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Sample records for blood elements labelled

  1. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  2. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique.

  3. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the phytoterapic most used in popular medicine in the treatment of cerebral senescence. Red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m is used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. This labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually the stannous ion. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical. We have evaluated the influence of the Ginkgo biloba extract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. Blood was withdrawn and incubated with Ginkgo biloba extract (0; 0.004; 0.04; 0.4; 4; 20 and 40 mg/ml. Stannous chloride (1.2 ml/ml was added and, then, Tc-99m was added. Plasma (P and blood cells (RBC were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF and insoluble fractions (IF separated. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in the radioactivity (from 97.7 ± 0.7 to 49.5 ± 3.9% in RBC with the drug (4 mg/ml. In the labeling process of RBC with Tc-99m, the stannous and pertechnetate ions pass though the membrane, so, we suggest that the Ginkgo biloba effect can be explained by (i an inhibition of the transport of these ions, (ii damage in membrane, (iii competition with the cited ions for the same binding sites, or (iv possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion.

  4. In vitro study of Vellozia pusilla pohl (Velloziaceae), a Brazilian plant species: antitumoral activity and labeling of blood elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Monitoracao Interna]. E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. Quimica Organica; Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado de [Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos; Feliciano, Glaucio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Vellozia pusilla Pohl is a species of the botanic family Velloziaceae that occurs in the subtropical regions of South America and, although it lives under conditions of high solar irradiation and low water availability, shows great longevity. The methanol extract of roots, stem and leaf sheaths of this species showed an anti tumoral activity through the inhibition of the enzyme Topoisomerase I when analyzed by an in vitro bioassay employing DNA repair or recombination deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the evaluation of the effect of Vellozia pusilla methanol extract on the labeling of RBC, blood of mice was treated with {sup 99m} Tc tracer solutions. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) bound to plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) was determined. The %ATI in the insoluble fraction of plasma (IF) was also evaluate, and the results showed that there was a decrease in %ATI in this fraction that represents the plasmatic proteins. (author)

  5. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  6. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  7. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  8. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  9. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  10. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  11. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  12. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...) Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma AGENCY: Food and... requirements for blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, into one section of the Code of Federal..., and Source Plasma,'' which amended Sec. 606.121(d)(2) by adding ``or in solid black,''...

  14. Blood volume measurements in gopher snakes, using autologous 51Cr-labeled red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, J M; Bush, M; Seal, U S

    1978-02-01

    Blood volume determinations were performed in 5 anesthetized gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) by means of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell (RBC) method. The mean blood volume was 52.8 ml/kg of body weight (+/- 6.21 SE). Previous blood volume measurements have not been reported for this species. The RBC survival rate was estimated to be greater than 660 days. The RBC survival rate is long, but it cannot be determined accurately by this method.

  15. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant K{sub d}. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author).

  16. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: gllf@hotmail.com; Lima, Glaydes M.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Catanho, Maria T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2002-07-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in BC (95.08 {+-}1.94 to 80.68 {+-} 3.35), in IF-P (74.42 {+-}4.50 to 39.94{+-} 5.51) and in IF-BC (89.91{+-} 3.91 to 79.54 {+-} 5.42) in presence of PHY. These results suggest that the chelating property of PHY can modify the labeling of the BC, although other effects of PHY could be responsible. As PHY is found in many food and it could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  17. Effect of the extract of Ricinus communis L. on the osmotic fragility, labeling of red blood cells with Technetium-99m and morphology of the cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiana Cerqueira Mousinho; Marília Bezerra Libório Correia; Jailson Oliveira da Silva; Simey de Souza Leão Pereira Magnata; Ivone Antônia de Souza; Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida Catanho

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the proteic extract of R. communis on the cell physiology by the osmotic fragility, labeling of the blood elements with the 99mTc and cell morphology. To evaluate the osmotic fragility, the blood samples of the Wistar rats were incubated with the concentrations of R. communis and with the solutions of NaCl (0.4; 0.7; 0.9%). In the labeling of the blood elements procedure, the rat blood was treated with a solution of Tc-99m and TCA at 5%, ...

  18. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations...... in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K...

  19. Measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-05-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4 +- 3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1 +- 2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain.

  20. Effect of Hypericum perforatum extract on in vitro labelling of blood elements with technetium-{sup 99m} and on bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats; Efeito de um extrato de Hiperico (Hypericum perforatum) na marcacao in vitro de elementos sanguineos com tecnecio-99m e na biodisponibilidade do radiofarmaco pertecnetato de sodio em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a hypericum extract (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-{sup 99m} ({sup 99m}Tc) and in the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Methods: Blood (heparinized) withdrawn from Wistar rats is incubated with a hypericum extract, with a stannous chloride and with {sup 99m}Tc, as sodium pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO Na). Plasma (P) and cells (C) are isolated by centrifugation. Samples of P and C are also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5%) and soluble (FS-P; FS-C) and insoluble (FI-P; FI-C) fractions are separated. In the bioavailability analysis, the extract or NaCl 0.9% solution is administrated into Wistar rats (gavage) during 15 days. Sodium pertechnetate was administered and after 10 min, the animals are sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter, and the percentages of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the organs are calculated. Results: The hypericum extract decreased significantly (P<0.05) the %ATI in the cells, cellular insoluble fraction and plasma insoluble fraction. The biodistribution was significantly (P<0.01) decreased in bone, muscle and thyroid and significantly (P<0.05) increased in pancreas. Conclusion: The analysis of the results indicates that in studied extract should have substances that should oxidize the stannous ion, reducing the fixation of the {sup 99m}Tc on the erythrocytes and plasma and cellular proteins. Moreover, it could produce metabolic alterations with influence in the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na in bone, muscle, pancreas and thyroid. (author)

  1. [Blood trace elements content in adolescents in an industrial town].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazbaeva, Z I; Amanzhol, I A; Shibuchikova, Zh B; Sabirov, Zh B; Zhumabekova, S Zh

    2013-01-01

    A cohort blind study of blood trace elements content in children-adolescents aged 14-16 years old, residing in an industrial town, where large industrial enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy have been functioning for long periods, has been performed There was established a lack of vital important element selenium in the blood, that causes the accumulation of toxic metals, cadmium and mercury.

  2. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well eq

  3. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well

  4. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  5. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling.'' FDA is issuing this....regulations.gov . To receive ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood...

  6. Cardiopulmonary bypass. The effect on blood elements in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jeroen Cornelis Frans de

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis the components of the heart-lung machine for CPB operations have been tested for their effects on blood elements. The purpose of the experimental investigation in dogs is: 1. To determine the hematological alterations induced by the various components from which an extracorporeal circ

  7. Cardiopulmonary bypass. The effect on blood elements in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jeroen Cornelis Frans de

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis the components of the heart-lung machine for CPB operations have been tested for their effects on blood elements. The purpose of the experimental investigation in dogs is: 1. To determine the hematological alterations induced by the various components from which an extracorporeal

  8. Blood cell labelling. Theory and methods: radiation hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, N G; Akbari, R B

    1984-02-03

    The chief physical properties of the radionuclide In111 are outlined, and compared with those of three other radionuclides, Tc99m, I131 and Cr51 which have similar applications. It is pointed out that the gamma-rays of In111 are appreciably more penetrating in lead than those of Tc99m and the significance of this, both in the use of shielding on syringes and in the effectiveness of lead glass screens is discussed. Examples are given of the dosimetry for In111 labelled cells in humans and it is noted that the absorbed dose in the spleen per mCi (37 MBq) injected may be some 10 rad (0.1 Gy). The problems that have been noted of damage to cells arising from oxine labelling and now considered to be due to radiation damage are briefly reviewed.

  9. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  10. Effect of different anticoagulants on the labelling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with [sup 99]Tc[sup m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo-Filho, M. (Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha (Brazil). Inst. National de Cancer); Gutfilen, B. (Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia); Maciel, O. de S. (Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha (Brazil). Inst. National de Cancer)

    1994-09-01

    There are controversies about the effect of different anticoagulants on the labelling of blood elements with [sup 99]Tc[sup m]. Our results show that the type of anticoagulant employed to withdraw the whole blood can modify the [sup 99]Tc[sup m] labelling of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma proteins (PP). The anticoagulants ACD (citric acid, sodium citrate and dextrose solution), heparin and sodium oxalate present similar results for the [sup 99]Tc[sup m] labelling of RBC with the exception of 0.13 [mu]M stannous chloride. In this assay oxalate provides the best RBC labelling. In addition, with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) the labelling of RBC is almost always lower than with the other anticoagulants, probably due to its high chelating capacity. The anticoagulants ACD, oxalate and heparin show the same results as expected with [sup 99]Tc[sup m] labelling of PP. The lowest labelling at 13.00 [mu]M stannous chloride in the presence of oxalate is probably due to its low chelating capacity. The results also reinforce the idea that the erythrocyte membrane exerts an important role in the regulation of stannous ion transport into RBCs. (author).

  11. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Funda Aydın3; Arzu Kın Cengiz; Fırat Güngör

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 99mTc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric...

  12. Acetylsalicylic acid and labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the drug most used an anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomenon. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro or in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid on the labeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc. In vitro assay was performed with samples of whole blood from Wistar rats incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.0 mg/ml) for one hour before the 99m Tc-labeling process. For in vivo assay, Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.5 mg/kg) during one hour, and the whole blood was withdrawn for the 99m Tc-labeling process. Saline was used in control groups. Data showed that the fixation of 99m Tc to the blood constituents was not significantly (p>0.05) modified in in vitro and in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid, at least not when the experiments were carried out with the doses normally used in human beings. (author)

  13. Value of blood-pool subtraction in cardiac indium-111-labeled platelet imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machac, J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldman, M.E.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Palestro, C.; Strashun, A.; Vaquer, R.; Phillips, R.A.; Fuster, V. (Mt. Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Blood-pool subtraction has been proposed to enhance {sup 111}In-labeled platelet imaging of intracardiac thrombi. We tested the accuracy of labeled platelet imaging, with and without blood-pool subtraction, in ten subjects with cardiac thrombi of varying age, eight with endocarditis being treated with antimicrobial therapy and ten normal controls. Imaging was performed early after labeled platelet injection (24 hr or less) and late (48 hr or more). Blood-pool subtraction was carried out. All images were graded subjectively by four experienced, blinded readers. Detection accuracy was measured by the sensitivity at three fixed levels of specificity estimated from receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and tested by three-way analysis of variance. Detection accuracy was generally improved on delayed images. Blood-pool subtraction did not improve accuracy. Although blood-pool subtraction increased detection sensitivity, this was offset by decreased specificity. For this population studied, blood-pool subtraction did not improve subjective detection of abnormal platelet deposition by 111In platelet imaging.

  14. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma.

  15. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston (USA))

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  16. Rapid identification of bacteria in blood cultures by using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, GJ; Mooibroek, M; Idema, J; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW; Degener, JE

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of whole-cell hybridization for the identification of pathogenic bacteria in blood from septic patients was examined. Oligonucleotide probes, fluorescently labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, directed against the variable regions of the 16S rRNAs of the following bacterial spe

  17. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABREU P.R.C.; ALMEIDA M.C.; BERNARDO R.M.; BERNARDO L.C.; BRITO L.C.; GARCIA E.A.C.; FONSECA A.S.; BERNARDO-FILHO M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  18. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jonghee; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

  19. Multifocal peritoneal splenosis in Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A 44-year-old man with a past medical history of splenectomy came to hospital because of epigastric pain abdominopelvic computed tomography(CT) showed a soft tissue mass and multifocal variable-sized nodules as well as finding suggestive of cholecystitis. Subsequently, he underwent Tc-99m-labeled heat- denatured red blood cell(RBC) scintigraphy to evaluate the mass and nodules. The scintigraphy confirmed multifocal peritoneal splenosis in the abdominopelvic cavity.

  20. Three-dimensional echo-planar cine imaging of cerebral blood supply using arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manoj; Mildner, Toralf; Schlumm, Torsten; Robertson, Scott Haile; Möller, Harald

    2016-12-01

    Echo-planar imaging (EPI) with CYlindrical Center-out spatiaL Encoding (EPICYCLE) is introduced as a novel hybrid three-dimensional (3D) EPI technique. Its suitability for the tracking of a short bolus created by pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) through the cerebral vasculature is demonstrated. EPICYCLE acquires two-dimensional planes of k-space along center-out trajectories. These "spokes" are rotated from shot to shot about a common axis to encode a k-space cylinder. To track a bolus of labeled blood, the same subset of evenly distributed spokes is acquired in a cine fashion after a short period of pCASL. This process is repeated for all subsets to fill the whole 3D k-space of each time frame. The passage of short pCASL boluses through the vasculature of a 3D imaging slab was successfully imaged using EPICYCLE. By choosing suitable sequence parameters, the impact of slab excitation on the bolus shape could be minimized. Parametric maps of signal amplitude, transit time, and bolus width reflected typical features of blood transport in large vessels. The EPICYCLE technique was successfully applied to track a short bolus of labeled arterial blood during its passage through the cerebral vasculature.

  1. 血液标签追溯性管理探讨%Management of the Traceability of Blood Label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海涛

    2012-01-01

    The study pointed out that during blood collection, preparation, testing, till distribution, there had problems such as label errors; repasting of the dropped label; replacement of the label for blood type error; supplement labeling; etc. , which had disadvantage on the traceability management of blood label. Combination with the real practice, the paper put forward suggestions to better ensure the traceability of blood products, which included using blood label as spindle, random code of blood bags and blood braids as the link, improvement of the " interface" of the blood collection process and double - check.%指出血液从采集、制备、检验直到发往临床的过程中,均存在标签粘贴错误、标签脱落重新粘贴、血型错误更换标签、补打标签等问题,不利于血液标签的追溯性管理.结合工作实践,提出以血液标签为主轴、血袋血辫子随机码为纽带,通过做好采供血过程的“接口”及核对工作,以更好的保证血液产品的可追溯性.

  2. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  3. Early development of arterial spin labeling to measure regional brain blood flow by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Alan P

    2012-08-15

    Two major avenues of work converged in the late 1980's and early 1990's to give rise to brain perfusion MRI. The development of anatomical brain MRI quickly had as a major goal the generation of angiograms using tricks to label flowing blood in macroscopic vessels. These ideas were aimed at getting information about microcirculatory flow as well. Over the same time course the development of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy had as its primary goal the assessment of tissue function and in particular, tissue energetics. For this the measurement of the delivery of water to tissue was critical for assessing tissue oxygenation and viability. The measurement of the washin/washout of "freely" diffusible tracers by spectroscopic based techniques pointed the way for quantitative approaches to measure regional blood flow by MRI. These two avenues came together in the development of arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI techniques to measure regional cerebral blood flow. The early use of ASL to measure brain activation to help verify BOLD fMRI led to a rapid development of ASL based perfusion MRI. Today development and applications of regional brain blood flow measurements with ASL continues to be a major area of activity.

  4. Erythrocytes labeled with [(18) F]SFB as an alternative to radioactive CO for quantification of blood volume with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herance, José Raúl; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Abad, Sergio; Victor, Victor M; Pareto, Deborah; Torrent, Èlia; Rojas, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled radioactive CO is currently the tracer of choice for blood volume quantification by positron emission tomography (PET). This measurement is of great interest for several clinical and research applications. However, owing to the short half-life of the radiolabeled CO, it can only be used in centers equipped with a cyclotron. In the present work, we propose an alternative method to label the red blood cells with [(18) F] in order to obtain blood volume measurements by PET. The use of the radioactive synthon [(18) F] N-succinimidyl 4-[(18) F]fluorobenzoate ([(18) F]SFB) was evaluated for erythrocyte labeling and PET blood volume imaging. The images provided by [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were compared with those obtained with inhaled [(11) C]CO. Blood volumes obtained with [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were similar to those obtained with [(11) C]CO in all of the evaluated organs with the exception of spleen, which presented lower uptake with this method. Since the [(18) F]-SFB binds irreversibly to red blood cells, in vivo stability of the radiolabel was higher compared with the [(11) C]CO method. Additionally, owing to the longer half-life and the shorter positron range of [(18) F], the image quality was also higher with the [(18) F]SFB radiolabeled erythrocytes. The labeling of red blood with [(18) F]SFB represents an advantageous alternative to radioactive CO for blood volume measurement by PET and cardiovascular isotopic imaging.

  5. Low cost labeling with highlighter ink efficiently visualizes developing blood vessels in avian and mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Yuta; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2013-12-01

    To understand how blood vessels form to establish the intricate network during vertebrate development, it is helpful if one can visualize the vasculature in embryos. We here describe a novel labeling method using highlighter ink, easily obtained in stationery stores with a low cost, to visualize embryo-wide vasculatures in avian and mice. We tested 50 different highlighters for fluorescent microscopy with filter sets equipped in a standard fluorescent microscope. The yellow and violet inks yielded fluorescent signals specifically detected by the filters used for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) detections, respectively. When the ink solution was infused into chicken/quail and mouse embryos, vasculatures including large vessels and capillaries were labeled both in living and fixed embryos. Ink-infused embryos were further subjected to histological sections, and double stained with antibodies including QH-1 (quail), α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and PECAM-1 (mouse), revealing that the endothelial cells were specifically labeled by the infused highlighter ink. Highlighter-labeled signals were detected with a resolution comparable to or higher than signals of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-lectin and Rhodamine-dextran, conventionally used for angiography. Furthermore, macroconfocal microscopic analyses with ink-infused embryos visualized fine vascular structures of both embryo proper and extra-embryonic plexus in a Z-stack image of 2400 μm thick with a markedly high resolution. Together, the low cost highlighter ink serves as an alternative reagent useful for visualization of blood vessels in developing avian and mouse embryos and possibly in other animals.

  6. (Investigations into the use of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for selective cell labeling in whole blood):

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 7 specific for human platelets and 10 specific for human polumorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) have been evaluated. One MAb has been identified as the antibody most suitable for canine platelets and another has been evaluted as the best among the group, for human neutrophil studies. Indium-111, Tc-99m, and I-125 have been used as the tracers. Six bifunctional chelating agents (BFCAs) were evaluated in order to determine the most efficient agent for maximal cell labeling efficiency. Among these, the DTPA has given us the best results. (4) To botain maximum In-111 chelation and minimum loss of the MAb affinity, the optimal BFCA to MAb ratios for both IgG and IgM type of MAbs were determined. Four different substances, stannous chloride, ascorbic acid, sodium dithionite and sodium borohydride, were evaluated as reducing agents for Tc-99m reduction and its optimal binding to MAbs. Dithionite at the concentration of 200 ug/ml DTPA-MAb solution provides greater than 50% Tc-99m labeling efficiency and maintains its immunospecificity equal to that of In-111-DTPA-MAb. The ability of radiolabeled MAb to interact with blood cells selectively in whole blood and with isolated blood cells was assessed and compared.

  7. Assessment of the effect of Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. extract on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells Avaliação do efeito do extrato de Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m e na morfologia de células vermelhas do sangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakali De

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. (BM, a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. BM extract have been extensively investigated by several authors for their neuropharmacological effects. In nuclear medicine, red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc have several clinical applications. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labeling of RBC with 99mTc. As Bacopa monnieri is extensively used in medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins using technetium-99m (99mTc. This labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and usually stannous chloride is used. Blood was incubated with BM extracts. Stannous chloride solution and 99mTc were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P and blood cells (BC were isolated. Samples of P or BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble fraction (IF and soluble fraction (SF were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI in BC, IF-BC and IF-P were calculated. The %ATI significantly decreased on BC from 95.53±0.45 to 35.41±0.44, on IF-P from 80.20±1.16 to 7.40±0.69 and on IF-BC from 73.31±1.76 to 21.26±1.40. The morphology study of RBC revealed important morphological alterations due to treatment with BM extracts. We suggest that the BM extract effect could be explained by an inhibition of the stannous and pertechnetate ions or oxidation of the stannous ion or by damages induced in the plasma membrane.Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. (BM, uma planta tradicional da medicina ayurvédica, é usada por séculos para problemas de memória, antiinflamatória, antitérmica, sedativa e como agente anti-epiléptico. O extrato BM têm sido extensivamente investigada por diversos autores por seus efeitos neurofarmacológicas. Na medicina nuclear, os glóbulos vermelhos (RBC marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc tem várias aplica

  8. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Aydın

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 99mTc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO white blood cell (WBC scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric patients. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 and included 13 patients (5 boys, 8 girls; mean age 6.9±6.2 years. Those patients who had suspicion of bone infection (n=7, fever of unknown origin (n=3, and suspicion of acute appendicitis (n=3 were evaluated retrospectively. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy imaging was performed to all patients. Diagnosis was done according to operation and pathological results or clinical follow-up. Results: 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy has been found to be true positive in 6 cases, true negative in 6 cases, and false negative in one patient who had fewer unknown origin. The false negative case has been found to have encephalitis with MRI. Conclusion: Leukocyte scintigraphy has been described as a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of suspicion of bone infection, fever of unknown origin and suspicion of acute appendicitis. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy is a rapid and very accurate method for detecting those pathologies. Our results showed that WBC scintigraphy might be reliably used for diagnosis of suspected bone infection and acute appendicitis, fever of unknown origin, and acute appendicitis, in pediatric patient population. (MIRT 2012;21:13-18

  9. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Funda; Kın Cengiz, Arzu; Güngör, Fırat

    2012-04-01

    (99m)Tc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric patients. The study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 and included 13 patients (5 boys, 8 girls; mean age 6.9±6.2 years). Those patients who had suspicion of bone infection (n=7), fever of unknown origin (n=3), and suspicion of acute appendicitis (n=3) were evaluated retrospectively. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy imaging was performed to all patients. Diagnosis was done according to operation and pathological results or clinical follow-up. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy has been found to be true positive in 6 cases, true negative in 6 cases, and false negative in one patient who had fewer unknown origin. The false negative case has been found to have encephalitis with MRI. Leukocyte scintigraphy has been described as a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of suspicion of bone infection, fever of unknown origin and suspicion of acute appendicitis. (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy is a rapid and very accurate method for detecting those pathologies. Our results showed that WBC scintigraphy might be reliably used for diagnosis of suspected bone infection and acute appendicitis, fever of unknown origin, and acute appendicitis, in pediatric patient population. None declared.

  10. The effect of glucantime on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Cecilia Maria Carvalho Xavier [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia]. E-mail: cechol@ufrnet.br; Leite, Rodrigo Carvalho Holanda [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Curso Medico; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Souza, Grace Maria Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The labeling of red blood cells (C) with {sup 99m}Tc is employed in clinical nuclear medicine for a variety of diagnostic procedures. Drugs can alter this labeling method and modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this paper, the influence of glucan time on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was reported. Methods: Blood was withdrawn from rats and incubated with glucan time. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc were added. After centrifugation, plasma (P) and (C) were isolated. Samples of P and C were precipitated with TCA 5%, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble fractions (SF) separated. The percentages of total activity injected (%ATI) in C, IF-P and IF-C were calculated (p<0.05). Results: The %ATI on C decreased from control to following concentrations of glucan time (6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%;100%), respectively: 94.06{+-}1.29 (control) to 77.15{+-}2.79; to 76.68 {+-}1.88; to 75.15{+-}2.79; to 72.64{+-}4.40 and to 63.05{+-}3.84. On IF-C the %ATI decreased from control to all the concentrations of glucan time (3.125%;6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%; 100%), respectively: 93.34{+-}1.18 (control) to 78.81{+-}2.76; to 74.76{+-}4.82; to 74.02{+-}5.32; to 64.35{+-}4.82; to 62.81{+-}1.97 and to 54.55{+-}3.58. Conclusions: This effect was probably due to products present in this drug that may complex with ions (Sn{sup +2} and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) or have a direct or indirect effect on intracellular stannous ion concentration. (author)

  11. Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeij Wolf, Jurriaan Jh; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Moonen, Justine Ef; van Osch, Matthias Jp; de Craen, Anton Jm; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    The accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurements using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling can be affected by vascular factors other than cerebral blood flow, such as flow velocity and arterial transit time. We aimed to elucidate the effects of common variations in vascular anatomy of the circle of Willis on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal. In addition, we investigated whether possible differences in pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal could be mediated by differences in flow velocities. Two hundred and three elderly participants underwent magnetic resonance angiography of the circle of Willis and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scans. Mean pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal was calculated for the gray matter of the main cerebral flow territories. Mean cerebellar gray matter pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow was significantly lower in subjects having a posterior fetal circle of Willis variant with an absent P1 segment. The posterior fetal circle of Willis variants also showed a significantly higher pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal in the ipsilateral flow territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Flow velocity in the basilar artery was significantly lower in these posterior fetal circle of Willis variants. This study indicates that pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling measurements underestimate cerebral blood flow in the posterior flow territories and cerebellum of subjects with a highly prevalent variation in circle of Willis morphology. Additionally, our data suggest that this effect is mediated by concomitant differences in flow velocity between the supplying arteries.

  12. Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent MRI Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Cerebrovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeeing, Diederik P J; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Petersen, Esben T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) results of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI studies performed in patients with cerebrovascular disease (steno-occlusive vascular disease or stroke) were systematically reviewed. SUMMARY: Thirty-one articles...... found a significant lower ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemispheres of patients compared to controls. KEY MESSAGES: This review brings support for a reduced BOLD and ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemisphere of patients with cerebrovascular disease. We suggest that future studies will be performed in a uniform...... way so reference values can be established and could be used to guide treatment decisions in patients with cerebrovascular disease....

  13. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with 99mTc-GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan

    2011-10-01

    People consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ((99m)Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. GH was labeled with (99m)Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl2 and (99m) Tc. Radiochemical yield of (99m)Tc-GH is 98.46±1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine.

  14. Two analytical solutions for a model of pulsed arterial spin labeling with randomized blood arrival times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabe, J.; Lewis, D. P.

    2004-03-01

    A fairly general theoretical model for pulsed arterial spin labeling perfusion methods has been available for some time but analytical solutions were derived for only a small number of arterial blood input functions. These mostly assumed a sudden and simultaneous arrival of the tagged blood into the imaged region. More general cases had to be handled numerically. We present analytical solutions for two more realistic arterial input functions. They both allow the arrival times of the molecules of tagged arterial blood to be statistically distributed. We consider cases of (1) a uniform distribution on a finite time interval and (2) a normal distribution characterized by its mean and standard deviation. These models are physiologically meaningful because the statistical nature of the arrival times reflects the distribution of velocities and path lengths that the blood water molecules undertake from the tagging region to the imaged region. The model parameters can be estimated from the measured dependency of the perfusion signal on the tag inversion time.

  15. Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Kang; Ishikawa, Fumiaki N; Zhang, Rui; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-12-27

    Biomarker detection based on nanowire biosensors has attracted a significant amount of research effort in recent years. However, only very limited research work has been directed toward biomarker detection directly from physiological fluids mainly because of challenges caused by the complexity of media. This limitation significantly reduces the practical impact generated by the aforementioned nanobiosensors. In this study, we demonstrate an In(2)O(3) nanowire-based biosensing system that is capable of performing rapid, label-free, electrical detection of cancer biomarkers directly from human whole blood collected by a finger prick. Passivating the nanowire surface successfully blocked the signal induced by nonspecific binding when performing active measurement in whole blood. Passivated devices showed markedly smaller signals induced by nonspecific binding of proteins and other biomaterials in serum and higher sensitivity to target biomarkers than bare devices. The detection limit of passivated sensors for biomarkers in whole blood was similar to the detection limit for the same analyte in purified buffer solutions at the same ionic strength, suggesting minimal decrease in device performance in the complex media. We then demonstrated detection of multiple cancer biomarkers with high reliability at clinically meaningful concentrations from whole blood collected by a finger prick using this sensing system.

  16. Assessment of the effect of Mentha crispa L. (hortela) extract on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao D. [UNIFOA - Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Dire, Glaucio L.; Lima, Elaine [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Anatomia; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]|[Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the possibility of M. Crispa L. extract being capable to alter the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with M. Crispa L. extract. Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) separated. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC was calculated. Histological evaluations were performed and the morphology of the red blood cells was observed under optical microscopy showing important morphological alterations on the shape of the RBC treated with 6.25% M. Crispa L. extract. The % ATI decreased: on BC from 97.3 {+-} 1.92 to 60.0 {+-} 2.44; on IF-P from 74.8 {+-} 3.78 to 9.99 {+-} 3.61; on IF-BC from 88.6 {+-} 5.41 to 58.4 {+-} 11.55. The substances of the M. Crispa L. extract could increase the valence of these stannous (+2) ions to stannic (+4) and this fact would decrease the % ATI on blood elements and indicates the possible presence of oxidant agents in the M. Crispa L. extract. (author)

  17. Effect of an Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of the red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: nevesrosane@yahoo.com.br; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2007-09-15

    Arctium lappa (burdock) has been used to treat inflammatory processes. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) have been utilized in nuclear medicine. It was evaluated the influence of a burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphometry of red blood cells. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with burdock extract and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. Plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) were determined. Morphology and morphometric (perimeter/area ratio) measurements of red blood cells (RBC) were performed. The incubation with burdock extract significantly (p<0.05) altered the %ATI on the blood compartments and the perimeter/area ratio of RBC, as well as, induced modifications on the shape of RBC. Alterations on membrane could justify the decrease of labeling of blood cells with {sup 99m}Tc obtained in this study. (author)

  18. Toxic trace elements in maternal and cord blood and social determinants in a Bolivian mining city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V, Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p toxic elements in maternal blood were associated with maternal smoking, low educational level, and partner involved in mining.

  19. Effects of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Severo de; Giani, Tania Santos; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: severodepaoli@gmail.com; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) has been used for clinical procedures. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of clove extract on the labeling blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells. Blood samples were incubated with clove, stannous chloride and 99mTc. Plasma, blood cells, insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity was counted and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) to each blood fraction was calculated. The shape and morphometric parameter (perimeter/area ratio) were evaluated. Clove extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of blood constituents and the shape of red blood cells without modifying the perimeter/area ratio. The results indicate that clove extract presents chemical compounds that interfere with the radiolabeling of blood constituents and alter the morphology of red blood cells by oxidative/chelating actions or interacting with the cellular membrane structure. (author)

  20. Isolation, In-111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, K.M.; Elson, M.K.; Gerding, D.N.; Bamberger, D.M.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer (90-99% PMN) at the interface yielded 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ PMN from 80-120 ml of blood. Peritoneal PMN were obtained by infusion of 0.1% glycogen, followed by infusion of saline after 4 or 18 hours. The exudate yielded 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ PMN (80-99% PMN). PMN suspensions were labeled for 30 minutes by addition of 100 ..mu..Ci of In-111-oxine, then washed twice. Percent cell-associated radioactivity of the labeled blood, 4 hour, and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 89%, 88%, and 86%. The labeled PMN were injected intravenously into rabbits which had two of three abdominal capsules (table tennis balls drilled with 250 1.5 mm holes) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus 4 hours earlier. Peak venous recovery of circulating labeled PMN, for blood, 4 hour and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 60%, 43%, and 19%. Gamma camera images 24 hours after infusion into infected rabbits were superior with 4 hour peritoneal PMN. The peritoneal PMN harvested 4 hours after glycogen stimulation are simple to prepare, are obtainable in greater numbers than blood PMN, and result in better abscess visualization.

  1. In vitro radioautographic studies of the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals on blood elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll-Hamer E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we evaluated the binding of the radiopharmaceuticals sodium pertechnetate (Na 99mTcO4, methylenediphosphonic acid (99mTc-MDP and glucoheptonate acid (99mTc-GHA to blood elements using centrifugation and radioautographic techniques. Heparinized blood was incubated with the labelled compounds for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 h. Plasma (P and blood cells (BC were isolated and precipitated with 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA, and soluble (SF and insoluble fractions (IF were separated. Blood samples were prepared (0 and 24 h and coated with LM-1 radioautographic emulsions and percent radioactivity (%rad in P and BC was determined. The binding of Na 99mTcO4 (%rad to P was 61.2% (0 h and 46.0% (24 h, and radioautography showed 63.7% (0 h and 43.3% (24 h. The binding to BC was 38.8% (0 h and 54.0% (24 h, and radioautography showed 36.3% (0 h and 56.7% (24 h. 99mTc-MDP study presented 91.1% (0 h to P and 87.2% (24 h, and radioautography showed 67.9% (0 h and 67.4% (24 h. The binding to BC was 8.9% (0 h and 12.8% (24 h, and radioautography showed 32.1% (0 h and 32.6% (24 h. 99mTc-GHA study was 90.1% (0 h to P and 79.9% (24 h, and radioautography showed 67.2% (0 h and 60.1% (24 h. The binding to BC was 9.9% (0 h and 20.1% (24 h, and radioautography showed 32.8% (0 h and 39.9% (24 h. The comparison of the obtained results suggests that the binding to plasma and blood cells in the two techniques used (radioautography and centrifugation is qualitatively in accordance

  2. The spatial coefficient of variation in arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaerts, Henri Jmm; Petr, Jan; Václavů, Lena; van Dalen, Jan W; Robertson, Andrew D; Caan, Matthan W; Masellis, Mario; Nederveen, Aart J; Richard, Edo; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2017-09-01

    Macro-vascular artifacts are a common arterial spin labeling (ASL) finding in populations with prolonged arterial transit time (ATT) and result in vascular regions with spuriously increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue regions with spuriously decreased CBF. This study investigates whether there is an association between the spatial signal distribution of a single post-label delay ASL CBF image and ATT. In 186 elderly with hypertension (46% male, 77.4 ± 2.5 years), we evaluated associations between the spatial coefficient of variation (CoV) of a CBF image and ATT. The spatial CoV and ATT metrics were subsequently evaluated with respect to their associations with age and sex - two demographics known to influence perfusion. Bland-Altman plots showed that spatial CoV predicted ATT with a maximum relative error of 7.6%. Spatial CoV was associated with age (β = 0.163, p = 0.028) and sex (β = -0.204, p = 0.004). The spatial distribution of the ASL signal on a standard CBF image can be used to infer between-participant ATT differences. In the absence of ATT mapping, the spatial CoV may be useful for the clinical interpretation of ASL in patients with cerebrovascular pathology that leads to prolonged transit of the ASL signal to tissue.

  3. Immunogold labeling reveals subcellular localisation of silica nanoparticles in a human blood-brain barrier model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Anguissola, Sergio; O'Neill, Tiina; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-01

    Subcellular location of nanoparticles has been widely investigated with fluorescence microscopy, via fluorescently labeled antibodies to visualise target antigens in cells. However, fluorescence microscopy, such as confocal or live cell imaging, has generally limited 3D spatial resolution. Conventional electron microscopy can be useful in bridging resolution gap, but still not ideal in resolving subcellular organelle identities. Using the pre-embedding immunogold electron microscopic imaging, we performed accurate examination of the intracellular trafficking and gathered further evidence of transport mechanisms of silica nanoparticles across a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Our approach can effectively immunolocalise a variety of intracellular compartments and provide new insights into the uptake and subcellular transport of nanoparticles.Subcellular location of nanoparticles has been widely investigated with fluorescence microscopy, via fluorescently labeled antibodies to visualise target antigens in cells. However, fluorescence microscopy, such as confocal or live cell imaging, has generally limited 3D spatial resolution. Conventional electron microscopy can be useful in bridging resolution gap, but still not ideal in resolving subcellular organelle identities. Using the pre-embedding immunogold electron microscopic imaging, we performed accurate examination of the intracellular trafficking and gathered further evidence of transport mechanisms of silica nanoparticles across a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Our approach can effectively immunolocalise a variety of intracellular compartments and provide new insights into the uptake and subcellular transport of nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Nanoparticle characterisation data, preservation of cellular structures, staining controls, optimisation of size amplification via the silver enhancement, and more imaging results from anti-clathrin and anti-caveolin 1

  4. Evaluation of tumor blood flow after feeder embolization in meningiomas by arterial spin-labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Sakai, Naoto; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Hiramatsu, Hisaya; Kanoko, Yusuke; Kamiya, Mika; Yamashita, Shuhei; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi; Namba, Hiroki

    2013-10-01

    Preoperative embolization changes the amount of blood flow and pattern of flow distribution in meningioma. Tumor blood flow was investigated in eight meningioma patients before and after embolization using arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging. Although blood flow was significantly reduced in the whole tumor after embolization, changes in flow distribution patterns varied from one case to another. The findings suggest that evaluation of post-embolization tumor blood flow by ASL perfusion imaging would be useful in the surgical planning of meningioma.

