation. Short-term priming with IL-13 and TNF/IL-1β increased the

  10. [Changes and significance of peripheral blood platelet count in tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-lin; Jia, Yu-jie; Jiang, Miao-na; Shu, Xiao-hong; Li, Chuan-gang

    2008-06-01

    To establish a mouse model for BTT739 tumor-bearing mice cured by a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX). And then to observe the dynamic changes and significance of peripheral blood counts especially blood platelet count during tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice. Mouse bladder carcinoma tissues were inoculated subcutaneously into T739 mice. Seven days later, different doses of CTX or the same volume of NS were administered intraperitoneally to treat these tumor-bearing T739 mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of CTX that could cure most of these tumor-bearing mice. Then another 12 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 15 mg/kg CTX treatment group and control group. Blood samples were obtained from orbital venous sinus on different times after CTX treatment. Complete blood counts were performed and the relationship between peripheral blood platelet counts and tumor shrinkage was analyzed. Within 2 weeks after CTX treatment, the speed of tumor shrinkage had a positive relationship with the dose of CTX used; but the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice had a negative relationship with the dose of CTX used in 2 months after CTX treatment. 15 mg/kg CTX could cure most of the tumor bearing mice, while it had no remarkably inhibitive effects on peripheral blood cells. The perpherial platelet count increased to (1483.4+/-184.4)x10(9)/L in mice 6 h after CTX treatment. There was significant difference compared with that in mice of control group (1086.6+/-81.0)x10(9)/L (P0.05). CTX 15 mg/kg could cure most of bladder tumor-bearing T739 mice. The transient increase of the peripheral platelet count in 6 h after CTX treatment may relate to the antitumor effects of CTX.

  11. Cytological diagnostic of lymphadenitis tuberculosis by eosinophilic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    AFB sputum and chest X-ray are used to identify patients with pulmonary TB. For extrapulmonary TB, fine needle aspiration cytology is needed, even though occasionally found not atypical feature in the form of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles, suspected as TB. This research was to show that eosinophilic material with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria for the cytological diagnosis of TB. By performing fine needle aspiration biopsy stained with Giemsa, if an eosinophilic material with dark brown particles was encountered, we continued with Ziehl-Neelsen AFB stain and confirmed with PCR. To assess accuracy, we used a diagnostic test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles by using AFB and PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in tuberculosis of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles were 93.65% and 70.99%, respectively if confirmed with AFB. On the other hand, if confirmed with PCR using Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.95% and 96.79%, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic masses with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria of TB diagnostic cytology with high sensitivity and specificity confirmed with AFB and PCR test.

  12. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: ► Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. ► Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. ► CCL24 induction by ozone and allergen exposure is not linked to eosinophilia.

  13. Eosinophils in Homeostasis and Their Contrasting Roles during Inflammation and Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Julia; Rausch, Sebastian; Hartmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophil numbers are highly elevated during helminth infections and a range of allergic and inflammatory disorders, but eosinophils are also present in several tissues in the absence of infection. Indeed, new findings demonstrate that eosinophils may be involved in events as diverse as glucose metabolism, mammary gland development, intestinal health, tissue remodeling, thymic selection, and B-cell survival. Although eosinophils often correlate with pathological parameters during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma, the evidence for their contribution to tissue pathology remains controversial. Recent research suggests that eosinophils may have additional roles in these settings that are related to control and resolution of inflammation. Controversy also surrounds the involvement of eosinophils in anti-helminth immunity. Their assumed role in fighting parasites has increasingly been questioned, particularly as a result of data from studies of eosinophil-ablated mouse strains in which either no or only very moderate effects on helminth survival has been reported. Helminths are masters of immune regulation, but whether they actively suppress eosinophil function has rarely been considered. Thus, the purpose of this review is threefold: (1) to summarize our knowledge of the wide range of functions of eosinophils during homeostasis, (2) to discuss the role of eosinophil during inflammation and the recent discovery of eosinophils as mediators of inflammatory resolution, and (3) to summarize data on the effect of eosinophils on helminth infections and discuss the possibility of helminth-mediated modulation of eosinophils.

  14. STAT3 activation and infiltration of eosinophil granulocytes in mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Simon; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette R; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes have been implicated in anticancer immunity but recent data indicate that eosinophils can also promote cancer. Herein, we studied eosinophils in skin lesions from 43 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). The presence of eosinophils correlated with disease stage: 78......% of patients with advanced disease displayed eosinophil infiltration, whereas this was only seen in 11% of patients with patches (p...) in malignant T-cells also stained positively for eosinophils, whereas this was only observed in 28% of pY-STAT3-negative patients (peosinophilic activation and trafficking factors: High-mobility group BOX-1 protein (HMGB1) and interleukin 5 (IL5). STAT3 si...

  15. IL-3 Maintains Activation of the p90S6K/RPS6 Pathway and Increases Translation in Human Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, Stephane; Kelly, Elizabeth A B; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Johansson, Mats W; Malter, James S; Jarjour, Nizar N

    2015-09-15

    IL-5 is a major therapeutic target to reduce eosinophilia. However, all of the eosinophil-activating cytokines, such as IL-5, IL-3, and GM-CSF, are typically present in atopic diseases, including allergic asthma. As a result of the functional redundancy of these three cytokines on eosinophils and the loss of IL-5R on airway eosinophils, it is important to take IL-3 and GM-CSF into account to efficiently reduce tissue eosinophil functions. Moreover, these three cytokines signal through a common β-chain receptor but yet differentially affect protein production in eosinophils. Notably, the increased ability of IL-3 to induce the production of proteins, such as semaphorin-7A, without affecting mRNA levels suggests a unique influence of IL-3 on translation. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which IL-3 distinctively affects eosinophil function compared with IL-5 and GM-CSF, with a focus on protein translation. Peripheral blood eosinophils were used to study intracellular signaling and protein translation in cells activated with IL-3, GM-CSF, or IL-5. We establish that, unlike GM-CSF or IL-5, IL-3 triggers prolonged signaling through activation of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and the upstream kinase 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p90S6K). Blockade of p90S6K activation inhibited phosphorylation of RPS6 and IL-3-enhanced semaphorin-7A translation. Furthermore, in an allergen-challenged environment, in vivo phosphorylation of RPS6 and p90S6K was enhanced in human airway compared with circulating eosinophils. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying differential activation of eosinophils by IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5. These observations identify IL-3 and its downstream intracellular signals as novel targets that should be considered to modulate eosinophil functions. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jing, C; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), predominately expressed on memory/activated T lymphocytes, is a receptor for both IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (gamma IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig). We report a novel finding that CXCR3 is also expressed on eosinophils. gamma IP-10 and Mig induce...... in eosinophils are up- and down-regulated by IL-2 and IL-10, respectively, as detected using flow cytometry, immunocytochemical assay, and a real-time quantitative RT-PCR technique. gamma IP-10 and Mig act eosinophils to induce chemotaxis via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathways. The fact...

  17. EFFECT OF α-TOCOPHEROL AND ASCORBIC ACIDS ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD IMMUNITY PROFILE OF MALE NATIVE MUSCOVY DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tugiyanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to assess the effect of α-tocopherol and ascobic acids on the performance and immunity blood profile of male native Muscovy duck. The materials used were 84 male Muscovy ducks at 9 weeks old. The research used completely randomized design with 7 treatments. The treatments were E0C0 : basal diet without α-tocopherol and ascobic acids, E400: basal diet+ α-tocopherol 400IU, E600: basal diet+α-tocopherol 600IU, C400: basal diet+ascorbic acid 400mg/kg, C600: basal diet+ascorbic acid 600mg/kg, E200C200: basal diet+α-tocopherol 200IU+ ascorbic acid 200mg/kg, and E300C300: basal diet+α-tocopherol 300IU+ ascorbic acid 300mg/kg. Each treatment was repeated 4 times and each replication consisted of 3 ducks. The observed variables were body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, packed cell volume (PCV, total of plasma protein (TPP, leucocyte count, basophil, heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, lymphocytes count and heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L ratio of Muscovy duck. The result indicated that E0C0, E400, E600, C400, C600, E200C200 and E300C300 had no significant difference in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. There were significant effects on PCV, leucocyte count, percentage of heterophil and lymphocytes, but had no significant effect on eosinophil, monocyte and the H/L ratio. The C400 resulted a higher PCV count, percentage of heterophil, and H/L ratio. The C 600 produced the highest leucocyte count. In conclusion, the supplementation of ascorbic acid at 400 - 600 mg/kg feed ascorbic acid could improve the immune profile, but could not improve the performance of Muscovy duck.

  18. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Diffuse Gastrointestinal Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Franco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic small- and medium-sized-vessel vasculitis, characterized by the presence of severe asthma as well as blood and tissue eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, like diarrhea and abdominal pain, are common; however, there are few reports of histologic evidence of GI involvement. We report the case of a patient on treatment for EGPA who presented with recurrent small bowel obstruction and choledocholithiasis. Biopsies of the esophagus, small bowel and common bile duct showed diffuse eosinophilia, with clear EGPA in the GI tract. Improved awareness of GI EGPA may allow for timely management of this disorder.

  20. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Pressanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other limbs. Cytological and histopathological examinations showed lesions consistent with an atypical form of feline eosinophilic dermatosis associated with secondary bacterial infection. In both cats, antibiotics combined with immunosuppressive treatment partially improved the lesions, which continued to progress on a waxing and waning course, even in the absence of treatment. Allergy work-up did not permit the identification of an underlying allergic triggering factor. The severity of the lesions, the unusual presentation and the unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive therapy in two feline littermates suggested a genetic form of eosinophilic dermatosis.

  1. Extracellular microvesicle production by human eosinophils activated by “inflammatory” stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Akuthota

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key function of human eosinophils is to secrete cytokines, chemokines and cationic proteins, trafficking and releasing these mediators for roles in inflammation and other immune responses. Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of pre-synthesized granule-stored mediators through different mechanisms, but the ability of eosinophils to secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs, very small vesicles with preserved membrane topology, is still poorly understood. In the present work, we sought to identify and characterize EVs released from human eosinophils during different conditions: after a culturing period or after isolation and stimulation with inflammatory stimuli, which are known to induce eosinophil activation and secretion: CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. EV production was investigated by nanoscale flow cytometry, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM and pre-embedding immunonanogold EM. The tetraspanins CD63 and CD9 were used as EV biomarkers for both flow cytometry and ultrastructural immunolabeling. Nanoscale flow cytometry showed that human eosinophils produce EVs in culture and that a population of EVs expressed detectable CD9, while CD63 was not consistently detected. When eosinophils were stimulated immediately after isolation and analyzed by TEM, EVs were clearly identified as microvesicles (MVsoutwardly budding off the plasma membrane. Both CCL11 and TNF-α induced significant increases of MVs compared to unstimulated cells.TNF-α induced amplified release of MVs more than CCL11. Eosinophil MV diameters varied from 20-1000 nm. Immunonanogold EM revealed clear immunolabeling for CD63 and CD9 on eosinophil MVs, although not all MVs were labeled. Altogether, we identified, for the first time, that human eosinophils secrete MVs and that this production increases in response to inflammatory stimuli. This is important to understand the complex secretory activities of eosinophils underlying immune

  2. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats—Multiple factorial regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200–240 g for 28 days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15 mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000 mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight

  3. Tailoring asthma treatment on eosinophilic markers (exhaled nitric oxide or sputum eosinophils): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsky, Helen L; Cates, Chris J; Kew, Kayleigh M; Chang, Anne B

    2018-06-01

    Asthma guidelines guide health practitioners to adjust treatments to the minimum level required for asthma control. As many people with asthma have an eosinophilic endotype, tailoring asthma medications based on airway eosinophilic levels (sputum eosinophils or exhaled nitric oxide, FeNO) may improve asthma outcomes. To synthesise the evidence from our updated Cochrane systematic reviews, for tailoring asthma medication based on eosinophilic inflammatory markers (sputum analysis and FeNO) for improving asthma-related outcomes in children and adults. Cochrane reviews with standardised searches up to February 2017. The Cochrane reviews included randomised controlled comparisons of tailoring asthma medications based on sputum analysis or FeNO compared with controls (primarily clinical symptoms and/or spirometry/peak flow). The 16 included studies of FeNO-based management (seven in adults) and 6 of sputum-based management (five in adults) were clinically heterogeneous. On follow-up, participants randomised to the sputum eosinophils strategy (compared with controls) were significantly less likely to have exacerbations (62 vs 82/100 participants with ≥1 exacerbation; OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.62). For the FeNO strategy, the respective numbers were adults OR 0.60 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.84) and children 0.58 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.75). However, there were no significant group differences for either strategy on daily inhaled corticosteroids dose (at end of study), asthma control or lung function. Adjusting treatment based on airway eosinophilic markers reduced the likelihood of asthma exacerbations but had no significant impact on asthma control or lung function. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the oesophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which

  5. Radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: correlation with the blood CD4 cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isusi, M.; Eguidazu, J.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.