  5. [In vitro MR imaging of Fe(2)O(3)-PLL labelled rabbit peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiao-li; Teng, Gao-jun; Ma, Zhan-long; Sun, Jun-hui; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2007-09-01

    To perform in vitro magnetic resonance imaging on magnetic iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)-PLL) labeled rabbit peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Fe(2)O(3) was incubated with PLL for 2 hours to form Fe(2)O(3)-PLL. Rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated and EPCs were selected by adherence method, expanded and incubated with Fe(2)O(3)-PLL. Intracellular iron was detected by Prussian blue stain and under electron microscope. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell survival and proliferation of Fe(2)O(3)-PLL labeled EPCs. Flow cytometry was used to analysis cell cycle and apoptosis. The cells underwent in vitro MR imaging with various sequences. Iron-containing intracytoplasmatic vesicles could be observed clearly with Prussian blue staining and electron microscope observation. Survival, life cycle and apoptosis values obtained by MTT and flow cytometry analysis were similar among unlabelled EPCs and EPCs labeled with various concentrations Fe(2)O(3)-PLL. The signal intensity on MRI was significantly decreased in labeled cells compared with that in unlabeled cells. The percentage change in signal intensity (DeltaSI) was most significant on T(2)*WI and DeltaSI was significantly lower in cells labeled for 7 days than that labeled for 1 day. The rabbit peripheral blood EPCs can be labeled with Fe(2)O(3)-PLL without significant change in viability and proliferation. The labeled EPCs can be imaged with standard 1.5 T MR equipment. The degree of MR signal decreasing may indirectly reflect the cells count, growth state and division.

  6. Sequential trace element changes in serum and blood during a common viral infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Peter; Ola Darnerud, Per; Friman, Göran; Blomberg, Jonas; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    When trace elements are used as diagnostic tools during disease, it is important to know whether the balance is changed in free or bound elements. Although acute infections are associated with changed trace element balance in serum/plasma, it is not known whether changes occur concomitantly in serum and blood. In the present study the human coxsackievirus B3 (CB3), here adapted to Balb/c mice, was used to study whether infection alters the normal physiological trace element balance in blood and serum. Virus was quantitatively measured in two target organs (pancreas and liver) of this infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showing high concentrations of virus proving ongoing infection. Concentrations of 14 elements were measured in whole blood and serum using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on days 3, 6 and 9 of the infection. Free and total thyroxine were measured in serum to prove metabolic changes associated with the infection. The thyroxine decreased, while iron and the Cu/Zn ratio in serum increased as a response to the infection. No clear changes in these elements were observed in blood. Cd and Hg tended to decrease in serum but to increase in blood, indicating accumulation in blood cells. Moreover, Al showed a similar decreasing trend in both serum and blood. A correlation between serum and blood levels was observed at different time points of the disease for 9 of the elements. However, As was the only element indicating correlations between serum and blood during the entire course of the disease.

  7. Efeito de um extrato de Hipérico (Hypericum perforatum na marcação in vitro de elementos sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m e na biodisponibilidade do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio em ratos Wistar Effect of Hypericum perforatum extract on in vitro labelling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on biodisponibility of sodium pertecnetate in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de um extrato de hipérico (Hypericum perforatum na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc e na biodisponibilidade do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Sangue (heparinizado de ratos Wistar é incubado com um extrato de hipérico, com cloreto estanoso e a seguir com Tc-99m, como pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO4Na. Plasma (P e células (CS são isolados por centrifugação. Amostras de P e CS também são precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético 5%, e separadas as frações solúveis (FS-P e FS-CS e insolúveis (FI-P e FI-CS. Para a análise da biodistribuição, 0,3 mL do radiofármaco 99mTcO4Na foi administrada em ratos Wistar que receberam por gavagem extrato ou salina (NaCl 0,9% por 15 dias. Após 10 minutos os animais foram sacrificados e os órgãos isolados para contagem da atividade radioativa. RESULTADOS: O extrato de hipérico reduziu de forma significativa (PPURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a hiperico extract (Hypericum perforatum on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc and in the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. METHODS: Blood (heparinized withdrawn from Wistar rats is incubated with a hiperico extract, with a stannous cloride and with 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na. Plasma (P and cells (C are isolated by centrifugation. Samples of P and C are also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5% and soluble (FS-P; FS-C and isoluble (FI-P; FI-C fractions are separated. In the bioavailability analysis, the extract or NaCl 0.9% solution is administrated into Wistar rats (gavage during 15 days. Sodium pertechnetate was administered and after 10 min, the animals are sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter, and the percentages of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g in the organs are calculated. RESULTS: The hiperico extract decreased significantly

  8. Determination of adipose tissue blood flow with local 133Xe clearance. Evaluation of a new labelling technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Bülow, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue blood flow was measured in six healthy, non-obese subjects with the xenon wash-out technique after labelling of the tissue by either injection of 133Xe dissolved in isotonic sodium chloride (water depot) or injection of 133Xe in gas form (gas depot). The wash-out rates were registe...

  9. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-05-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease.

  10. Label-free identification of white blood cell using optical diffraction tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Min-hyeok; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    White blood cells (WBC) have crucial roles in immune systems which defend the host against from disease conditions and harmful invaders. Various WBC subsets have been characterized and reported to be involved in many pathophysiologic conditions. It is crucial to isolate a specific WBC subset to study its pathophysiological roles in diseases. Identification methods for a specific WBC population are rely on invasive approaches, including Wright-Gimesa staining for observing cellular morphologies and fluorescence staining for specific protein markers. While these methods enable precise classification of WBC populations, they could disturb cellular viability or functions. In order to classify WBC populations in a non-invasive manner, we exploited optical diffraction tomography (ODT). ODT is a three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging technique that measures 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions of individual WBCs. To test feasibility of label-free classification of WBC populations using ODT, we measured four subtypes of WBCs, including B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and natural killer (NK) cell. From measured 3-D RI tomograms of WBCs, we obtain quantitative structural and biochemical information and classify each WBC population using a machine learning algorithm.

  11. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reference Values of Cerebral Blood Flow Determined by Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkuszewski, M.; Krejza, J.; Chen, R.; Melhem, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic illness associated with progressive deterioration in patients' quality of life. The major complications of SCA are cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) such as asymptomatic cerebral infarct or overt stroke. The risk of CVA may be related to chronic disturbances in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the thresholds of “normal” steady-state CBF are not well established. The reference tolerance limits of CBF can be useful to estimate the risk of CVA in asymptomatic children with SCA, who are negative for hyperemia or evidence of arterial narrowing. Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) MR perfusion allows for non-invasive quantification of global and regional CBF. To establish such reference tolerance limits we performed CASL MR examinations on a 3-Tesla MR scanner in a carefully selected cohort of 42 children with SCA (mean age, 8.1±3.3 years; range limits, 2.3–14.4 years; 24 females), who were not on chronic transfusion therapy, had no history of overt stroke or transient ischemic attack, were free of signs and symptoms of focal vascular territory ischemic brain injury, did not have intracranial arterial narrowing on MR angiography and were at low risk for stroke as determined by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:23859242

  12. Sickle cell anemia: reference values of cerebral blood flow determined by continuous arterial spin labeling MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkuszewski, M; Krejza, J; Chen, R; Melhem, E R

    2013-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic illness associated with progressive deterioration in patients' quality of life. The major complications of SCA are cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) such as asymptomatic cerebral infarct or overt stroke. The risk of CVA may be related to chronic disturbances in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the thresholds of "normal" steady-state CBF are not well established. The reference tolerance limits of CBF can be useful to estimate the risk of CVA in asymptomatic children with SCA, who are negative for hyperemia or evidence of arterial narrowing. Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) MR perfusion allows for non-invasive quantification of global and regional CBF. To establish such reference tolerance limits we performed CASL MR examinations on a 3-Tesla MR scanner in a carefully selected cohort of 42 children with SCA (mean age, 8.1±3.3 years; range limits, 2.3-14.4 years; 24 females), who were not on chronic transfusion therapy, had no history of overt stroke or transient ischemic attack, were free of signs and symptoms of focal vascular territory ischemic brain injury, did not have intracranial arterial narrowing on MR angiography and were at low risk for stroke as determined by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.

  13. Indium-111 labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in cranial and spinal septic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, M.; Lucano, A. [Div. of Neurosurgery, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Viglietti, A.L.; Camuzzini, G. [Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Gozzoli, L. [Service of Neuroradiology, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Ravasi, L.; Lucignani, G. [INB-CNR, Univ. of Milan, H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    Cranial and spinal infections are severe events that require timely diagnosis and treatment. Physical and neurological examination, laboratory tests and radiological imaging may be insufficient for assessing cranial and spinal septic lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scan in assessing the presence of leucocytes in intracranial and spinal lesions, and in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of primary, post-traumatic and post-surgical infections. One hundred and twenty-four subjects were included in the study (48 with post-traumatic or post-surgical lesions, 73 with primary cerebral lesions, and 3 with spinal lesions). All patients underwent a diagnostic work-up including planar scans with {sup 111}In-labelled WBCs, at 4 and 24 h post tracer injection. All subjects underwent surgical treatment. Patients who did not recover from the infection as suggested by clinical evolution underwent further treatment (up to three times) and further WBC scans (up to four times). WBC scintigraphy correctly identified all the areas of leucocyte accumulation, as confirmed after surgery. WBC scintigraphy also correctly excluded the presence of leucocytes in all other lesions, as demonstrated at surgery. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of WBC scan for the assessment of patients with cranial and spinal lesions, in whom the demonstration of leucocyte accumulation can ease the diagnosis of infection, and indicate that the method is also accurate for the follow-up and management of neurosurgical patients. (orig.)

  14. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia de Oliveira; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Garcia-Pinto, Angelica Beatriz; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Pereira, Mario Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2008-12-15

    This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m ({sup 99m}Tc), on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insoluble fractions separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the RBC was evaluated under optical microscopy. In biodistribution experiments, sodium pertechnetate was administrated, organs and tissues isolated, radioactivity was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) determined. The data showed no significant alterations in %ATI, morphology of RBC and in %ATI/g in the studied organs. (author)

  15. Determination of adipose tissue blood flow with local 133Xe clearance. Evaluation of a new labelling technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Bülow, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue blood flow was measured in six healthy, non-obese subjects with the xenon wash-out technique after labelling of the tissue by either injection of 133Xe dissolved in isotonic sodium chloride (water depot) or injection of 133Xe in gas form (gas depot). The wash-out rates were...... by a gamma camera. It is concluded that that the two tissue labelling modes give identical results. However, there are significant regional differences in the wash-out rates of xenon from subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue, the wash-out rates from infraumbilical depots being about 20% lower than from...

  16. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  17. An aqueous extract of Vitex agnus castus alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Regina de Macedo; Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: mariaregina.mr@terra.com.br; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2007-09-15

    The development of experimental assays to study properties of herbal medicine is worthwhile. Vitex agnus castus (VAC) is utilized in popular medicine and some actions have been attributed to its extract. Blood cells (BC) and plasma proteins are labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and have been used in nuclear medicine, as in basic research. This procedure uses a reducing agent and stannous ion is utilized. There are reports that drugs can alter this labeling process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of an aqueous extract of VAC on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m. Blood was incubated with VAC, stannous chloride and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, and centrifuged. Samples of BC and plasma were separated, aliquots of BC and plasma were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to obtain soluble and insoluble fractions and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. The results show a statistical (p<0.05) alteration in the %ATI on blood compartments and on the insoluble fractions of plasma and BC. Probably, this extract would have chemical compounds with oxidant properties. (author)

  18. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  19. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li

    2016-07-01

    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis.

  20. Quantification of pharmaceutical peptides using selenium as an elemental detection label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura Hyrup; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Franzyk, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate how selenium labelling of a synthetic cell-penetrating peptide may be employed in evaluation of stability and quantitative estimation of cellular uptake by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two analogues of the cell-penetrating p...

  1. Prognostic value of blood flow measurements using arterial spin labeling in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Furtner

    Full Text Available The period of event-free survival (EFS within the same histopathological glioma grades may have high variability, mainly without a known cause. The purpose of this study was to reveal the prognostic value of quantified tumor blood flow (TBF values obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL for EFS in patients with histopathologically proven astrocytomas independent of WHO (World Health Organization grade. Twenty-four patients with untreated gliomas underwent tumor perfusion quantification by means of pulsed ASL in 3T. The clinical history of the patients was retrospectively extracted from the local database. Six patients had to be excluded due to insufficent follow-up data for further evaluation or histopathologically verified oligodendroglioma tumor components. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to define an optimal cut-off value of maximum TBF (mTBF values for subgrouping in low-perfused and high-perfused gliomas. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to determine the prognostic value of mTBF for EFS. An optimal mTBF cut-off value of 182 ml/100 g/min (sensitivity  = 83%, specificity  = 100% was determined. Patients with low-perfused gliomas had significantly longer EFS compared to patients with high-perfused gliomas (p = 0.0012 independent of the WHO glioma grade. Quantified mTBF values obtained by ASL offer a new and totally non-invasive marker to prognosticate the EFS, independently on histopathological tumor grading, in patients with gliomas.

  2. Mapping Long-Term Functional Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow by Arterial Spin Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssali, Tracy; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Bureau, Yves; MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Günther, Matthias; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Although arterial spin labeling (ASL) is appealing for mapping long-term changes in functional activity, inter-sessional variations in basal blood flow, arterial transit times (ATTs), and alignment errors, can result in significant false activation when comparing images from separate sessions. By taking steps to reduce these sources of noise, this study assessed the ability of ASL to detect functional CBF changes between sessions. ASL data were collected in three sessions to image ATT, resting CBF and CBF changes associated with motor activation (7 participants). Activation maps were generated using rest and task images acquired in the same session and from sessions separated by up to a month. Good agreement was found when comparing between-session activation maps to within-session activation maps with only a 16% decrease in precision (within-session: 90 ± 7%) and a 13% decrease in the Dice similarity (within-session: 0.75 ± 0.07) coefficient after a month. In addition, voxel-wise reproducibility (within-session: 4.7 ± 4.5%) and reliability (within-session: 0.89 ± 0.20) of resting grey-matter CBF decreased by less than 18% for the between-session analysis relative to within-session values. ATT variability between sessions (5.0 ± 2.7%) was roughly half the between-subject variability, indicating that its effects on longitudinal CBF were minimal. These results demonstrate that conducting voxel-wise analysis on CBF images acquired on different days is feasible with only modest loss in precision, highlighting the potential of ASL for longitudinal studies. PMID:27706218

  3. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wancke Reiniger, Ingrid; Fonseca de Oliveira, Joelma; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with {sup 99m}Tc was studied. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  4. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  5. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  6. Use of dried blood spots and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multi-element determination in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchina, Véronique; Huin, Vincent; Hulo, Sébastien; Cuny, Damien; Broly, Franck; Renom, Gilles; Perini, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the development of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method for multitrace element determination in dried blood spots (DBSs). The analytical conditions were optimized using Seronorm™ L-3 and L-1 Certified Reference Materials. The best results were obtained by sampling blood drops on a decontaminated PVDF filter membrane. After drying under metal-free conditions, the DBSs underwent acidic digestion and were analyzed with ICP MS. The method was then validated for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn. Using a matrix-matched calibration curve, the recovery levels ranged from 96% to 117%. The repeatability and reproducibility were generally below 15%. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 50 μg/L. In order to investigate the analytical procedure under real sampling conditions, the results obtained from DBSs and liquid blood aliquots (less subject to contamination) from two adult subjects were compared.

  7. Inferior vena cava filter thrombus: A possible cause of an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m} Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Kim, Young Suk [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test, is useful for patients suspected of suffering from active gastrointestinal bleeding. This study follows a case of a patient who was suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding after an inferior vena cava filter was inserted due to a deep vein thrombosis of the femoral vein. To evaluate an exact focus of bleeding, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy was executed. Herein, an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy probably due to a thrombus on the inferior vena cava filter is reported.

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Blood Flow: Coupling Finite Elements with Smoothed Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    A variational multi scale approach to model blood flow through arteries is proposed. A finite element discretization to represent the coarse scales (macro size), is coupled to smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that captures the fine scale features (micro scale). Blood is assumed to be incompressible, and flow is described through the Navier Stokes equation. The proposed cou- pling is tested with two benchmark problems, in fully coupled systems. Further refinements of the model can be incorporated in order to explicitly include blood constituents and non-Newtonian behavior. The suggested algorithm can be used with any particle-based method able to solve the Navier-Stokes equation.

  9. Life, limb or off-label recombinant VIIa use in the setting of limited blood assets: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Marcus E; Vickaryous, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Due to the lack of adequate controlled trials, the off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) to control hemorrhage in trauma patients remains controversial. The decision regarding when to initiate rFVIIa therapy is particularly problematic. Whereas most reports and trials have delayed use until significant bleeding has occurred, there is some evidence that coagulopathy develops early in some trauma patients, raising the possibility that early rFVIIa use may be more clinically efficacious. Herein, we report the case of a hemodynamically unstable patient with massive blood loss from multiple gunshot wounds and who had a potentially salvageable upper extremity. Rapid hemorrhage despite efforts to surgically control the bleeding resulted in virtual exhaustion of the facilities' limited blood component supply. Hemorrhage was controlled when rFVIIa was added to hypotensive resuscitation allowing salvage of the arm and significant conservation of blood products. This case raises the question as to whether earlier off-label use of this agent should be considered when amputation for hemorrhage control is being considered and/or conservation of limited blood assets is needed.

  10. Toxic and essential elements in children's blood (DRC (the Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuakuila, J; Kabamba, M; Mata, H; Mata, G

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the concentration of 9 trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn) in whole blood of children (n=100, 64 girls, 36 boys and median age: 36 months) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proportion of children potentially deficient in essential elements or poisoned by toxic elements was evaluated. The aging effects on the concentration of these elements were also investigated. The median values were 3.17μg/L (As), 0.15μg/L (Cd), 1.1mg/L (Cu), 2.1μg/L (Hg), 10.4μg/L (Mn), 17.7μg/L (Mo), 8.7μg/dL (Pb), 10.7μg/L (Se) and 5.0mg/L (Zn). The concentration of many elements (As, Cd, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) showed significant age variations but not sex influence. Regarding levels of the essential elements (Cu, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn), B-Cu, B-Mn, B-Se and B-Zn were in the normal range, whereas exceeded levels were observed for B-Mo. None of these children was deficient in essential elements. Except B-Cd, all toxic elements showed exceeded blood levels. The proportion of children potentially poisoned by toxic elements varies from 10% (n=10) to 95% (n=95) and depends on toxic element: 95% for As, 10% for Hg and 35% for Pb. The main health concerns emerging from this study are the high As, Hg and Pb exposures of the Kinshasan children requiring further documentation, corrective actions and the implementation of appropriate regulations.

  11. Splenic sequestration of Tc-99m labeled heat treated red blood cells. [Feasibility of use for spleen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, H L; Goldman, A G; Fairchild, R G; Oster, Z H; Som, P; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Srivastava, S C

    1979-01-01

    The rate of blood clearance and spleen uptake as well as the total spleen uptake of heat damaged red blood cells labeled with Tc-99m was determined in eight patients, six of whom had chronic lymphatic leukemia, one had polycythemia vera and one had eosinophilia of unknown origin. Spleen uptake at 2 hrs was 72.0 +- 18.5%. Approximately 82.6% of the initial radioactivity was cleared from the blood by 2 hrs with a rapid T 1/2 component of 6.3 +- 4.7 min. The T 1/2 of splenic uptake was 8.3 +- 4.6 min with a plateauing of splenic radioactivity by 30 min. The preliminary results indicate that the method of preparation is reliable but the usefulness of the method for evaluating spleen function remains to be determined.

  12. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS...

  13. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and our partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on orbit immuno-based, label-free, white blood cell counting system for...

  14. Methylmercury and elemental mercury differentially associate with blood pressure among dental professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury-associated effects on the cardiovascular system have been documented though discrepancies exist, and most studied populations experience elevated methylmercury exposures. No paper has investigated the impact of low-level elemental (inorganic) mercury exposure on cardiovascular risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the association between mercury exposure (methylmercury and elemental mercury) and blood pressure measures in a cohort of dental professionals that experience background exposures to both mercury forms. Dental professionals were recruited during the 2010 Michigan Dental Association Annual Convention. Mercury levels in hair and urine samples were analyzed as biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury exposure, respectively. Blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) was measured using an automated device. Distribution of mercury in hair (mean, range: 0.45, 0.02–5.18 μg/g) and urine (0.94, 0.03–5.54 μg/L) correspond well with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Linear regression models revealed significant associations between diastolic blood pressure (adjusted for blood pressure medication use) and hair mercury (n = 262, p = 0.02). Urine mercury results opposed hair mercury in many ways. Notably, elemental mercury exposure was associated with a significant systolic blood pressure decrease (n = 262, p = 0.04) that was driven by the male population. Associations between blood pressure and two forms of mercury were found at exposure levels relevant to the general population, and associations varied according to type of mercury exposure and gender. PMID:22494934

  15. Trace elements in blood of sea turtles Lepidochelys olivacea in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizalez-Román, A; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A

    2014-11-01

    This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in blood collected from Pacific Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) inhabiting the coast of Guasave, Mexico, in the Gulf of California. The highest reported metal concentration in blood was Zn, followed by Se. Of nonessential toxic metals, As was reported in higher percentage compared to Cd. The concentrations of metals detected were present as follows: Zn > Se > Mn > As > Ni > Cd > Cu. Cd concentration in blood is higher in our population in comparison with other populations of L. olivacea, and even higher in other species of sea turtles. Our study reinforces the usefulness of blood for the monitoring of the levels of contaminating elements, and is easily accessible and nonlethal for sea turtles.

  16. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He, E-mail: mzhang_he@126.com; Fu, Xin; Hu, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: A microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels was developed. The chip-based CTCs analysis could detect reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell (e.g. CEA expressing cell) in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. -- Highlights: •Combination of microfluidic bead-based platform and enzyme–probe–AuNPs is proposed. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to 5 fM of tumor associated DNA. •Microfluidic platform and multienzyme-labeled AuNPs greatly enhanced sensitivity. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to RT-PCR products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell in 1 mL blood sample. •We report a sensitive nucleic acid sensor for detection of circulating tumor cells. -- Abstract: This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro

  17. Comparison of cerebral blood flow measurement with [15O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Audrey P; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cerebral blood flow provides critical information to understand normal brain physiology as well as to identify and manage patients with neurological disorders. To date, the reference standard for cerebral blood flow measurements is considered to be positron emission tomography using injection of the [(15)O]-water radiotracer. Although [(15)O]-water has been used to study brain perfusion under normal and pathological conditions, it is not widely used in clinical settings due to the need for an on-site cyclotron, the invasive nature of arterial blood sampling, and experimental complexity. As an alternative, arterial spin labeling is a promising magnetic resonance imaging technique that magnetically labels arterial blood as it flows into the brain to map cerebral blood flow. As arterial spin labeling becomes more widely adopted in research and clinical settings, efforts have sought to standardize the method and validate its cerebral blood flow values against positron emission tomography-based cerebral blood flow measurements. The purpose of this work is to critically review studies that performed both [(15)O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling to measure brain perfusion, with the aim of better understanding the accuracy and reproducibility of arterial spin labeling relative to the positron emission tomography reference standard.

  18. Effects of Chrysobalanus icaco on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the shape of the red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Antonio Presta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysobalanus icaco (abajeru; C.icaco is recommended in the treatment of diabetes and other clinical disorders. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of an abajeru extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the shape of red blood cells (RBC. Blood samples(Wistar rats were incubated with abajeru extract and the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and morphology of RBC were carried out. The results showed significant (PChrysobalanus icaco (abajeru; C.icaco é recomendado para tratar diabetes e outras desordens clínicas. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio -99m (99mTc são usados em medicina nuclear. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar os efeitos de um extrato de abajetu na radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e na forma de células vermelhas do sangue (RBC. Amostras de sangue retiradas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com extrato de abajeru e a marcação dos constituintes sanguíneos com 99mTc e a morfologia das RBC foram realizadas. Os resultados mostraram alteração significativa (P<0.05 da marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e a morfometria (relação perímetro/área das RBC na presença do extrato. Esses resultados sugerem que esse extrato de abajeru poderia alterar a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc pela sua ação quelante/antioxidante e/ou seus efeitos nas estruturas de membrana envolvidas no transporte de íons.

  19. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with {sup 99m}Tc-GH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences. Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: people consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ({sup 99m}Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. Methods: GH was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl{sub 2} and {sup 99m} Tc. Results: radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-GH is 98.46{+-}1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Conclusions: although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  20. [A five-element lumped-parameter model for cerebral blood flow autoregulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengzhang; Yao, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2009-10-01

    Utilizing the third-order polynomial curve fitted to the experimental data, which represents the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean artery blood pressure (MABP), we constructed a lumped-parameter dynamic model with 5 elements. In this model; the resistance is not constants it is determined by the fitted curve. We simulated the process of CBF autoregulation numerically by solving the govern equation of this model and got quite accurate results. Furthermore, we studied the influence of hemodynamic parameters on the CBF autoregulation by this model and proved that the characteristic resistance is the most important factor.

  1. Ensemble modeling coupled with six element concentrations in human blood for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong

    2011-10-01

    Six important metal contents (i.e., zinc, barium, magnesium, calcium, copper, and selenium) in blood samples coupled with an ensemble classification algorithm have been used for the classification of normal people and cancer patients. A dataset containing 42 healthy samples and 32 cancer samples was used for experiment. The prediction results from this method outperformed those from the newly developed support vector machine, i.e., a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 95.2%, and an overall accuracy of 98.6%. It seems that ELDA coupled with blood element analysis can serve as a valuable tool for diagnosing cancer in clinical practice.

  2. Synchronous luminescence spectroscopic characterization of blood elements of normal and patients with cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvelu, K.; Shanmugam, Sivabalan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Srinivasan, S.; Venkatesan, P.; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2011-03-01

    In this study the diagnostic potential of synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (SLS) technique for the characterization of normal and different pathological condition of cervix viz., moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (MDSCC), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC) and well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSSC). Synchronous fluorescence spectra were measured for 70 abnormal cases and 30 normal subjects. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and MDSCC, PDSCC and WDSCC cervical blood formed elements were obtained. The synchronous luminescence spectra of formed elements of normal and abnormal cervical cancer patients were subjected to statistical analysis. Synchronous luminescence spectroscopy provides 90% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity.

  3. [Measurement of trace elements in blood serum by atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogul'skiĭ, Iu V; Danil'chenko, S N; Lushpa, A P; Sukhodub, L F

    1997-09-01

    Describes a method for measuring trace elements Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo in the blood serum using non-flame atomization (KAC 120.1 complex). Optimal conditions for preparing the samples were defined, temperature regimens for analysis of each element selected, and original software permitting automated assays created. The method permits analysis making use of the minimal samples: 0.1 ml per 10 parallel measurements, which is 100 times less than needed for atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame atomization of liquid samples. Metrological characteristics of the method are assessed.

  4. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  5. Effects of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L. on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severo de Paoli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L. has been used for clinical procedures. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of clove extract on the labeling blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells. Blood samples were incubated with clove, stannous chloride and 99mTc. Plasma, blood cells, insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity was counted and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI to each blood fraction was calculated. The shape and morphometric parameter (perimeter/area ratio were evaluated. Clove extract altered significantly (pO cravo-da-índia (Caryophyllus aromaticus L. tem sido usado em tratamentos clínicos. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são usados em medicina nuclear O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos de um extrato de cravo-da-índia na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e na morfologia das hemácias. Amostras de sangue foram incubadas com cravo-da-índia, cloreto estanoso e 99mTc. Plasma, células sangüíneas, frações insolúveis do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram separadas. A porcentagem de radioatividade incorporada (% ATI nestas frações foi calculada. Forma e relação perímetro/área das hemácias foram avaliadas. O extrato de cravo-da-índia alterou significativamente (p<0,05 a radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos e qualitativamente a forma das hemácias. Não foram obtidas alterações na relação perímetro/área hemácias. Os resultados indicam que o extrato de cravo-da-índia apresenta compostos que interferem com a radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos e alteram a morfologia de células sangüíneas através de ações oxidativas/quelantes ou interagindo com a estrutura da membrana celular.

  6. Effect of an Arctium lappa (burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of the red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane de Figueiredo Neves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctium lappa (burdock has been used to treat inflammatory processes. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc have been utilized in nuclear medicine. It was evaluated the influence of a burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphometry of red blood cells. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with burdock extract and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. Plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI were determined. Morphology and morphometric (perimeter/area ratio measurements of red blood cells (RBC were performed. The incubation with burdock extract significantly (pArctium lappa (bardana tem sido utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são utilizados na medicina nuclear para obtenção de imagens. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a influência de um extrato de bardana na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e na morfologia de hemácias. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com extrato de bardana e o processo de radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas, frações solúvel e insolúvel do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram separadas, a radioatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram determinadas. A morfologia e a relação perímetro/área das hemácias foram avaliadas. A incubação de sangue com o extrato de bardana alterou significativamente (p<0.05 a %ATI a distribuição de radioatividade nos compartimentos plasmático e celular. A relação perímetro/área de hemácias, bem como a forma das hemácias também sofreram alterações Modificações na membrana poderiam justificar a diminuição da marcação das c

  7. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  8. Pseudo-asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling caused by unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis: Technical limitation or a way to better understanding physiological variations of cerebral perfusion and improving arterial spin labeling acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law-Ye, B; Geerts, B; Galanaud, D; Dormont, D; Pyatigorskaya, N

    2016-09-01

    In the recently published article, "Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?", it was shown by the method of arterial spin labeling (ASL) that unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis could induce variation of blood flow in cerebellar and posterior cerebral artery territory. We believe that the reported observation, rather than being a limitation, gives several interesting cues for understanding the ASL sequence. In this commentary, we formulate some suggestions regarding the use of ASL in clinical practice, discuss the potential causes of the above-mentioned pseudo-asymmetry and consider future improvements of the ASL technique.

  9. Nanoparticle-labeled DNA capture elements for detection and identification of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeevalatha; Franz, Veronica

    2004-12-01

    Aptamers, synthetic DNA capture elements (DCEs), can be made chemically or in genetically engineered bacteria. DNA capture elements are artificial DNA sequences, from a random pool of sequences, selected for their specific binding to potential biological warfare or terrorism agents. These sequences were selected by an affinity method using filters to which the target agent was attached and the DNA isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in an iterative, increasingly stringent, process. The probes can then be conjugated to Quantum Dots and super paramagnetic nanoparticles. The former provide intense, bleach-resistant fluorescent detection of bioagent and the latter provide a means to collect the bioagents with a magnet. The fluorescence can be detected in a flow cytometer, in a fluorescence plate reader, or with a fluorescence microscope. To date, we have made DCEs to Bacillus anthracis spores, Shiga toxin, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and Francisella tularensis. DCEs can easily distinguish Bacillus anthracis from its nearest relatives, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Development of a high through-put process is currently being investigated.

  10. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  11. Effects of chronic sucralose sweetener on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, morphology of red blood cells and the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle de Souza Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates effects of the sweetener with sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc, on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with sweetener for 8 days. Blood samples were withdrawn and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Blood cells (BC and plasma (P were isolated. Aliquots of BC and P were also precipitated, soluble and insoluble fractions separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the RBC was evaluated under optical microscopy. In biodistribution experiments, sodium pertechnetate was administrated, organs and tissues isolated, radioactivity was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g determined. The data showed no significant alterations in %ATI, morphology of RBC and in %ATI/g in the studied organs.Neste estudo foram avaliados efeitos do adoçante com sucralose na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc, na morfologia de hemácias e na biodistribuição do pertecnetato de sódio em ratos Wistar. Animais foram tratados com adoçante durante 8 dias. Amostras de sangue foram retiradas e a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc foi realizada. Células sangüíneas (CS e plasma (P foram isolados. Alíquotas de CS e P foram precipitadas, frações insolúvel e solúvel foram separadas. A radioatividade em cada fração foi contada e o percentual de radioatividade incorporada (%ATI, determinado. Distensões sangüíneas foram preparadas, fixadas, coradas e análise morfológica, qualitativa e quantitativa, de hemácias foi avaliada sob microscopia óptica. Nos experimentos de biodistribuição, pertecnetato de sódio foi administrado, órgãos e tecidos isolados, a

  12. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES IN REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW INDUCED BY COLD, HEAT AND ISCHEMIC PAIN: A CONTINUOUS ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Michael A.; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Ness, Timothy; Deutsch, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of arterial spin labeling methods, has allowed measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) quantitatively and to show the pattern of cerebral activity associated with any state such as a sustained pain state or changes due to a neurotropic drug. Methods We studied the differential effects of three pain conditions in ten healthy subjects on a 3T scanner during resting baseline, heat, cold and ischemic pain using continuous arterial spin labeling. Results Cold pain showed the greatest absolute rCBF increases in left anterior cingulate cortex, left amygdala, left angular gyrus, and Brodmann Area 6, and a significant rCBF decrease in the cerebellum. Changes in rCBF were characteristic of the type of pain condition: cold and heat pain showed increases, while the ischemic condition showed a reduction in mean absolute gray matter flow compared to rest. An association of subjects’ pain tolerance and cerebral blood flow was noted. Conclusions The observation that quantitative rCBF changes are characteristic of the pain task employed and that there is a consistent rCBF change in Brodman area 6, an area responsible for the integration of a motor response to pain, should provide extremely useful information in the quest to develop an imaging biomarker of pain. Conceivably, response in BA6 may serve as an objective measure of analgesic efficacy. PMID:22913924

  13. Effect of the extract of Ricinus communis L. on the osmotic fragility, labeling of red blood cells with Technetium-99m and morphology of the cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiana Cerqueira Mousinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the proteic extract of R. communis on the cell physiology by the osmotic fragility, labeling of the blood elements with the 99mTc and cell morphology. To evaluate the osmotic fragility, the blood samples of the Wistar rats were incubated with the concentrations of R. communis and with the solutions of NaCl (0.4; 0.7; 0.9%. In the labeling of the blood elements procedure, the rat blood was treated with a solution of Tc-99m and TCA at 5%, determining the rate of radioactivity (%ATI in the plasma (P and in the red blood cells (RBC. The soluble and insoluble fractions of the plasma were also evaluated. The cells morphology submitted to the extract was evaluated by the optical microscopy (x40. The results indicated that the rate of the hemolysis increased in the presence of 0.125 mg/mL of the extract. There was a decay of 49.69% in the rate of ATI in the insoluble fraction of the cells, with the morphological alterations in the red blood cells. These results suggested that the extract changed the capability of binding of the red blood cells due to the stannous ion oxidation, modifying the cells structure.Produtos naturais são usados freqüentemente por muitas pessoas no tratamento do câncer. O Ricinus communis L é uma Euforbiaceae que apresenta propriedades laxativas, purgativas e antitumorais. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar a influência da fração protéica do extrato hidroalcoólico de R. communis L. na fisiologia celular através da fragilidade osmótica, da marcação de elementos sanguíneo com 99mTc e da morfologia celular. Para avaliar a fragilidade osmótica, amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com concentrações de R. communis e com soluções de NaCl (0,4; 0,7; 0,9%. No procedimento de marcação de elementos sanguíneos, as amostras de sangue foram tratadas com solução de Tc-99m e TCA à 5%, determinando o percentual de radioatividade (%ATI no plasma (P e

  14. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  15. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the ...

  16. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: tgiani@gmail.com; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI in blood constituents. Substances present in the Buzhong extract could alter the cellular membrane and/or generation of free radicals that have oxidant properties modifying the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc. (author)

  17. Effect of a peel passion fruit flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: rebellobm@uol.com.br; Caldas, Luis Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (maracuja) is a fruit consumed in Brazil and worldwide. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine. The effect of P. flavicarpa extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on red blood cells morphology was evaluated. Blood samples from Wistar rats was incubated with P. flavicarpa extract. After that, the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was carried out. Samples of plasma and blood cells were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to isolate the soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. The radioactivity in each fractions was counted and the percentage of radioactivity was determined. Blood smears were also prepared to morphological evaluation and perimeter/area ratio determination. P. flavicarpa extract altered (p<0.05) the fixation of {sup 99m}Tc on plasma proteins and the perimeter/area ratio of red blood cells. Substances present in P. flavicarpa extract could affect the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc acting in specific targets as membrane of red blood cells. (author)

  18. Effects of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, the morphology of red blood cells and the plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Oliveira Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the plasmid DNA. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with fenoprofen and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc was performed. Blood cells, plasma, soluble and insoluble fractions of blood cells and plasma were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI was determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the red blood cells (RBC was evaluated. Plasmid (pBSK was incubated with fenoprofen with stannous chloride, and agarose gel electrophoresis procedure was carried out to evaluate genotoxic and the protection of this drug against stannous chloride effect on DNA. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this work, our data suggest that fenoprofen would not (i affect the fixation of the 99mTc on the blood constituents, (ii alter the RBC membrane and (iii present genotoxic and redox effects.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do fenoprofeno na marcação de constuintes sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc, na morfologia de hemácias e no DNA plasmidial. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com fenoprofeno e a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc foi realizada. Células sangüíneas (CS e plasma (P foram isolados. Alíquotas de CS e P foram precipitadas, frações insolúvel e solúvel foram separadas. A radioatividade em cada fração foi contada e o percentual de radioatividade incorporada (%ATI, determinada. Distensões sangüíneas foram preparadas, fixadas, coradas e análise morfológica, qualitativa e quantitativa, de hemácias foi realizada sob microscopia óptica. Plasmídios pBSK foram incubados com fenoprofeno na presença e ausência de cloreto estanoso, e o procedimento de

  19. Tomographic measurement of cerebral blood flow by the /sup 68/Ga-labelled-microsphere and continuous-C/sup 15/O/sub 2/-inhalation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinling, M.; Baron, J.C.; Maziere, B.; Loc' h, C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Canabis, E.A.; Guillon, B.

    1985-05-01

    The measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by continuous C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation has only been validated previously by indirect experimental protocols. In the present study using baboons, these measurements were compared directly with those obtained by injection of /sup 68/Ga-labelled serum-albumin microspheres in the left cardiac ventricle. Using a modified labelling technique, no elution of /sup 68/Ga occurred in vivo. Both methods provided similar regional CBF values, which could be described by a significant linear correlation (CBFsub(CO2) = 0.82 CBFsub(microspheres)+5.7; P < 0.001). The validity of the labelled-microsphere-injection method was verified. The feasibility of stable in vivo labelling of /sup 68/Ga to serum-albumin microspheres provides a reference method for organ blood-flow measurements using positron-emission tomography.

  20. Tomographic measurement of cerebral blood flow by the /sup 68/Ga-labelled-microsphere and continuous-C/sup 15/O/sub 2/-inhalation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinling, M.; Baron, J.C.; Maziere, B.; Loc' h, C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Canabis, E.A.; Guillon, B.

    1985-07-01

    The measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by continuous C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation has only been validated previously by indirect experimental protocols. In the present study using baboons, these measurements were compared directly with those obtained by injection of /sup 68/Ga-labelled serum-albumin microspheres in the left cardiac ventricle. Using a modified labelling technique, no elution of /sup 68/Ga occurred in vivo. Both methods provided similar regional CBF values, which could be described by a significant linear correlation (CBFsub(CO2)=0.82 CBFsub(microspheres)+5.7; P < 0.001). The validity of the labelled-microsphere-injection method was verified. The feasibility of stable in vivo labelling of /sup 68/Ga to serum-albumin microspheres provides a reference method for organ blood-flow measurements using positron-emission tomography.

  1. A comparison of measurements of cerebral blood flow in the rabbit using laser Doppler spectroscopy and radionuclide labelled microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, J A; Essex, T J; Flecknell, P A; Bartholomew, P H; Sinclair, J I

    1988-02-01

    Laser Doppler spectroscopy has been evaluated for the measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by correlation with simultaneous measurements by radionuclide labelled microspheres. The experimental procedures were carried out on five anaesthetised rabbits. The cortical tissue was exposed by means of a small burr hole and illuminated by a helium neon laser (632.8 nm). Reflected light was detected using a silicon photodiode, and CBF was calculated continuously from the power of the frequency weighted Doppler spectrum in the reflected light. Three successive measurements of CBF were made using the microsphere technique. Following an initial baseline measurement, CBF was increased by an infusion of metaraminol and then reduced by controlled haemorrhage. Laser Doppler spectroscopy provided continuous monitoring of blood flow fluctuations and during the haemorrhage it was possible to demonstrate CBF autoregulation until the mean blood pressure fell below 6.7 kPa (50 mmHg). A regression analysis was performed between the simultaneous CBF measurements from the two techniques using a least squares best fit straight line analysis (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001). It was concluded that the flow computed from laser Doppler spectroscopy varied linearly with CBF and offers the unique advantage of continuous and instantaneous measurements even during nonsteady state flow.

  2. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  3. Cerebral Blood Flow Measured by Arterial Spin Labeling MRI as a Preclinical Marker of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E.; Hays, Chelsea C.; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition that cerebral hypoperfusion is related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), implicating the measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a possible biomarker of AD. The ability to identify the earliest and most reliable markers of incipient cognitive decline and clinical symptoms is critical to develop effective preventive strategies and interventions for AD. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures CBF by magnetically labeling arterial water and using it as an endogenous tracer. Studies using ASL MRI in humans indicate that CBF changes are present several years before the development of the clinical symptoms of AD. Moreover, ASL-measured CBF has been shown to distinguish between cognitively normal individuals, adults at risk for AD, and persons diagnosed with AD. Some studies indicate that CBF may even be sensitive for predicting cognitive decline and conversion to mild cognitive impairment and AD over time. Taken together, evidence suggests that the current staging models of AD biomarker pathology should incorporate early changes in CBF as a useful biomarker, possibly present even earlier than amyloid β accumulation. Though still a research tool, ASL imaging is a promising non-invasive and reliable method with the potential to serve as a future clinical tool for the measurement of CBF in preclinical AD. PMID:25159672

  4. Imaging and Elastometry of Blood Clots Using Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography and Labeled Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Wu, Gongting; Spivak, Dmitry; Tsui, Frank; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Fischer, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods for imaging and assessment of vascular defects are needed for directing treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. In this paper, we employ magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MMOCT) as a platform both to detect and to measure the elasticity of blood clots. Detection is enabled through the use of rehydrated, lyophilized platelets loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIO-RL platelets) that are functional infusion agents that adhere to sites of vascular endothelial damage. Evidence suggests that the sensitivity for detection is improved over threefold by magnetic interactions between SPIOs inside RL platelets. Using the same MMOCT system, we show how elastometry of simulated clots, using resonant acoustic spectroscopy, is correlated with the fibrin content of the clot. Both methods are based upon magnetic actuation and phase-sensitive optical monitoring of nanoscale displacements using MMOCT, underscoring its utility as a broad-based platform to detect and measure the molecular structure and composition of blood clots. PMID:23833549

  5. Insights into nitrogen allocation and recycling from nitrogen elemental analysis and 15N isotope labelling in 14 genotypes of willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas J B; Pitre, Frederic E; Shield, Ian; Hanley, Steven J; Ray, Michael J; Murphy, Richard J; Karp, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Minimizing nitrogen (N) fertilization inputs during cultivation is essential for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels. The biomass crop willow (Salix spp.) is considered to have low N fertilizer requirements due to efficient recycling of nutrients during the perennial cycle. To investigate how successfully different willow genotypes assimilate and allocate N during growth, and remobilize and consequently recycle N before the onset of winter dormancy, N allocation and N remobilization (to and between different organs) were examined in 14 genotypes of a genetic family using elemental analysis and (15)N as a label. Cuttings were established in pots in April and sampled in June, August and at onset of senescence in October. Biomass yield of the trees correlated well with yields recorded in the field. Genotype-specific variation was observed for all traits measured and general trends spanning these sampling points were identified when trees were grouped by biomass yield. Nitrogen reserves in the cutting fuelled the entirety of the canopy establishment, yet earlier cessation of this dependency was linked to higher biomass yields. The stem was found to be the major N reserve by autumn, which constitutes a major source of N loss at harvest, typically every 2-3 years. These data contribute to understanding N remobilization in short rotation coppice willow and to the identification of traits that could potentially be selected for in breeding programmes to further improve the sustainability of biomass production.

  6. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 da...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  7. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis after stroke identified noninvasively with cerebral blood flow-weighted arterial spin labeling MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Megan K.; Buckingham, Cari; Faraco, Carlos C.; Arteaga, Daniel; Lu, Pengcheng; Xu, Yaomin; Donahue, Manus J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is most commonly investigated using hemodynamic PET and SPECT imaging. However, noninvasive MRI offers advantages of improved spatial resolution, allowing hemodynamic changes to be compared directly with structural findings and without concerns related to ionizing radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between CCD identified from cerebral blood flow (CBF)-weighted arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI with cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)-weighted blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI, Wallerian degeneration, clinical motor impairment, and corticospinal tract involvement. Methods Subjects (n=74) enrolled in an ongoing observational stroke trial underwent CBF-weighted ASL and hypercapnic CVR-weighted BOLD MRI. Hemispheric asymmetry indices for basal cerebellar CBF, cerebellar CVR, and cerebral peduncular area were compared between subjects with unilateral supratentorial infarcts (n=18) and control subjects without infarcts (n=16). CCD required (1) supratentorial infarct and (2) asymmetric cerebellar CBF (>95% confidence interval relative to controls). Results In CCD subjects (n=9), CVR (p=0.04) and cerebral peduncular area (p < 0.01) were significantly asymmetric compared to controls. Compared to infarct subjects not meeting CCD criteria (n=9), CCD subjects had no difference in corticospinal tract location for infarct (p=1.0) or motor impairment (p=0.08). Conclusions CCD correlated with cerebellar CVR asymmetry and Wallerian degeneration. These findings suggest that noninvasive MRI may be a useful alternative to PET or SPECT to study structural correlates and clinical consequences of CCD following supratentorial stroke. PMID:26724658

  8. Estimation of arterial arrival time and cerebral blood flow from QUASAR arterial spin labeling using stable spline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Marco; Peruzzo, Denis; Mehndiratta, Amit; Pillonetto, Gianluigi; Petersen, Esben Thade; Golay, Xavier; Chappell, Michael A; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) permits the application of deconvolution approaches for the absolute quantification of cerebral perfusion. Currently, oscillation index regularized singular value decomposition (oSVD) combined with edge-detection (ED) is the most commonly used method. Its major drawbacks are nonphysiological oscillations in the impulse response function and underestimation of perfusion. The aim of this work is to introduce a novel method to overcome these limitations. A system identification method, stable spline (SS), was extended to address ASL peculiarities such as the delay in arrival of the arterial blood in the tissue. The proposed framework was compared with oSVD + ED in both simulated and real data. SS was used to investigate the validity of using a voxel-wise tissue T1 value instead of using a single global value (of blood T1 ). SS outperformed oSVD + ED in 79.9% of simulations. When applied to real data, SS exhibited a physiologically realistic range for perfusion and a higher mean value with respect to oSVD + ED (55.5 ± 9.5 SS, 34.9 ± 5.2 oSVD + ED mL/100 g/min). SS can represent an alternative to oSVD + ED for the quantification of QUASAR ASL data. Analysis of the retrieved impulse response function revealed that using a voxel wise tissue T1 might be suboptimal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. THE STUDY OF BLOOD FLOW DYNAMICS IN TIBIAL SUBCHONDRAL EPIPHYSEAL ZONE OF PATIENTS WITH GONARTHROSIS AFTER TUNNELIZATION AND INFUSING AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD WITH BONE MARROW ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shchurova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The knee osteoarthrosis leads to a significant reduction of working ability. as well as to disability of working-age people. Arthroplasty is dominated the main method in treatment of such patients. However, many orthopedists are more and more inclined to the surgeries which allow to preserve the knee anatomic-and-functional integrity and to delay the surgery of the knee total replacement for later periods. Subchondral tunnelization with infusing autologous blood with bone marrow elements is one of such methods. of treatment for the patients of this category.Purpose to study the dynamics of the blood flow in the tibial epiphyseal subchondral zone after tunnelization and infusing autologous blood with bone marrow elements and its effect on the rehabilitation process of patients with gonarthrosis.Material and methods. The work was based on the results of studying 26 patients with Degree grade 2-3 gonarthrosis. Surgical treatment included performing tunnelization of femoral and tibial condyles with infusing autologous blood containing bone marrow elements. Circulation of tibial subchondral epiphyseal zone was studied in the operation room, before surgery, after tunnelization and after infusing autologous blood. Blood flow registered using high-frequency ultrasonic Dopplerography. The patient functional condition and the pathology severity analyzed using complex index score.Results. The significant (42-108%, р<0.05 increase in blood flow registered in tibial subchondral epiphyseal zone in patients with gonarthrosis after tunnelization of femoral and tibial condyles in 46.2% of cases, and the increased blood flow persisted after infusing autologous blood with bone marrow elements in 58% of the patients from this group. In patients with significant blood flow increase the index score rate of gait, muscle strength and mean rehabilitation criterion was reliably 23% (р<0.05, 21% (р<0.05 and 17.4% (р<0.05 more, respectively, comparing

  10. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fankun Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296 and non-ADHD (n = 296 aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006. Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014. Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003. In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  11. Consequences of the magnetic field, sonic and radiofrequency waves and intense pulsed light on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Ariel Ronzio, Oscar [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonelli, Ludmila [Universidade Salgado de Oliveira, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    Sources of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and pulsed light have been used in physiotherapy to treat different disorders. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents(Bl-Co) are labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used. This study evaluated the consequences of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and intense pulsed light sources on the labeling of Bl-Co with {sup 99m}Tc. Blood from Wistar rats was exposed to the cited sources. The labeling of Bl-Co with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Blood not exposed to the physical agents was used(controls). Data showed that the exposure to the different studied sources did not alter significantly (p>0.05) the labeling of Bl-Co. Although the results were obtained with animals, the data suggest that no alteration on examinations performed with Bl-Co labeled with {sup 99m}Tc after exposition to the cited agents. The biological consequences associated with these agents would be not capable to interfere with some properties of the Bl-Co. (author)

  12. Ultrasensitive Label-Free Sensing of IL-6 Based on PASE Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Micro-Arrays with RNA-Aptamers as Molecular Recognition Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Farhad; Loeian, Seyed Masoud; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2017-04-17

    This study demonstrates the rapid and label-free detection of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) using carbon nanotube micro-arrays with aptamer as the molecular recognition element. Single wall carbon nanotubes micro-arrays biosensors were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Nanotube biosensors were functionalized with 1-Pyrenebutanoic Acid Succinimidyl Ester (PASE) conjugated IL-6 aptamers. Real time response of the sensor conductance was monitored with increasing concentration of IL-6 (1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL), exposure to the sensing surface in buffer solution, and clinically relevant spiked blood samples. Non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), PBS samples, and anti-IgG functionalized devices gave similar signatures in the real time conductance versus time experiments with no significant change in sensor signal. Exposure of the aptamer functionalized nanotube surface to IL-6 decreased the conductance with increasing concentration of IL-6. Experiments based on field effect transistor arrays suggested shift in drain current versus gate voltage for 1 pg and 1 ng of IL-6 exposure. Non-specific BSA did not produce any appreciable shift in the Ids versus Vg suggesting specific interactions of IL-6 on PASE conjugated aptamer surface gave rise to the change in electrical signal. Both Z axis and phase image in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) suggested unambiguous molecular interaction of the IL-6 on the nanotube-aptamer surface at 1 pg/mL concentration. The concentration of 1 pg falls below the diagnostic gray zone for cancer (2.3 pg-4 ng/mL), which is an indicator of early stage cancer. Thus, nanotube micro-arrays could potentially be developed for creating multiplexed assays involving cancer biomarker proteins and possibly circulating tumor cells all in a single assay using PASE functionalization protocol.

  13. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  14. Method for evaluating the potential of {sup 14}C labeled plant polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janle, Elsa M., E-mail: janle@purdue.ed [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0259 (United States); Lila, Mary Ann [University of Illinois, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Urbana IL (United States); Grannan, Michael; Wood, Lauren; Higgins, Aine [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0259 (United States); Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B. [University of Illinois, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Urbana IL (United States); Kim, Helen [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pharmacology, Birmingham AB (United States); Jackson, George S. [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Weaver, Connie M. [Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0259 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Bioactive compounds in botanicals may be beneficial in preventing age-related neurodegenerative diseases, but for many compounds conventional methods may be inadequate to detect if these compounds cross the blood-brain barrier or to track the pharmacokinetics in the brain. By combining a number of unique technologies it has been possible to utilize the power of AMS to study the pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds in the brain at very low concentrations. {sup 14}C labeled compounds can be biosynthesized by plant cell suspension cultures co-incubated with radioisotopically-labeled sucrose and isolated and separated into a series of bioactive fractions. To study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of {sup 14}C labeled plant polyphenols, rats were implanted with jugular catheters, subcutaneous ultrafiltration probes and brain microdialysis probes. Labeled fractions were dosed orally. Interstitial fluid (ISF) and brain microdialysate samples were taken in tandem with blood samples. It was often possible to determine {sup 14}C in blood and ISF with a beta-counter. However, brain microdialysate samples {sup 14}C levels on the order of 10{sup 7} atoms/sample required AMS technology. The Brain Microdialysate{sub AUC}/Serum{sub AUC} ranged from .021- to .029, with the higher values for the glycoside fractions. By using AMS in combination with traditional methods, it is possible to study uptake by blood, distribution to ISF and determine the amount of a dose which can reach the brain and follow the pharmacokinetics in the brain.

  15. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H; Aaby, P

    1990-01-01

    ) no expensive equipment is required, (ii) only minute amounts of blood are needed, and (iii) slides can be stored for long periods before labelling and can be preserved for later reading. The method is suitable for community studies where there is a need for assessing the immune status of the population....

  16. Measurement of myocardial blood flow with oxygen-15 labelled water: comparison of different administration protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, F; Rosen, S D; Fath-Ordoubadi, F; Kooner, J S; Clark, J C; Camici, P G; Lammertsma, A A

    1998-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with C15O2 or H215O can be used to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) and tissue fraction (TF), i.e. the fraction of the tissue mass in the volume of the region of interest. However, with C15O2 inhalation, the tissue fraction in the septum is overestimated. Bolus injection of H215O together with arterial cannulation gives very precise results but is invasive. The purpose of this study was to develop a method which circumvents these problems. A four-parameter model with parameters for MBF, TF and spill-over fractions from both left and right ventricular cavities was developed. This method was compared with a three-parameter model (no right ventricular cavity spill-over) in both septal and non-septal regions of interest for three different administration protocols: bolus injection of H215O, infusion of H215O and inhalation of C15O2. It was found that MBF can be measured with intravenous administration of H215O without the requirement for arterial cannulation. The four-parameter protocol with bolus injection was stable in clinical studies. The four-parameter model proved essential for the septum, where it gave highly significantly better fits than did the three-parameter model (P<0.00003 in each of 15 subjects). Administration of H215O together with this four-parameter model also circumvented the problem of overestimation of TF in the septum seen with C15O2 inhalation. In addition, the radiation dose of H215O protocols is lower than that of C15O2 inhalation. Using a left atrial input curve instead of a left ventricular cavity input curve gave the same mean MBF and TF.

  17. The enzyme-inhibitor approach to cell-selective labelling. Pt. 1; Sulphonamide inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase as carriers for red cell labelling: in vitro uptake of pIBS by human red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jaspal; Wyeth, P. (Southampton Univ. (UK))

    1991-01-01

    Red cell carbonic anhydrase is identified as an ideal target in an enzyme-inhibitor approach to radiolabel localisation. Current problems in blood pool labelling could be overcome by using selective sulphonamide inhibitors as carriers. p-Iodobenzenesulphonamide (pIBS) was selected as the choice reagent for red blood cell labelling. Rapid uptake of ({sup 125}I)-pIBS was found in vitro, consistent with passive diffusion across the cell membrane. The intracellular binding could be attributed to interaction with two specific acceptor sites, with dissociation constants of 4.9 +- 1.0 and 0.10+- 0.05 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}, and maximum binding capacities of 166 +- 5 and 19.9 +- 1.0 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}, respectively under the experimental conditions. These data correlate with the two major carbonic anhydrase isozymes; acceptor assignments were confirmed by gel chromatography of the red cell lysate. (author).

  18. Studies in the compartmentalization of trace elements in the blood of patients with sickle cell anaemia using PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, J. O.; Oluwole, A. F.; Durosinmi, M. A.; Arsed, W.; Akanle, O. A.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in the whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes of 77 individuals (20 carrying the HbSS genotype, 21 with HbAS and 36 with HbAA) were determined using a PIXE facility employing a 2 MeV proton beam. Up to 16 elements were detected in some or all of the samples. The skewness of elemental distribution was measured for each element in the three bloodflow compartments. Most of the essential elements, apart from selenium were distinctly packed in either the erythrocytes or the plasma. Results of the t-test employed to compare elemental values between sickle cell subjects and matched controls show similar patterns in the three compartments for some of the elements. The results are compared with previous work using INAA.

  19. In vitro preparation of radionuclides labeled blood cells: Status and requirements; Preparation in vitro des cellules du sang marquees par des radionucleides: statut et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couret, I. [Service de medecine nucleaire et radiopharmacie, hopital Lapeyronie, CHU de Montpellier, 34 - Montpellier (France); Desruet, M.D. [Service de medecine nucleaire et radiopharmacie, CHU de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bolot, C. [Service de pharmacie, hospices civils de Lyon, groupement hospitalier Est, 69 - Bron (France); Chassel, M.L. [Service de pharmacie et radiopharmacie, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Pellegrin, M. [Inserm U896, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, IRCM, universite Montpellier 1, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-11-15

    Labelled blood cells permit nuclear medicine imaging using their physiological behaviours. The radiolabeling must be performed in vitro because of the lack of specific markers and requires several highly technical stages of preparation. Labelled blood cells have not the medication drug status, so that the nuclear physician conducting the nuclear test is fully liable. In most cases, the physician delegates the technical responsibility to radio-pharmacists. Although the status of radiolabelled autologous cells is not legally defined and in the absence of a specific repository, it is essential that their preparation is subject to the requirements of the rules of French Good Manufacturing Practice published by Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des produits de sante (Afssaps). It would be desirable to harmonize the practices of radiolabeling cellular blood components by editing a repository. (authors)

  20. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H; Aaby, P; Normark, M; Gyhrs, A; Ryder, L P

    1990-05-08

    Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could be transferred abroad without antigenic damage. Identical total CD4 and CD8 counts were obtained on venous and capillary blood, when compared using a FACS analyser. Although the AP method gave somewhat higher total CD4 and CD8 counts, the ratio remained the same. The major advantages of the method are: (i) no expensive equipment is required, (ii) only minute amounts of blood are needed, and (iii) slides can be stored for long periods before labelling and can be preserved for later reading. The method is suitable for community studies where there is a need for assessing the immune status of the population.

  1. Biomonitoring of 29 trace elements in whole blood from inhabitants of Cotonou (Benin) by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, Brice; Menudier, Alain; Etangs, Florence Lecavelier Des; Anani, Ludovic; Fayomi, Benjamin; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moesch, Christian

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the blood concentration of 29 trace elements, metals or metalloids, in a healthy population of Cotonou not directly exposed to metals in order to propose reference values. Blood samples from 70 blood donors were collected in K2 EDTA tubes for trace elements during September 2015 and a questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle exposure. Blood metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a quadrupole-based reaction cell. Among the selected blood donors 51.4% were aged from 18 to 36 years and 49.6% from 37 to 65 years. Among the 29 elements analyzed As, Pb, Mn, Pd, Sb, Co, Se, Sr showed blood concentrations higher than the reference values found in the literature for non-exposed healthy European populations and their geometric means were respectively 5.81; 47.39; 19.71; 1.91; 7.50; 0.66; 163.01; 30.53μg/L. This study provides the first reference value (5th-95th percentiles) for each element in Cotonou, which enables us to carry out further investigations on environmental and occupational exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using two- element ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joohyun; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Lee, Hae-Seung; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-04-01

    This work details noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform estimation based on an arterial vessel cross-sectional area measurement combined with an elasticity measurement of the vessel, represented by pulse wave velocity (PWV), using a two-element ultrasound system. The overall ABP waveform estimation is validated in a custom-designed experimental setup mimicking the heart and an arterial vessel segment with two single element transducers, assuming a constant hemodynamic system. The estimation of local PWV using the flow-area method produces unbiased elasticity estimation of the tube in a pressure waveform comparison. The measured PWV using 16 cardiac cycles of data is 8.47 + 0.63 m/s with an associated scaling error of -1.56 + 14.0% in a direct pressure waveform comparison, showing negligible bias error on average. The distension waveform obtained from a complex cross-correlation model estimator (C3M) reliably traces small pressure changes reflected by the diameter change. The excellent agreement of an estimated pressure waveform to the reference pressure waveform suggests the promising potential of a readily available, inexpensive, and portable ABP waveform monitoring device.

  3. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF. PMID:23486295

  4. The effect of black tea and caffeine on regional cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Rishma; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Corfield, Douglas R; Parkes, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Black tea consumption has been shown to improve peripheral vascular function. Its effect on brain vasculature is unknown, though tea contains small amounts of caffeine, a psychoactive substance known to influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We investigated the effects on CBF due to the intake of tea components in 20 healthy men in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. On separate days, subjects received a single dose of 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to one strong espresso coffee), 2,820 mg black tea solids containing 184 mg caffeine (equivalent to 6 cups of tea), 2,820 mg decaffeinated black tea solids, or placebo. The CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia were measured with arterial spin labeled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 2 hours after administration. We found a significant global reduction with caffeine (20%) and tea (21%) in gray matter CBF, with no effect of decaffeinated tea, suggesting that only caffeine influences CBF acutely. Voxelwise analysis revealed the effect of caffeine to be regionally specific. None of the interventions had an effect on CVR. Additional research is required to conclude on the physiologic relevance of these findings and the chronic effects of caffeine and tea intake on CBF.

  5. A multi-element screening method to identify metal targets for blood biomonitoring in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C A; Finlayson, S; Limpus, C; Gaus, C

    2015-04-15

    Biomonitoring of blood is commonly used to identify and quantify occupational or environmental exposure to chemical contaminants. Increasingly, this technique has been applied to wildlife contaminant monitoring, including for green turtles, allowing for the non-lethal evaluation of chemical exposure in their nearshore environment. The sources, composition, bioavailability and toxicity of metals in the marine environment are, however, often unknown and influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. These factors can vary considerably across time and space making the selection of the most informative elements for biomonitoring challenging. This study aimed to validate an ICP-MS multi-element screening method for green turtle blood in order to identify and facilitate prioritisation of target metals for subsequent fully quantitative analysis. Multi-element screening provided semiquantitative results for 70 elements, 28 of which were also determined through fully quantitative analysis. Of the 28 comparable elements, 23 of the semiquantitative results had an accuracy between 67% and 112% relative to the fully quantified values. In lieu of any available turtle certified reference materials (CRMs), we evaluated the use of human blood CRMs as a matrix surrogate for quality control, and compared two commonly used sample preparation methods for matrix related effects. The results demonstrate that human blood provides an appropriate matrix for use as a quality control material in the fully quantitative analysis of metals in turtle blood. An example for the application of this screening method is provided by comparing screening results from blood of green turtles foraging in an urban and rural region in Queensland, Australia. Potential targets for future metal biomonitoring in these regions were identified by this approach.

  6. Impacts of Elevated Prenatal Blood Lead on Trace Element Status and Pregnancy Outcomes in Occupationally Non-exposed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Obuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lead toxicity has been reported to affect hematopoietic, nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular and urinary tract systems. Many investigators have so far studied the effects of high blood lead levels on pregnancy outcomes.Objective: To investigate the effects of elevated maternal blood lead during pregnancy on some trace elements and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: Blood lead and plasma copper, iron and zinc were measured in 349 pregnant women with a mean±SD age of 27.0±4.8 years, and gestational age of 21.8±3.1 weeks, at recruitment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded during follow-up and at delivery, respectively. A blood lead level of ≥10 µg/dL was considered high.Results: Women with elevated blood lead had significantly higher plasma copper and iron and lower plasma zinc than women with low blood lead level (Conclusion: Complications of pregnancy may be induced by a high blood lead level possibly through the alterations in trace element metabolism.

  7. Trace element reference intervals in the blood of healthy green sea turtles to evaluate exposure of coastal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C A; Flint, M; Bell, I; Hof, C; Limpus, C J; Gaus, C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to essential and non-essential elements may be elevated for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) that forage close to shore. Biomonitoring of trace elements in turtle blood can identify temporal trends over repeated sampling events, but any interpretation of potential health risks due to an elevated exposure first requires a comparison against a baseline. This study aims to use clinical reference interval (RI) methods to produce exposure baseline limits for essential and non-essential elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) using blood from healthy subadult turtles foraging in a remote and offshore part of the Great Barrier Reef. Subsequent blood biomonitoring of three additional coastal populations, which forage in areas dominated by agricultural, urban and military activities, showed clear habitat-specific differences in blood metal profiles relative to the those observed in the offshore population. Coastal turtles were most often found to have elevated concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Mg, Na, As, Sb, and Pb relative to the corresponding RIs. In particular, blood from turtles from the agricultural site had Co concentrations ranging from 160 to 840 μg/L (4-25 times above RI), which are within the order expected to elicit acute effects in many vertebrates. Additional clinical blood biochemistry and haematology results indicate signs of a systemic disease and the prevalence of an active inflammatory response in a high proportion (44%) of turtles from the agricultural site. Elevated Co, Sb, and Mn in the blood of these turtles significantly correlated with elevated markers of acute inflammation (total white cell counts) and liver dysfunction (alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin). The results of this study support the notion that elevated trace element exposures may be adversely affecting the health of nearshore green sea turtles.

  8. Hybrid SPECT-CT with 99mTc-labeled red blood cell in a case of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: added value over planar scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Sharma, Punit; Naswa, Niraj; Soundararajan, Ramya; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare clinical entity characterized by multiple venous malformations (hemangiomas) of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. These hemangiomas usually cause episodes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding leading to iron deficiency anemia, and also carry a significant potential for serious hemorrhage. The 99mechnetium (99mTc)-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy has traditionally been utilized in the localization of occult bleeding sites in patients with suspected vascular malformations, angiodysplasia, and Meckel’s diverticulum. We report the incremental value of 99mTc-labeled red blood cell hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) over planar scintigraphy alone in a 12-year-old female patient with BRBNS.

  9. In vitro and in vivo studies on red blood cell labelling using /sup 111/indium oxine, /sup 111/indium oxine-sulphate and sup(99m)Tc oxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, S.; Kolbe, H.; Sinzinger, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik); Angelberger, P. (Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Chemie)

    1984-01-01

    The optimal conditions for red blood cell labelling using /sup 111/indium oxine, /sup 111/indium oxine sulphate and sup(99m)Tc oxine were established both in vitro as well as in vivo. The use of either acid citrate dextrose or sodium citrate as anticoagulant had no effect on labelling efficiency. Other variables such as the incubation time, temperature, duration, cell number and concentration of the complex exert a significant influence on labelling efficiency. Labelling efficiency of red blood cells is very high also under non-optimum conditions as compared with other cells (leucocytes, platelets).

  10. Label-free in vivo optical micro-angiography imaging of cerebral capillary blood flow within meninges and cortex in mice with the skull left intact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    Abnormal microcirculation within meninges is common in many neurological diseases. There is a need for an imaging method that is capable of visualizing functional meningeal microcirculations alone, preferably decoupled from the cortical blood flow. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a recently developed label-free imaging method capable of producing 3D images of dynamic blood perfusion within micro-circulatory tissue beds at an imaging depth up to ~2 mm, with an unprecedented imaging sensitivity to the blood flow at ~4 μm/s. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of ultra-high sensitive OMAG in imaging the detailed blood flow distributions, at a capillary level resolution, within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact. The results indicate that OMAG can be a valuable tool for the study of meningeal circulations.

  11. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Raquel Terra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI). Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of P, BC, IF-P, SF-P, IF-BC and SF-BC, as well as increased the survival of bacterial cultures treated with stannous chloride. Our results suggest that reishi extract could present a redox/chelating action, altering the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc and protecting bacterial cultures against oxidative damage induced by stannous chloride. (author)

  12. Drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals: effect on the labeling of red blood cells with technetium-99m and on the bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Gomes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that natural and synthetic drugs can affect radiolabeling or bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals in setting of nuclear medicine clinic is already known. However, this drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals (DIR is not completely understood. Several authors have described the effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc and on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. When the DIR is known, if desirable or undesirable, the natural consequence is a correct diagnosis. However, when it is unknown, it is undesirable and the consequences are the possibility of misdiagnosis and/or the repetition of the examination with an increase of radiation dose to the patient. The possible explanation to the appearance of DIR are (a radiopharmaceutical modification, (b alteration of the labeling efficiency of the radiopharmaceutical, (c modification of the target, (d modification of no target and/or the (e alteration of the binding of the radiopharmaceutical on the blood proteins. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc might be explained by (i a direct inhibition (chelating action of the stannous and pertechnetate ions, (ii damage induced in the plasma membrane, (iii competition of the cited ions for the same binding sites, (iv possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion and/or (v direct oxidation of the stannous ion. In conclusion, the development of biological models to study the DIR is highly relevant.A evidência de que drogas naturais ou sintéticas podem afetar a radiomarcação ou a biodisponibilidade de radiofármacos nos procedimentos de medicina nuclear já é bem conhecida. Entretanto, essa interação de droga com radiofármacos (IDR não está completamente compreendida. Vários autores têm descrito o efeito de drogas na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTce na biodistribuição de radiofármacos. Quando a

  13. Uncaria tomentosa extract: evaluation of effects on the in vitro and in vivo labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Olej, Beni; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Rocha, Emely Kazan [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Honeycut, Hayden [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). School of Pharmacy

    2008-12-15

    The influence (in vivo and in vitro) of an Uncaria tomentosa extract (Cats claw) on the labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma and cellular proteins with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) was evaluated. For the in vivo treatment, animals were treated with Cats claw. For the in vitro treatment, heparinized blood was incubated with Cats claw before the addition of stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) and Tc-99m. Samples of plasma (P) and RBCs were separated and also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. The soluble and insoluble fractions of P and RBCs were isolated. The analysis of the results of the in vivo study, indicates that there is no significant alteration on the uptake of Tc-99m by the blood constituents, but it significantly decrease (p<0.05) the labeling of blood constituents by in vitro methods. These effects could be due to chelation of stannous and /or pertechnetate ions and blockage of the Tc-99m bindings sites. (author)

  14. Evaluation of flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtake, Tohru; Ohtomo, Kuni [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Wakita, Shinichi; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Harii, Kiyonori [Dept. of Plastic Surgery, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-29

    The estimation of intralesional haemodynamics is crucial in determining appropriate treatment for soft-tissue vascular malformations. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs). Seventy-nine soft-tissue vascular malformations, including 20 arteriovenous malformations and 59 venous malformations, in 57 patients were examined. Following the intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs, dynamic imaging was performed for 30 min with the lesion in the field of view ({sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study). A time-activity curve was generated for the lesion, and the lesion was categorized as a high-flow or low-flow lesion by visual inspection of the curve. In low-flow lesions, mean vascular transit time (MTT) was calculated by curve fitting based on a two-compartment model. Twenty-nine lesions in 19 patients were examined twice, and reproducibility was assessed. In 23 venous malformations in 16 patients, {sup 99m}Tc-Sn colloid was percutaneously injected into the intravascular space of the lesion, and dynamic data of 5-min duration were acquired (direct puncture scintigraphy). MTT was estimated from the washout curve and compared with MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study. {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study classified all 20 arteriovenous malformations as high-flow lesions and all 59 venous malformations as low-flow lesions. In the low-flow lesions, MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study ranged from 61.2 to 2174.9 s. In the reproducibility study, complete concordance in classification and high correlation in MTT were shown between the first and second examinations. MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study was significantly correlated with that estimated by direct puncture scintigraphy. In summary, {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study provides a quantitative indicator of intralesional haemodynamics in low-flow lesions in addition to accurate

  15. Study of the influencing factors of the blood levels of toxic elements in Africans from 16 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Almeida-González, Maira; Barry-Rodríguez, Carlos; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María

    2017-07-19

    Africa's economy is growing faster than any other continent and it has been estimated that the middle class in Africa now exceeds 350 million people. This has meant a parallel increase in the importation of consumer goods and in the implementation of communication and information technologies (ICT), but also in the generation of large quantities of e-waste. However, inadequate infrastructure development remains a major constraint to the continent's economic growth and these highly toxic residues are not always adequately managed. Few studies have been conducted to date assessing the possible association between socioeconomic development factors, including e-waste generation, and blood levels of inorganic elements in African population. To disclose the role of geographical, anthropogenic, and socioeconomic development determinants on the blood levels of Ag, Al, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and V -all of them frequently found in e-waste-, an immigrant population-based study was made including a total of 245 subjects from 16 countries recently arrived to the Canary Islands (Spain). Women presented higher levels of blood elements than men, and Northern Africans (Moroccans) were the most contaminated. People from low-income countries exhibited significantly lower blood levels of inorganic elements than those from middle-income countries. We found a significant association between the use of motor vehicles and the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the level of contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment, telephone and internet use had higher levels of inorganic elements. In general terms, the higher level of economic development the higher the blood levels of inorganic pollutants, suggesting that the economic development of Africa, in parallel to e-waste generation and the existence of informal recycling sites, have directly affected the level of contamination

  16. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (TRIGGER): a pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J; Mora, Ana; James, Martin W; Stanley, Adrian J; Everett, Simon M; Bailey, Adam A; Dallal, Helen; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Darwent, Melanie; Church, Nicholas; Reckless, Ian; Hodge, Renate; Dyer, Claire; Meredith, Sarah; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Palmer, Kelvin R; Logan, Richard F; Travis, Simon P; Walsh, Timothy S; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-07-11

    Transfusion thresholds for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding are controversial. So far, only three small, underpowered studies and one single-centre trial have been done. Findings from the single-centre trial showed reduced mortality with restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. We aimed to assess whether a multicentre, cluster randomised trial is a feasible method to substantiate or refute this finding. In this pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial, done in six university hospitals in the UK, we enrolled all patients aged 18 years or older with new presentations of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, irrespective of comorbidity, except for exsanguinating haemorrhage. We randomly assigned hospitals (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence (random permuted block size of 6, without stratification or matching) to either a restrictive (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 80 g/L) or liberal (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 100 g/L) RBC transfusion policy. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate, protocol adherence, haemoglobin concentration, RBC exposure, selection bias, and information to guide design and economic evaluation of the phase 3 trial. Main exploratory clinical outcomes were further bleeding and mortality at day 28. We did analyses on all enrolled patients for whom an outcome was available. This trial is registered, ISRCTN85757829 and NCT02105532. Between Sept 3, 2012, and March 1, 2013, we enrolled 936 patients across six hospitals (403 patients in three hospitals with a restrictive policy and 533 patients in three hospitals with a liberal policy). Recruitment rate was significantly higher for the liberal than for the restrictive policy (62% vs 55%; p=0·04). Despite some baseline imbalances, Rockall and Blatchford risk scores were identical between policies. Protocol adherence was 96% (SD 10) in

  17. Label-free whole blood cell differentiation based on multiple frequency AC impedance and light scattering analysis in a micro flow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Peter; Frankowski, Marcin; Bock, Nicole; Neukammer, Jörg

    2016-06-21

    We developed a microfluidic sensor for label-free flow cytometric cell differentiation by combined multiple AC electrical impedance and light scattering analysis. The measured signals are correlated to cell volume, membrane capacity and optical properties of single cells. For an improved signal to noise ratio, the microfluidic sensor incorporates two electrode pairs for differential impedance detection. One-dimensional sheath flow focusing was implemented, which allows single particle analysis at kHz count rates. Various monodisperse particles and differentiation of leukocytes in haemolysed samples served to benchmark the microdevice applying combined AC impedance and side scatter analyses. In what follows, we demonstrate that AC impedance measurements at selected frequencies allow label-free discrimination of platelets, erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes in whole blood samples involving dilution only. Immunofluorescence staining was applied to validate the results of the label-free cell analysis. Reliable differentiation and enumeration of cells in whole blood by AC impedance detection have the potential to support medical diagnosis for patients with haemolysis resistant erythrocytes or abnormally sensitive leucocytes, i.e. for patients suffering from anaemia or leukaemia.