    2000-01-01

    To describe the radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its correlation with the blood CD4 cell count. We present 44 HIV+patients, 24 with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) and 20 in whom the CD4 counts surpassed this level (group B). We also assessed the chest x-ray images to determine whether or not there was any correlation with the blood CD4 cell counts. Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical study of the differences in the radiological findings in the two groups. The incidence of atypical features was significantly greater in the patients with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) than in those with CD4 counts of over 200 cells/mm''3 (group B). Among HIV+patients, those with a more intact immune status were more likely to present lung x-ray images typical of post-primary TB, with cavitary lesions in upper lobes. The group of patients in whom the immune deficiency was more marked showed a greater incidence of atypical pulmonary findings, more characteristics of primary TB. (Author)

  6. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  7. A case of radiation pneumonitis with eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Seiko; Baba, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Daisuke; Yagi, Takeo; Hattori, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Etsuro

    2008-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for irradiation therapy of non-resectable primary lung squamous cell carcinoma of the right middle lobe (T3N2M0). The Linac irradiation through opposing 2 gates (2 Gy per day and 60 Gy in total) was performed to the affected area including the metastatic right hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. One week after completing the irradiation therapy, fever developed with infiltrates in the area from the right middle lobe to the right lower lobe, which did not necessarily coincide with the irradiated area Antibiotic therapies were not effective. Both the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level and eosinophil count in the peripheral blood increased. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at the right B 8 , and differential cell counts of the lavage fluid were macrophages, 17%; lymphocytes, 60%; neutrophils, 5%; and eosinophils, 18%. No significant organisms were obtained by culture of the lavage fluid. The %VC and D LCO /VA became lower than before the irradiation therapy. Thus, the patient was given a diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. Treatment with 40 mg/day oral prednisolone was commenced with a stepwise dose-reduction (5 mg every two weeks) until reaching the maintenance dose of 15 mg/day. The serum LDH level and blood eosinophil count recovered promptly to the normal range. The pulmonary infiltrates and the lung functions substantially improved. There have been few reports of radiation pneumonitis in which eosinophil counts increased in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after irradiation therapy. In the present case report, the possible mechanisms for the irradiation-induced eosinophilia were also reviewed. (author)

  8. Effect of vitamin E-bonded dialyzer on eosinophilia in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenichiro; Oda, Kuniyoshi; Homma, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Kazushi; Kanda, Yoshiko; Inokami, Taketoshi; Uchida, Shunya

    2005-09-01

    Eosinophilia in haemodialysis patients probably results from allergy to haemodialysis-related materials, including dialyzer membranes. We examined the effects of vitamin E-bonded dialyzers on eosinophil counts in haemodialysis patients. We enrolled seven patients who were on regular haemodialysis and had sustained eosinophilia. White blood cell, eosinophil, CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocyte counts, and serum interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IgE levels were determined before, 2 and 4 weeks after switching to vitamin E-bonded dialyzers. Eosinophil and CD4-positive lymphocyte counts and serum IL-5 were significantly (P = 0.003, 0.003 and 0.031, respectively) decreased after switching to vitamin E-bonded dialyzers. CD8-positive lymphocyte counts and serum IgE levels were unaltered. Crossover tests in two cases reproduced the higher eosinophilia within 4 weeks after returning to the original non-vitamin E-bonded dialyzer. Vitamin E-bonded dialyzers may ameliorate eosinophilia through a mechanism mediated by a decrease in IL-5 secretion by CD4-positive lymphocytes.

  9. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  10. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  11. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  12. Re-defining the Unique Roles for Eosinophils in Allergic Respiratory Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The role of eosinophils in the progression and resolution of allergic respiratory inflammation is poorly defined despite the commonality of their presence and in some cases their use as a biomarker for disease severity and/or symptom control. However, this ambiguity belies the wealth of insights that have recently been gained through the use of eosinophil-deficient/attenuated strains of mice that have demonstrated novel immunoregulatory and remodeling/repair functions for these cells in the lung following allergen provocation. Specifically, studies of eosinophil-deficient mice suggest that eosinophils contribute to events occurring in the lungs following allergen provocation at several key moments: (i) The initiating phase of events leading to Th2-polarized pulmonary inflammation, (ii) The suppression Th1/Th17 pathways in lung draining lymph nodes, (iii) The recruitment of effector Th2 T cells to the lung, and finally (iv) Mechanisms of inflammatory resolution that re-establish pulmonary homeostasis. These suggested functions have recently been confirmed and expanded upon using allergen provocation of an inducible eosinophil-deficient strain of mice (iPHIL) that demonstrated an eosinophil-dependent mechanism(s) leading to Th2 dominated immune responses in the presence of eosinophils in contrast to neutrophilic as well as mixed Th1/Th17/Th2 variant phenotypes in the absence of eosinophils. These findings highlighted that eosinophils are not exclusively downstream mediators controlled by T cells, dendritic cells (DC), and/or innate lymphocytic cells (ILC2). Instead, eosinophils appear to be more aptly described as significant contributors in complex interrelated pathways that lead to pulmonary inflammation and subsequently promote resolution and the re-establishment of homeostatic baseline. In this review we summarize and put into the context the evolving hypotheses that are now expanding our understanding of the roles eosinophils likely have in the lung

  13. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGioffredi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  14. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  15. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorder in Coeliac Disease: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. F. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder is a rare disorder characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. There are various gastrointestinal manifestations with eosinophilic ascites being the most unusual and rare presentation. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders associated with peripheral eosinophilia. There are no previous case reports to suggest an association between eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and coeliac disease in adults. We report a case of eosinophilic ascites and gastroenteritis in a 30-year-old woman with a known history of coeliac disease who responded dramatically to a course of steroids.

  16. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  17. Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using 124-iodine. Predicted blood doses correlate with changes in blood cell counts after radioiodine therapy and depend on modes of TSH stimulation and number of preceding radioiodine therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung-Knemeyer, V.; Nagarajah, J.; Jentzen, W.; Ruhlmann, M.; Freudenberg, L.S.; Stahl, A.R.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry prior to a high-dose radioiodine therapy (RAIT) is recommended and a blood dose of 2 Gy is considered to be safe. In this study, changes in the blood cell count after radioiodine therapy of high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were analyzed and compared with the results of the pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. Moreover, the influence of different modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding radioiodine therapies on the blood dose were assessed. 198 patients with locally advanced or metastasized DTC received a pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. To analyze the influence of the modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding RAITs on blood dose subgroups were built as follows: patients with endogenous TSH stimulation versus patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and patients with no preceding RAIT versus patients with at least one preceding RAIT. In 124/198 patients subsequent RAIT was performed. In 73/124 patients, hemograms were performed from day 2 to 12 month after RAIT. There was no high-grade bone marrow toxicity (id est (i.e.) ≥grade 3) in patients receiving less than 2 Gy blood dose-independent of the therapeutic history. Within the first month after radioiodine therapy, there was an overall decrease in the white blood cell and platelet counts. The erythrocyte count was essentially stable. There was a correlation between cell count decrease and predicted blood doses (Spearman's correlation coefficient >-0.6 each) for the white cell line and the platelets. With regard to the subgroups, the blood dose per administered 131 I activity (BDpA) was significantly higher in patients with endogenous TSH stimulation (median 0.08 Gy/GBq) than in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation (0.06 Gy/GBq) and in patients with no previous RAIT (0.08 Gy/GBq) compared to patients who had previously undergone at least one RAIT (0.07 Gy/GBq). The range of BDpA among DTC patients is rather wide. Our