  18. Use of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy to monitor label-free interaction between molecular recognition elements and erythropoietin on a gold-coated polycarbonate platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tominaga, Junji; Chen, Yeng; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2014-08-01

    Label-free-based detection is pivotal for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions and to eliminate the need for labeling with tags that can occupy important binding sites of biomolecules. One simplest form of label-free-based detection is ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, which measure changes in reflectivity as a means to monitor immobilization and interaction of biomolecules with their corresponding partners. In biosensor development, the platform used for the biomolecular interaction should be suitable for different molecular recognition elements. In this study, gold (Au)-coated polycarbonate was used as a platform and as a proof-of-concept, erythropoietin (EPO), a doping substance widely abused by the athletes was used as the target. The interaction of EPO with its corresponding molecular recognition elements (anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer) is monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Prior to this, to show that UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable method for measuring biomolecular interaction, the interaction between biotin and streptavidin was demonstrated via this strategy and reflectivity of this interaction decreased by 25%. Subsequent to this, interaction of the EPO with anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer resulted in the decrease of reflectivity by 5% and 10%, respectively. The results indicated that Au-coated polycarbonate could be an ideal biosensor platform for monitoring biomolecular interactions using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A smaller version of the Au-coated polycarbonate substrates can be derived from the recent set-up, to be applied towards detecting EPO abuse among atheletes.

  19. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Elizabeth Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na99mTcO4 and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na99mTcO4 in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na99mTcO4 are conducted in patients who are using senna extract.

  20. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-⁹⁹m (⁹⁹mTc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na⁹⁹mTcO₄)in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na⁹⁹mTcO₄ are conducted in patients who are using senna extract.

  1. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos, E-mail: marciaoliveira.13@terra.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2011-07-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} are conducted in patients who are using senna extract. (author)

  2. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  3. {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) in peripheral osteomyelitis: comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Wolf S. [Pharmtrace Klinische Entwicklung GmbH, Berlin (Germany); University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Ivancevic, Velimir [Nuclear Medicini, Celle (Germany); Meller, Johannes [University Medicine, Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Lang, Otto [UH Kralovske, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nclear Medicine; Le Guludec, Dominique [CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris (France). Service de Medecine Nucleaire; Szilvazi, Istvan [Orszagos Gyogyintezeti Koezpont, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Amthauer, Holger [University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Chossat, Florence; Dahmane, Amel [IBA/CIS Bio International, Gif sur Yvette (France); Schwenke, Carsten [SCOSSIS, Berlin (Germany); Signore, Alberto [University of Rome, Faculty of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    The diagnosis of osteomyelitis is a challenge for diagnostic imaging. Nuclear medicine procedures including white blood cell imaging have been successfully used for the identification of bone infections. This multinational, phase III clinical study in 22 European centres was undertaken to compare anti-granulocyte imaging using the murine IgG antibody besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells in patients with peripheral osteomyelitis. A total of 119 patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the peripheral skeleton received {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cells (WBCs) in random order 2-4 days apart. Planar images were acquired at 4 and 24 h after injection. All scintigraphic images were interpreted in an off-site blinded read by three experienced physicians specialized in nuclear medicine, followed by a fourth blinded reader for adjudication. In addition, clinical follow-up information was collected and a final diagnosis was provided by the investigators and an independent truth panel. Safety data including levels of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) and vital signs were recorded. The agreement in diagnosis across all three readers between Scintimun {sup registered} and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs was 0.83 (lower limit of the 95% confidence interval 0.8). Using the final diagnosis of the local investigator as a reference, Scintimun {sup registered} had higher sensitivity than {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs (74.8 vs 59.0%) at slightly lower specificity (71.8 vs 79.5%, respectively). All parameters related to patient safety (laboratory data, vital signs) did not provide evidence of an elevated risk associated with the use of Scintimun {sup registered} except for two cases of transient hypotension. HAMA were detected in 16 of 116 patients after scan (13.8%). Scintimun {sup registered} imaging is accurate, efficacious and safe in the diagnosis of peripheral

  4. Consequences of the magnetic field, sonic and radiofrequency waves and intense pulsed light on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Froes Meyer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and pulsed light have been used in physiotherapy to treat different disorders. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents(Bl-Co are labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used. This study evaluated the consequences of magnetic field, radiofrequency and audible sonic waves and intense pulsed light sources on the labeling of Bl-Co with 99mTc. Blood from Wistar rats was exposed to the cited sources. The labeling of Bl-Co with 99mTc was performed. Blood not exposed to the physical agents was used(controls. Data showed that the exposure to the different studied sources did not alter significantly (p>0.05 the labeling of Bl-Co. Although the results were obtained with animals, the data suggest that no alteration on examinations performed with Bl-Co labeled with 99mTc after exposition to the cited agents. The biological consequences associated with these agents would be not capable to interfere with some properties of the Bl-Co.Fontes de campo magnético, ondas sonoras audíveis e de radiofreqüência e luz intensa pulsada são usadas para o tratamento de doenças. Constituintes sangüíneos(CS marcados com tecnécio-99m(99mTc são utilizados na medicina nuclear. Esse trabalho avaliou as consequências de fontes de campo magnético, ondas sonoras audíveis e de radiofreqüência e luz intensa pulsada na marcação de CS com 99mTc. Sangue de ratos Wistar foi exposto às fontes citadas. A marcação de CS com 99mTc foi realizada. Sangue não exposto foram utilizadas(controle. Resultados mostraram que os agentes físicos estudados não alteraram significativamente (p>0.05 a radiomarcação de CS. Apesar terem sido obtidos com sangue de animais, os resultados sugerem que nenhuma alteração nos exames realizados com constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc em medicina nuclear ocorreria após a exposição às fontes avaliadas. As consequências biológicas associadas a esses agentes não seriam

  5. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and... Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed to facilitate the use of a uniform container label for blood and blood components (except Source Plasma) by all blood establishments. (b)...

  6. Influence of nutritional status on some toxic and essential elements in the blood of women exposed to vehicular pollution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Joshua O; Oketayo, Oyedele O; Adesanmi, Charles A; Horvat, Milena; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja

    2014-01-01

    Blood levels of the elements Cu, Zn, Se, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb have been determined in 62 Nigerian women who were occupationally exposed to vehicular pollution. Mercury was determined using a direct mercury analyzer, while all the other elements were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer system. The mean values for all the toxic elements were all within the recommended desirable/tolerable limits, except for Se (0.44 μg/mL, compared with <0.2 μg/mL recommended by the WHO). More than 98% of the subjects had blood selenium levels higher than this recommended limit. For As, Hg, and Pb, the corresponding figures of subjects with blood levels above the recommended limits were 4, 8, and 19.3%, respectively. When the subjects were grouped according to their body mass indexes as normal, underweight, overweight, and obese, analysis of variance shows that mean blood levels of Cu, As, and, to some extent Hg were significantly different in the four nutritional status groups. Blood Hg level correlates significantly with blood As in all the groups, except in obese subjects. Also, a significant correlation between age and blood Hg was observed only in normal subjects and between age and blood Pb only in obese subjects. These results suggest that nutritional status could influence both elemental levels and the interactions between trace elements in the blood of female subjects. Nutrition is therefore a factor to consider in efforts to modify human susceptibility to toxic elements.

  7. Simulations of time harmonic blood flow in the Mesenteric artery: comparing finite element and lattice Boltzmann methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hose Rod

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systolic blood flow has been simulated in the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. The simulations were carried out using two different computational hemodynamic methods: the finite element method to solve the Navier Stokes equations and the lattice Boltzmann method. Results We have validated the lattice Boltzmann method for systolic flows by comparing the velocity and pressure profiles of simulated blood flow between methods. We have also analyzed flow-specific characteristics such as the formation of a vortex at curvatures and traces of flow. Conclusion The lattice Boltzmann Method is as accurate as a Navier Stokes solver for computing complex blood flows. As such it is a good alternative for computational hemodynamics, certainly in situation where coupling to other models is required.

  8. Ultra-sensitive quantification of lysozyme based on element chelate labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, MingWei [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Lab of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, Fujian (China); Department of Chemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Wu, WeiHua; Ruan, YaJuan; Huang, LiMei [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Lab of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, Fujian (China); Wu, Zujian [Department of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forest University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Cai, Yong [Department of Chemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Fu, FengFu, E-mail: fengfu@fzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Lab of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, Fujian (China); Department of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forest University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: An ultra-sensitive method for the determination of lysozyme was developed based on the Gd{sup 3+} chelate labeling and CE–ICP–MS. The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole and has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva sample, showing excellent reliability. The success of the present method provides a new possibility for biological assays and clinical diagnoses. -- Highlights: •An ultra-sensitive method for detecting lysozyme based on CE–ICP–MS was described. •The proposed method has an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole. •It can be used to detect trace lysozyme in saliva sample with a satisfied recovery. •The method provides a new potential for sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins. -- Abstract: In this study, an ultra-sensitive method for the quantification of lysozyme based on the Gd{sup 3+} diethylenetriamine-N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentaacetic acid labeling and capillary electrophoresis–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE–ICP–MS) was described. The Gd{sup 3+}-tagged lysozyme was effectively separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and sensitively determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). Based on the gadolinium-tagging and CE–ICP–MS, the lysozyme was determined within 12 min with an extremely low detection limit of 3.89 attomole (3.89 × 10{sup −11} mol L{sup −1} for 100 nL of sample injection) and a RSD < 6% (n = 5). The proposed method has been successfully used to detect lysozyme in saliva samples with a recovery of 91–106%, suggesting that our method is sensitive and reliable. The success of the present method provides a new potential for the biological assays and sensitive detection of low-abundant proteins.

  9. Elements in whole blood of Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus) in Alaska: No evidence for an association with beak deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent outbreak of beak deformities among resident birds in Alaska has raised concern about environmental contamination as a possible underlying factor. We measured whole blood concentrations of 30 essential and nonessential elements to determine whether any were associated with beak deformities in Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus). We tested for differences between 1) adults with versus those without beak deformities and 2) unaffected adults versus juveniles. Crows with beak deformities had slightly higher levels of barium, molybdenum, and vanadium (all Psmall and values were similar to those from other wild birds. Our results suggest that neither selenium nor other tested elements are likely to be causing beak deformities in Alaskan crows. We also provide the first data on elemental concentrations in Northwestern Crows. Levels of selenium far exceeded those typically found in passerine birds and were similar to those in marine-associated waterfowl, suggesting that background levels should be interpreted relative to a species's environment.

  10. Flow cytometry analysis of FITC-labeled concanavalin A binding to human blood cells as an indicator of radiation-induced membrane alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnadieu-Claraz, M.; Paillole, N.; Voisin, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de Dosimetrie; Djounova, J. [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    The {sup 3}H concanavalin-A binding to human blood cells have been described as a promising biological indicator of radiation overexposure. Flow cytometry adaptation of this technique using fluorescein-labelled concanavalin-A were performed to estimate time-dependent changes in binding on human blood cells membranes after in vitro {gamma} irradiation ({sup 60}Co). Result revealed significant enhanced lectin-binding to platelets and erythrocytes in a dose range of 0,5-5 Gy, 1 and 3 hours after irradiation. However for both platelets and erythrocytes, it was impossible to discriminate between the different doses. Further studies are necessary to confirm the suitability of lectin-binding as a biological indicator for radiation dose assessment. (authors). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Ertekin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1.

  12. The ethics of blood testing as an element of doping control in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A; Lachance, V; Pipe, A

    1999-04-01

    Sport authorities continue to confront a variety of perplexing issues as they attempt to address effectively and efficiently the problems posed by doping. The emergence of the phenomena of blood doping and the administration of erythropoietin have added to the challenges faced by doping control authorities. Some sport organizations have introduced blood tests in an attempt to deal with these issues despite the absence of any effective test for the detection of the administration of homologous blood products or eythropoietin. A number of ethical issues are raised by such developments. Even in the presence of an effective test it is suggested that the decision to implement a specific testing approach can be reached by considering the wishes of a hypothetical "Fair Competitor" and an analysis of the costs involved. In this respect the Fair Competitor assumes in the sport community the role that the "reasonable person" occupies in law, permitting an analysis of a proposed course of action. In making any decision regarding the implementation of any test, a Fair Competitor would be guided by considerations of the postulated advantage and incidence of a doping technique, the likelihood of false positive and negative results, the risk of unwanted consequences of a testing process, and a concern that a specific test not accelerate the likelihood of the use of other doping methods. This approach is applied to a consideration of the appropriateness of blood testing in sport. It is concluded, using such an analysis, that in their present state of development, blood tests should not be implemented. It is recognized that certain sport authorities currently use blood tests to exclude competitors whose blood values exceed certain predetermined levels on the grounds of concerns regarding health and safety. Screening of this kind is beyond the purview of this discussion.

  13. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: santos-filho@uerj.br; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2007-09-15

    Hypericum perforatum (hiperico) is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl{sub 2} seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl{sub 2} at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system. (author)

  14. Evaluation of ethinylestradiol effect on labelling red blood cells with Tc-99m; Avaliacao do efeito do etinilestradiol sobre a marcacao de hemacias com tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, A.C.S.; Oliveira, J.F.; Santos, J.S.; Oliveira, M.B.N.; Gutfilen, B.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1999-11-01

    Significant alterations on the radiopharmaceutical distribution in humans are caused by drug interactions. The labeling red blood cells with technetium-99m is a daily routine procedure in nuclear medicine. Here, we investigated if the ethinylestradiol, an oral contraceptive, could alter the labeling of RBC with Tc-99m. Samples of blood with acid citrate dextrose were incubated with ethynilestradiol. Then, different concentrations of Sn C L{sub 2} were added and, after that, Tc-99m was added. Samples were centrifuged and plasma (P) and cells (C) were separated. the results showed that the drug studied decreased the uptake of radioactivity (%ATI) in the C to the reducing agent in the concentration of 1.2 (from 92.3 to 78.0) and increased in 12.0 (18.8 to 36.0) and in 24.0 (22.8 to 32.0){mu}/ml of Sn C L{sub 2}. The obtained results can be explained by the fact that this drug could alter the membrane permeability to the transport of stannous and/or pertechnetate ions. (author) 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Renal blood flow using arterial spin labelling MRI and calculated filtration fraction in healthy adult kidney donors pre-nephrectomy and post-nephrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutajar, Marica; Clark, Christopher A.; Gordon, Isky [University College London, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Hilton, Rachel; Olsburgh, Jonathon [Renal Unit, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Marks, Stephen D. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Paediatric Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, David L. [University College London, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Banks, Tina [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Renal plasma flow (RPF) (derived from renal blood flow, RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) allow the determination of the filtration fraction (FF), which may have a role as a non-invasive renal biomarker. This is a hypothesis-generating pilot study assessing the effect of nephrectomy on renal function in healthy kidney donors. Eight living kidney donors underwent arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and GFR measurement prior to and 1 year after nephrectomy. Chromium-51 labelled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) with multi-blood sampling was undertaken and GFR calculated. The RBF and GFR obtained were used to calculate FF. All donors showed an increase in single kidney GFR of 24 - 75 %, and all but two showed an increase in FF (-7 to +52 %) after nephrectomy. The increase in RBF, and hence RPF, post-nephrectomy was not as great as the increase in GFR in seven out of eight donors. As with any pilot study, the small number of donors and their relatively narrow age range are potential limiting factors. The ability to measure RBF, and hence RPF, non-invasively, coupled with GFR measurement, allows calculation of FF, a biomarker that might provide a sensitive indicator of loss of renal reserve in potential donors. (orig.)

  16. [Abnormal cerebral blood flow distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus in three pediatric patients measured by arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko

    2016-05-01

    The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology.

  17. Identification of cytoskeletal elements enclosing the ATP pools that fuel human red blood cell membrane cation pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S; Hoffman, Joseph F

    2012-07-31

    The type of metabolic compartmentalization that occurs in red blood cells differs from the types that exist in most eukaryotic cells, such as intracellular organelles. In red blood cells (ghosts), ATP is sequestered within the cytoskeletal-membrane complex. These pools of ATP are known to directly fuel both the Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+) pumps. ATP can be entrapped within these pools either by incubation with bulk ATP or by operation of the phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase reactions to enzymatically generate ATP. When the pool is filled with nascent ATP, metabolic labeling of the Na(+)/K(+) or Ca(2+) pump phosphoproteins (E(Na)-P and E(Ca)-P, respectively) from bulk [γ-(32)P]-ATP is prevented until the pool is emptied by various means. Importantly, the pool also can be filled with the fluorescent ATP analog trinitrophenol ATP, as well as with a photoactivatable ATP analog, 8-azido-ATP (N(3)-ATP). Using the fluorescent ATP, we show that ATP accumulates and then disappears from the membrane as the ATP pools are filled and subsequently emptied, respectively. By loading N(3)-ATP into the membrane pool, we demonstrate that membrane proteins that contribute to the pool's architecture can be photolabeled. With the aid of an antibody to N(3)-ATP, we identify these labeled proteins by immunoblotting and characterize their derived peptides by mass spectrometry. These analyses show that the specific peptides that corral the entrapped ATP derive from sequences within β-spectrin, ankyrin, band 3, and GAPDH.

  18. The relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Mu, Lihong; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Yingxiong; Yan, Wei; Jiao, Yongzhuo

    2014-04-01

    To study the relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution, ecological and case-control studies were carried out. We determined the concentrations of 11 chemical elements and pH values in soil in two fluorosis-affected counties in Chongqing, China, and analyzed the correlation between these values and prevalence of dental fluorosis. Ni, I, F, Hg, and pH values positively correlated with fluorosis prevalence (P soil parameters may be related to coal-fired pollution fluorosis. Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Fe concentrations in whole blood, and fluoride levels in urine of residents in epidemic and non-epidemic areas were determined. Cu, Zn, Mg, and Fe levels of the children in the case group were lower than those of the children in the external control group; urine fluoride level in the children in the case group was higher than that of the children in the internal and external control groups (P < 0.05). The levels of Mg, Fe, and urine fluoride were higher in the case adult group than in the internal adult control group (P < 0.05). Anti-fluoride elements were deficient in endemic areas.

  19. The efficacy and safety of a proprietary onion-pumpkin extract (OPtain120 on blood pressure: an open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orie Yoshinari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutraceuticals and functional foods are increasingly being used to help manage hypertension. Treatment with either pumpkin or onion can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in animal studies. Traditionally, pumpkin has been used to support healthy blood pressure, glucose tolerance and lipid levels. Onion contains high levels of flavonoids, including quercetin, which decreases blood pressure and promotes restoration of healthy endothelial function. However, human trials on these food sources are limited, and the combined effects of pumpkin and onion have not been examined yet. Objective: We performed an open-label clinical study to evaluate the effects of a proprietary onion-pumpkin extract (OPtain120 on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Healthy adults with systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP in the elevated range of 140-159 and 80-90 mmHg, respectively, were enrolled in this study. Subjects consumed one capsule of onion-pumpkin extract twice daily for 12 weeks. Daily Home Blood Pressure Measurement (HBPM was taken upon waking and before bed. Office Blood Pressure Measurement (OBPM was taken in-clinic at Week 0, 6, and 12. Results: 52 subjects were screened and 12 were enrolled in the study, with a total of 10 subjects completing the study. Systolic HBPM taken before bed demonstrated a statistically significant reduction from baseline (147.23 mmHg to Week 12 (138.14 mmHg, representing a reduction of 9.09 mmHg (6.17%, p=0.021. Diastolic HBPM taken before bed demonstrated a decrease of 4.06 mmHg (4.46%, p=0.085, a significant reduction from baseline (91.07 mmHg at Week 12 (87.02 mmHg. Non-statistically significant reductions were seen in the early morning Systolic (3.14% and Diastolic (2.57% HBPM and in the Systolic (1.36% OBPM. Conclusion: OPtain120 was safely consumed over a 12-week period. OPtain120 appears to be effective in lowering Systolic Blood Pressure at bedtime in

  20. Effect of a peel passion fruit flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Machado Rebello

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (maracuja is a fruit consumed in Brazil and worldwide. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used in nuclear medicine. The effect of P. flavicarpa extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on red blood cells morphology was evaluated. Blood samples from Wistar rats was incubated with P. flavicarpa extract. After that, the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was carried out. Samples of plasma and blood cells were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to isolate the soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. The radioactivity in each fractions was counted and the percentage of radioactivity was determined. Blood smears were also prepared to morphological evaluation and perimeter/area ratio determination. P. flavicarpa extract altered (pPassiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (maracujá é um fruto consumido no Brasil e no mundo. O efeito de um extrato de farinha da casca de maracujá na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m e na morfologia de hemácias foi avaliado. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar, foram incubadas com extrato de P. flavicarpa. Em seguida, o procedimento de marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com Tc-99m foi realizado. Amostras de plasma e células sangüíneas foram separadas e alíquotas destas frações foram precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento das frações solúvel e insolúvel do plasma e das células sangüíneas. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada a porcentagem de radioatividade (%ATI foi calculada. Distensões sangüíneas foram também preparadas para avaliação morfológica e da relação perímetro/área de hemácias. O extrato de P. flavicarpa alterou a fixação do 99mTc nas proteínas plasmáticas e a relação perímetro/área das hemácias. Substâncias presentes no extrato de P. flavicarpa poderiam afetar a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc atuando em alvos

  1. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  2. Quantification of blood flow velocity in stenosed arteries by the use of finite elements: an observer-independent noninvasive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlthaler, Hannes; Quatember, Bernhard; Fraedrich, Gustav; Mühlthaler, Markus; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Greiner, Andreas; Schocke, Michael F H

    2008-10-01

    Interventions for peripheral arterial disease should be designed to treat a physiological rather than an anatomic defect. Thus, for vascular surgeons, functional information about stenoses is as important as the anatomic one. In case of finding a stenosis by the use of magnetic resonance angiography, it would be a matter of particular interest to derive automatically and directly objective information about the hemodynamic influence on blood flow, caused by patient-specific stenoses. We developed a methodology to noninvasively perform numerical simulations of a patient's hemodynamic state on the basis of magnetic resonance images and by the means of the finite element method. We performed patient-specific three-dimensional simulation studies of the increase in systolic blood flow velocity due to stenoses using the commercial computational fluid dynamic software package FIDAP 8.52. The generation of a mesh defining the flow domain with a stenosis and some simulation results are shown.

  3. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  4. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction - a Finite Element Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-08-01

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30-40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach.

  5. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction - a Finite Element Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-08-18

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30-40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach.

  6. Effects of Momordica charantia on osmotic fragility and label red blood cells and plasmatic protein with 99m-Tc in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnata, Simey S.L.P. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: sfmagnata@terra.com.br; Correia, Marilia B.L.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson C.; Souza, Grace M.L.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Terra, Daniele A.; Amorim, Lucia F. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2005-07-01

    The use of natural products in the treatment physiopathology awaken the interest in the inquiry of the action mechanisms. The Momordica charantia, Melao de Sao Caetano, is used in the Caribbean and Orient for the diseases as stomatitis, cancer and diabetes. This work aims to verify the effect of the Momordica charantia's aqueous extract leaves on osmotic fragility and on labeling red blood cells (RBC) and plasmatic proteins with {sup 99m}Tc in vitro. To evaluate the osmotic fragility, samples of heparinized blood (500 mL) was incubed for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v); after centrifugation, the RCB were submitted the incubation (1 hour) with a gradient of NaCl (0;0,1;0,25;0,4;0,7 and 0.9%), the OD of supernatant was determined. With regards to label red blood cells and plasmatic proteins with {sup 99m}Tc in vitro was carried out by incubating of anticoagulant whole blood (500 mL) for 1 hour with brut extract (500 mL) in different concentrations (0; 10; 50 and 100% v/v). A stannous chloride solution of 1,2 {mu}g/mL was added the incubation for 60 minutes. After this the {sup 99m}Tc (3,7 MBq) was added and the incubation was continued for another 10 minutes. Those were centrifuged, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid 5% and mensured in a counter. The results shows that with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the concentration of 100% provoked hemolysis. The Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who modify the fixation of {sup 99m}Tc in red blood cells. The results show with regard to osmotic fragility, only the extract in the quantity 100% provoked hemolysis. It is concluded that the Momordica charantia's extract is an agent who unchains the cellular fragility and {sup 99m}Tc fixation, showing a reduction effect. (author)

  7. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  8. Blood vitamins and trace elements in Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) in captivity in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; O'Donovan, Declan; McKeown, Sean; Wernery, Ulli; Basu, Puja; Bailey, Tom A

    2013-09-01

    There are few published data regarding the endangered Northern-East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), held in captivity in the Middle East and Europe. Studies have demonstrated a high incidence of disease in captive cheetahs, in which vitamin and trace element imbalances have often been implicated. Blood vitamin and trace element reference values in cheetahs merit further investigation. In this study, blood samples were opportunistically collected from apparently healthy A. j. soemmeringii from two collections (A and B) with successful breeding programs in the United Arab Emirates. The cheetahs were fed whole prey of mixed species (and, in Collection B, goat muscle and bone as well) dusted with vitamin and mineral supplements. Mean serum vitamin and trace element values (for cheetahs > 4 mo in age) were as follows: vitamin A (retinol), 2.20 microM/L (n = 27); vitamin B1, 0.0818 microM/L (n = 45); vitamin C, 28.6 microM/L (n=10); vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), 35.6 microM/L (n = 27); copper (Cu), 12.53 microM/L (n = 27); selenium (Se), 3.10 microM/L (n = 27); and zinc (Zn), 10.87 microM/L (n = 27). Mean values of vitamin A, vitamin E, Cu, and Zn fell within ranges of published cheetah mean values, and mean Se was lower than range values for cheetahs presented in one previous study; blood vitamin B1 and vitamin C values of cheetahs have not previously been published. The values were taken to indicate that the cheetahs' nutritional status was adequate with regard to those nutrients analyzed. Serum vitamin E was particularly high in cheetahs fed fresh whole prey, and on this basis vitamin E supplementation of fresh whole prey appeared to have been unnecessary. There were differences (P < 0.05) between collections in serum vitamin B1, vitamin E, Cu, and 10 other hematologic and biochemical parameters. Nine hematologic and blood biochemical parameters differed among age categories.

  9. Comparison of sup 99 Tc sup m -HMPAO-labelled white blood cells and sup 67 Ga citrate scans to detect myocarditis in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.H.; Hsieh, K.S.; Wang, Y.L.; Chen, C.W.; Liao, S.Q.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China))

    1991-11-01

    Myocardial imaging with {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HMPAO-labelled white blood cells (WBC) and {sup 67}Ga citrate was used to detect myocarditis in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease among 22 infants and children; 18 cases of myocarditis were detected by {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HMPAO-labelled WBC heart scans, but only one case was detected by {sup 67}Ga citrate heart scans. In conclusion, {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HMPAO-labelled WBC scanning provides a more sensitive method than {sup 67}Ga citrate scanning in the detection of myocarditis in Kawasaki disease. (author).

  10. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food ...

  11. Differential Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors on Clinical Responses and Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A 12-Month, Randomized, and Open-Label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Shimizu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study evaluated the differences in treatment outcomes and brain perfusion changes among 3 types of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs, i.e. donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, randomized, open-label, 3-arm (donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine, parallel-group, 12-month clinical trial carried out in 55 patients with AD. Results: At 6 months, the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Trail Making Test (TMT-Part A showed an improvement versus baseline in the donepezil treatment group. All groups showed a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, mainly in the frontal lobe. Significant rCBF reduction was observed in the temporal lobe and cingulate gyrus in all 3 groups. Conclusion: AchEI treatment prevents the progression of cognitive impairment and increases the relative rCBF in the frontal lobe.

  12. 99mTechnetium-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy as an alternative to angiography in the investigation of gastrointestinal bleeding: clinical experience in a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearn, P.; Persad, R.; Wilson, N.; Flanagan, J.; Williams, T.

    1992-01-01

    99mTechnetium-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy (99mTc RBC scintigraphy) was used as the second-line investigation to localise bleeding in 23 patients (11 male, 12 female; mean age 67 years) presenting with active bleeding per rectum. Scintigraphy was available on a 24 h basis. A total of 18 patients had positive scans (78%). Surgery was performed urgently in 11 patients and the site of bleeding, as predicted by scintigraphy, was confirmed in 9 (82%). 99mTc RBC scintigraphy was less useful in patients who were not bleeding actively or who were being investigated for chronic anaemia. This study suggests that 99mTc RBC scintigraphy can play a useful role in the preoperative localisation of unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding in hospitals with nuclear medicine facilities, but confirms it has little place in the management of patients unless they are bleeding actively. PMID:1319696

  13. Non-Newtonian Study of Blood Flow in an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with a Stabilized Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Victor; Sahni, Onkar; Jansen, Kenneth; Tichy, John; Taylor, Charles

    2008-11-01

    In recent years the methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been applied to the human cardiovascular system to better understand the relationship between arterial blood flow and the disease process, for example in an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Obviously, the technical challenges associated with such modeling are formidable. Among the many problems to be addressed, in this paper we add yet another complication -- the known non-Newtonian nature of blood. In this preliminary study, we used a patient-based AAA model with rigid walls. The pulsatile nature of the flow and the RCR outflow boundary condition are considered. We use the Carreau-Yasuda model to describe the non-Newtonian viscosity variation. Preliminary results for 200K, 2M, and 8M elements mesh are presented for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian cases. The broad fundamental issue we wish to eventually resolve is whether or not non-Newtonian effects in blood flow are sufficiently strong in unhealthy vessels that they must be addressed in meaningful simulations. Interesting differences during the flow cycle shed light on the problem, but further research is needed.

  14. Intraindividual comparison of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled anti-SSEA-1 antigranulocyte antibody and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled white blood cells for the imaging of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, S.; Behr, T.; Herrmann, A.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Dresing, K.; Stuermer, K.M. [Department of Trauma, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Goettingen (Germany); Tarditi, L.; Franceschini, R. [SORIN Biomedica, Saluggia (Italy); Rhodes, B. [RHOMED, Albuquerque, New Mexiko (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the {sup 99m}Tc-anti-SSEA-1 Mab with that of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled white blood cells (WBCs). To this end, 17 patients with 23 proven infectious foci were examined with 555 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-anti-SSEA-1 MAb and with 370 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled autologous leucocytes within a period of 7 days. All the infections were confirmed by culturd of 7 days. Whole-body images and planar spot views with the antibody were performed at 1-h, 4-h and 24-h post injection; the biodistribution of the antibody was quantified, absorbed radiation doses were calculated and the diagnostic results were compared with the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO WBC images. Human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) evaluation was performed in all patients before and 3 months after antibody injection. Blood was drawn at different times after {sup 99m}Tc-anti-SSEA-1 MAb injection to determine the amount of granulocyte-associated radioactivity and to calculate recovery. {sup 99m}Tc-anti-SSEA-1 MAb scintigraphy detected all 23 lesions, while 21 were detected with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO WBC scan. In this small group of patients, the sensitivity and specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-anti-SSEA-1 MAb scintigraphy were 95% and 96% respectively, as compared with 91% and 82% respectively for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO WBC scan. An increasing uptake of the injected activity in the lesion at different time points was indicative of high affinity and of specific PMN binding.There was no HAMA formation. In four of five patients investigated, a transient mild leukopenia was found at 15 min p.i. There was increased uptake of the antibody in liver and spleen and normal uptake in kidneys and bone marrow.The estimated radiation doses for the whole body and the red bone marrow were 1.1 x 10{sup -2} cGy/37 MBq and 5.3 x 10{sup -2} cGy/37 MBq, respectively. The activity associated to the PMNs in vivo was 33.5%, 30.6%, 21.3% and 9% at 5, 15, 30 and 45 min. post-injection, respectively

  15. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging of the brain: feasibility of cerebral blood flow measurements with FAIR-TrueFISP arterial spin labeling MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegger, Lars [Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard Karls Univ. Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and European Inst. for Molecular Imaging, Univ. of Munster, Munster (Germany)], E-mail: stegger@uni-muenster.de; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz [Dept. of Radiology, Section of Experimental Radiology, Eberhard Karls Univ. Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Pfannenberg, Christina; Claussen, Claus D. [Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard Karls Univ. Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Bisdas, Sotirios [Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard Karls Univ. Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kolb, Armin; Pichler, Bernd [Dept. of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Eberhard Karls Univ. Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Boss, Andreas [Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard Karls Univ. Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Background Hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with simultaneous data acquisition promises a comprehensive evaluation of cerebral pathophysiology on a molecular, anatomical, and functional level. Considering the necessary changes to the MR scanner design the feasibility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) is unclear. Purpose To evaluate whether cerebral blood flow imaging with ASL is feasible using a prototype PET/MRI device. Material and Methods ASL imaging of the brain with Flow-sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery (FAIR) spin preparation and true fast imaging in steady precession (TrueFISP) data readout was performed in eight healthy volunteers sequentially on a prototype PET/MRI and a stand-alone MR scanner with 128 x 128 and 192 x 192 matrix sizes. Cerebral blood flow values for gray matter, signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, and relative signal change were compared. Additionally, the feasibility of ASL as part of a clinical hybrid PET/MRI protocol was demonstrated in five patients with intracerebral tumors. Results Blood flow maps showed good delineation of gray and white matter with no discernible artifacts. The mean blood flow values of the eight volunteers on the PET/MR system were 51 {+-} 9 and 51 {+-} 7 mL/100 g/min for the 128 x 128 and 192 x 192 matrices (stand-alone MR, 57 {+-} 2 and 55 {+-} 5, not significant). The value for signal-to-noise (SNR) was significantly higher for the PET/MRI system using the 192 x 192 matrix size (P < 0.01), the relative signal change (dS) was significantly lower for the 192 x 192 matrix size (P = 0.02). ASL imaging as part of a clinical hybrid PET/MRI protocol could successfully be accomplished in all patients in diagnostic image quality. Conclusion ASL brain imaging is feasible with a prototype hybrid PET/MRI scanner, thus adding to the value of this novel imaging technique.

  16. Association of hypomethylation of LINE-1 repetitive element in blood leukocyte DNA with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-zhong DI; Xiao-dong HAN; Wen-ye GU; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG; Pin ZHANG; Hui-min WU; Zhong-zheng ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Global DNA hypomethylation has been associated with increased risk for cancers of the colorectum,bladder,breast,head and neck,and testicular germ cells.The aim of this study was to examine whether global hypomethylation in blood leukocyte DNA is associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).A total of 315HCC cases and 356 age-,sex- and HBsAg status-matched controls were included.Global methylation in blood leukocyte DNA was estimated by analyzing long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) repeats using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing.We observed that the median methylation level in HCC cases (percentage of 5-methylcytosine (5mC)=77.7%) was significantly lower than that in controls (79.5% 5mC) (P=0.004,Wilcoxon rank-sum test).The odds ratios (ORs) of HCC for individuals in the third,second,and first (lowest) quartiles of LINE-1methylation were 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.8),1.4 (95% CI 0.8-2.2),and 2.6 (95% CI 1.7-4.1) (P for trend <0.001),respectively,compared to individuals in the fourth (highest) quartile.A 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased risk of HCC was observed among individuals with LINE-1 methylation below the median compared to individuals with higher (>median) LINE-1 methylation.Our results demonstrate for the first time that individuals with global hypomethylation measured in LINE-1 repeats in blood leukocyte DNA have an increased risk for HCC.Our data provide the evidence that global hypomethylation detected in the easily obtainable DNA source of blood leukocytes may help identify individuals at risk of HCC.

  17. Effect of Water Pollution on Blood Elements in the Human Population of Hail, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Shokr AM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between contaminated drinking water with trace elements and thyroid diseases hypertension, liver functions disorder and kidney functions disorder was studied in this research. The thyroid diseases hypertension, liver functions disorder and kidney functions disorder are due to contaminant drinking water with trace elements. The present study concerned with water toxicity. The heavy metals belonging to the most important pollutants. A strong relationship between contaminated drinking water with heavy metals from some of the stations of water shopping in Hail, KSA and thyroid diseases hypertension, liver functions disorder and kidney functions disorder has been identified in this study. These diseases are apparently related to contaminant drinking water with heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn, Co and Cr. kidney functions disorder is related to contaminate drinking water with lead and cadmium, liver functions disorder to copper and molybdenum, and thyroid functions disorder to iodide, copper, and cadmium. Long-term exposure to lead, cadmium, zinc, iron, and arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to primarily in the form of thyroid, liver, and kidney functions disorder. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to toxic materials in the groundwater and thereby led to the contamination of drinking water in these areas. The result of this study showed that increase in the thyroid hormones, and liver functions test as AST and ALT enzymes. Also, there were increase in the hypertension and kidney functions test as creatinine and uric acid. These increases due to the pollution of drinking water by heavy metals.

  18. Identification of region-specific yeast artificial chromosomes using pools of Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction probes labeled via linear amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.G.; Bobrow, M.; Bentley, D.R.; Dunham, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and St. Thomas Hospitals, London Bridge, London, England (United Kingdom)); Patel, K.; Shipley, J.; Sheer, D. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    The ability to identify large numbers of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACS) specific to any given genomic region rapidly and efficiently enhances both the construction of clone maps and the isolation of region-specific landmarks (e.g., polymorphic markers). The authors describe a method of preparing region-specific single-stranded hybridization probes from Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR) products of somatic cell hybrids for YAC library screening. Pools of up to 50 cloned Alu-PCR products from an irradiation-reduced hybrid containing 22q11.2-q13.1 were labeled to high specific activity by linear amplification using a single vector primer. The resulting single-stranded probes were extensively competed to remove repetitive sequences, while retaining the full complexity of the probe. Extensive coverage of the region by YACs using multiple probe pools was demonstrated as many YACs were detected more than once. In situ analysis using chosen YACs confirmed that the clones were specific for the region. Thus, this pooled probe approach constitutes a rapid method to identify large numbers of YACs relevant to a large chromosomal region. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Identification of region-specific yeast artificial chromosomes using pools of Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction probes labeled via linear amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C G; Patel, K; Shipley, J; Sheer, D; Bobrow, M; Bentley, D R; Dunham, I

    1992-12-01

    The ability to identify large numbers of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) specific to any given genomic region rapidly and efficiently enhances both the construction of clone maps and the isolation of region-specific landmarks (e.g., polymorphic markers). We describe a method of preparing region-specific single-stranded hybridization probes from Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR) products of somatic cell hybrids for YAC library screening. Pools of up to 50 cloned Alu-PCR products from an irradiation-reduced hybrid containing 22q11.2-q13.1 were labeled to high specific activity by linear amplification using a single vector primer. The resulting single-stranded probes were extensively competed to remove repetitive sequences, while retaining the full complexity of the probe. Extensive coverage of the region by YACs using multiple probe pools was demonstrated as many YACs were detected more than once. In situ analysis using chosen YACs confirmed that the clones were specific for the region. Thus, this pooled probe approach constitutes a rapid method to identify large numbers of YACs relevant to a large chromosomal region.

  20. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Amorim Terra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da Artemisia vulgaris L.(artemisa na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Amostras de sangue obtidas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com um extrato de artemisa e o processo de radiomarcação dos constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram isoladas por centrifugação. Alíquotas de plasma e células sangüíneas foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento de frações solúvel e insolúvel. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram calculadas. O extrato de artemisa diminuiu significantemente (p<0,05 a %ATI nas células sanguíneas e nas proteínas celulares. A análise dos resultados indicou que o extrato de artemisa apresentaria substâncias que interferir no transporte de íons estanoso e/ou pertecnetato através da membrana do eritrócito alterando a marcação das células sangúineas com 99mTc.

  1. Label free imaging system for measuring blood flow speeds using a single multi-mode optical fiber (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Iliya; Caravaca Aguirre, Antonio M.; Gad, Raanan; Piestun, Rafael; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a single multi-mode fiber-based micro-endoscope for measuring blood flow speeds. We use the transmission-matrix wavefront shaping approach to calibrate the multi-mode fiber and raster-scan a focal spot across the distal fiber facet, imaging the cross-polarized back-reflected light at the proximal facet using a camera. This setup allows assessment of the backscattered photon statistics: by computing the mean speckle contrast values across the proximal fiber facet we show that spatially-resolved flow speed maps can be inferred by selecting an appropriate camera integration time. The proposed system is promising for minimally-invasive studies of neurovascular coupling in deep brain structures.

  2. Home Blood Pressure Telemonitoring: Rationale for Use, Required Elements, and Barriers to Implementation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter W; Boulanger, Pierre; Padwal, Raj S

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary hypertension guidelines strongly endorse the use of home blood pressure (BP) monitoring for hypertension diagnosis and management. However, barriers exist that prevent optimal use of home BP measurements. Patients might not follow the recommended home BP measurement protocol, might not take the required number of readings, and/or might report only selected readings to their providers. Providers might not calculate the mean (used for clinical decision-making) and/or incorporate home BP measurements into the medical record. Use of home BP telemonitoring, defined as the process by which home BP readings are securely teletransmitted and summarized within a health care portal or electronic medical record for provider use, might overcome these barriers. Telemonitoring, especially when combined with protocolized case management, leads to statistically significant and clinically important BP reductions, and improvements in overall BP control. Despite evidence supporting its use, home BP telemonitoring is not widely used in Canada. Barriers to adoption can be classified as structural and financial. Although technological advancements have made telemonitoring highly feasible, infrastructure is lacking, and implementation remains a challenge; this is especially true with respect to creating simple and cost-effective systems that are user-friendly and acceptable to patients as well as to providers. Ensuring data security is crucial to successful implementation, as is developing appropriate reimbursement models for providers. If these barriers can be overcome, home BP telemonitoring has the potential to make care provision easier and more convenient for patients and providers, while improving BP control in Canadians with hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  4. Label-Free Optical Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction Based on Blood Plasma Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Chen, M. W.; Lin, J. Y.; Lai, W. Q.; Huang, W.; Chen, H. Y.; Weng, G. X.

    2016-11-01

    This study is intended to explore the potential of silver (Ag) nanoparticle-based plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for providing a rapid and simple "Yes/No" assessment to detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A simple, rapid, and accurate method of diagnosing AMI is critical to reduce mortality and improve prognosis. Techniques such as electrocardiography examination and use of cardiac troponins have not yet met the current clinical need. Therefore, alternative approaches need to be developed. Plasma samples from 32 patients with AMI and 32 healthy control (Clt) subjects were assessed. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component (PC) analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), were employed to develop a diagnostic algorithm for differentiating between patients with AMI and Clt subjects. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic was tested to evaluate the performance of the PCA-LDA algorithm for AMI detection. Each plasma sample was mixed with an equal volume of Ag colloidal solution, and the SERS measurement of each plasma sample was performed. The plasma SERS spectrum showed much stronger and sharper peaks compared with the normal Raman spectrum. Tentative assignments of Raman spectroscopy bands showed specific biomolecular (e.g., proteins, adenosine, adenine, and uric acid) changes. PC analysis and LDA were employed to discriminate patients with AMI from Clt subjects, yielding a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 93.8%. The findings of this study suggest that plasma SERS has a great potential for improving AMI in the future, and this will certainly reduce the difficulty, time to draw blood, and patients' pain to a great extent.

  5. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum (hiperico is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl2 is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl2 seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat.. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl2 at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system.Hypericum perforatum (hiperico tem sido utilizado para tratar diferentes distúrbios e também inibir a contractilidade do ducto deferente em ratos e em humanos. Na medicina nuclear, o cloreto estanoso (SnCl2 é usado como um agente redutor para obter radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m. Como o SnCl2 parece acarretar efeitos indesejáveis relacionados com o desempenho reprodutivo de coelhos machos e o hiperico pode afetar a função sexual em humanos, o objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar resultados sobre o efeito de um extrato de hiperico na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com o tecnécio-99m retirados de ratos jovens e idosos. O hiperico parece alterar a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m isolados de sangue de animais jovens. Embora, esse resultado não seja observado em ratos idosos. Provavelmente, o extrato poderia apresentar uma ação protetora para o sistema reprodutivo contra a ação do SnCl2, pelo menos em ratos jovens. Os resultados

  6. Structure-activity relationships for metal-labeled blood flow tracers: comparison of keto aldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, E K; Green, M A

    1990-06-01

    Radiocopper-labeled pyruvaldehyde bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II), Cu[PTSM], is under investigation as a radiopharmaceutical for evaluation of regional blood flow in the brain, heart, and kidneys because it affords relatively high levels of radioactivity in these organs upon intravenous injection, followed by prolonged tissue retention of the radiolabel. To probe and differentiate the physicochemical properties that are critical for blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration and tissue retention in complexes of this type, 17 67Cu-labeled copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivatives of Cu[PTSM] have been prepared and characterized, focusing on the bis(thiosemicarbazone), bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone), bis(N4-dimethylthiosemicarbazone), and bis(N4-ethylthiosemicarbazone) derivatives of several alkylglyoxals (R(1) = Me, Et, n-Pr, i-Pr, n-Bu, or Me(EtO)CH) and phenylglyoxal. The compounds studied varied in lipophilicity from log P = 0.75 to log P = 3.5 (where P is the octanol/water partition coefficient). In rat biodistribution studies the N4-methylthiosemicarbazone (R(1)TSM) and N4-dimethylthiosemicarbazone (R(1)TSM2) complexes always show comparable cerebral uptake at 1 min postinjection (iv) for any given R(1) group, while the thiosemicarbazone (R(1)TS) complex always penetrates the BBB less efficiently. Comparison of the various Cu[R(1)TS] derivatives shows that their brain uptake does tend to increase with increasing lipophilicity over the range 0.75 less than log P less than 2.4, although it never reaches that of the N4-alkylated derivatives. The Cu[R(1)TS] and Cu[R(1)TSM] complexes are found to exhibit prolonged cerebral retention of activity, consistent with their known susceptibility to reductive decomposition by intracellular sulfhydryl groups, while the more inert Cu[R(1)TSM2] complexes clear from the brain relatively rapidly. Tracer clearance kinetics in the heart and kidney are similar to those observed for the brain with each of the tracers

  7. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Terra Agostinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P, blood cells (BC and insoluble (IF and soluble (SF fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI. Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (pEste estudo avaliou efeitos de um extrato de Ganoderma lucidum (reishi na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc e na sobrevivência de culturas de Escherichia coli tratadas com cloreto estanoso. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram tratadas com extrato de reishi, o procedimento de radiomarcação foi realizado, plasma (P, células sangüíneas (CS e frações insolúvel (FI e solúvel (FS de P e CS foram separadas e a radioatividade foi contada para determinação das porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI. Culturas de Escherichia coli AB1157 foram tratadas com cloreto estanoso na presença e ausência do extrato de reishi. Amostras de sangue e culturas bacterianas tratadas com NaCl 0.9% foram usadas como controles. Dados indicaram que o extrato de reishi alterou significativamente (p<0,05 a %ATI de P, CS, FI-P, FS-P, FI-CS e FS-CS, bem como, aumentou a sobrevivência de culturas bacterianas tratadas com cloreto estanoso. Nossos resultados sugerem que o extrato de reishi poderia apresentar ação redox/quelante alterando a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e protegendo culturas bacterianas contra lesões oxidativas induzidas

  8. Effects of Ipragliflozin on Diabetic Nephropathy and Blood Pressure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: An Open-Label Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Ikuma-Suwa, Emi; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Kaneko, Kimie; Yanagisawa, Morifumi; Inukai, Kouichi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Shimada, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Background Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel agents used to treat type 2 diabetic patients. We investigated the efficacy of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin on diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A 50 mg dose of ipragliflozin was administered for 24 weeks to 50 patients with type 2 diabetes who were concomitantly managed with diet and exercise therapy alone or antidiabetic medications other than SGLT2 inhibitors. Results At the end of the 24-week ipragliflozin treatment, significant decreases in mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (1.0±1.2%) and body weight (2.7 ± 2.5 kg) were observed; in addition, median urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) significantly decreased from 15.5 (8.0 - 85.7) to 12.9 (7.4 - 36.3) mg/gCr. Sub-analysis by renal function at baseline revealed that median UACR in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 decreased significantly from 12.3 (7.5 - 89.6) to 10.6 (5.8 - 27.3) mg/gCr. Furthermore, mean eGFR decreased significantly from 102.4 ± 8.6 to 93.6 ± 10.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 in these patients. In contrast, UACR and eGFR did not change significantly in patients with eGFR < 90. In addition, analysis of the relationship between the amount of change in UACR and blood pressure at 24 weeks revealed a significant positive correlation between UACR and SBP values, independently of the presence of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions Our results indicate that ipragliflozin may facilitate HbA1c control and body weight reduction. Furthermore, our results also raise the possibility that ipragliflozin significantly reduces urinary albumin levels and improves glomerular hyperfiltration in a subset of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28090231

  9. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow under hypoxia at high altitude using 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Jie; Lou, Xin; Zheng, Dandan; Wu, Bing; Wang, Danny J. J.; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may occur with acute exposure to high altitude; however, the CBF of the brain parenchyma has not been studied to date. In this study, identical magnetic resonance scans using arterial spin labeling (ASL) were performed to study the haemodynamic changes at both sea level and high altitude. We found that with acute exposure to high altitude, the CBF in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subjects was higher (P  0.05) compared with those at sea level. Moreover, magnetic resonance angiography in both AMS and non-AMS subjects showed a significant increase in the cross-sectional areas of the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries on the first day at high altitude. These findings support that AMS may be related to increased CBF rather than vasodilation; these results contradict most previous studies that reported no relationship between CBF changes and the occurrence of AMS. This discrepancy may be attributed to the use of ASL for CBF measurement at both sea level and high altitude in this study, which has substantial advantages over transcranial Doppler for the assessment of CBF. PMID:28240265

  10. Pharmacokinetic analysis of 111 in-labeled liposomal Doxorubicin in murine glioblastoma after blood-brain barrier disruption by focused ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of targeted and untargeted (111In-doxorubicin liposomes after these have been intravenously administrated to tumor-bearing mice in the presence of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D induced by focused ultrasound (FUS. An intracranial brain tumor model in NOD-scid mice using human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM 8401 cells was developed in this study. (111In-labeled human atherosclerotic plaque-specific peptide-1 (AP-1-conjugated liposomes containing doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox; AP-1 Lipo-Dox were used as a microSPECT probe for radioactivity measurements in the GBM-bearing mice. Compared to the control tumors treated with an injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox or (111In-Lipo-Dox, the animals receiving the drugs followed by FUS exhibited enhanced accumulation of the drug in the brain tumors (p<0.05. Combining sonication with drugs significantly increased the tumor-to-normal brain doxorubicin ratio of the target tumors compared to the control tumors. The tumor-to-normal brain ratio was highest after the injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox with sonication. The (111In-liposomes micro-SPECT/CT should be able to provide important information about the optimum therapeutic window for the chemotherapy of brain tumors using sonication.

  11. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  12. Evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cell scintigraphy for the detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markisz, J.A.; Front, D.; Royal, H.D.; Sacks, B.; Parker, J.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cell scintigraphy was performed upon 39 patients with clinical evidence for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding from an unknown source. Seventeen of 39 patients (44%) had a scan became positive 6 or more h after injection, consistent with intermittent bleeding, in 8 of 17 patients (47%). In the 11 patients in whom the bleeding site was definitely identified by arteriography, surgery, or colonoscopy, scintigraphy correctly localized the bleeding site in 10 of 11 patients (91%). Four of 11 patients (36%) had an active bleeding site identified by arteriography. Ten of 17 patients (58%) with a positive scan required either gelfoam embolization (4 patients) or surgery (6 patients) to control the bleeding, whereas only 1 of 22 patients (5%) required surgery when the scan was negative. Six deaths occurred in the scan-positive patients compared with no deaths in the scan-negative patients. None of the 8 patients who had arteriography and no active bleeding site by scintigraphy had arteriographically demonstrable active bleeding. Scintigraphy provides a reliable noninvasive test to screen patients in whom arteriography is being considered to localize active bleeding sites. If the arteriogram is negative, the scintigraphic findings alone may guide the surgical or arteriographic intervention. In addition, scintigraphy identifies two patient populations which have considerably different morbidity and mortality.

  13. Modeling and optimization of Look-Locker spin labeling for measuring perfusion and transit time changes in activation studies taking into account arterial blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, S T; Bowtell, R; Gowland, P A

    2008-02-01

    This work describes a new compartmental model with step-wise temporal analysis for a Look-Locker (LL)-flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) sequence, which combines the FAIR arterial spin labeling (ASL) scheme with a LL echo planar imaging (EPI) measurement, using a multireadout EPI sequence for simultaneous perfusion and T*(2) measurements. The new model highlights the importance of accounting for the transit time of blood through the arteriolar compartment, delta, in the quantification of perfusion. The signal expected is calculated in a step-wise manner to avoid discontinuities between different compartments. The optimal LL-FAIR pulse sequence timings for the measurement of perfusion with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and high temporal resolution at 1.5, 3, and 7T are presented. LL-FAIR is shown to provide better SNR per unit time compared to standard FAIR. The sequence has been used experimentally for simultaneous monitoring of perfusion, transit time, and T*(2) changes in response to a visual stimulus in four subjects. It was found that perfusion increased by 83 +/- 4% on brain activation from a resting state value of 94 +/- 13 ml/100 g/min, while T*(2) increased by 3.5 +/- 0.5%. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined.

  15. Design and Testing of a Minimally Invasive Blood Clot Removal Device ConstructedWith Elements of Superelastic Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Andrew J.

    Many vascular system problems stem from insufficient blood return flow to the heart. One of the main causes is a blockage within veins or arteries known as a blood clot, or thrombus. This can occur after trauma, surgery, or other phenomenological reasons. Each year in the U.S. more than 175,000 bypass procedures and more than 160,000 amputations resulting from peripheral vessel disease are performed. Clinical data indicates that clot removal devices and procedures can reduce the need for an amputation by 80 percent. Percutaneous thrombectomy refers to the removal of thrombus using catheter based non-surgical methods. The ultimate goal of any modality to treat these conditions of the arterial or venous system is to restore patency, quickly, safely, and cost effectively. Catheter directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis is less traumatic and avoids the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional surgical technique. As a result, there has been a push recently for the use of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) devices. However, all devices have their own set of drawbacks: distal embolization, vessel wall trauma, hemolysis, to name a few. Ongoing efforts have been made to create a prototype thrombectomy device that uses elements of superelastic nitinol (a type of shape memory alloy), that seeks to address some of the drawbacks of current devices. The prototype was designed and tested in a simulated human circulatory system along side a commercially available device (The DiverCE Clot Extraction Catheter). The test evaluated how well the devices minimized distal embolization of a human blood clot created in vitro.. Results of the testing showed that the prototype device created significantly less embolization when compared to the DiverCE particles greater than 102mum (p = 0.0332). Means were statistically not different for particles between 25mum and 102mum (p = 0.2454), and particles between 5mum and 25mum (p = 0.6524). In addition the prototype was shown

  16. Uncaria tomentosa extract: evaluation of effects on the in vitro and in vivo labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence (in vivo and in vitro of an Uncaria tomentosa extract (Cats claw on the labeling of red blood cells (RBCs and plasma and cellular proteins with technetium-99m (Tc-99m was evaluated. For the in vivo treatment, animals were treated with Cats claw. For the in vitro treatment, heparinized blood was incubated with Cats claw before the addition of stannous chloride (SnCl2 and Tc-99m. Samples of plasma (P and RBCs were separated and also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. The soluble and insoluble fractions of P and RBCs were isolated. The analysis of the results of the in vivo study, indicates that there is no significant alteration on the uptake of Tc-99m by the blood constituents, but it significantly decrease (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência (in vivo e in vitro de um extrato de Uncaria tomentosa (unha de gato na marcação de hemácias e proteínas plasmáticas e celulares com tecnécio-99m (Tc-99m. Para o estudo in vivo, animais foram tratados com um extrato de unha de gato. Para o estudo in vitro, sangue heparinizado foi incubado com o extrato de unha de gato antes da adição de cloreto estanoso (SnCl2 e Tc-99m. Amostras de plasma e células foram separadas e também precipitadas com ácido tricloracético. As frações solúveis e insolúveis foram isoladas. A análise dos resultados do estudo in vivo, indica que não houve alteração significante na captação de Tc-99m pelos constituintes sanguíneos, entretanto, no tratamento in vitro, ocorreu redução significante da marcação de constituintes sanguíneos. Esses efeitos poderiam ser justificados por quelação dos íons estanoso e pertecnetato e bloqueio dos sítios de ligação do Tc-99m.

  17. Practical method of quantifying cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labeling. Numerical simulation and correlation of pulsed ASL and cold xenon-CT CBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tokunori [Toshiba Corp., Otawara, Tochigi (Japan). Medical Systems R and D Center; Takahashi, Kiyohiko; Nozokido, Takeshi; Sato, Takaaki; Naito, Isao; Takatama, Shin [Geriatrics Research Inst. and Hospital, Gunma (Japan); Iwai, Tomoyuki [Suwa Central Hospital, Chino, Nagano (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Currently arterial spin labeling (ASL) is not used in clinical practice even though various studies have been carried out on quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) by magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging using ASL. In the following study, we evaluated the relationship between ASL signals and cerebral blood flow both numerically and experimentally. When evaluating the relationship numerically we used simulation based on the two-compartment model. We evaluated experimentally by using the correlation of pulsed ASL (PASL) signals with the CBF measured by cold xenon-CT (Xe-CT) in the human brain. Based on the results, we propose a practical linear scaling method for quantifying CBF values using a single TI pulsed ASL image. Numerical simulation using the two-compartment model, which was considered to model reality more closely than the conventional single-compartment model, showed that the ASL signal was correlated almost linearly in the CBF range (<100[ml/100 cc/min]). The ASL signal was also stronger in variations of model parameters, such as the relaxation time in extravascular space (T{sub 1e}), intravascular volume (CBV), and the brain-blood partition coefficient, than when the conventional single-compartment model was used. A linear correlation between the ASL signal and the absolute CBF value was also found in the PASL and Xe-CT experiments. This indicates that it may be possible to quantify CBF values using only a single TI pulsed ASL image. The proposed method requires reference CBF data (Xe-CT, SPECT, PET data or flow phantom data) or both a control image and conversion table obtained by simulation calculations. Although the ASL signals depend on the MRI hardware and imaging conditions, once the scaling coefficient K is calculated, the ASL signals can be converted to corresponding CBF values. Further studies are required in patients with ischemic conditions because the arterial transit delay time cannot be ignored in these patients. The proposed method can

  18. Feasibility study of a single-element transcranial focused ultrasound system for blood-brain barrier opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Fabrice; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Teichert, Tobias; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular system that impedes entry of all large and the vast majority of small molecules including the most potent CNS disease therapeutic agents from entering from the lumen into the brain parenchyma. Microbubble-enhanced, focused ultrasound (ME-FUS) has been previously shown to disrupt noninvasively, selectively, and transiently the BBB in small animals in vivo. The study addresses the focusing properties of single-element transducers at intermediate frequencies (500 kHz) through primate and human skulls, targeting clinically relevant targets extracted from 3D brain atlases such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A preliminary in vivo study was performed to study the frequency dependence of BBB opening parameters in mice. Then, feasibility of transcranial ME-FUS BBB opening in non-human primates was demonstrated with subsequent BBB recovery. Sonications were combined with two different types of microbubbles (custom made 4-5 μm and Definity®). 3T MRI was used to confirm the BBB disruption and to assess brain damage.

  19. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Jenssen, M.T.S. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo (Norway); Alexander, J. [Office of the Director-General, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Meltzer, H.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Brantsæter, A.L., E-mail: Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B{sub ln} 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B{sub ln} 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different

  20. Capacitive label reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  1. Changes in cerebral blood flow after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt can help predict the development of hepatic encephalopathy: An arterial spin labeling MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Wang, Ze [Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qi, Rong Feng; Shi, Donghong [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Fan, Xinxin [Research Institute of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) are still unclear. Our aim is to assess the TIPS-induced CBF changes and their potential clinical significance using the arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Nine cirrhotic patients underwent ASL 1–8 days before and 4–7 days after TIPS. CBF was calculated at each voxel and mean CBF values were computed in the whole brain, gray matter and white matter. Changes of CBFs before and after TIPS were compared by paired t-test. Results: Voxel-wise results showed CBF diffusely increased in patients after TIPS, but no region with significant decrease in CBF was found, nor was any significant mean CBF difference detected in the whole brain, gray matter and white matter. Six patients out of nine showed a global CBF increase of 9–39%; one patient presented a global CBF decrease of 6%; another two showed a global CBF decrease of 16% and 31% respectively. Follow-up studies showed that the two patients with greatly decreased global CBF suffered from multiple episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) after TIPS and one died of OHE. Conclusions: CBF derived from noninvasive ASL MRI could be used as a useful biomarker to predict the development of OHE through consecutively tracking CBF changes in patients with inserted TIPS. Increased CBFs in many cortical regions could be common effects of the TIPS procedure, while decreased global CBF following TIPS might indicate the development of OHE.

  2. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial-spin labeling MRI: A useful biomarker for characterization of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210002 (China); College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Box648, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642-8648 (United States); Wang, Ze [Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qi, Rongfeng; Shi, Donghong [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210002 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of arterial-spin labeling (ASL) MRI to non-invasively characterize the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in cirrhotic patients and to assess the potential of ASL MRI to characterize minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Materials and methods: This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Thirty six cirrhosis patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (16 MHE patients and 20 non hepatic encephalopathy (non-HE) patients) and 25 controls underwent ASL MRI, and CBF was measured for each subject. One-way ANOCOVA test with age and gender as covariences was used to compare CBF difference among three groups, and post hoc analysis was performed between each two groups. Region-based correlation analysis was applied between Child–Pugh score, venous blood ammonia level, neuropsychological tests and CBF values in cirrhosis patients. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used for assessing CBF measurements in ASL MRI to differentiate MHE from non-HE patients. Results: The gray matter CBF of MHE patients (71.09 ± 11.88 mL min{sup −1} 100 g{sup −1}) was significantly higher than that of non-HE patients (55.28 ± 12.30 mL min{sup −1} 100 g{sup −1}, P < 0.01) and controls (52.09 ± 9.27 mL min{sup −1} 100 g{sup −1}, P < 0.001). Voxel-wise ANOCOVA results showed that CBFs were significantly different among three groups in multiple gray matter areas (P < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). Post hoc comparisons showed that CBF of these brain regions was increased in MHE patients compared with controls and non-HE patients (P < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). CBF of the right putamen was of the highest sensitivity (93.8%) and moderate specificity (75.0%) for characterization of MHE when using the cutoff value of 50.57 mL min{sup −1} 100 g{sup −1}. CBFs in the bilateral median cingulate gyri, left supramarginal gyrus, right angular gyrus, right

  3. Transcriptomic Profile of Whole Blood Cells from Elderly Subjects Fed Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG in a Phase I Open Label Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Solano-Aguilar

    Full Text Available We examined gene expression of whole blood cells (WBC from 11 healthy elderly volunteers participating on a Phase I open label study before and after oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-ATCC 53103 (LGG using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq. Elderly patients (65-80 yrs completed a clinical assessment for health status and had blood drawn for cellular RNA extraction at study admission (Baseline, after 28 days of daily LGG treatment (Day 28 and at the end of the study (Day 56 after LGG treatment had been suspended for 28 days. Treatment compliance was verified by measuring LGG-DNA copy levels detected in host fecal samples. Normalized gene expression levels in WBC RNA were analyzed using a paired design built within three analysis platforms (edgeR, DESeq2 and TSPM commonly used for gene count data analysis. From the 25,990 transcripts detected, 95 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected in common by all analysis platforms with a nominal significant difference in gene expression at Day 28 following LGG treatment (FDR<0.1; 77 decreased and 18 increased. With a more stringent significance threshold (FDR<0.05, only two genes (FCER2 and LY86, were down-regulated more than 1.5 fold and met the criteria for differential expression across two analysis platforms. The remaining 93 genes were only detected at this threshold level with DESeq2 platform. Data analysis for biological interpretation of DEGs with an absolute fold change of 1.5 revealed down-regulation of overlapping genes involved with Cellular movement, Cell to cell signaling interactions, Immune cell trafficking and Inflammatory response. These data provide evidence for LGG-induced transcriptional modulation in healthy elderly volunteers because pre-treatment transcription levels were restored at 28 days after LGG treatment was stopped. To gain insight into the signaling pathways affected in response to LGG treatment, DEG were mapped using biological pathways and genomic data mining

  4. [Exploration of quality control of inorganic elements in Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-feng; Fan, Mei-mei; Wang, Guan-min; Tu, Long-fei; Wang, Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Researches have shown the close relationships between inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of various Chinese herbal medicines. Yet, in studies of chemical composition and quality control of Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints, inorganic substances are often overlooked. In order to improve and reestablish the standard of quality control of Chinese herbal medicines, the authors attempted a method that would incorporate the composition of inorganic elements as part of the quality control. In the present study, the authors used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure the contents of fifteen inorganic elements, namely, Cu, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, Mn, Zn, Na, Cr, Cd, and Hg, in several Chinese herbal medicines, including Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors then discussed the relationship between these inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of these Chinese herbal medicines. By comparing the levels of inorganic elements found in Da Huo Luo Wan with those found in other Chinese herbal medicines used in the study, it was revealed that trace elements, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, contribute to the curative efficiency of Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors' results showed that the amounts of trace elements Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn found in Chinese herbal medicine Da Huo Luo Wan are related to the following curative effects of Da Huo Luo Wan: relieving rheumatism, rectifying breathing and alleviating phlegm, stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints. The measurement and analysis of inorganic elements in Da Huo Luo Wan will also provide evidences and references for the fingerprint establishment of Da Huo Luo Wan in the future.

  5. Lanthanide Elements as Labels in Multiplexed Analysis of Proteins and MicroRNAs by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian

    of the two assays were very similar. Protein or RNA samples were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to membranes by electroblotting where specific recognition of target analytes was achieved by antibodies and DNA probes, respectively. The use of lanthanides as labels on different...

  6. "Eurocode International Blood Labeling System" enables unique identification of all biological products from human origin in accordance with the European Directive 2004/23/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knels, Ralf; Mönig, Hans-Joachim; Wittmann, Georg; von Versen, Rüdiger; Pruss, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Due to their limited availability and compatibility, biological products must be exchanged between medical institutions. In addition to a number of national systems and agreements which strive to implement a unique identification and classification of blood products, the ISBT 128 was developed in 1994, followed by the Eurocode in 1998. In contrast to other coding systems, these both make use of primary identifiers as stipulated by the document ISO/IEC 15418 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and thus provide a unique international code. Due to their flexible data structures, which make use of secondary identifiers, both systems are able to integrate additional biological products and their producers. Tissue and cells also constitute a comparable risk to the recipient as that of blood products in terms of false labeling and the danger of infection. However, in contrast to blood products, the exchange of tissue and cells is much more intensively pursued at the international level. This fact is recognised by Directives 2004/23/EC and 2006/86/EC of the European Union (EU), which demand a standardized coding system for cells and tissue throughout the EU. The 2008 workshop agreement of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) was unique identification by means of a Key Code consisting of country code corresponding to ISO 3166-1, as well as competent authority and tissue establishment. As agreed at the meeting of the Working Group on the European Coding System for Human Tissues and Cells of the Health and Consumers Directorate-General of the European Commission (DG SANCO) held on 19 May 2010 in Brussels, this Key Code could also be used with existing coding systems to provide unique identification and allow EU traceability of all materials from one donation event. Today Eurocode already uses country codes according to ISO 3166-1, and thus the proposed Key Code can be integrated into the current Eurocode data structure and does not need to

  7. Simultaneous detection of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells in blood by ICP-MS with gold nanoparticles and quantum dots as elemental tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoting; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Wang, Han; Xiao, Guangyang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) labeling for the simultaneous counting of two circulating tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HepG2 cells) in human blood. MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were captured by magnetic beads coupled with anti-EpCAM and then specifically labeled by CdSe QDs-anti-ASGPR and Au NPs-anti-MUC1, respectively, which were used as signal probes for ICP-MS measurement. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection of 50 MCF-7, 89 HepG2 cells and the linear ranges of 200-40000 MCF-7, 300-30000 HepG2 cells were obtained, and the relative standard deviations for seven replicate detections of 800 MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were 4.6% and 5.7%, respectively. This method has the advantages of high sensitivity, low sample consumption, wide linear range and can be extended to the simultaneous detection of multiple CTC lines in human peripheral blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology.

  9. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael; Smith, Milton R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  10. [The pattern of Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm for recognition of coronary heart disease patients based on microamount of elements in human blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Xiao-ming

    2004-11-01

    The contents of four microamount elements (Sr, Cu, Mg and Zn) in human blood were chosen as recognition index of coronary heart disease patients and normal persons. The recognition pattern of Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm has been established. The first-layer transfer function is Tansig function; the second-layer transfer function is linear Purelin function. There are four input vectors, eight neurons on hidden layer, and one neuron of output vector. Four samples were chosen as a teat group and 22 samples as a training group. The weights and biases of the neural network were given. The given data could be completely identified, which predicted that this method could be a supplementary tool to diagnose this kind of disease with the determined contents of microamount of elements in human blood.