  18. Effect of prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C on platelet count measured by Sysmex XT-2000iV in dogs, cats, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tim L; Archer, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to platelet clumping is a common cause of preanalytic error for platelet counts in dogs, cats, and horses. In human beings, it is suggested that prewarming blood samples to 37°C prior to hematology analysis will reduce platelet clumping. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C on measured platelet counts and other hematologic variables. The EDTA blood samples from dogs, cats and horses submitted to the clinical pathology laboratory at the University of Cambridge were included. Complete blood cell counts performed using a Sysmex XT-2000iV hematology analyzer were done on samples at room temperature (approximately 22°C) and following warming of the samples to 37°C in a water bath. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare hematologic variables, including platelet count, before and after sample warming to 37°C. Data are presented as median (25(th) , 75(th) percentile) increase. Blood samples from 39 dogs, 19 cats, and 10 horses were included. Sample warming to 37°C resulted in a statistically significant increase in platelet counts in dogs (11 [-2, 30] ×10(9) /L), cats (36 [14, 84] ×10(9) /L), and horses (42 [31, 79] ×10(9) /L). Sample warming did not significantly affect other hematologic variables. Prewarming EDTA blood samples to 37°C prior to hematologic analysis increased platelet counts overall in canine, feline, and equine blood, but did not abrogate platelet clumping and pseudothrombocytopenia fully in some cases. Furthermore, true pseudothrombocytopenia was not confirmed in these animals. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 x 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 ± 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 ± 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 ± 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 ± 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of [3H]LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 ± 0.14 and 18.14 ± 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 x 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 x 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions

  20. Eosinophils enhance WNT-5a and TGF-β1 genes expression in airway smooth muscle cells and promote their proliferation by increased extracellular matrix proteins production in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januskevicius, Andrius; Vaitkiene, Simona; Gosens, Reinoud; Janulaityte, Ieva; Hoppenot, Deimante; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Malakauskas, Kestutis

    2016-06-13

    Recent studies have suggested that eosinophils may have a direct effect on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), causing their proliferation in patients with asthma, but the precise mechanism of the interaction between these cells remains unknown. We propose that changes in Wnt signaling activity and extracellular matrix (ECM) production may help explain these findings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eosinophils from asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects on Wnt-5a, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and ECM protein (fibronectin and collagen) gene expression and ASMC proliferation. A total of 18 subjects were involved in the study: 8 steroid-free asthma patients and 10 healthy subjects. Peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated using centrifugation and magnetic separation. An individual co-culture of eosinophils with human ASMC was prepared for each study subject. Adhesion of eosinophils to ASMC (evaluated by assaying eosinophil peroxidase activity) was determined following various incubation periods (30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 min). The expression of Wnt-5a, TGF-β1, and ECM protein genes in ASMC was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after 24 h of co-culture. Proliferation of ASMC was measured using the Alamar blue method after 48 h and 72 h of co-culture with eosinophils. Eosinophils from asthmatic subjects demonstrated increased adhesion to ASMC compared with eosinophils from healthy subjects (p eosinophils from asthmatic subjects, while co-culture of ASMC with eosinophils from healthy subjects increased only TGF-β1 and fibronectin gene expression. ASMC proliferation was augmented after co-culture with eosinophils from asthma patients compared with co-culture with eosinophils from healthy subjects (p Eosinophils enhance Wnt-5a, TGF-β1, fibronectin, and collagen gene expression in ASMC and promote proliferation of these cells in asthma. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02648074 .

  1. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, Lisa A., E-mail: lmiller@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  2. Stratification of eosinophilic asthma patients treated with reslizumab and GINA Step 4 or 5 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselle, Guy; Canvin, Janice; Weiss, Sivan; Sun, Shawn X; Buhl, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Reslizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody, significantly reduces exacerbation frequency and improves lung function, asthma control and quality of life in adults with severe eosinophilic asthma, as demonstrated in Phase III studies. This secondary analysis assessed reslizumab's efficacy in patients receiving baseline treatment per Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Step 4 and Step 5 guidelines. Pooled data from duplicate, Phase III, reslizumab versus placebo studies in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma (blood eosinophils ≥400 cells·µL -1 ) were stratified by baseline therapy. Efficacy assessments were exacerbation rates and changes from baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and patient-reported outcomes. Of 953 patients, 69% (n=657) and 11% (n=106) were receiving Step 4 and Step 5 therapy, respectively. Compared with placebo, reslizumab reduced exacerbation rates by 53% (95% CI 0.36-0.62) and 72% (95% CI 0.15-0.52), in Step 4 and Step 5 groups respectively. By study end, reslizumab increased FEV 1 in Step 4 and Step 5 groups by 103 mL (95% CI 52-154 mL) and 237 mL (95% CI 68-407 mL), respectively. Reslizumab also improved patient-reported outcomes compared with placebo in both groups. Reslizumab reduces exacerbation rates and improves lung function and patient-reported outcomes in patients with eosinophilic asthma receiving therapy per Steps 4 and 5 of the GINA guidelines.

  3. Proton channel HVCN1 is required for effector functions of mouse eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Proton currents are required for optimal respiratory burst in phagocytes. Recently, HVCN1 was identified as the molecule required for the voltage-gated proton channel activity associated with the respiratory burst in neutrophils. Although there are similarities between eosinophils and neutrophils regarding their mechanism for respiratory burst, the role of proton channels in eosinophil functions has not been fully understood. Results In the present study, we first identified the expression of the proton channel HVCN1 in mouse eosinophils. Furthermore, using HVCN1-deficient eosinophils, we demonstrated important cell-specific effector functions for HVCN1. Similar to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils produced significantly less reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. In contrast to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils did not show impaired calcium mobilization or migration ability compared with wild-type (WT) cells. Uniquely, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils underwent significantly increased cell death induced by PMA stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. The increased cell death was dependent on NADPH oxidase activation, and correlated with the failure of HVCN1-deficient cells to maintain membrane polarization and intracellular pH in the physiological range upon activation. Conclusions Eosinophils require proton channel HVCN1 for optimal ROS generation and prevention of activation-induced cell death. PMID:23705768

  4. A Non-Frequently Considered Diagnosis of Dysphagia; Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ağın; Nilgün Uyduran Ünal; Serdar İskit

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis is infiltration of esophagus mucosa by eosinophil leucocyte. It is rarely observed in children and the symptoms are similar to gastroesophageal reflux. This case, which was applied esophagus balloon dilatation in the pediatric surgery due to dysphagia and diagnosed eosinophilic esophagitis, was presented in order to attract attention to the approach to the child with dysphagia. Total IgE=834 IU/mL and specific IgE (-), Fx5 (-) was found negative. In ...

  5. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  6. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats-Multiple factorial regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200-240g for 28days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight antagonism

  7. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Mun Kyung

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  8. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  9. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassom, D.L.; Loegering, D.A.; Gleich, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131 I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  10. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn T Adalsteinsson

    Full Text Available Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179 and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20, isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed, KCNJ11 (8 CpGs, KCNQ1 (4 CpGs and PM20D1 (7 CpGs. Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter explained up to 40% (p<0.0001 of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  11. Eosinophilic cystitis in a 3-year-old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysem, L.; Smet, M.H.; Gordts, H.; Marchal, G.

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare in children; it also affects adults. Clinical manifestations are variable. The diagnosis can be confirmed by cystoscopy and biopsy, both rather invasive procedures, especially in younger patients. We report a 3-year-old boy with eosinophilic cystitis. The most important radiological finding was marked thickening of the bladder wall, documented on ultrasound, cystography and CT. The CT findings of eosinophilic cystitis have, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. In addition to ultrasound and cystography, CT clearly demonstrates extension of the inflammatory process into the perivesical tissues. (orig.)

  12. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Shibazaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole.

  13. In vivo activation of equine eosinophils and neutrophils by experimental Strongylus vulgaris infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Jeffers, G W

    1988-12-01

    Eosinophils and neutrophils from ponies with Strongylus vulgaris-induced eosinophilia (eosinophilic ponies; activated eosinophils and neutrophils) were assayed in vitro for chemotactic and chemokinetic responses to zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) using the filter system in Boyden chambers, for Fc and complement (C) receptors using the EA and EAC-rosette assays, respectively, and for phagocytic and bactericidal activities using opsonized Escherichia coli and the acridine orange method. The responses of activated eosinophils and neutrophils in the above assays were compared with those of eosinophils and neutrophils from S. vulgaris-naive ponies without eosinophilia (noneosinophilic ponies; nonactivated eosinophils and neutrophils). Differences in cell density following centrifugation in a continuous Percoll gradient were used to further characterize the heterogeneity of activated eosinophils and neutrophils. Activated and nonactivated eosinophils demonstrated similar chemotactic responses to ZAS while activated and nonactivated neutrophils demonstrated similar chemokinetic responses to ZAS. A higher percentage of activated eosinophils and neutrophils expressed Fc and C receptors compared with nonactivated cells (P less than 0.05). Generally, higher percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils expressed C than Fc receptors. However, the percentage of neutrophils with both receptors was higher than that of eosinophils. Phagocytosis and killing of E. coli by either type of eosinophil were not consistently observed. Both activated and nonactivated neutrophils phagocytized E. coli and significant differences between the two cell types were not observed. The bacterial activity, however, of activated neutrophils was significantly greater than that obtained using nonactivated neutrophils (P less than 0.05). Activated eosinophils and neutrophils were both separated into two distinct fractions based on differences in cell densities. A higher percentage of band 2 eosinophils

  14. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Activated Eosinophils Promote Interleukin-23 Driven Chronic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griseri, Thibault; Arnold, Isabelle C.; Pearson, Claire; Krausgruber, Thomas; Schiering, Chris; Franchini, Fanny; Schulthess, Julie; McKenzie, Brent S.; Crocker, Paul R.; Powrie, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Summary The role of intestinal eosinophils in immune homeostasis is enigmatic and the molecular signals that drive them from protective to tissue damaging are unknown. Most commonly associated with Th2 cell-mediated diseases, we describe a role for eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was characterized by increased bone marrow eosinopoiesis and accumulation of activated intestinal eosinophils. IL-5 blockade or eosinophil depletion ameliorated colitis, implicating eosinophils in disease pathogenesis. GM-CSF was a potent activator of eosinophil effector functions and intestinal accumulation, and GM-CSF blockade inhibited chronic colitis. By contrast neutrophil accumulation was GM-CSF independent and dispensable for colitis. In addition to TNF secretion, release of eosinophil peroxidase promoted colitis identifying direct tissue-toxic mechanisms. Thus, eosinophils are key perpetrators of chronic inflammation and tissue damage in IL-23-mediated immune diseases and it suggests the GM-CSF-eosinophil axis as an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:26200014

  15. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-04-04

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4(+)T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra-deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. © 2016 Sugawara et al.

  16. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given.

  17. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  18. Genetics of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottyan, L C; Rothenberg, M E

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergic disease associated with marked mucosal eosinophil accumulation. EoE disease risk is multifactorial and includes environmental and genetic factors. This review will focus on the contribution of genetic variation to EoE risk, as well as the experimental tools and statistical methodology used to identify EoE risk loci. Specific disease-risk loci that are shared between EoE and other allergic diseases (TSLP, LRRC32) or unique to EoE (CAPN14), as well as Mendellian Disorders associated with EoE, will be reviewed in the context of the insight that they provide into the molecular pathoetiology of EoE. We will also discuss the clinical opportunities that genetic analyses provide in the form of decision support tools, molecular diagnostics, and novel therapeutic approaches.

  19. Eosinophils are key regulators of perivascular adipose tissue and vascular functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Sarah B.; Forman, Ruth; Meza-Perez, Selene

    2017-01-01

    Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils...... in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability...... of adiponectin and adipocyte-derived nitric oxide, which was restored after eosinophil reconstitution. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that adiponectin and nitric oxide are released after activation of adipocyte-expressed β3 adrenoceptors by catecholamines, and identified eosinophils as a novel source...