  11. Optimal Blood Suppression inversion time based on breathing rates and heart rates to improve renal artery visibility in spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Yi Gang; Li, Fang; Long, Xue Ying; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Jin Kang; Li, Wen Zheng [Dept. of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha (China); Shen, Hao [GE Healthcare, Waukesha (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To determine whether an optimal blood suppression inversion time (BSP TI) can boost arterial visibility and whether the optimal BSP TI is related to breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) for hypertension subjects in spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses (SLEEK). This prospective study included 10 volunteers and 93 consecutive hypertension patients who had undergone SLEEK at 1.5T MRI system. Firstly, suitable BSP TIs for displaying clearly renal artery were determined in 10 volunteers. Secondly, non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with the suitable BSP TIs were performed on those hypertension patients. Then, renal artery was evaluated and an optimal BSP TI to increase arterial visibility was determined for each patient. Patients' BRs and HRs were recorded and their relationships with the optimal BSP TI were analyzed. The optimal BSP TI was negatively correlated with BR (r1 = -0.536, P1 < 0.001; and r2 = -0.535, P2 < 0.001) and HR (r1 = -0.432, P1 = 0.001; and r2 = -0.419, P2 = 0.001) for 2 readers (κ = 0.93). For improving renal arterial visibility, BSP TI = 800 ms could be applied as the optimal BSP TI when the 95% confidence interval were 17-19/min (BR1) and 74-82 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 17-19/min (BR2) and 74-83 bpm (HR2) for reader#2; BSP TI = 1100 ms while 14-15/min (BR1, 2) and 71-76 bpm (HR1, 2) for both readers; and BSP TI = 1400 ms when 13-16/min (BR1) and 63-68 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 14-15/min (BR2) and 64-70 bpm (HR2) for reader#2. In SLEEK, BSP TI is affected by patients' BRs and HRs. Adopting the optimal BSP TI based on BR and HR can improve the renal arterial visibility and consequently the working efficiency.

  12. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  13. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  14. Multi-scale finite element analyses for stress and strain evaluations of braid fibril artificial blood vessel and smooth muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Uchida, Takahiro; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morita, Yusuke

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we developed a multi-scale finite element (FE) analysis code to obtain the stress and strain that occurred in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) at micro-scale, which was seeded in the real fabricated braid fibril artificial blood vessel. This FE code can predict the dynamic response of stress under the blood pressure loading. We try to establish a computer-aided engineering (CAE)-driven scaffold design technique for the blood vessel regeneration. Until now, there occurred the great progresses for the endothelial cell activation and intima layer regeneration in the blood vessel regeneration study. However, there remains the difficulty of the SMC activation and media layer regeneration. Therefore, many researchers are now studying to elucidate the fundamental mechanism of SMC activation and media layer regeneration by using the biomechanical technique. As the numerical tool, we used the dynamic-explicit FE code PAM-CRASH, ESI Ltd. For the material models, the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive law was adapted for the human blood vessel, SMC and the extra-cellular matrix, and the elastic law for the polyglycolic acid (PGA) fiber. Through macro-FE and micro-FE analyses of fabricated braid fibril tubes by using PGA fiber under the combined conditions of the orientation angle and the pitch of fiber, we searched an appropriate structure for the stress stimulation for SMC functionalization. Objectives of this study are indicated as follows: 1. to analyze the stress and strain of the human blood vessel and SMC, and 2. to calculate stress and strain of the real fabricated braid fibril artificial blood vessel and SMC to search an appropriate PGA fiber structure under combined conditions of PGA fiber numbers, 12 and 24, and the helical orientation angles of fiber, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees. Finally, we found a braid fibril tube, which has an angle of 15 degree and 12 PGA fibers, as a most appropriate artificial blood vessel for SMC functionalization.

  15. The levels and correlation analysis of trace elements in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood%产妇血、乳汁与婴儿血微量元素水平及相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文玲; 王燕侠; 吴岐珍; 李志远; 周敏; 刘爱萍; 李海鸿

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析产妇血、乳汁及婴儿血微量元素水平及相关性.方法 收集250例自然分娩产妇产后42 d血、乳汁及其婴儿血为标本,采用原子吸收光谱法测定其中所含的钙(Ca)、铁(Fe)、锌(Zn)、镁(Mg)与铜(Cu)的含量,并分析产妇血、乳汁与婴儿血微量元素相关性.结果 除产妇血钙与婴儿血钙水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)外,产妇血、乳汁及婴儿血中Ca、Fe、Zn、Mg、Cu水平两两比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);产妇血与婴儿血中Ca、Fe水平均呈正相关[Ca(r=0.221,P=0.047)、Fe(r =0.107,P=0.043)];产妇乳汁与婴儿血中Fe水平呈正相关(r=0.139,P=0.035);产妇血与其乳汁中Ca、Fe、Zn、Cu微量元素均呈正相关[Ca(r=0.016,P=0.007)、Fe(r =0.143,P=0.022)、Zn(r =0.162,P=0.019)、Cu(r =0.274,P=0.013)].结论 产后42 d妇女血微量元素与乳汁微量元素水平形成梯度,使乳汁维持微量元素一定比例,有助于婴儿的微量元素的吸收,与其生长发育密切相关,故定期测定孕期、产后妇女及婴儿微量元素水平,指导产妇平衡膳食,提倡母乳喂养,及时科学补充微量元素量,可早期预防婴儿早期钙、铁、锌等微量元素的缺乏.%Objective To investigate the correlation of trace elements in maternal blood,breast milk and infant blood.Methods Atomic absorption spectrographic method was used to measure blood and milk trace elements [calcium (Ca),ferrum (Fe),zinc (Zn),magnesium (Mg),copper(Cu)] of maternal of natural delivery and infant in 250 cases,then to analyze the correlation of trace elements in maternal blood,breast milk and infant blood in postpartum 42 days.Results There were statistically significant differences in trace elements between the maternal blood,breast milk and infant blood (P < 0.05).There was a positive correlation of Ca,and Fe between maternal blood and infant blood [Ca (r =0.221,P =0.047),Fe (r =0.107,P =0.043)];Fe had a positive correlation between

  16. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  17. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  18. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: Implications for non-invasive monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Colleen E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); College of Charleston, Grice Marine Laboratory, 205 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States)], E-mail: colleen.bryan@nist.gov; Christopher, Steven J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, Florida 34236 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n = 51) and skin (n = 40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r = 0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  19. New technique using ( sup 125 I)labeled rose bengal for the quantification in blood samples of pipecuronium bromide, a muscle relaxant drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopfer, C.; Benakis, A.; Pittet, J.-F.; Tassonyi, E. (Centre Medical Universitaire, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-05-01

    A new technique involving the use of ({sup 125}I)labeled rose bengal for the quantification of pipecuronium bromide (a muscle relaxant drug) is presented. This technique, which is based on the ability of rose bengal to react with pipecuronium and then form a complex which can be extracted into an organic solvent, involves two steps: the purification and labeling of rose bengal with {sup 125}I, and the quantification of pipecuronium. The specific activity of the compound (106 {mu}Ci/mg) allows for the quantification of pipecuronium in biological samples at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml. (author).

  20. Red blood cells labelling with technetium {sup 99m}Tc in vitro. Part 2. Influence of some methodological parameters on technetium labelling efficiency; Znakowanie krwinek czerwonych radioaktywnym technetem {sup 99m}Tc in vitro. Czesc 2. Wplyw wybranych parametrow metodycznych na stopien wiazania {sup 99m}Tc przez erytrocyty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E. [Katedra i Zaklad Medycyny Nuklearnej, Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the second part of the study was to check the influence of the anticoagulant as well as that of temperature and duration of incubation of the blood sample with PYP-Sn{sup +2} on the efficiency of labelling erythrocytes with technetium-99m in vitro. The analysis included comparison between results obtained using: a) temperature of incubation: 21 C and 37 C, b) incubation time; 10, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min. respectively and c) heparin and ACD as anticoagulant. The highest labeling efficiency was found with tin concentration equal to 0.100 {mu}g/ml, temperature of incubation 37 C, incubation time 30 min. and ACD. (author) 26 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Perindopril for control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors: an open-label, observational, multicentre, general practice-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Richard Ian; Anand, Sanjiv; Roy, Pierre; De Souza, Selwyn

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension, one of the major treatable cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, usually occurs in association with other major risk factors. As well as providing rapid blood pressure (BP) goal attainment, antihypertensive therapy should also provide reductions in CV events and mortality in a wide range of patients. For this, higher dosages and combinations of antihypertensive agents are often required. ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line agents for control of hypertension in patients with additional CV risk factors. The PEACH (Perindopril's Effect At Controlling Hypertension) study was a community-based study performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of high-dose perindopril in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension and additional risk factors for CV disease. This was an open-label, multicentre observational study conducted in Canadian general practice clinics. The study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of perindopril given once daily for 10 weeks uptitrated to the maximal recommended dose of perindopril as required for BP control in newly diagnosed or previously treated patients with uncontrolled mild to moderate hypertension and >or=1 additional risk factor. Patients not achieving target BP after 2 weeks of therapy were uptitrated from perindopril 4 mg to perindopril 8 mg once daily. Efficacy endpoints included reduction in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and BP control. Tolerability assessments included adverse effects and physicians' assessment of tolerability. The number of missed doses was also recorded. Overall, 2220 patients with hypertension and >or=1 other risk factor were prescribed perindopril at 291 centres; 51.9% were male, 78.3% Caucasian, 12.8% Asian, 36.2%>or=65 years of age and 34.5% had uncontrolled BP despite previous antihypertensive treatment. Compared with previously treated patients, treatment-naive patients had fewer risk factors, and a higher proportion were Asian (prisk factors. Perindopril produced

  2. Se-Hg Dual-element Labeling Strategy for Selectively Recognizing Selenoprotein and Selenopeptide%硒-汞双元素标记策略识别硒蛋白/多肽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 杨利民; 王秋泉

    2015-01-01

    提出并发展了一种基于电感耦合等离子体质谱( ICP-MS)的双元素标签标记策略来选择性识别和检测硒蛋白/多肽,其中内源元素硒( Se)作为硒蛋白/多肽分子的识别元素,外源元素汞( Hg)作为硒蛋白/多肽和含硒蛋白/多肽分子的区分元素。通过对硒代半胱氨酸(SeCys)和谷胱甘肽过氧化酶1(GPx1)两种模型分子的研究,外源邻羧基苯硫甲基汞( CH3 Hg-THI )动态解离的 CH3 Hg+能够选择性标记硒代半胱氨酸残基( SeCys)中硒醇基(-SeH),但不能标记含硒蛋白/多肽分子的硒代蛋氨酸残基( SeMet)中的—SeCH3,进而依据Se和Hg的ICP-MS信号识别和检测硒蛋白/多肽。本方法应用于富硒酵母水溶性提取液的分析,结果表明,提取液中的硒蛋白/多肽能够被有效识别和检测,验证了Se-Hg双元素标签标记策略的发展是ICP-MS识别和检测硒蛋白/多肽的一种可行且优越的途径。%An endogenous element-label plus exogenous element-tag strategy was proposed for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( ICP-MS) to screen and discriminate a family of ultratrace but biological important biomolecules. The feasibility of this novel idea has been demonstrated when setting seleno ( SeCys) and Se-containing ( SeMet) proteins ( peptides) as an example. Se-label naturally occurring in the biomole-cules acts an identifier for picking them up out of large amount of various coexisting proteins ( peptides) , and CH3 Hg-tag that can bind to SeCys but not SeMet fulfills the task of discriminating seleno and Se-containing ones based on the Se and Hg signals on ICP-MS. After confirmed using SeCys and GPx1, the Se-Hg dual-element labeling strategy together with ICP-MS was applied to screen and discriminate seleno and Se-contai-ning proteins ( peptides) in the water-soluble extracts of Se-enriched yeast, and seven selenoproteins ( pep-tides) were detected with both 202 Hg and 82 Se signals out of fifteen Se

  3. Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Islands Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Baltic Sea): A Comparison Study with Urbanized Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuschke, Antje; Griesel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Kattegat, Baltic Sea) are top predators within the marine food web and an indicator species of the environmental contamination. Furthermore, they are a main tourist attraction. Despite these important roles, little is known about the health and pollutant contamination of these seals. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate 18 essential and nonessential/toxic elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, and Zn) in blood samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and total X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Blood concentrations of mineral nutrients, such as Ca, K, P, and S, were within the reference ranges described for harbor seals. Likewise, for the trace elements, As, Be, Rb, Se, and Sr, no significant differences were observed compared with previous studies. Interestingly, blood concentrations of nine nonessential as well as essential trace metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured significantly lower in the offshore living seals from Helgoland and Anholt compared with results obtained from animals living close to urbanized areas, such as the Wadden Sea and Elbe estuary. This suggests that industrial emissions, sewage deposition, shipping traffic and dredging tasks might be the cause of increased metal concentrations of inshore harbor seals.

  4. Effect of Resveratrol Administration on the Element Metabolism in the Blood and Brain Tissues of Rats Subjected to Acute Swimming Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Arslangil, Dilek; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Patlar, Suleyman

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine how resveratrol administration affects the element metabolism in the blood and brain cortex tissues of rats subjected to an acute swimming exercise. The study was carried out on Wistar-Albino-type adult male rats supplied by the Center. Group 1 is the control group. Group 2 is the swimming control group. Group 3 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) + swimming group. Group 4 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) group. Blood and brain cortex tissues were analyzed for some elements. The acute swimming exercise led to increases in the rats' serum iron, selenium, lead, cobalt, and boron levels, while the resveratrol-swimming group has increases in copper, phosphorus, and calcium values. The brain cortex tissue of the resveratrol-swimming group had significantly higher molybdenum levels than others. The results obtained in the study indicate that acute swimming exercise altered the distribution of elements in the serum to a considerable extent; however, resveratrol's affect is limited. Especially, resveratrol supplementation may have a regulatory affect on serum iron and magnesium levels.

  5. Effects of an inorganic and two new organic compounds of selenium on morphologic blood elements and antioxidant status in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musik, Irena; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Toś-Luty, Sabina; Tokarska, Małgorzata

    2003-01-01

    Two organic compounds, 4-(o-tolilo-)-selenosemicarbazide of p-chlorobenzoic acid and 3-(p-chlorobenzoylamino-)-2-(o-tolylimino-)-4-phenyl-4-selenazoline were compared to the effects of the supplementation with inorganic Na2SeO3. Studies were carried out in four groups consisting of 10 female mice each of SWISS strain. Three of them were supplemented with different selenium formula at the dose of 10(-3) mg Se per g over the period of 10 day. The blood samples were collected to heparinized test tubes; the red blood and white blood count, hematocrit and haemoglobin concentration were studied. The influence of selenium compounds on phagocytosis and NBT test was determined.

  6. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  7. Blood lead level and its relationship to certain essential elements in the children aged 0 to 14 years from Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yonghua; Yang Xu; Ge Jia; Zhang Jie, E-mail: bjmuzhangjle@tom.com

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To investigate blood lead level and its relationship to copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium and iron in the children aged 0 to 14 years old from Beijing, China. Methods: We classified 3181 children into one of the four groups: Group A (n = 783, < 1 year old); Group B (n = 1538, 1-3 years old); Group C (n = 443, 3-7 years old); and, Group D (n = 417, 7-14 years old). All these metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The blood lead level was 0.207 {+-} 0.105 {mu}mol/L. There was a significant gender difference for zinc (P < 0.05) in Group C, and there was also a significant gender difference for copper (P < 0.05) and lead (P < 0.05) in Group D. Controlling for gender and age, we observed that there was a negative correlation of lead with zinc (r = - 0.052, P < 0.01), magnesium (r = - 0.042, P < 0.05) and iron (r = - 0.031, P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, in the children aged 1-7 years old, we also found there was a negative linear correlation of lead with zinc, magnesium and iron, respectively (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Blood lead level in children from Beijing was markedly decreased. And deficiency of zinc, magnesium and iron is related to the elevated blood lead level in the children aged 1-7 years. - Research highlights: {yields}We studied blood lead level and nutritional metals in children aged 0-14 years from Beijing, China. {yields}There are 3181 children, which is a relatively large sample. {yields}We investigated the relationship between lead and copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron. {yields}Our data are all for the whole blood. {yields}Our information can be helpful for further control efforts to reduce children's exposure to lead.

  8. Analysis of Trace Elements in Blood in Children with Anorexia%厌食症患儿血微量元素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽; 李萌

    2009-01-01

    To study the relationship between children with anorexia and trace elements in the blood. Method; the levels of trace elements in the blood in children with anorexia and normal children We're determined by ICP AES. The result shows that Zn in serum in children with anorexia is significantly lower than control group ( P 0. 005). It concludes children with anorexia are closely related to deficiency of trace elements in the blood. It is necessary to pay great attention to children nutrition, scientific and rational feeding methods, good habits.%为探讨患儿厌食与血微量元素之间的关系,用等离子体原子发射光谱法测定了厌食症患儿与正常对照组血微量元素锌、铁、铜、钙、镁含量.结果表明,厌食症组患儿血清锌明显低于对照组(P< 0.001),而铁与对照组相比差异明显(P< 0.05),而两组血铜、钙、镁比较差异均无统计学意义(P> 0.005).提示厌食症患儿与血微量元素缺乏密切相关,要重视儿童营养,强调科学、合理的喂养方法和良好的生活习惯.

  9. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno Lemos; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Nunes, Juliana Andrade; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-04-20

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 microL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 microL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 microg L(-1) of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for (75)As, (114)Cd, (59)Co, (51)Cr, (63)Cu (55)Mn, (208)Pb, (82)Se, (205)Tl, (51)V, and (64)Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L(-1), respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Santé Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  10. The influence of Citrosept addition to drinking water and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract on the content of selected mineral elements in the blood plasma of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Lechowski, Jerzy; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Zawiślak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to indicate the influence of Citrosept preparation and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, administered per os to growing turkey hens in 3 different dosages, on the content of selected mineral elements in blood plasma of slaughter turkey hens. An attempt was also made to specify the most effective dosage of the applied preparations with the highest efficiency as regards increased levels of examined macro- and microelements in the birds' blood. The research experiment was conducted on 315 turkey hens randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of 45 turkey hens. Group K constituted the control group without experimental additions of the above-mentioned preparations. When it comes to turkey hens which belonged to groups II-IV, Citrosept preparation was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group II - 0.011 ml/kg of bm; Group III - 0.021 ml/kg of bm; Group IV - 0.042 ml/kg bm. For birds which belonged to groups V-VII preparation, which was Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group V - 0.009 ml/kg of bm; Group VI - 0.018 ml/kg of bm, Group VII - 0.036 ml/kg bm. In the examined plant extracts and blood plasma of the birds the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe were identified. The use of examined extracts influenced the changes in the levels of all tested elements in slaughter turkey hens' blood plasma. An upward tendency was recorded which regarded the level of calcium and magnesium, and a downward tendency of sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in relation to the results achieved in the control group.

  11. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  12. Combining computational prediction of cis-regulatory elements with a new enhancer assay to efficiently label neuronal structures in the medaka fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mongin

    Full Text Available The developing vertebrate nervous system contains a remarkable array of neural cells organized into complex, evolutionarily conserved structures. The labeling of living cells in these structures is key for the understanding of brain development and function, yet the generation of stable lines expressing reporter genes in specific spatio-temporal patterns remains a limiting step. In this study we present a fast and reliable pipeline to efficiently generate a set of stable lines expressing a reporter gene in multiple neuronal structures in the developing nervous system in medaka. The pipeline combines both the accurate computational genome-wide prediction of neuronal specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs and a newly developed experimental setup to rapidly obtain transgenic lines in a cost-effective and highly reproducible manner. 95% of the CRMs tested in our experimental setup show enhancer activity in various and numerous neuronal structures belonging to all major brain subdivisions. This pipeline represents a significant step towards the dissection of embryonic neuronal development in vertebrates.

  13. Effects of barnidipine on blood pressure and left ventricular diastolic function in patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome: A 12-week, open-label noncomparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Angeli, Fabio; Repaci, Salvatore; Borgioni, Claudia; Sardone, Mariagrazia; Scotti, Aurelio; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Barnidipine is one of a new generation of dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers. Despite evidence of favorable effects on blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity, this drug has rarely been tested in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MS).

  14. Balanced Steady State Free Precession for Arterial Spin Labeling MRI: Initial Experience for Blood Flow Mapping in Human Brain, Retina, and Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Wang, Danny J.J.; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2013-01-01

    We implemented pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with 2D and 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout for mapping blood flow in the human brain, retina, and kidney, free of distortion and signal dropout, which are typically observed in the most commonly used echo-planar imaging acquisition. High resolution functional brain imaging in the human visual cortex was feasible with 3D bSSFP pCASL. Blood flow of the human retina could be imaged with pCASL and bSSFP in conjunction with a phase cycling approach to suppress the banding artifacts associated with bSSFP. Furthermore, bSSFP based pCASL enabled us to map renal blood flow within a single breath hold. Control and test-retest experiments suggested that the measured blood flow values in retina and kidney were reliable. Because there is no specific imaging tool for mapping human retina blood flow and the standard contrast agent technique for mapping renal blood flow can cause problems for patients with kidney dysfunction, bSSFP based pCASL may provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of retinal and renal diseases and can complement existing imaging techniques. PMID:23664680

  15. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Gross, Cole; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico; Reggiani, Carlo; Naro, Fabio; Pedrinolla, Anna; Monaco, Lucia; Richardson, Russell S.; Donato, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Background ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan. Objective To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival. Design Preliminary cohort study. Methods We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs) and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs) biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD)- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses. Results We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001) with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94). Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR) ≥ 3.40), while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74). SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07). Conclusions These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer. PMID:28060910

  16. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R Garrett; Venturelli, Massimo; Gross, Cole; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico; Reggiani, Carlo; Naro, Fabio; Pedrinolla, Anna; Monaco, Lucia; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan. To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival. Preliminary cohort study. We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs) and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs) biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD)- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses. We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P difference in SMCs (P = 0.94). Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR) ≥ 3.40), while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74). SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07). These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer.

  17. A set of fluorescent protein-based markers expressed from constitutive and arbuscular mycorrhiza-inducible promoters to label organelles, membranes and cytoskeletal elements in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Sergey; Harrison, Maria J

    2014-12-01

    Medicago truncatula is widely used for analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and nodulation. To complement the genetic and genomic resources that exist for this species, we generated fluorescent protein fusions that label the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, plasma membrane, apoplast, late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB), transitory late endosome/ tonoplast, tonoplast, plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes, autophagosomes, plasmodesmata, actin, microtubules, periarbuscular membrane (PAM) and periarbuscular apoplastic space (PAS) and expressed them from the constitutive AtUBQ10 promoter and the AM symbiosis-specific MtBCP1 promoter. All marker constructs showed the expected expression patterns and sub-cellular locations in M. truncatula root cells. As a demonstration of their utility, we used several markers to investigate AM symbiosis where root cells undergo major cellular alterations to accommodate their fungal endosymbiont. We demonstrate that changes in the position and size of the nuclei occur prior to hyphal entry into the cortical cells and do not require DELLA signaling. Changes in the cytoskeleton, tonoplast and plastids also occur in the colonized cells and in contrast to previous studies, we show that stromulated plastids are abundant in cells with developing and mature arbuscules, while lens-shaped plastids occur in cells with degenerating arbuscules. Arbuscule development and secretion of the PAM creates a periarbuscular apoplastic compartment which has been assumed to be continuous with apoplast of the cell. However, fluorescent markers secreted to the periarbuscular apoplast challenge this assumption. This marker resource will facilitate cell biology studies of AM symbiosis, as well as other aspects of legume biology. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  19. The influence of selenium and zinc addition in food on concentration of these elements in blood and milk, on somatic cells number and histological characteristics of cows udders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment included 30 cows of Holstein-Friesian breed, out of which 15 were receiving selenium and zinc in optimal doses before calving, while the others had never been supplemented with these micronutrients. There was analysed the concentration of selenium and zinc in blood and milk serum as well as the average number of somatic cells in corresponding lactation. After the cows exclusion from production, histological characteristics of cows udders were examined. The results of the investigation have shown that addition of selenium and zinc before calving has a positive effect on the values of these microelements in the blood and milk during the period of early lactation, that is, the concentration of these elements was significantly higher in the blood and milk of the cows that obtained selenium and zinc supplements. Also, in these cows there was significantly lower number of somatic cells during the following lacation period. In the parenchyma of the udder there was found less pronounced infiltration of leukocytes, notably thicker keratin layer of ductus papillaris and less expressed repairing processes that indicate a chronic inflammation of the udder in the samples after exclusion of the cows from production. There was a significant positive correlation between selenium in blood and milk, while there was not observed such a correlation for zinc. On the other hand, there was a significant negative correlation between the concentration of selenium in the blood and milk with the average number of somatic cells and the degree of infiltration of leukocytes, while its influence on the keratin layer of ductus papillarus was not shown. Zinc from blood and udder had a negative correlation with the number of somatic cells, had a positive correlation with the thickness of ductus papillaris keratin layer and had no influence on the level of leukocyte infiltration of udder parenchyma. Zinc demonstrates a positive influence on the formation of ductus

  20. Investigation of association between high background radiation exposure with trace element concentrations’ (Copper, Zinc, Iron and Magnesium of hot springs workers blood in Mahalat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who live or work in high background radiation areas are subjected to high background radiation dose for long time, with low dose. The biological effect of low dose of radiation in long time and also background radiation is unknown and the mechanism of biological responses to these radiation doses has remained largely unclear. To investigate chronic radiation effects, parameters should be noticed those have a little but important change in biological system. Body trace element in this regards have an important roles. Trace element plays an important role in vital processes and acceptable ranges of these elements for physiological process are limited. Material and methods: In this study 30 participants of hot springs permanent employee area in mahalat (mean background dose : 21.6 mSiv were selected as a sample group and 30 persons with similar social class and normal background dose, not engaged in any type of radiation work, selected as control group. Five ml of blood sample was taken from each participant and after preparation of samples, the concentration of elements: copper, iron, zinc and magnesium were measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: The average concentration of copper, iron, zinc and magnesium in employee group was 0.67±0.11, 1.54±0.41, 1.76±0.34, 19.78±1.42 and in control group was 0.78±0.06, 1.06±0.15, 0.85±0.05, 20.34±0.57 ,respectively. Copper concentration in employees was lower than that of control group, although zinc and iron had significant increase in employee group. Magnesium average concentration in employee was lower than that of control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. Statistically (p<0.05 increase in Fe and Zn ratio and decrease in Cu ratio in employee group was found. Conclusions: Although the value of radiation doses of hot springs Permanent employee (chronic doses is low, but it can

  1. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Glidden, David V; Liu, Albert; Anderson, Peter L; Horng, Howard; Defechereux, Patricia; Guanira, Juan V; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grant, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    Self-reported adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has limitations, raising interest in pharmacologic monitoring. Drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots (DBS) are used to assess long-term-exposure; hair shipment/storage occurs at room temperature. The iPrEx Open Label Extension collected DBS routinely, with opt-in hair collection; concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In 806 hair-DBS pairs, tenofovir (TFV) hair levels and TFV diphosphate (DP) in DBS were strongly correlated (Spearman coefficient r = 0.734; P hair TFV/DBS emtricitabine (FTC) triphosphate (TP) (r = 0.781; P hair FTC/DBS TFV-DP (r = 0.74; P hair FTC/DBS FTC-TP (r = 0.587; P Hair TFV/FTC concentrations correlate strongly with DBS levels, which are predictive of PrEP outcomes.

  2. Effect of synthetic carbon amino saccharides on the transfer of labeled mineral 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.; Gracia, I.; Fabila, L.; Urbina, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The favorable effects of fulvic acids as fertilizers are very well known and they have been used long time ago in their natural state in dead leaves. Their extraction from natural sources is rather expensive, but the production of very similar carbon amino saccharides by sugar oxidation has been industrially applied in Mexico. Good properties of this commercial product as fertilizer have been proved empirically in different crops as well as at laboratory level, by the efficient absorption of radioactive labeled mineral ions in vegetables when they are carried by this synthetic organic matter in aqueous solution. Now, its effect has been tested by filtration of radioactively labeled 45Ca2+ and 32PO 4 3- ions from drinking water to blood serum through mice liver and kidneys. The results indicate that the filtration and diffusion of these mineral ions also improved, the same that in vegetables, in the presence of the synthetic carbon amino saccharides highly soluble in water. These results suggest the appropriateness of further research to evaluate their possible use either as a dietary complement or as auxiliaries in the treatment of liver and kidney diseases.

  3. Epithelial Expression of Human ABO Blood Group Genes Is Dependent upon a Downstream Regulatory Element Functioning through an Epithelial Cell-specific Transcription Factor, Elf5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Rie; Nakajima, Tamiko; Takahashi, Yoichiro; Kubo, Rieko; Kobayashi, Momoko; Takahashi, Keiko; Takeshita, Haruo; Ogasawara, Kenichi; Kominato, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-21

    The human ABO blood group system is of great importance in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The ABO system is composed of complex carbohydrate structures that are biosynthesized by A- and B-transferases encoded by the ABO gene. However, the mechanisms regulating ABO gene expression in epithelial cells remain obscure. On the basis of DNase I-hypersensitive sites in and around ABO in epithelial cells, we prepared reporter plasmid constructs including these sites. Subsequent luciferase assays and histone modifications indicated a novel positive regulatory element, designated the +22.6-kb site, downstream from ABO, and this was shown to enhance ABO promoter activity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. Expression of ABO and B-antigen was reduced in gastric cancer KATOIII cells by biallelic deletion of the +22.6-kb site using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the site bound to an epithelial cell-specific transcription factor, Elf5. Mutation of the Ets binding motifs to abrogate binding of this factor reduced the regulatory activity of the +22.6-kb site. Furthermore, ELF5 knockdown with shRNA reduced both endogenous transcription from ABO and B-antigen expression in KATOIII cells. Thus, Elf5 appeared to be involved in the enhancer potential of the +22.6-kb site. These results support the contention that ABO expression is dependent upon a downstream positive regulatory element functioning through a tissue-restricted transcription factor, Elf5, in epithelial cells.

  4. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  5. Effects of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus on tissue lipid peroxidation, trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe) and blood glucose levels in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Berkkan, Aysel; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Aslan, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2011-01-27

    Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) fruits and leaves are used internally and pounded fruits are eaten for diabetes in Turkey. To evaluate the interrelationships between the levels of chosen trace elements (copper, iron, and zinc) and hepatic, renal lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (J.o.s.o.) leaf and fruit extracts for 10 days. J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts were administered in STZ-induced diabetic rats, at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The blood glucose levels were measured in the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th day of experiment. Fe, Cu, and Zn contents and lipid peroxidation levels of liver and kidney tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, respectively. Treatment of diabetic rats with the J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts decreased the blood glucose levels and both the levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney tissues. J.o.s.o. extracts have augmented Zn concentrations in liver of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results indicated that J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  7. Regional pulmonary distribution of iodine-125-labeled oleic acid. Its relationship to the pattern of oleic acid edema and pulmonary blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarver, R.D.; Tsai, J.; Hedlund, L.W.; Sullivan, D.C.; Lischko, M.M.; Harris, C.C.; Effmann, E.L.; Putman, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Oleic acid infusion in dogs produces a patchy, predominantly peripheral lesion on CT scans. This study correlates the pattern of oleic acid injury with the distribution of infused oleic acid and pulmonary blood flow. Radiolabeled oleic acid (I-125, 0.05 ml/kg) and radiolabeled 15-micron microspheres (Co-57) were infused into the right atria of 11 dogs. Oleic acid was given after the microspheres in six dogs and before microspheres in five dogs. Ten minutes after infusion, the lungs were removed. Four transverse slices (0.5 cm thick) of the lower lobes were taken from each dog and cubed. Samples were grouped into three regions of the transverse slice: outer, middle, and inner concentric rings. In both groups, I-125 (oleic acid) activity was greater in the outer than the middle and inner concentric layers (P less than 0.001). When Cobalt-57 microspheres were given before oleic acid, Cobalt-57 activity was marginally lower in the outer layer compared with the middle and inner layers. However, when oleic acid was given first, microsphere activity in the outer layer was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than the middle layer. Thus, oleic acid was preferentially distributed to the peripheral regions of the lung, similar to the regions of injury on CT. This distribution did not correspond to the pattern of pulmonary blood flow as indicated by the microspheres. Immediately after oleic acid infusion, pulmonary blood flow to the periphery was reduced, reflecting a response to the predominantly peripheral injury by oleic acid.

  8. Mapping blood flow directionality in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Do, Won-Joon; Choi, Seung Hong; Zhao, Tiejun; Bae, Kyongtae Ty

    2016-07-01

    Diffusion properties of tissue are often expressed on the basis of directional variance, i.e., diffusion tensor imaging. In comparison, common perfusion-weighted imaging such as arterial spin labeling yields perfusion in a scalar quantity. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of mapping cerebral blood flow directionality using alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), a recently-developed arterial spin labeling technique with sensitivity to blood flow directions. ALADDIN was applied along 3 orthogonal directions to assess directional blood flow in a vector form and also along 6 equally-spaced directions to extract blood flow tensor matrix (P) based on a blood flow ellipsoid model. Tensor elements (eigenvalues, eigenvectors, etc) were calculated to investigate characteristics of the blood flow tensor, in comparison with time-of-flight MR angiogram. While the directions of the main eigenvectors were heterogeneous throughout the brain, regional clusters of blood flow directionality were reproducible across subjects. The technique could show heterogeneous blood flow directionality within and around brain tumor, which was different from that of the contralateral normal side. The proposed method is deemed to provide information of blood flow directionality, which has not been demonstrated before. The results warrant further studies to assess changes in the directionality map as a function of scan parameters, to understand the signal sources, to investigate the possibility of mapping local blood perfusion directionality, and to evaluate its usefulness for clinical diagnosis.

  9. In vivo and in vitro study of the 9{sup 9mT}c-DMSA radiopharmaceutical connection to blood elements; Estudo in vivo e in vitro da ligacao do radiofarmaco 99mTc-DMSA aos elementos sanquineos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rosimeire de S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]|[Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gomes, Maria L.; Mattos, Deise M.M.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Dire, Glaucio F.; Lima, Elaine A.; Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Aleixo, Luiz Claudio [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]|[Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica] E-mail: rosfreitas@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are widely used in nuclear medicine. The comprehension of their uptake mechanism in target organs, as well as their clearance may depend on the elucidation of their biochemical characteristics, for instance, their binding to blood elements. The reported precipitating studies of blood with radiopharmaceuticals have shown that the results can not be easily compared. Then, we decide evaluate of the binding proteins on the blood elements using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to determine the radioactivity of the dimercaptosuccinic acid with technetium-99m (99mTc-DMSA) present in precipitating plasma (P) and blood cells (BC). Depending on the TCA concentration we have determined different values in the insoluble fractions of the plasma when the in vivo and in vitro evaluations were carried out. (author)

  10. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  11. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video Share Tweet ... FDA has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, ...

  12. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    In the online labeling problem with parameters n and m we are presented with a sequence of nkeys from a totally ordered universe U and must assign each arriving key a label from the label set {1,2,…,m} so that the order of labels (strictly) respects the ordering on U. As new keys arrive it may be...

  13. Validation of 99mTechnetium-labeled mebrofenin hepatic extraction method to quantify meal-induced splanchnic blood flow responses using a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle Damgaard; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2012-01-01

    aim was to investigate whether enterohepatic cycling of 99mTc-MBF affected the SBF measurement. Five indwelling catheters were placed in each pig (n = 15) in the portal, mesenteric, and hepatic veins, as well as in the aorta and the vena cava. The SBF was measured using both methods. The portal blood...... or metabolism. The clinical method for measuring the SBF based on hepatic 99mTc-MBF extraction is robust compared with the indicator dilution method, despite the decrease seen in hepatic extraction of 99mTc-MBF. Because there was no difference in the content of 99mTc-MBF between the arterial and portal vein...... flow; the intestinal and hepatic oxygen uptake; the net fluxes of oxygen, lactate, and glucose; and the extraction fraction (EF) of 99mTc-MBF were measured before and for 70 min after feeding. The mean baseline SBF was 2,961 ml/min vs. 2,762 ml/min measured by pAH and 99mTc-MBF, respectively...

  14. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, Paola A. [University of Pisa Medical School (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Veltman, Niels C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sollini, Martina [Arcisprdale S. Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Ospedale S. Andrea Medicina Nucleare

    2014-04-15

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  15. Add-on-Statin Extended Release Nicotinic Acid/Laropiprant but Not the Switch to High-Dose Rosuvastatin Lowers Blood Pressure: An Open-Label Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazia Kei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nicotinic acid (NA and statins have been associated with reductions in blood pressure (BP. Patients and Methods. We recruited 68 normotensive and hypertensive dyslipidemic patients who were treated with a conventional statin dose and had not achieved lipid targets. Patients were randomized to switch to high-dose rosuvastatin (40 mg/day or to add-on current statin treatment with extended release (ER NA/laropiprant (1000/20 mg/day for the first 4 weeks followed by 2000/40 mg/day for the next 8 weeks for 3 months. Results. Switching to rosuvastatin 40 mg/day was not associated with significant BP alterations. In contrast, the addition of ER-NA/laropiprant to current statin treatment resulted in a 7% reduction of systolic BP (from 134±12 to 125±10 mmHg, <.001 versus baseline and =.01 versus rosuvastatin group and a 5% reduction of diastolic BP (from 81±9 to 77±6 mmHg, =.009 versus baseline and =.01 versus rosuvastatin group. These reductions were significant only in the subgroup of hypertensives and were independent of the hypolipidemic effects of ER-NA/laropiprant. Conclusions. Contrary to the switch to high-dose rosuvastatin, the addition of ER-NA/laropiprant to statin treatment was associated with significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP.