  20. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Moral-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  1. A simple method for regional cerebral blood flow measurement by one-point arterial blood sampling and 123I-IMP microsphere model (part 2). A study of time correction of one-point blood sample count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiko; Makino, Kenichi; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper regarding determination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the 123 I-IMP microsphere model, we reported that the accuracy of determination of the integrated value of the input function from one-point arterial blood sampling can be increased by performing correction using the 5 min: 29 min ratio for the whole-brain count. However, failure to carry out the arterial blood collection at exactly 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection causes errors with this method, and there is thus a time limitation. We have now revised out method so that the one-point arterial blood sampling can be performed at any time during the interval between 5 minutes and 20 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection, with addition of a correction step for the sampling time. This revised method permits more accurate estimation of the integral of the input functions. This method was then applied to 174 experimental subjects: one-point blood samples collected at random times between 5 and 20 minutes, and the estimated values for the continuous arterial octanol extraction count (COC) were determined. The mean error rate between the COC and the actual measured continuous arterial octanol extraction count (OC) was 3.6%, and the standard deviation was 12.7%. Accordingly, in 70% of the cases, the rCBF was able to be estimated within an error rate of 13%, while estimation was possible in 95% of the cases within an error rate of 25%. This improved method is a simple technique for determination of the rCBF by 123 I-IMP microsphere model and one-point arterial blood sampling which no longer shows a time limitation and does not require any octanol extraction step. (author)

  2. Pattern of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration in patients with achalasia and response to Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools-Lartigue, J; Chang, S-Y; Mckendy, K; Mayrand, S; Marcus, V; Fried, G M; Ferri, L E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is now recognized as a common cause of dysphagia. Eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus has also been associated with other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the incidence, pattern, and clinical significance of eosinophilic infiltration in achalasia are poorly documented. We sought to characterize this histological finding in patients undergoing Heller myotomy (HM) for achalasia. Ninety-six patients undergoing laparoscopic HM for primary achalasia between 1999 and 2008 were identified from a prospective database. Serial mid and distal per-endoscopic esophageal biopsies taken from patients before and after surgery were assessed for the presence of elevated intraepithelial eosinophils (EIEs). Slides from patients with reports suggestive of EIE were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the highest eosinophil count/high-power field (eos/hpf) was recorded. Dysphagia scores (0 = none to 5 = severe dysphagia), GERD health-related quality of life scores (0 = best to 45 = worst), and 24-hour pH results were compared before and 3 months after surgery. We related the highest eos to the symptoms and response to HM. Data are presented as median (range). Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test determined significance, *P < 0.05. Of 96 patients with achalasia, 50 had undergone pre-HM biopsies revealing EIE in 17/50 (34%), with a median of 3 eos/hpf (1-21). Two patients were found to have superimposed esophageal candidiasis. One patient met the pathologic criteria for EoE. Twenty-five of 50 (50%) postoperative biopsies demonstrated a median of 5 eos/hpf (1-62) for a total of 28/50 patients (56%) with EIE in either the preoperative or postoperative period. Four patients (8%) met the pathologic criteria for EoE, and two demonstrated persistent esophageal candidiasis. A decrease in eosinophils was found in 6/28 patients (21%) from 3/hpf (1-21) to 0.5/hpf (0-4). Increase in eosinophils was found in

  3. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun; Son, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  4. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  5. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  6. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar-Alsadat Mansouri-Tehrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1 Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles (n = 22, (2 probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21 or (3 placebo capsules (n = 24 all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 10 6 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 10 3 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 10 3 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of

  7. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 10(6) cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 10(3) cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 10(3) cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... excluded usually include dairy, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts and fish/shellfish. These diets have been ... minorities » IgE ab to minor milk proteins may identify the proteins that are relevant to eosinophilic esophagitis » ...

  9. Evaluation of the performance of a point-of-care method for total and differential white blood cell count in clozapine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H N; Bogers, J P A M; Cohen, D; Njo, T; Herruer, M H

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of the HemoCue WBC DIFF, a point-of-care device for total and differential white cell count, primarily to test its suitability for the mandatory white blood cell monitoring in clozapine use. Leukocyte count and 5-part differentiation was performed by the point-of-care device and by routine laboratory method in venous EDTA-blood samples from 20 clozapine users, 20 neutropenic patients, and 20 healthy volunteers. From the volunteers, also a capillary sample was drawn. Intra-assay reproducibility and drop-to-drop variation were tested. The correlation between both methods in venous samples was r > 0.95 for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The correlation between point-of-care (capillary sample) and routine (venous sample) methods for these cells was 0.772; 0.817 and 0.798, respectively. Only for leukocyte and neutrophil counts, the intra-assay reproducibility was sufficient. The point-of-care device can be used to screen for leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Because of the relatively high measurement uncertainty and poor correlation with venous samples, we recommend to repeat the measurement with a venous sample if cell counts are in the lower reference range. In case of clozapine therapy, neutropenia can probably be excluded if high neutrophil counts are found and patients can continue their therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Perfil celular do escarro induzido e sangue periférico na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Induced sputum and peripheral blood cell profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Rufino

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o perfil celular e subgrupos linfocitários CD4+ e CD8+ no escarro induzido (EI e sangue venoso periférico (SVP de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC. MÉTODOS: Foram quantificadas as celularidades total e específica, incluindo subgrupos linfocitários T CD4+ e CD8+, do EI e SVP de 85 pessoas (38 pacientes com DPOC sem agudização, 29 tabagistas sem obstrução e 18 não-tabagistas. Os testes não-paramétricos de Mann-Whitney e Spearman foram usados na análise estatística, considerando como significante o p OBJECTIVE: To determine cell profiles, as well as to identify CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subgroups, in induced sputum (IS and peripheral venous blood (PVB of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. METHODS: Total cell counts and counts of individual cell types, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, were determined in the IS and PVB of 85 subjects (38 with COPD without exacerbation, 29 smokers without obstruction and 18 nonsmokers. Mann-Whitney and Spearman non-parametric tests were used in the statistical analysis, and values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Comparing the IS of subjects with COPD to that of nonsmokers, neutrophil, eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher (respectively p = 0.005, p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, whereas the percentage of macrophages was lower (p = 0.003. There were weak linear correlations (r² < 0.1 between each cell type in IS and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were also higher in PVB (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable COPD, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher in PVB, whereas total leukocyte counts were similar to those of the other two groups analyzed, suggesting systemic inflammatory involvement. The CD8+ T lymphocyte count in blood can be a useful marker of systemic inflammation

  11. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Larry A.; Lorenz, Emily A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Kahwash, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayo Clinic, Division of Pediatric Radiology, E-2, Rochester, MN (United States); Lorenz, Emily A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Di Lorenzo, Carlo [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Columbus, OH (United States); Kahwash, Samir [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Esophageal motility in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Iorio, N; Schey, R

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus and is a potential cause of dysphagia and food impaction, most commonly affecting young men. Esophageal manometry findings vary from normal motility to aperistalsis, simultaneous contractions, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It remains unclear whether esophageal dysmotility plays a significant role in the clinical symptoms of EoE. Our aim is to review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and effect of treatment on esophageal dysmotility in EoE. A literature search utilizing the PubMed database was performed using keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, esophageal dysmotility, motility, manometry, impedance planimetry, barium esophagogram, endoscopic ultrasound, and dysphagia. Fifteen studies, totaling 387 patients with eosinophilic esophagitis were identified as keeping in accordance with the aim of this study and included in this review. The occurrence of abnormal esophageal manometry was reported to be between 4 and 87% among patients with EoE. Esophageal motility studies have shown reduced distensibility, abnormal peristalsis, and hypotonicity of the LES in patients with EoE, which may also mimic other esophageal motility disorders such as achalasia or nutcracker esophagus. Studies have shown conflicting results regarding the presence of esophageal dysmotility and symptoms with some reports suggesting a higher rate of food impaction, while others report no correlation between motor function and dysphagia. Motility dysfunction of the esophagus in EoE has not been well reported in the literature and studies have reported conflicting evidence regarding the clinical significance of dysmotility seen in EoE. The correlation between esophageal dysmotility and symptoms of EoE remains unclear. Larger studies are needed to investigate the incidence of esophageal dysmotility, clinical implications, and effect of treatment on