  16. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with {sup 15}O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Division of Brain Sciences, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-Machi, 980-8575, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanno, Iwao [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Kato, Chietsugu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sasaki, Toshiaki [Cyclotoron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamakita (Japan); Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Rehabilitation Center, Nagoya (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [PET Unit, Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Hayashida, Kohei [Department of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Imaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Kuwabara, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Senda, Michio [Department of Image-based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C{sup 15}O{sub 2}) or {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O), {sup 15}O-labelled carbon monoxide (C{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O-labelled oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of cerebrovascular disease. The measured values theoretically depend on various factors, which may differ between PET centres. This study explored the applicability of a database of {sup 15}O-PET by examining between-centre and within-centre variation in values. Eleven PET centres participated in this multicentre study; seven used the steady-state inhalation method, one used build-up inhalation and three used bolus administration of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} (or H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O{sub 2}. All used C{sup 15}O for measurement of CBV. Subjects comprised 70 healthy volunteers (43 men and 27 women; mean age 51.8{+-}15.1 years). Overall mean{+-}SD values for cerebral cortical regions were: CBF=44.4{+-}6.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; CBV=3.8{+-}0.7 ml 100 ml{sup -1}; OEF=0.44{+-}0.06; CMRO{sub 2}=3.3{+-}0.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}. Significant between-centre variation was observed in CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by one-way analysis of variance. However, the overall inter-individual variation in CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} was acceptably small. Building a database of normal cerebral haemodynamics obtained by the{sup 15}O-PET methods may be practicable. (orig.)

  17. Efficacy of a classical antiobesity Unani pharmacopial formulation (Safoof-e-Muhazzil in systolic and diastolic blood pressure: A randomized, open-labeled, controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ali Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a Unani formulation in hypertension. A total of 90 patients with total cholesterol level of more than 220 mg/dl with associated conditions were included in this study. A total of 30 patients having a mean systolic blood pressure (BP of 133.86 mmHg comprising Group A received Unani formulation Safoof-e-Muhazzil (SM in its classical powder form in the dose of 5 g twice a day orally. Group B comprising of 30 patients with a mean systolic BP of 133.13 mmHg received same drug, but in compressed tablet form in the same dosage, whereas, 30 patients comprising Group C with a mean systolic BP of 129.45 mmHg, received Atorvastatin 10 mg as a standard control. Patients were evaluated on each follow-up at 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th week. The mean systolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 133.86 ± 3.028 mmHg and 133.13 ± 2.852 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 119.33 ± 1.922 mmHg (P < 0.001 and 119 ± 1.760 mmHg (P < 0.001 respectively. In the control Group C before treatment BP was 129.45 ± 2.499 mmHg and after treatment it significantly decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01. The percentage change after treatment was 10.85%, 10.61% and 3.94% respectively in each group. Mean diastolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 85.06 ± 2.11 mmHg and 84.56 ± 1.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 79.06 ± 1.56 mmHg (P < 0.001 and 79.96 ± 1.15 mmHg (P < 0.001 respectively, BP before treatment in Group C was 83.23 ± 1.588 mmHg, which was decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01. The study results indicate that the test drug was quite effective in reducing both systolic as well as diastolic BP.

  18. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Glidden, David V.; Liu, Albert; Anderson, Peter L.; Horng, Howard; Defechereux, Patricia; Guanira, Juan V.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grant, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has limitations, raising interest in pharmacologic monitoring. Drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots (DBS) are used to assess long-term-exposure; hair shipment/storage occurs at room temperature. The iPrEx Open Label Extension collected DBS routinely, with opt-in hair collection; concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In 806 hair-DBS pairs, tenofovir (TFV) hair levels and TFV diphosphate (DP) in DBS were strongly correlated (Spearman coefficient r = 0.734; P < .001), as were hair TFV/DBS emtricitabine (FTC) triphosphate (TP) (r = 0.781; P < .001); hair FTC/DBS TFV-DP (r = 0.74; P < .001); hair FTC/DBS FTC-TP (r = 0.587; P < .001). Drug detectability was generally concordant by matrix. Hair TFV/FTC concentrations correlate strongly with DBS levels, which are predictive of PrEP outcomes. PMID:25895984

  19. Immunogold labels: cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Grooth, de Bart G.; Hansma, Paul K.; Hulst, van Niek F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using immunogold labels as cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy is shown in this paper. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the surface of immunogold-labeled human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and labeled by an indirect imm

  20. The Effect of Aggressive Blood Pressure Control on the Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Catheter Ablation: A Randomized, Open Label, Clinical Trial (Substrate Modification with Aggressive Blood Pressure Control: SMAC- AF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Ratika; Wells, George A; Sapp, John L; Healey, Jeffrey S; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Greiss, Isabelle; Rivard, Léna; Roux, Jean-Francois; Gula, Lorne; Nault, Isabelle; Novak, Paul G; Birnie, David H; Ha, Andrew C; Wilton, Stephen B; Mangat, Iqwal; Gray, Christopher J; Gardner, Martin J; Tang, Anthony S L

    2017-02-22

    Background -Radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation has become an important therapy for AF, however recurrence rates remain high. We proposed to determine whether aggressive blood pressure (BP) lowering prevents recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation in patients with AF and a high symptom burden. Methods -We randomly assigned 184 patients with AF and a BP greater than 130/80 mmHg to aggressive BP (target <120/80 mm Hg) or standard BP treatment (target <140/90 mmHg) prior to their scheduled AF catheter ablation. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrence of AF/atrial tachycardia/atrial flutter lasting greater than 30 seconds, determined 3 months beyond catheter ablation by a blinded endpoint evaluation. Results -The median follow-up was 14 months. At six months, the mean systolic BP in the aggressive BP treatment group was 123.2±13.2 versus 135.4±15.7mm Hg (p<0.001) in the standard treatment group. The primary outcome occurred in 106 patients, 54 (61.4%) in the aggressive BP treatment group, compared to 52 (61.2%) in the standard treatment group, (Hazard Ratio 0.94, 95% Confidence Interval 0.65-1.38, p=0.763). In the prespecified subgroup analysis of the influence of age, patients aged ≥ 61 years had a lower primary outcome event rate with aggressive BP (Hazard Ratio 0.58, 95% Confidence Interval (0.34, 0.97), p=0.013). There was a higher rate of hypotension requiring medication adjustment in the aggressive BP group (26% versus 0%). Conclusions -In this study, this duration of aggressive BP treatment did not reduce atrial arrhythmia recurrence after catheter ablation for AF, but resulted in more hypotension. Clinical Trial Registration -Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00438113.

  1. 21 CFR 606.120 - Labeling, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling, general requirements. 606.120 Section 606.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Finished Product Control § 606.120 Labeling, general requirements....

  2. A Novel Automated Slide-Based Technology for Visualization, Counting, and Characterization of the Formed Elements of Blood: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, James W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Zahniser, David J

    2017-08-01

    - A novel automated slide-based approach to the complete blood count and white blood cell differential count is introduced. - To present proof of concept for an image-based approach to complete blood count, based on a new slide preparation technique. A preliminary data comparison with the current flow-based technology is shown. - A prototype instrument uses a proprietary method and technology to deposit a precise volume of undiluted peripheral whole blood in a monolayer onto a glass microscope slide so that every cell can be distinguished, counted, and imaged. The slide is stained, and then multispectral image analysis is used to measure the complete blood count parameters. Images from a 600-cell white blood cell differential count, as well as 5000 red blood cells and a variable number of platelets, that are present in 600 high-power fields are made available for a technologist to view on a computer screen. An initial comparison of the basic complete blood count parameters was performed, comparing 1857 specimens on both the new instrument and a flow-based hematology analyzer. - Excellent correlations were obtained between the prototype instrument and a flow-based system. The primary parameters of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts resulted in correlation coefficients (r) of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Other indices included hemoglobin (r = 0.99), hematocrit (r = 0.99), mean cellular volume (r = 0.90), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r = 0.97), and mean platelet volume (r = 0.87). For the automated white blood cell differential counts, r values were calculated for neutrophils (r = 0.98), lymphocytes (r = 0.97), monocytes (r = 0.76), eosinophils (r = 0.96), and basophils (r = 0.63). - Quantitative results for components of the complete blood count and automated white blood cell differential count can be developed by image analysis of a monolayer preparation of a known volume of peripheral blood.

  3. Deep Label Distribution Learning With Label Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin-Bin; Xing, Chao; Xie, Chen-Wei; Wu, Jianxin; Geng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have achieved excellent recognition performance in various visual recognition tasks. A large labeled training set is one of the most important factors for its success. However, it is difficult to collect sufficient training images with precise labels in some domains such as apparent age estimation, head pose estimation, multi-label classification and semantic segmentation. Fortunately, there is ambiguous information among labels, which makes these tasks different from traditional classification. Based on this observation, we convert the label of each image into a discrete label distribution, and learn the label distribution by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence between the predicted and ground-truth label distributions using deep ConvNets. The proposed DLDL (Deep Label Distribution Learning) method effectively utilizes the label ambiguity in both feature learning and classifier learning, which help prevent the network from over-fitting even when the training set is small. Experimental results show that the proposed approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods for age estimation and head pose estimation. At the same time, it also improves recognition performance for multi-label classification and semantic segmentation tasks.

  4. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-01-01

    Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on...

  5. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  6. Analysis on blood trace elements concentration levels of middle period pregnant women in Handan City%邯郸市孕中期妇女全血微量元素浓度水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾玉杰; 郭丽丽; 李守霞; 郭胜利; 赵素斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the whole blood concentration levels of copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron trace elements of middle period pregnant women in Handan City and its clinical significance, in order to guide the intake and supplement trace elements during pregnancy. Methods Flame atomic absorption spectrometric was used to detect 5 trace elements concentration levels in whole blood among 368 cases of middle period pregnant women (pregnancy group) and 138 cases of healthy adult women (control group), then the data were analyzed and compared. Results The copper and calcium concentration levels in pregnancy group were higher than those of the control group, the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05). The deficient of copper, calcium, magnesium, iron had no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). The zinc element lack rate in the pregnancy group was higher than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05);铜、钙、镁、铁元素两组间缺乏率差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05);中孕组锌元素缺乏率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 孕妇作为特殊人群,应加强微量元素监测以保证各种微量元素均衡摄入,做好孕期保健.

  7. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  8. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has issued final changes to update the Nutrition Facts label for packaged foods. For more information, see Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label . FDA presents an entertaining and educational tool ...

  9. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  10. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  11. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  12. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...... experiment engaging 4 operations: stimulating market anticipations, focussing politicalconsultations, producing collective expertise and containing the regulatory transcription of the label....

  13. Microscopical and elemental FESEM and Phenom ProX-SEM-EDS analysis of osteocyte- and blood vessel-like microstructures obtained from fossil vertebrates of the Eocene Messel Pit, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cadena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene (∾48 Ma Messel Pit in Germany is a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its exceptionally preserved fossils, including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Messel fossil vertebrates are typically characterized by their articulated state, and in some cases the skin, hair, feathers, scales and stomach contents are also preserved. Despite the exceptional macroscopic preservation of Messel fossil vertebrates, the microstructural aspect of these fossils has been poorly explored. In particular, soft tissue structures such as hair or feathers have not been chemically analyzed, nor have bone microstructures. I report here the preservation and recovery of osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures from the bone of Messel Pit specimens, including the turtles Allaeochelys crassesculpta and Neochelys franzeni, the crocodile Diplocynodon darwini, and the pangolin Eomanis krebsi. I used a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM and a Phenom ProX desktop scanning electron microscope (LOT-QuantumDesign equipped with a thermionic CeB6 source and a high sensitivity multi-mode backscatter electron (BSE for microscopical and elemental characterization of these bone microstructures. Osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures are constituted by a thin layer (∾50 nm thickness, external and internal mottled texture with slightly marked striations. Circular to linear marks are common on the external surface of the osteocyte-like microstructures and are interpreted as microbial troughs. Iron (Fe is the most abundant element found in the osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures, but not in the bone matrix or collagen fibril-like microstructures. The occurrence of well-preserved soft-tissue elements (at least their physical form establishes a promising background for future studies on preservation of biomolecules (proteins or DNA in Messel Pit fossils.

  14. Microscopical and elemental FESEM and Phenom ProX-SEM-EDS analysis of osteocyte- and blood vessel-like microstructures obtained from fossil vertebrates of the Eocene Messel Pit, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene (∾48 Ma) Messel Pit in Germany is a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its exceptionally preserved fossils, including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Messel fossil vertebrates are typically characterized by their articulated state, and in some cases the skin, hair, feathers, scales and stomach contents are also preserved. Despite the exceptional macroscopic preservation of Messel fossil vertebrates, the microstructural aspect of these fossils has been poorly explored. In particular, soft tissue structures such as hair or feathers have not been chemically analyzed, nor have bone microstructures. I report here the preservation and recovery of osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures from the bone of Messel Pit specimens, including the turtles Allaeochelys crassesculpta and Neochelys franzeni, the crocodile Diplocynodon darwini, and the pangolin Eomanis krebsi. I used a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and a Phenom ProX desktop scanning electron microscope (LOT-QuantumDesign) equipped with a thermionic CeB6 source and a high sensitivity multi-mode backscatter electron (BSE) for microscopical and elemental characterization of these bone microstructures. Osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures are constituted by a thin layer (∾50 nm thickness), external and internal mottled texture with slightly marked striations. Circular to linear marks are common on the external surface of the osteocyte-like microstructures and are interpreted as microbial troughs. Iron (Fe) is the most abundant element found in the osteocyte-like and blood vessel-like microstructures, but not in the bone matrix or collagen fibril-like microstructures. The occurrence of well-preserved soft-tissue elements (at least their physical form) establishes a promising background for future studies on preservation of biomolecules (proteins or DNA) in Messel Pit fossils.

  15. Correlation analysis for the blood levels of trace elements and lead with anemia in children%儿童微量元素以及血铅水平与贫血的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾胜荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between anemia and blood levels of lead and trace elements in children,and to provide basis for the prevention and treatment of anemia.Methods 80 children with anemia(case group)and 90 health children (control group)were enrolled in the study.The blood levels of trace elements (iron,zinc,calcium,magnesium,copper)and lead were detected in all subjects,in order to analyze their correlations with anemia.Results Compared with control group,the blood levels of iron,zinc and magnesium in case group were significantly lower(P0.05).With the re-duction of iron,zinc and magnesium and the rise of calcium and lead,the severity of anemia increased significantly(P0.05).The blood level of iron was positive correlated with Hb,RBC and MCH (P<0.05).The blood level of zinc was positive correlated with Hb and MCH(P<0.05).The blood level of lead was negative correlated with Hb,MCV and MCH(P<0.05).Conclusion The blood level changes of trace elements and leas effect the severity of anemia in children.It is necessary to test the blood levels of trace elements and lead.%目的:探讨微量元素以及血铅水平与儿童发生贫血的相关性,为临床防治贫血提供可参考依据。方法连续收集85例诊断为贫血的患儿作为病例组,同时从门诊随机抽取90例健康体检儿童作为对照组,对受试者进行微量元素(铁、锌、钙、镁、铜)及血铅水平的检测,分析检测结果与贫血程度的相关性。结果与对照组相比,病例组患儿血中铁、锌、镁浓度明显比较低,而钙、铅浓度明显高于对照组,2组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。2组血中铜浓度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。随着患儿血中铁浓、锌、镁浓度的降低,钙、铅浓度的上升,贫血严重程度明显增加(P<0.05);而血中铜浓度变化对贫血程度影响不明显(P>0.05)。血铁浓度与 Hb、RBC及 MCH 呈正相关(P<0

  16. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  17. Enzyme-inhibitor mediated red cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackery, D.M.; Singh, J.; Wyeth, P. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    Red blood cells contain 90% of the body's enzyme carbonic anhydrase to which aromatic sulphonamide inhibitors bind tightly. P-iodo-benzene sulphonamide (PIBS) is a lipophilic inhibitor which would afford rapid cell labelling. Radioiodinated PIBS was prepared, in high yield, by radio ion exchange in the presence of ammonium sulphate. After intravenous injection of /sup 131/I-PIBS the radiolabel was found in the blood pool.

  18. Labeling Schemes with Queries

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We study the question of ``how robust are the known lower bounds of labeling schemes when one increases the number of consulted labels''. Let $f$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An $f$-labeling scheme for a family of graphs $\\cF$ labels the vertices of all graphs in $\\cF$ such that for every graph $G\\in\\cF$ and every two vertices $u,v\\in G$, the value $f(u,v)$ can be inferred by merely inspecting the labels of $u$ and $v$. This paper introduces a natural generalization: the notion of $f$-...

  19. Simultaneous quantification of 17 trace elements in blood by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) equipped with a high-efficiency sample introduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ilio, S; Violante, N; Di Gregorio, M; Senofonte, O; Petrucci, F

    2006-10-10

    A quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q-ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) and coupled with a desolvating nebulization system (APEX-IR) was employed to determine 17 elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, and Zr) in blood samples. Ammonia (for Al, Cr, Mn, and V) and O2 (for As and Se) were used as reacting gases. Selection of the best flow rate of the gases and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic bandpass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using digested blood diluted 1+9 with deionized water and spiked with 1 microg L(-1) of Al, Cr, Mn, V and 5 microgL(-1) of As and Se. Detection limits were determined in digested blood using the 3sigma criterion. The desolvating system allowed a sufficient sensitivity to be achieved to determine elements at levels of ng L(-1) without detriment of signal stability. The accuracy of the method was tested with the whole blood certified reference material (CRM), certified for Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V, and with indicative values for Ba, Li, Sn, Sr, and Zr. The addition calibration approach was chosen for analysis. In order to confirm the DRC data, samples were also analyzed by means of sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS), operating in medium (m/Deltam=4000) and high (m/Deltam=10,000) resolution mode and achieving a good agreement between the two techniques.

  20. The correlation between high background radiation and blood level of the trace elements (copper, zinc, iron and magnesium in workers of Mahallat′s hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that increases in the average concentrations of Zn and Fe and decreases in the concentration of Cu of workers was observed. The finding also showed that the probability of chronic exposure effects on body trace element concentrations was increases and each value of the doses could be dangerous.

  1. Nichtinvasive Magnetresonanz- Perfusionsmessung des Gehirns mittels Magnetischer Blutbolusmarkierung (Spin-Labeling)

    OpenAIRE

    Warmuth, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling methods allow to determine quantitative tissue blood flow values noninvasively. Arterial blood is labelled by an inversion pulse and the distribution of this intrinsic tracer is measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Experiments using an extra corporal in-vitro porcine kidney in a MR compatible set-up were carried out to determine the accuracy of blood flow values calculated from arterial spin labeling measurements. In a study of 36 brain tumor patients, spin labeli...

  2. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... donor code in the product labeling each donor of peripheral blood used for detection or identification... IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES” or “NOT FOR USE IN DETECTION OR IDENTIFICATION OF UNEXPECTED ANTIBODIES... antibodies shall identify the number of donors contributing to the pool. Products designed exclusively...

  3. 孕妇妊娠期膳食暴露与新生儿脐血微量元素及血压的关系%Study on the correlation between gestation dietary exposure and neonatal cord blood trace elements and blood pressure relationship in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉梅; 余涛; 陈文军; 李李; 范大志; 夏果; 潘发明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the dietary exposure of pregnant women during pregnancy and neonatal serum trace elements, and accordingly, the effect of neonatal serum trace elements on neonatal blood pressure, in order to provide the scientific basis for primary hypertension prevention and control. Methods Cluster sampling was performed in Hefei and Xuancheng city maternal and child health hospital, where the questionnaire survey was carned on among 139 pregnant women delivered in the hospitals to let them review pregnancy diet. Neonatal cord blood trace elements were measured using a neonatal blood pressure instrument and the blood pressure of the neonates was also measured. Results There was difference in fruit and eggs intake among city pregnant women and rural ones; maternal dietary exposure and neonatal cord blood trace elements, cord blood iron levels and vegetable intake were negatively related ( rs = -0.212,P = 0. 003 ); pregnant fruit intake and neonatal blood calcium content were positively correlated ( rs = 0. 183 , P = 0. 011 ); maternal egg intake and neonatal blood calcium content were negatively correlated ( rs = - 0. 175 ,P = 0. 015 ); milk intake and cord blood iron was also positively related( rs =0. 156,P = 0. 031 ); neonatal cord blood trace element calcium and systolic blood pressure were positively related ( rs = 0. 353 ,P < 0. 05 ), and there was a positive correlation with diastolic blood pressure ( rs = 0. 355 , p < 0. 05 ); serum iron and systolic blood pressure were negatively correlated ( rs = -0. 296,P <0. 05 ), and there was a negative correlation with the diastolic blood pressure( rs = - 0. 292,P<0.05 ). Conclusion Maternal dietary exposure has effect on neonatal umbilical cord blood trace elements in affecting neonatal blood pressure, so pregnant women should not only focus on the variety of food intake but also enough volume of food. Food rich in calcium, zinc and other trace elements is preferred.%目的 研究孕妇

  4. The influence of selenium and zinc addition in food on concentration of these elements in blood and milk, on somatic cells number and histological characteristics of cows udders

    OpenAIRE

    Davidov Ivana; Cincović Marko R.; Radinović Miodrag; Erdeljan Mihajlo; Belić Branislava; Toholj Bojan; Stevančević Milenko

    2014-01-01

    The experiment included 30 cows of Holstein-Friesian breed, out of which 15 were receiving selenium and zinc in optimal doses before calving, while the others had never been supplemented with these micronutrients. There was analysed the concentration of selenium and zinc in blood and milk serum as well as the average number of somatic cells in corresponding lactation. After the cows exclusion from production, histological characteristics of cows udders were...

  5. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K

    2016-10-01

    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data.

  6. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the ......It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  7. Diagnostic usefulness of thrombus imaging scintigraphy for blood coagulopathy in the patients with aortic aneurysm. The comparison of /sup 111/In-oxine labelled platelet and sup(99m)Tc-fibrinogen scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Yuzuru; Takeda, Toru; Ijima, Hiroshi; Nose, Tadao; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Hori, Motokazu

    1984-07-01

    Eighteen patients with aortic aneurysm were studied to identify intraluminal thrombi using /sup 111/In-oxine labelled platelet and /sup 99m/Tc-fibrinogen scintigraphy. Reliability in the detection of thrombi with /sup 111/In-oxine labelled platelet scintigraphy was higher than that with /sup 99m/Tc-fibrinogen scintigraphy (94.1% vs 76.9%, respectively). Measurement of mean platelet survival time with /sup 111/In-oxine labelled autologous platelets were carried out in eight patients. Seven of them showed focal accumulation of the labelled platelets at the site of aortic aneurysm and mean platelet survival time (6.64 + 1.46 days) was shorter than normal. In the case of abdominal aneurysm, thrombocytopenia was present, his mean platelet survival time was 4.01 days and RI was accumulated at the site of aneurysm. His hematological pathophysiology could be explained as consumption coagulopathy in the abdominal aneurysm. Using scanning electron-microscopy, we found entrapped platelets with fine fibrin network were found indicating platelet consumption at the site of intraluminal thrombi. It was concluded that these imaging techniques using radioisotopes were very useful not only for detecting intraluminal thrombi but for diagnosing consumption coagulopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation even where there is no clinical manifestation.

  8. Radionuclide scanning with technetium labelled white blood cells in inflammatory bowel disease; Examens scintigraphiques a l`aide de leucocytes techneties au cours des maladies inflammatoires de l`intestin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, J.N.; Beades, E.

    1996-12-31

    The authors report on the protocol and the technical aspects of the labelling of leukocytes by Tc-HMPAO and its quality. Dosimetric concerns are discussed. Indications and results of scintigraphy are reviewed and the role of the exploration is discussed. (author). 94 refs., 2 figs.

  9. 血微量元素和性激素水平对精子缺陷的影响%Effect of the blood trace elements and Sex hormone level on sperm defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮兴有; 王志军; 丁黎明

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of blood trace elements and sex hormone level on sperm defect. Methods:Serum trace elements (calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iorn and lead) and sex hormone in healthy controls and married men with sperm defect were detected and semen routine analysis was done. Results: Blood lead and magnesium levels were significantly different between sperm defect group and healthy control group(P 0. 05) , serum testosterone/estradiol ratio(T/E2) of sperm defect group was significantly lower than thai of healthy control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: There is a certain relationship between blood trace elements, sex hormone level and sperm morphology, keeping a balance between trace elements and sex hormone levels can play a positive role in forming better sperm.%目的:探讨血清微量元素和性激素水平对精子缺陷的影响.方法:检测精子缺陷已婚育龄男性和健康对照者血清钙、镁、铜、锌、铁、铅、性激素,并精液常规分析.结果:精子缺陷组血铅、血镁含量与健康对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).血钙、锌、铜、铁与健康对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),激素水平与健康对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),睾酮与雌二醇的比值T/E2 (0.109±0.031)低于健康对照组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:血液微量元素和性激素与精子形态存在一定的关系,血液中保持合理平衡的微量元素和激素水平对于形成优良精子具有积极作用.

  10. Effect of pre-pregnancy obesity on blood trace elements of pregnant women and neonates%产前肥胖对孕妇及新生儿脐血微量元素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 史新竹; 张吉慧; 梁多宏; 王凤芝; 刘伟; 张莉; 陈立新; 顾英姿

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期肥胖对孕妇及新生儿体内微量元素的影响.方法:以213对健康初产妇及其新生儿为研究对象,分为产前肥胖组(产前BMI ≥28)和产前体重正常组(产前BMI<28),以及孕期体重增加过度组(孕期BMI增加>6)和孕期正常增长组(孕期BMI增加≤6),采用原子吸收光谱法测定孕妇静脉血及新生儿脐带血中钙、镁、铁、锌、铜的含量.结果:产前肥胖组新生儿脐血Mg、Zn水平明显低于产前正常体重组水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);产前肥胖组脐血Ca、Fe、Cu水平较正常体重组略低,但组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).产前BMI与新生儿脐血Mg水平呈负相关(r=-0.178,P=0.010).结论:孕妇产前肥胖可能影响新生儿体内微量元素水平降低.%Objective:To explore the effct of pre-pregnancy obesity on blood trace elements of pregnant women and neonates.Methods:213 primiparas with single birth were selected and divided into two groups according to pre-pregnancy and antenatal BMI,including antenatal obesity group (BMI≥28) and antenatal normal weight group (BMI < 28),at the same time,they were divided into two groups according to BMI gained during the whole pregnancy time,including BMI gained > 6 as group one and BMI gained ≤ 6 as group two.Concentration of trace elements,Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn,Cu,both in maternal venues blood and in umbilical cord blood of neonates were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Results:The concentration of Mg,Zn in umbilical cord blood of the neonates in antenatal obesity group were significantly lower than those of antenatal normal weight group (P < 0.05) ; and the concentration of Ca,Fe,Cu in umbilical cord blood of the neonates in antenatal obesity group were a little lower than those antenatal normal weight group,but there were no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05).There were negative correlation relationship between maternal antenatal

  11. Reduction of the morning blood pressure surge treated with olmesartan in Chinese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension--a multicenter, open-label, single treatment group clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuan; Ke, Yuannan; Sun, Ningling; Wang, Jiguang; Deng, Wude; Zhu, Junren

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) in Chinese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension treated with long-term administration of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist according to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). In a multi-center, prospective study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of olmesartan by ABPM in 18-75 years-old Chinese patients with mild to moderate hypertension (clinic diastolic blood pressure [DBP] 90-109 mm Hg and systolic blood pressure [SBP] olmesartan 20 mg once daily in the morning for 24 weeks. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted at baseline and at the end of 24 weeks. At baseline, patients with an MBPS > or = 23 mmHg were classified as the MBPS group (n = 41), and all other patients were classified as the non-MBPS group (n = 46). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) over 24 hours were reduced from 141.78 +/- 12.8/91.17 +/- 7.34 to 128.35 +/- 15.86/83.58 +/- 9.53 mmHg (p olmesartan were significantly different between the two groups (p Olmesartan effectively reduces blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension, and olmesartan especially reduces the MBPS in MBPS-prone patients.

  12. The influencing factors of whole blood trace elements in pregnant women with mild thalassemia%轻型地中海贫血孕妇全血微量元素的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建雷; 曾赤佳; 赵东; 饶雪飞; 王文

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨轻型轻型地中海贫血(简称“地贫”)孕妇全血微量元素浓度的影响因素.方法:基因诊断318例地贫孕妇,其中静止型α地贫32例、标准型α地贫171例,β地贫杂合子(β+地贫)104例,α,β混合型地贫11例,对照组120例,统计分析全血微量元素与红细胞参数及全血微量元素相互之间关系.结果:①轻型地贫孕妇与对照组相比,全血铁(Fe)、镁(Mg)明显降低(P<0.01);除静止型α地贫外,全血锌(Zn)均升高(P<0.01).Fe含量α地贫组高于β+地贫(P<0.01);Zn 浓度由高到低依次为α,β混合型地贫和标准型α地贫[(113.33±21.74)、(111.94±17.06)μmol/L]>β+地贫(98.71±15.04)μmol/L>静止型α地贫(89.93±17.19)μmol/L (P<0.01).②轻型地贫孕妇与对照组相比,血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞比积(HCT)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、红细胞平均血红蛋白量(MCH)、红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)降低,红细胞(RBC)(除静止型α地贫)升高(均P<0.01);标准型α地贫RBC高于β+地贫(P<0.01);β+地贫Hb低于其他地贫组(P<0.05或P<0.01).③与健康孕妇相比,轻型地贫孕妇Ca与红细胞参数呈负相关,且相关性减低,而Fe、Zn、Mg与红细胞参数呈正相关,且相关性升高;各微量元素之间的相关性,除Zn和Mg之间明显升高外,其他相关性减低或无明显差异.结论:特殊贫血状态(RBC升高,HB减低)、微量元素之间的相互影响是导致地贫孕妇微量元素改变的重要原因.%Aim:To explore the influencing factors of whole blood elements in pregnant women with mild thalassema.Methods:Three hundred and eighteen pregnant women with various genotypes of mild thalassemia were classified into four groups:silentα-thalassemia group (31 cases

  13. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  14. Guide to good practices for equipment and piping labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Equipment and Piping Labeling, Chapter XVIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing labeling programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Equipment and Piping Labeling is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a coordinated labeling program to promote safe and efficient operations.

  15. 1550例12岁以下儿童全血微量元素结果分析%Analysis on the Results of Blood Trace Elements of 1550 Children under 12 Years Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秀雅; 王前明; 谢连志; 陈海明; 赵元勋; 王新

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To understand the trace elements of children in Xiamen city.Method: The content elements of blood of 1550 children under 12 years old age were determined. The whole blood copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium(Mg) were detected with atomic absorption technique.Result: The number displayed that in 1550 children, the most heavy deficiency was Fe (8.64%), the second was Zn (7.93%), and the light deficiency in Ca with infant under 3 years old.Conclusion: Children period is a growth and development faster period, easy to lack of Fe, Zn, Ca and other elements. To advocate the nutrition, comprehensive, reasonable diet for infant, according to the situation of children of different age groups, focus on the reasonable supplement of trace elements.%目的:通过测定厦门市部分12岁以下儿童全血微量元素的含量,对各年龄组铜、锌、钙、镁、铁的检测结果进行分析。方法:采用PE AA 800火焰原子吸收光谱仪检测1550例12岁以下儿童全血中铜、锌、钙、镁、铁5种微量元素的含量。结果:本市12岁以下儿童全血微量元素检测结果显示,以缺铁最为严重,占8.64%,其次,缺锌为7.93%;3岁以下缺钙者较少。结论:儿童为生长发育较快时期,易缺乏铁、锌、钙等元素。对婴幼儿要倡导营养、全面、合理的饮食,要根据情况对不同年龄组的儿童要有侧重地合理补充微量元素。

  16. Analysis of Blood Trace Elements in 1 200 Preschoolers in Yan'an%延安地区就诊学龄前儿童指血微量元素1200例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 师丽; 刘光发; 常祎; 王永莉; 白雪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the level of blood trace element in preschoolers in Yan'an and explore the scarce cause to guide clinical medication and further rational diet scientifically. Methods To detect 1 200 cases of medical preschoolers of blood trace elements. Results The blood trace elements in 1 200 cases of preschoolers were detected. 565 cases of children were calcium deficieney,which accounted for 47. 08 % , 289 cases of calcium deficiency were 0 to 1 years of age and accounted for 24. 08%.Calcium deficiency of all ages in rural areas accounted for 27. 66% (332 cases). 257 patient8 of zinc deficiency accounted for 21. 42 %,3 to 7 years of age accounted for 13. 5%. 203 cases of iron deficiency accounted for 16. 92 % ,zinc and iron deficiency (74 cases)were accounted for 6. 17%. Showing the most serious calcium deficiency,followed by zinc,iron. Visible caleium deficiencies most serious followed by zinc and iron. Magnesium and copper level were normal.Conclusion The detection of trace elements could guide clinical therapy,avoid blindly inappropriate supplement which was given by the patents. Additionally,it provides important information for patents to add complementary feed timely and keep balanced diet for children. Furthermore,lt's helpful to strengthen the awareness of understanding of the lacking of trace elements.%目的 分析延安地区就诊学龄前儿童体内微量元素水平,分析微量元素缺乏因素,指导临床用药,合理膳食,科学补充.方法 对1 200例就诊学龄前儿童进行指血微量元素检测.结果 1 200例儿童中缺钙565例占47.08%,0~1岁缺钙289例占24.08%,所有年龄段农村缺钙332例占27.67%.缺锌257例占21.42%,3~7岁缺锌162例占13.5%.缺铁203例占16.92%,锌、铁均低者74例占6.17%.可见钙缺乏最为严重,其次为锌、铁.镁、铜均正常.结论 检测微量元素有利于指导临床合理用药,避免家长盲目乱补,同时指导家长为孩子及时添加辅食、均衡

  17. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    Isotope exchange reactions between S-35-labeled sulfur compounds were studied in anoxic estuarine sediment slurries at 21-degrees-C and pH 7.4-7.7. Two experiments labeled with radioactive elemental sulfur (S-35-degrees) and one labeled with radioactive sulfate ((SO42-)-S-35) were performed as time...

  18. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...... actors and institutions to develop practices associated with the NNC label. Third, organized dissemination allowed the excitement and engagement with the new label to spread quickly....

  19. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  20. 上海市60岁以上老年人全血微量元素水平分析%Whole blood trace element level analysis for pelple of 60 years of age or older in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金小玲; 李艳梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究上海市60岁以上老年人全血微量元素的水平.方法 选取在该院接受健康体检的60岁以上老年人624例,每例采静脉血4 mL,全血标本经处理后,以原子吸收光谱法检测全血中锰、铁、铜、锌、硒、铅、砷的含量.结果 该市60岁以上老年人铁、锌、铜、硒缺乏率分别为21.63%、15.06%、34.00%、30.12%;其中大于70岁组血清铁含量显著低于60~70岁组(P<0.05).结论 该市60岁以上老年人体内微量元素铁、锌、铜、硒缺乏情况严重,应注意合理补充.%Objective To study the levels of trace element in whole blood of people more then 60 years old. Methods Enrolled 624 cases of health examination for people of 60 years of age or older in the hospital,4 ml. venous blood sample was collected in each case. Whole blood samples were treated before the detection. Manganese, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, lead and arsenic levels were detected by atomic absorption spectrometry method. Results The rate of iron, copper, zinc and selenium deficiency were 21. 63% ,15. 06% ,34. 00% and 30. 12% respectively, for pelple of 60 years of age or older in the city. Serum iron content in >70-years-old group was significantly lower than the 60 — 70 year-old group(P<0. 05). Conclusion Iron, copper, zinc and selenium deficiency are serious for pelple of 60 years of age or older in the city. Attention should be paid to the supplement of those trace element.

  1. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sports show highlighting the importance of using the nutrition facts label to control portions, fat, calories and percent daily value. Two studio "sports announcers" describe the "game day" food action of ...