  14. Total artificial heart implantation for biventricular failure due to eosinophilic myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabori, Masashi; Kurihara, Chitaru; Miller, Yair; Heck, Kent A; Bogaev, Roberta C; Civitello, Andrew B; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H; Morgan, Jeffrey A

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of eosinophils and their infiltration into tissues. Although cardiac involvement is rare, eosinophilic myocarditis can lead to life-threating fulminant congestive heart failure. Treatment of patients with eosinophilic myocarditis is challenging as heart failure can be caused by biventricular dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature describing a patient with acute severe biventricular heart failure caused by eosinophilic myocarditis with mural left ventricular apical thrombus who was successfully treated with implantation of a total artificial heart as a bridge to heart transplant.

  15. Isolation of Eosinophils from the Lamina Propria of the Murine Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, Claudia; Beller, Alexander; Chu, Van Trung

    2016-01-01

    Only recently has it become apparent that eosinophils play a crucial role in mucosal immune homeostasis. Although eosinophils are the main cellular component of the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, they have often been overlooked because they express numerous markers, which are normally used to characterize macrophages and/or dendritic cells. To study their function in mucosal immunity, it is important to isolate them with high purity and viability. Here, we describe a protocol to purify eosinophils from the lamina propria of the murine small intestine. The method involves preparation of the small intestine, removal of epithelial cells and digestion of the lamina propria to release eosinophils. A protocol to sort eosinophils is included.

  16. Determination of relative frequency of eosinophils and mast cells in gastric and duodenal mucosal biopsies in adults with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binesh, F.; Rajabzadeh, Y.; Pourmirafzali, H.; Akhondei, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine eosinophil and mast cell populations in gastric and duodenal mucosal biopsies of adults with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) as compared to non-dyspeptic adults. Study Design: A case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran, from January 2010 to June 2011. Methodology: A total of 52 (25 non-ulcer dyspeptic patients as case and 27 non-dyspeptic patients as control) patients underwent endoscopy. All patients had a minimum of 2 forceps biopsies obtained from stomach and duodenum. Routine histological evaluation was performed and additionally evaluated to determine eosinophil and mast cell counts. The statistical analysis was performed on SPSS version 17.0, using Mann-Whitney test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean age in the case and control groups was 31.72 +- 12.17 and 35.74 +- 12.42 years respectively. The median eosinophil density in gastric mucosa in case group was 5.0 (ranging from 1 to 20) and 4.0 in control group (ranging from 0 to 16; p = 0.140). The median eosinophil density in duodenal mucosa in case group was 16.0 (ranging from 2 to 24) and 13 in control group (ranging from 2 to 45; p = 0.147). The median mast cell density in gastric mucosa in case group was 4.0 (ranging from 0 to 33) and 4.0 in control group (ranging from 0 to 26; p = 0.827). The median mast cell density in duodenal mucosa in case group was 4.0 (ranging from 0 to 31) and 3.0 in control group (ranging from 1 to 23; p = 0.704). The frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in both the groups was similar. Conclusion: Although there were not statistically significant differences in eosinophil and mast cell densities between case and control groups, there was a trend toward mild eosinophilia in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The specific role of eosinophils and mast cells in NUD is yet to be completely defined. (author)

  17. Higher frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis, an unusual finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.; Bashir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Peshawar (Pakistan) from Dec 2011 to Nov 2014. Material and Methods: Eighteen hundred (1800) cholecystectomy specimens were included in the study. The specimens which were properly fixed in 10% formalin were included in the specimen, while poorly fixed and autolysed specimens were excluded. The specimens were examined grossly, measured and block selection was done. The slides made were examined under light microscope by one histopathologist and findings were analyzed. Results: Out of 1800 cholecystectomy specimens, 25 cases (1.38%) were diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Out of these 25 cases, 20 (80%) were females having an age range of 30-50 years, while 5 (20%) were males with an age range of 35-55 years. Out of these 25 cases of eosinophilic cholecystitis, 22 (88%) were having cholelithiasis, while 3 (12%) were acalculous eosiniophilic cholecystitis. Conclusion: Eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population is mostly calculous which is very significant finding contrary to data given in western literature, where most of eosinophilic cholecystitis is aclculous. This needs further evaluation to determine any genetic, geographic, environmental, dietary, microbiological or any other factor responsible in etiopathogenesis of calculous eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population, which could be helpful in prevention and management of this disease. (author)

  18. Esophageal trachealization: A feature of eosinophilic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHussaini, Abdulrahman A; Semaan, Toufic; ElHag, Imad A

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by intense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. EE is frequently misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here, we present a child with EE and a characteristic endoscopic finding, r inged esophagus . An 11-year-old Saudi boy presented with dysphagia for 1 year. He had experienced an intermittent sensation of solid food sticking in his chest, which was relieved by drinking liquids. A barium swallow excluded anatomical causes of dysphagia, but revealed multiple-ringed esophagus. Endoscopy showed a furrowing and trachealizing appearance of the entire esophagus. Hisologically, extensive eosinophilic infiltration was a feature in biopsies obtained from the esophagus. The child responded well to a 2-month course of inhaled fluticasone. Symptoms recurred 3 months after discontinuation of therapy, which necessitated resumption of inhaled fluticasone. The endoscopic appearance of multiple esophageal rings should raise suspicion of EE and be confirmed by esophageal biopsies. (author)

  19. The Relationship Between the Gensini Score and Complete Blood Count Parameters in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Raşit Sayın

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the extend andseverity of coronary artery disease (CAD determined by the Gensini score and complete bloodcount parameters (white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelet, mean platelet volume, lymphocyte,neutrophil.Patients and Methods: Ninety patients with CAD underwent coronary angiography (40 females,mean age 61 ± 1.2 years were included in this study. Patients with acute coronary syndrome andprior cardiovascular disease excluded from the study. The association between the extent andseverity of CAD, which were assessed by the Gensini score, and complete blood count parameterswas analyzed by a correlation analysis.Results: Coronary angiography revealed, 6 (6.7% patients had three, 16 (17.8% patients hadtwo, and 24 (26.7% patients had single-vessel disease; 44 (48.9% patients had non-criticalstenosis. The mean Gensini score was 19.1 ± 2.1. We found a relationship between white bloodcell and neutrophil counts and the Gensini score. There was no relationship between Gensiniscore and the mean platelet volume and other parameters.Conclusion: The present study supports the hypothesis that inflammation is one of the maincomponent in the pathogenesis of CAD.

  20. A Diagnostic Algorithm for Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Initially Diagnosed as Lumbar Disc Hernia or Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Personal Experience and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Kosei; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Kota; Sato, Masaki; Arino, Yusuke; Mikami, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a rare systemic vasculitis and is difficult to diagnose. EGPA has a number of symptoms including peripheral dysesthesia caused by mononeuropathy multiplex, which is similar to radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis. Therefore, EGPA patients with mononeuropathy multiplex often visit orthopedic clinics, but orthopedic doctors and spine neurosurgeons have limited experience in diagnosing EGPA because of its rarity. We report a consecutive series of patients who were initially diagnosed as having lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis by at least 2 medical institutions from March 2006 to April 2013 but whose final diagnosis was EGPA. All patients had past histories of asthma or eosinophilic pneumonia, and four out of five had peripheral edema. Laboratory data showed abnormally increased eosinophil counts, and nerve conduction studies of all patients revealed axonal damage patterns. All patients recovered from paralysis to a functional level after high-dose steroid treatment. We shortened the duration of diagnosis from 49 days to one day by adopting a diagnostic algorithm after experiencing the first case.

  1. In-flight Blood Analysis Technology for Astronaut Health Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Blood staining and testing procedure optimization: A 5-part WBC differential (Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Neutrophil, Eosinophil, and Basophil) assay using a...

  2. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21-80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  3. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Mastalerz

    Full Text Available Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome, we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA.Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male, aged 48 (range, 21-80 years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers.Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2, faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s, thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07, higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L, and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min; all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%.This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  4. Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology flow cytometric reference method of determining the differential leukocyte count: external quality assurance using fresh blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Y; Nagai, Y; Ogawa, E; Kondo, H

    2017-04-01

    To provide target values for the manufacturers' survey of the Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology (JSLH), accurate standard data from healthy volunteers were needed for the five-part differential leukocyte count. To obtain such data, JSLH required an antibody panel that achieved high specificity (particularly for mononuclear cells) using simple gating procedures. We developed a flow cytometric method for determining the differential leukocyte count (JSLH-Diff) and validated it by comparison with the flow cytometric differential leukocyte count of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH-Diff) and the manual differential count obtained by microscopy (Manual-Diff). First, the reference laboratory performed an imprecision study of JSLH-Diff and ICSH-Diff, as well as performing comparison among JSLH-Diff, Manual-Diff, and ICSH-Diff. Then two reference laboratories and seven participating laboratories performed imprecision and accuracy studies of JSLH-Diff, Manual-Diff, and ICSH-Diff. Simultaneously, six manufacturers' laboratories provided their own representative values by using automated hematology analyzers. The precision of both JSLH-Diff and ICSH-Diff methods was adequate. Comparison by the reference laboratory showed that all correlation coefficients, slopes and intercepts obtained by the JSLH-Diff, ICSH-Diff, and Manual-Diff methods conformed to the criteria. When the imprecision and accuracy of JSLH-Diff were assessed at seven laboratories, the CV% for lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils was 0.5~0.9%, 0.3~0.7%, 1.7~2.6%, 3.0~7.9%, and 3.8~10.4%, respectively. More than 99% of CD45 positive leukocytes were identified as normal leukocytes by JSLH-Diff. When JSLH-Diff method were validated by comparison with Manual-Diff and ICSH-Diff, JSLH-Diff showed good performance as a reference method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-li; Li, Wei; Ping, Fan; Ma, Liang-kun; Nie, Min

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated with WBC count;1-hour true insulin after 100 grams

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

    2014-12-21

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE.

  7. IL-33 activates eosinophils of visceral adipose tissue both directly and via innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Kojima, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Ayano; Kanno, Yumiko; Kobata, Tetsuji

    2015-03-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in allergic reactions as well as adipose tissue regulation. IL-5 is required for eosinophil survival; however, the in vivo mechanisms of eosinophil regulation are not fully understood. A tg mouse model with il5 promoter-driven EGFP expression was established for detecting the IL-5-producing cells in vivo. Il5-egfp tg mice expressed high levels of EGFP in gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) cells. EGFP(+) cells in GAT were mainly group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-33 preferentially expanded EGFP(+) cells and eosinophils in GAT in vivo. EGFP(+) ILCs were found to upregulate prg2 mRNA expression in GAT eosinophils. These results demonstrate that ILCs activate eosinophils in GAT. The blockage of IL-33Rα, on the other hand, did not impair EGFP(+) ILC numbers but did impair eosinophil numbers in vivo. GAT eosinophils expressed IL-33Rα and IL-33 expanded eosinophil numbers in CD90(+) cell-depleted mice. IL-33 was further observed to induce the expression of retnla and epx mRNA in eosinophils. These findings demonstrate that IL-33 directly activates eosinophils in GAT, and together with our other findings described above, our findings show that IL-33 has dual pathways via which it activates eosinophils in vivo: a direct activation pathway and a group 2 ILC-mediated pathway. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis - a spectrum ranging from Wells' syndrome to Churg-Strauss syndrome?

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    Ratzinger, Gudrun; Zankl, Julia; Eisendle, Klaus; Zelger, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Wells' syndrome is defined as an inflammatory disorder with the histopathological presence of eosinophilic infiltrates and flame figures in the absence of vasculitis. Eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis shows eosinophilic infiltrates in combination with vasculitic changes. And Churg Strauss Syndrome comprises all three characteristics - eosinophilic infiltrates, vasculitis and flame figures. To determine whether these three diseases are distinct entities or different manifestations of a similar clinicopathologic process. Histopathological samples and clinical courses of 17 patients with eosinophilic infiltrates, flame figures and clinical features of Wells' syndrome were re-evaluated. Histopathologically, we focused on the presence or absence of vasculitic features. Clinically, we included only patients who were diagnosed with Wells' syndrome at least once in the course of their disease. 4 patients were finally diagnosed with Wells' syndrome, 5 with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis and 6 with Churg Strauss syndrome. Further, we had one case of an overlap between Wells' syndrome and eosinophilic vasculitis and one case of Wegener granulomatosis. Vasculitic features were found in the samples of all patients. Histologically, we find vasculitic features in typical presentations of Wells' syndrome. Clinically, we find typical features of Wells' syndrome in patients finally diagnosed with eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis or Churg Strauss syndrome. Furthermore, we have observed and formerly reported 3 patients with progression from Wells' syndrome to Churg Strauss syndrome. Thus, we assume that eosinophilic leukocytoclastic vasculitis might form a bridge between Wells' syndrome and Churg Strauss syndrome.

  9. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

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    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5