  2. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  3. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually appears on the back or side of packaging under the title "Nutrition Facts." It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a column of ...

  4. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. You can view the new video in its ... two sites, comparing serving sizes, ingredients and overall food choices in this "Battle of the Dueling Dinner Parties". ...

  5. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  6. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department ... a contestant in food label knowledge. Questions cover topics such as Calories, Serving Size, Servings per Container, ...

  7. Investigation on the Blood of Five Elements in Patients with Anemia of Pregnancy%妊娠合并贫血患者全血五元素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 马丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the blood of patients with anemia of pregnancy in Chongzhou City,five elements (calcium,iron,zinc,magnesium,copper) content of the situation.Methods Using atomic absorption spectrometer (BH5500S) were detected in 137 cases of pregnancy complicated with anemia patients and 110 healthy controls the blood calcium,magnesium,zinc,copper and iron content of the five elements.Results The results showed the concentration of iron in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group ( 0.05).Detection value decreased rate of calcium magnesium zinc iron>calcium>magnesium>zinc>copper.Conclusion In patients with pregnancy complicated anemia,iron element detection decreases most obviously,provide the basis for diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia,calcium, zinc and magnesium have dif erent degrees of reduction,can be used as an index of nutrition,to provide the basis for timely supplement.%目的:分析崇州市妊娠合并贫血患者全血五元素(钙、铁、锌、镁、铜)含量的情况。方法使用原子吸收光谱仪(BH5500S)检测137例妊娠合并贫血患者和110例健康对照者血液中钙、镁、锌、铁、铜五种元素的含量。结果检测结果显示实验组中铁的浓度明显低于对照组(0.05)。检测值降低率铁>钙>锌>镁>铜。结论在妊娠合并贫血患者中,铁元素检测值降低最为明显,为缺铁性贫血的诊断提供依据,钙、锌、镁有不同程度的降低,可以作为一个营养学指标,为适时适量补充提供依据。

  8. Influence of some drugs, used in coronary artery disease on in vitro labelling red blood cells with technetium {sup 99m}Tc; Wplyw wybranych lekow, stosowanych w chorobie niedokrwiennej serca na wiazanie technetu {sup 99m}Tc przez erytrocyty in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E. [Katedra i Zaklad Medycyny Nuklearnej, Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In some patients investigated by radionuclide ventriculography poor labeling efficiency of red blood cells with technetium {sup 99m}Tc is observed. Among possible mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon, the pharmacological treatment applied to the patients should be taken into consideration. The aim of the study was to define the effect of selected drugs used in CAD on technetium binding efficiency by erythrocytes in vitro. Blood samples were obtained from 40 normal individuals receiving no medication. The effect of the following drugs were examined: Aerosonit, Isoptin, Bemecor, Dopegyt, Enarenal, Binazin, Furosemid, Aspirin, Vitamin E and Propranolol. Only Enarenal and Vitamin E proved to have no effect on technetium binding efficiency. The most expressed reduction was observed in experiments with Aerosonit, Furosemid and Propranolol and the smallest changes were found in blood samples with Bemecor, Binazin and Aspirin. The results of the study suggest that pharmacological treatment may influence the quality of scintigraphic images obtained with radioisotope ventriculography. For that reason the medicines applied to the patients should be as much as possible reduced or withdrawn for at least several days before examination. (author) 23 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance hybrid scanner imaging of cerebral blood flow using 15O-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie B; Henning, William S; Lindberg, Ulrich;

    2015-01-01

    Abnormality in cerebral blood flow (CBF) distribution can lead to hypoxic-ischemic cerebral damage in newborn infants. The aim of the study was to investigate minimally invasive approaches to measure CBF by comparing simultaneous (15)O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and single TI pulsed...

  10. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  11. detection and analysis of trace elements in Peripheral blood of children in rural areas of Hebei%河北农村儿童末梢血微量元素水平检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂平; 邬雪山; 孙丽娟; 王芹

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the trace element levels and variation of micronutrient supplementation in the peripheral blood among children in rural areas of Hebei Province, so as to provide reference for a reasonable micronutrient supplementation. METHODS A total of 765 cases aged 0-13 years old were collected by stratified sampling method. By detecting the level of peripheral blood trace elements, we evaluated the nutritional status. RESULTS Children in the region were closely to the normal lower limit of trace elements: Cu (30.3 ± 11.5) junol/L, Mg (1.54 ±0.32) mmol/L, Ca (1.15 ±0.46) mmol/L, Fe (7.86 ± 2.47) mmol/L and Zn (73.2 ± 25.8) u,mol/L. Most of the 765 cases are lack of iron deficiency and zinc, and were 29.15% and 20.26%, respectively. The deficiency of calcium, magnesium and Quetong were 11.24%, 641% and 5.75%, respectively. CONCLUSION Trace elements were the essential elements for the body's growth and development, reproduction and other life activities. Childhood is a critical period for the body growth and development, and we should pay attention to supply the reasonable and micronutrient supplementation for rural children.%目的 了解河北农村地区儿童末梢血微量元素水平及变化规律,为儿童及时合理补充微量元素提供指导.方法 按分层抽样方法抽取定州留早镇765例0~13岁儿童进行健康体检.通过检测末梢血微量元素水平,评价营养状况.结果 该地区儿童微量元素水平接近正常值下限为:Cu (30.3±11.5) μmol/L、Mg( 1.54±0.32) mmol/L、Ca( 1.15±0.46) mmol/L、Fe(7.86±2.47) mmol/L、Zn (73.2±25.8)μmol/L.765例儿童中缺铁和锌较多,分别为29.15%和20.26%,缺钙为11.24%、缺镁为6.41%、缺铜为5.75%.结论 微量元素是机体生长发育、生命活动及繁衍等必不可少的元素.儿童时期是机体生长发育关键时期,农村儿童应重视合理补充微量元素.

  12. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  13. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  14. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  18. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  19. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  20. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  1. An element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.

    1983-03-30

    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  2. 准东幼儿园216例体检儿童七种微量元素检测分析%Investigation and Analysis on Whole Blood Trace Element Concentration among 216 children in Huaidong Kindergarten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏广龙; 姜雪梅; 林玉婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of the whole blood trace element:Ferrum( Fe),Zinc (Zn),calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg),copper (Cu), Lead(Pb), chromium(Gd) concentration among children aged 3~6 years old in kindergarten of Zhundong so as to set le reasonable meal construction rectify the bad living and behavior habits proceed the artificial interfere guarantee the growth of child. Methods The whole blood trace element were measured by method MB5 of atomic absorption spectrometry in a population of 216 children aged 3~6 years old from clinic service.The result was analyzed by using SPSS18.0 software. Results There were significant dif erences in the levels of Ca,Zn,Fe and Pb in the dif erent age groups (P0.05). Conclusion Nutritional status of children aged 3~6years old in kindergarten of Zhundong is wel ,but some whole blood trace element imbalance. We should pay more at ention to it.%目的:了解体检儿童全血微量元素(铜、锌、、钙、镁、铁、铅、镉)含量现状,为制定合理的膳食结构,纠正儿童不良的饮食习惯和行为,保障儿童的生长、发育健康提供参考。方法准东基地幼儿园216例3~6岁体检儿童(男性117例,女性99例,按年龄分成四组,3~岁组100名;4~岁组56名;5~岁组39名,6~岁组21名)采用北京博晖BH-5100型原子吸收光谱仪进行七种微量元素测定。采用SPSS18.0统计软件进行数据处理。结果不同性别儿童全血7种元素水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。不同年龄组锌、钙、镁、铁、铅元素水平差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。锌、铁缺乏检出率随着年龄的增长而降低,铅中毒随年龄增加而升高。结论3~6岁儿童总体营养状况较好,但存在一些微量元素失衡情况,应引起足够重视;检测儿童微量元素含量对及时合理地补充微量元素有重要的指导意义。

  3. Optimization of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the renal artery with three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) at 3T MRI, in relation to age and blood velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yasuhisa; Kido, Aki; Fujimoto, Koji; Kiguchi, Kayo; Takakura, Kyoko; Moribata, Yusaku; Shitano, Fuki; Himoto, Yuki; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    To determine the optimal inversion time (TI) value of three-dimensional (3D) balanced steady-state free-precession time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) technique for visualization of the renal artery at 3T MRI, and to assess whether the optimal TI is affected by the subject's age and blood velocity. Forty-two healthy volunteers (range 20-67 years) were enrolled in the study and subjected to non-contrast-enhanced renal MR angiography. Five different TI values (1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, and 2000 ms) were selected for evaluation. For quantitative evaluation, the relative signal intensity (SI) of the main renal artery was compared with that of the renal medulla (Vessel-to-Kidney ratio; VKR). Blood velocity of the abdominal aorta was measured using 2D phase contrast technique. For qualitative evaluation, two radiologists scored the depiction of the renal pelvis and the quality of visualization of the renal artery. VKR is the highest at TI = 1600 ms. A strong negative correlation between age and blood velocity was demonstrated. Regarding the qualitative evaluation, the overall image scores of renal arteries were the highest at a TI = 1800 ms for both readers. The optimal TI values in subjects below 50 years of age were 1600 and 1800 ms, whereas in subjects above 50 years of age, the optimal TI value was 1800 ms. The optimal TI value for the visualization of renal arteries using time-SLIP technique at 3T MRI was 1800 ms. Subjects' age affected optimal TI and this is likely due to differences in the blood velocity of the abdominal aorta.

  4. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta......(log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  5. Analysis of Five Elements in the Children's Blood in Beijing%北京地区儿童全血5种元素检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于培红; 李爱红; 白雪梅; 崔虹霞; 赵蕊; 毕晓郁

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同年龄、不同性别儿童全血中常量元素(钙、镁)和微量元素(铜、锌、铁)含量及年龄差异,为儿童合理补充常量和微量元素提供参考.方法 采用原子吸收光谱法测定北京地区2010年4 158例0~6岁儿童全血铜、锌、铁、钙、镁5种元素含量,对不同性别间的差异采用t检验进行分析,采用F分析比较年龄间的分布差异.结果 在检测的五项指标中,五个年龄组之间铜、锌、铁、钙、镁含量差异均有统计学显著性意义(P<0.05),不同年龄组儿童锌、镁、铁含量随年龄增长而升高,钙含量随年龄增长而降低.在性别上铜含量(男性高于女性)差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 不同年龄组儿童5种元素含量不同,需要摄入量也不同,针对不同年龄段的儿童给予有针对性的营养指导.%Objective To investigate the levels of major elements (Calcium and Magnesium) and microelements (Copper,Zinc and Iron) in the whole blood of children of different ages and genders,so as to provide reference for the proper supplementation of major elements and microelements for children. Methods Adopted atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the levels of Copper,Zinc,Iron,Calcium and Magnesium in the whole blood of 4 158 children between 0 and 6 years old in Beijing, t test could be adopted in the analysis of the differences between the sexes,and Fin the analysis of the differences in the age distribution. Results Significant differences of the levels of Copper, Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium were found on the five tested indexes amongst the five age groups (P<0. 05). The levels of Zinc, Magnesium,and Iron increase while the Calcium level decreases with the growth of age. The difference of Copper content between genders (male was higher than female) was statistically significant (P<0. 05). Conclusion The levels of the five elements vary in different age groups,and the needs for the intakes of the five

  6. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  7. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  8. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  9. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  10. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  11. SITE-SPECIFIC LABELING OF A PROTEIN LYSINE RESIDUE BY NOVEL KINETIC LABELING COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Krantz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first example of a kinetic labeling library designed to enable the discovery of affinity labels is presented. Each library component (1 consists of a variable peptidyl component linked to a biotinyl moiety by a 4-mercaptobenzoyl linker in thioester format. We demonstrate that an affinity label can be uncovered by measuring reaction rates between library pools and the protein target, human serum albumin (HSA and identifying significant outliers. By choosing peptide functionality compatible with a potentially reactive thioester labeling entity, libraries can be screened in pools. It is noteworthy that a limited subset of amino acids (R, S, E, F, Y, l, M, W, and Q that compose the affinity moiety is sufficient to produce rate variances that guide the discovery process. After two rounds of deconvolution, J-FLYEE-NH2 (7-E emerges as a bona fide affinity label of HSA. Unlike known affinity labels, the affinity moiety is not retained in the protein product, but is extruded upon acylation of the protein. This feature affords a method of introducing various payloads, without extraneous elements, onto protein frameworks.

  12. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  13. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    noted during the event that the actu.al number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  14. Labeling of rabbit neutrophils with (/sup 111/In)oxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, T.A. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Bergum, P.W.; Lichter, J.P.; Spragg, R.G. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-25

    The successful labeling of rabbit peripheral blood neutrophils with (/sup 111/In)oxine is reported here. Standard techniques for preparation of rabbit neutrophils, while acceptable for maintenance of in vitro function, rendered the neutrophils ineffective for in vivo use after labeling with /sup 111/In. Specifically, rabbit neutrophils were sensitive to the use of hypotonic shock for red cell elimination, centrifugation into a button during preparation, and the presence of oxine during chemotaxis in vitro. Using a carefully modified method of neutrophil preparation and labeling, it was found that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils retained normal in vitro function, including chemotaxis. In addition, using this method, 34% +- 5% of labeled neutrophils were recoverable in peripheral blood 5 min after intravenous injection. The half-life of circulating radiolabeled neutrophils was 5.6 +- 2 h. Continuous external imaging of radiolabeled neutrophils after intravenous injection showed initial lung uptake, followed by rapid clearance of radioactivity in the lungs (50% clearance in 10.5 +- 3.3 min.). Hepatic radioactivity was maximal by 30 min after injection and thereafter slowly declined. Finally, it was found that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils migrated to sites of artificially induced inflammation. These findings indicate that /sup 111/In-labeled rabbit neutrophils, if prepared under optimal conditions, should provide a useful tool for investigating the fate of neutrophils in experimental inflammatory conditions in this animal.

  15. Labelled Execution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    This is most starkly evident in the classical example used to demonstrate that, in the case of infinitely branching systems, a transfinite number of... transfinite number of iterations to converge, what can be shown to fail by appropriately embedding the labelled transition systems of [46, prop. 10.5

  16. Waisda?: video labeling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  17. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  18. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Label and You — Video Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print NOTE: FDA has issued final changes ... choices. You can view the new video in its entirety or select on any of the individual ...

  19. Improving arterial spin labeling data by temporal filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, Jan; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Barillot, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MRI method for imaging brain perfusion by magnetically labeling blood in brain feeding arteries. The perfusion is obtained from the difference between images with and without prior labeling. Image noise is one of the main problems of ASL as the difference is around 0.5-2% of the image magnitude. Usually, 20-40 pairs of images need to be acquired and averaged to reach a satisfactory quality. The images are acquired shortly after the labeling to allow the labeled blood to reach the imaged slice. A sequence of images with multiple delays is more suitable for quantification of the cerebral blood flow as it gives more information about the blood arrival and relaxation. Although the quantification methods are sensitive to noise, no filtering or only Gaussian filtering is used to denoise the data in the temporal domain prior to quantification. In this article, we propose an efficient way to use the redundancy of information in the time sequence of each pixel to suppress noise. For this purpose, the vectorial NL-means method is adapted to work in the temporal domain. The proposed method is tested on simulated and real 3T MRI data. We demonstrate a clear improvement of the image quality as well as a better performance compared to Gaussian and normal spatial NL-means filtering.

  20. Health Labeling, and Consumption- Understanding Determinants To Health Label Use.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, David; Dossing, Jens; Zhuravleva, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior was explored through the understanding, and use of health labeling. Government and business forces were discovered to influence the ability of consumers to use health labels for improved health and life expectancy, and reduce the negative health care costs of food related diseases. Our survey results were compared to other papers and experiments in the field of consumption and labeling. We discovered high usage of labels, especially nutrition information, and a desire for fr...

  1. Biopatterning for label-free detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Julie M; Mandal, Sudeep; Nugen, Sam R; Baeumner, Antje J; Erickson, David

    2010-03-01

    We present a biopatterning technique suitable for applications which demand a high degree of surface cleanliness, such as immobilization of biological recognition elements onto label-free biosensors. In the case of label-free biosensing, the mechanism of signal transduction is based on surface bound matter, making them highly sensitive to surface contamination including residues left during the biopatterning process. In this communication we introduce a simple, rapid processing step that removes 98% of the residues that often remain after standard parylene lift-off patterning. Residue-free parylene biopatterning is combined with microfluidics to localize biomolecule immobilization onto the sensing region and to enable multiplexed biopatterning. We demonstrate the applicability of this method to multiplexed label-free detection platforms by patterning nucleic acid capture probes corresponding to the four different serotypes of Dengue virus onto parallel 1D photonic crystal resonator sensors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to quantify surface cleanliness and uniformity. In addition to label-free biosensors, this technique is well suited to other nanobiotechnology patterning applications which demand a pristine, residue-free surface, such as immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, growth factors, or cell cultures.

  2. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  3. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  4. Magnetically-assisted surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) for label-free determination of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood using Fe3O4@Ag nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzerova, Anna; Fargasova, Ariana; Markova, Zdenka; Ranc, Vaclav; Zboril, Radek

    2014-11-18

    Development of methods allowing determination of even ultralow levels of immunoglobulins in various clinical samples including whole human blood and plasma is a particular scientific challenge, especially due to many essential discoveries in the fields of immunology and medicine in the past few decades. The determination of IgG is usually performed using an enzymatic approach, followed by colorimetric or fluorimetric detection. However, limitations of these methods relate to their complicated setup and stringent requirements concerning the sample purity. Here, we present a novel approach based on magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA/SERS), which utilizes a Fe3O4@Ag@streptavidin@anti-IgG nanocomposite with strong magnetic properties and an efficient SERS enhancement factor conferred by the Fe3O4 particles and silver nanoparticles, respectively. Such a nanocomposite offers the possibility of separating a target efficiently from a complex matrix by simple application of an external magnetic force, followed by direct determination using SERS. High selectivity was achieved by the presence of anti-IgG on the surface of silver nanoparticles coupled with their further inactivation by ethylamine. Compared to many recently developed sandwich methods, application of single nanocomposites showed many advantages, including simplicity of use, direct control of the analytic process, and elimination of errors caused by possible nonspecific interactions. Moreover, incorporation of advanced spectral processing methods led to a considerable decrease in the relative error of determination to below 5%.

  5. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to...

  6. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  7. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  8. Scaffolding Visitors' Learning through Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joyce; Yoon, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In museum literature, labels have been found to increase visitor learning and contribute to greater cognitive gains. In this study, we seek to understand how various labels support the visitors' learning experience, and specifically in regards to conceptual and cognitive learning. We investigated the increasing use of three types of labels (visual…

  9. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  10. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Donating ... Red Cross, there's a 97% chance that someone you know will need a blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always ...

  11. A New Baroreceptor Sensitivity-Restoring Ca-Channel Blocker Diminishes Age-Related Morning Blood Pressure Increase in Hypertensive Patients: Open-Label Monitoring of Azelnidipine Treatment for Hypertension in the Early Morning (At-HOME Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Sugiyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morning blood pressure (BP surge, which exhibits an age-related increase, is a risk factor for stroke in elderly hypertensive patients, independently of the 24-h BP level. We studied the effect of the new baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS-restoring Ca-channel blocker (CCB azelnidipine (AZ on this age-related morning BP increase. Methods: We conducted a 16-week prospective study to clarify the effect of morning dosing of AZ on home BPs measured in the morning and in the evening in 2,546 hypertensive patients (mean age, 65.1 years; female, 53.6%. Results: At baseline, ME-Dif (morning systolic BP [SBP]–evening SBP increased with age, independently of ME-Ave (average of the morning and evening SBPs. This age-related increase of ME-Dif was exaggerated by regular alcohol drinking and beta-blocker use. After AZ treatment (14.3 ± 3.6 mg/day, ME-AV and ME-Dif were significantly reduced independently of each other, with reductions of –18.1 ± 15.6 and –2.5 ± 13.2 mmHg, respectively (both p < 0.001. AZ treatment decreased age-related increase in ME-Dif particularly in patients who were regular consumers of alcohol and in beta-blocker users. Conclusions: The new BRS-restoring CCB AZ significantly reduced age-related increase in morning BP and had some potential benefit on cardiovascular protection in hypertension, particularly in elderly patients and/or consumers of alcohol.

  12. Fixed-Dose Artesunate–Amodiaquine Combination vs Chloroquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Blood Stage P. vivax Infection in the Brazilian Amazon: An Open-Label Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Aline C.; Melo, Gisely C.; Magalhaes, Belisa L.; Machado, Kim; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles C.; Kuehn, Andrea; Marques, Marly M.; Manso, Monica Costa; Felger, Ingrid; Vieira, José L. F.; Lameyre, Valerie; Daniel-Ribeiro, Claudio T.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Despite increasing evidence of the development of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance, there have been no trials comparing its efficacy with that of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in Latin America. Methods. This randomized controlled trial compared the antischizontocidal efficacy and safety of a 3-day supervised treatment of the fixed-dose combination artesunate-amodiaquine Winthrop® (ASAQ) versus CQ for treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax infection in Manaus, Brazil. Patients were followed for 42 days. Primary endpoints were adequate clinical and parasitological responses (ACPR) rates at day 28. Genotype-adjustment was performed. Results. From 2012 to 2013, 380 patients were enrolled. In the per-protocol (PP) analysis, adjusted-ACPR was achieved in 100% (165/165) and 93.6% (161/172) of patients in the ASAQ and CQ arm (difference 6.4%, 95% CI 2.7%; 10.1%) at day 28 and in 97.4% (151/155) and 77.7% (129/166), respectively (difference 19.7%, 95% CI 12.9%; 26.5%), at day 42. Apart from ITT D28 assessment, superiority of ASAQ on ACPR was demonstrated. ASAQ presented faster clearance of parasitaemia and fever. Based on CQ blood level measurements, CQ resistance prevalence was estimated at 11.5% (95% CI: 7.5-17.3) up to day 42. At least one emergent adverse event (AE) was recorded for 79/190 (41x6%) in the ASAQ group and for 85/190 (44x7%) in the CQ group. Both treatments had similar safety profiles. Conclusions. ASAQ exhibited high efficacy against CQ resistant P. vivax and is an adequate alternative in the study area. Studies with an efficacious comparator, longer follow-up and genotype-adjustment can improve CQR characterization. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01378286. PMID:27988484

  13. Understanding how consumers categorise nutritional labels: a consumer derived typology for front-of-pack nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Charo; Barnett, Julie; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Stysko-Kunkowska, Malgorzata; Gulcan, Yaprak; Kustepeli, Yesim; Akgungor, Sedef; Chryssochoidis, George; Fernández-Celemin, Laura; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Gibbs, Michelle; Raats, Monique

    2012-12-01

    Significant ongoing debate exists amongst stakeholders as to the best front-of-pack labelling approach and emerging evidence suggests that the plethora of schemes may cause confusion for the consumer. To gain a better understanding of the relevant psychological phenomena and consumer perspectives surrounding FoP labelling schemes and their optimal development a Multiple Sort Procedure study involving free sorting of a range of nutritional labels presented on cards was performed in four countries (n=60). The underlying structure of the qualitative data generated was explored using Multiple Scalogram Analysis. Elicitation of categorisations from consumers has the potential to provide a very important perspective in this arena and results demonstrated that the amount of information contained within a nutrition label has high salience for consumers, as does the health utility of the label although a dichotomy exists in the affective evaluation of the labels containing varying degrees of information aggregation. Classification of exiting front-of-pack labelling systems on a proposed dimension of 'directiveness' leads to a better understanding of why some schemes may be more effective than others in particular situations or for particular consumers. Based on this research an enhanced hypothetical front-of-pack labelling scheme which combines both directive and non-directive elements is proposed.

  14. 复合疲劳对大鼠不同组织矿物质代谢影响研究%Effects of Induced Fatigue on the Levels of Selected Essential Elements in the Blood and Tissues of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫献文; 常耀明; 赵鑫; 李娅; 王文岚; 张学思; 郭庆军; 谢小萍; 任杰; 李金声

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究复合疲劳大鼠血液、肌肉、肝脏和脑中矿物元素代谢变化的影响.方法:将30只大鼠随机分为正常对照组、食物限制组和复合疲劳组.经过5天的实验干预后,提取动物的血液、腓肠肌、肝脏和脑,并利用原子吸收分光光度法测量各组织中的钾(K)、钙(Ca)、镁(Mg)、铁(Fe)、锌(Zn)和铜(Cu).结果:相对正常对照组和食物限制组,复合疲劳大鼠的肌肉、肝脏和脑中的K(P<0.01)和肝脏中的Fe(P<005)明显升高,血液中的Cu(与正常对照组比较P<0.01,与食物限制组比较P<0.05)明显下降;与对照组相比,复合疲劳大鼠的血液中的K明显升高(P<0.05),血液中的Mg和Zn(P<0.05),肌肉中的Ca、Mg和Zn (PCa<0.05,PMg<0.05,PZn<0.01),肝脏中的Ca和Zn(PCa<0.01,PZn<0.05),以及脑中的Fe、Mg和Zn(PFe<0.05,PMg<0.05,PZn<0.01)明显降低.结论:在复合疲劳状态下,大鼠血液、肌肉、肝脏和脑中的K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn和Cu代谢发生变化,可能在疲劳的发生与缓解中发挥作用.%Objective:To identify the changes of some selected elements in blood,skeletal muscle,liver,and brain in a rat model with complex fatigue.Methods:30 rats in the experiment were randomly divided into three groups:the control group,the food-restricted group,the complex fatigued group.Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of the 5-day and Objective:levels of potassium (K),calcium (Ca),magnesium (Mg),iron (Fe),zinc (Zn),and copper (Cu) were measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Results:Compared with that in the control and food-restricted group,the concentrations of potassium in the skeletal muscle,liver,and brain (P<0.01),the concentration of iron in the liver (P<005),were increased in the complex fatigued group,and the concentration of copper in the blood (P<0.01,to the control,P<0.05,to the food-restricted) decreased in animals with complex fatigue; compared with that in the control

  15. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, ...

  16. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  17. Map labeling and its generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddi, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mirzaian, A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Moret, B.M.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Zhu, B. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  18. FDA Drug Label Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains the data elements used for searching the FDA Online Data Repository including proprietary name, active ingredients, marketing application number...

  19. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  20. Erythrocytes labelling for to value bleeding of digestive tract in pediatrics; Marcacion de eritrocitos para valorar sangrado de tubo digestivo en pediatria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, R. [Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Av. Insurgentes Sur 700 C, Col. Insurgentes Cuicuilco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The erythrocytes labelling has been facilitated by several factors: a) They are the cellular elements more abundant in the blood (5 x 10{sup 9} / ml blood). b) They are easy to be isolated and manipulated In vitro and they are not very sensitive to the physical or chemical damages. c) They do not depend on energy or nutritious requirements as another cellular elements In vitro. d) With respect to another cells they show an easier labelling with radionuclides due to the availability of a variety of transporter mechanisms and of internal hemoglobin which is rich in active metal with multiple union sites. The erythrocytes are biconcave disks without nucleus composed by a 65% water, 32% hemoglobin and a 3% by lipids and proteins which form the stroma.The hemoglobin is the most important component of erythrocytes, it contains 4 heme groups and one globin molecule (with molecular weight of 68000) and fix iron covalently with 4 atoms of nitrogenated porfyrin. The oxygen is reversibly joined to iron. The hemoglobin does not experiment re-synthesis or degradation during its lifetime in the erythrocyte. It has been stipulated that the diagnostic applications in nuclear medicine are: a) That the radionuclide should have a high intensity of emission with an adequate energy for the image, with minimum particulate radiation and a half life time average similar to the length of the study that is carried out. b) That the radionuclide is joined firmly to the In vivo cells without altering physical and biochemical properties of the cells and their function In vitro. c) That the radionuclide once incorporated to the interior of cell must not be liberated during the study neither reused after of destruction. A quick procedure is now found available for labelling erythrocytes with {sup 99m} Tc offering a high performance and quality labelling. This is narrowly related to the {sup 99m} Tc chemistry understanding. (Author)

  1. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...

  2. [Medicalization I. 'Disease labeling: All business.'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo Pérez, María Jesús; Tovar Bobo, Margarita; Rozadilla Arias, Aurora

    2013-10-01

    Western societies have displaced problems from the subjective and social fields over to medicine, and the search for the perfect health has become an obsession and a pathogenic predominant factor. Paradoxically, the number of ilnesses and sick people arises proportionally with health levels. We now tend to add «disease labels» in daily clinical practice to behaviors and events that are nothing but elements of character or even healthy reactions to laboral and familial conflicts or mourning. In this article, we analyze the factors that determine this «medicalization» process and its consequences, with a particular emphasis in the iatrogenesis of unnecessary medical interventions.

  3. 全血微量元素含量与妊娠期糖尿病相关性研究%Study on relationship between trace elements content in whole blood and gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史东晔; 汪卫东; 郭胜利; 郭丽丽; 陈丁莉; 张运刚; 李丽红; 迟晓慧; 郭书丽; 张鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the content of trace elements in whole blood with the occurrence and development of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM ) and its importance for the standard treatment on GDM pregnant women to provide the theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of GDM .Methods Ac‐cording to the diagnostic criteria of GDM ,153 GDM pregnant women and 121 healthy pregnant women were random‐ly chosen and assigned into the patient group and the control group respectively .The levels of whole blood trace ele‐ments (copper ,zinc ,calcium ,magnesium ,iron) at the middle and late pregnant stages in the two groups were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry .Then the data were statistically processed and performed the comparative study .Results (1)There were no significant differences in the aspects of age ,gestational age and height (middle stage) between the GDM group and the control group (P>0 .05);the GDM group was higher than the control group in the prepregnant weight and pre‐pregnant BMI(middle stage) ,the differences were significance(P0 .05) .(3)After the standard treatment ,the GDM group(middle stage) was higher than the GDM (late stage) group and the control group(late stage) in the zinc level ,the differences were statistically significant(P0 .05) .Conclusion GDM is common complication during pregnancy ,the trace elements metabolism disorders in the GDM pregnant women should be pay great attention to ,in particular ,should focus on early prevention and treat‐ment of GDM happening and strengthen the balance intake of trace elements during pregnant stage so as to ensure maternal and fetal health .%目的:探讨全血微量元素含量与妊娠期糖尿病(GDM )发生发展的关系以及对GDM孕妇规范治疗的重要性,为GDM的预防及治疗提供理论依据。方法按GDM诊断标准随机选取153例GDM 孕妇为病例组,121例健康孕妇为对照组;采用火焰原子吸收光谱法

  4. Towards Multi Label Text Classification through Label Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Classifying text data has been an active area of research for a long time. Text document is multifaceted object and often inherently ambiguous by nature. Multi-label learning deals with such ambiguous object. Classification of such ambiguous text objects often makes task of classifier difficult while assigning relevant classes to input document. Traditional single label and multi class text classification paradigms cannot efficiently classify such multifaceted text corpus. Through our paper we are proposing a novel label propagation approach based on semi supervised learning for Multi Label Text Classification. Our proposed approach models the relationship between class labels and also effectively represents input text documents. We are using semi supervised learning technique for effective utilization of labeled and unlabeled data for classification. Our proposed approach promises better classification accuracy and handling of complexity and elaborated on the basis of standard datasets such as Enron, Slashdot and Bibtex.

  5. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so

  6. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the

  7. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, Haitze J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph $G$ is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of $G$ such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least $2$. The radio labeling problem (\\mbox{\\sc RL}) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label

  8. [The contribution of persuasion social psychology to the retention of donors: the impact of labelling the previous donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callé, N; Plainfossé, C; Georget, P; Sénémeaud, C; Rasonglès, P

    2011-12-01

    The supply of blood cell products requires from the National French Blood Institute (Établissement Français du Sang - EFS) to rely upon regular blood donors. Contact with donors, tailored to individuals as much as possible, helps them to donate on a regular basis. Within the context of a research program conducted with the Psychology Department of the Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, persuasive theoretical models from social psychology have been tested. These models allow adapting messages according to the motivation of donors. The content is centred on the previous donation, differently labelled according to two types of labelling: functional labelling and social labelling. Functional labelling points out the efficiency of what "has been done" (the previous blood donation), whereas social labelling emphasizes the social value of the individual. Different types of mailing invitations have been sent to 1917 donors from the Normandy database, invited to three different blood collections. Every experimental letter worked better than the standard EFS letter (which was used as the "control" letter) in terms of effective blood donation after reception of the letter. Some of the letters are more efficient in motivating donors than other ones. The letters labelling the previous blood donation as functional (efficiency of the donation) appeared more efficient than those with social label (social value) in whichever motivation induced.

  9. Fluorescent blood cell angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-nun, Joshua; Constable, Ian J.

    1994-06-01

    Fluorescein angiography is currently the main method for evaluation of the retinal vascular patency. Ashton noted that capillary patency to the small fluorescein molecule may differ from that of the larger red blood cells. He concluded that fluorescein angiography is not able to demonstrate a developing stenosis, that might be the precipitating cause of a later capillary closure in various microvasculopathies. Sarelius et al have shown, in hamster cheek pouch and cremaster muscle, that fluorescently labeled erythrocytes in known concentrations can be used for the direct measurement of capillary flow parameters. The only assumption that this method relies on, is that the labeled cells are rheologically normal and therefore reflect the behavior of the total cell population. We have developed a new method for an in-vivo, real-time demonstration of the blood cell flow in the retinal capillary net. Based on the assumption presented by Sarelius et al, measurement and analysis of the retinal capillary blood cell flow is also possible from the results achieved by the new method.

  10. XML Labeling Schemes for Dynamic Updates: Strengths and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samini Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of XML processing has become a significant field at present days with the intention to support user queries in the most proficient way. In conjunction with this, many labeling schemes were proposed to identify the elements in XML document uniquely as well as preserve structural relationships among the nodes to cater queries with multiple combinations. On the other hand, due to the flexible structure of XML document, the data that is presented and communicated through this technology changes frequently. Therefore, labeling scheme must be able to support dynamic updates so that the existing labels do not require alteration. In this paper, we present some of the existing labeling techniques and their degree of support for structural relationship and dynamic updates.

  11. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  12. Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow Measurements Using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, Eric R; Watts, Lora Talley; Tiwari, Yash Vardhan; Bresnen, Andrew; Timothy Q Duong

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging utilized as a quantitative and noninvasive method to image cerebral blood flow. The two most common techniques used to detect cerebral blood flow are dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Herein we describe the use of these two techniques to measure cerebral blood flow in rodents, including methods, analysis, and important considerations when utilizing these techniques.

  13. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  14. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  15. Label-free fluorescent aptasensor for potassium ion using structure-switching aptamers and berberine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqing; Chen, Yanxia; Wei, Yanli; Li, Huanhuan; Dong, Chuan

    2015-02-01

    A simple, rapid and label-free fluorescent aptasensor was fabricated for the detection of potassium ion (K+ ion) in aqueous solution using K+ ion-stabilized single stranded DNA (ssDNA) with G-rich sequence as the recognition element and a fluorescent dye, berberine, as the fluorescence probe. In the presence of K+ ion, the G-rich ssDNA is promoted to form the aptamer-target complex with a G-quadruplex conformation, and berberine binding to the G-quadruplex structure results in the enhancement of its fluorescence. The fluorescence intensity of the sensing system displayed a calibration response for K+ ion in the range of 0-1600 μM with a detection limit of 31 nM (S/N = 3) and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.45%. This label-free fluorescence aptasensor is conveniently and effectively applicable for analysis of K+ ion in blood serum samples with the recovery range of 81.7-105.3%. The assay for detection of potassium ion is easy, economical, robust, and stable in rough conditions.

  16. Element Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  17. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  18. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book; does not bear any special claims, such as quality claims... addition, deletion, or amendment of recipe suggestions for the product; j. Any change in punctuation; k... Policy Book, and questions and answers on various topics, such as irradiation and the labeling...

  19. Quality Evaluation Model for Map Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong; ZHANG Zuxun; DU Daosheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses and sums up the basic criterions of guaranteeing the labeling quality and abstracts the four basic factors including the conflict for a label with a label, overlay for label with the features, position's priority and the association for a label with its feature. By establishing the scoring system, a formalized four-factors quality evaluation model is constructed. Last, this paper introduces the experimental result of the quality evaluation model applied to the automatic map labeling system-MapLabel.

  20. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  1. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for blood clots? Do You Know About Thalassemia? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... become hard, sticky, and shaped like a C. Thalassemia Red blood cell disorder that affects hemoglobin. Von ...

  2. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  3. Artifical Blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goorha, Y K; Deb, Prabal; Chatterjee, T; Dhot, P S; Prasad, R S

    2003-01-01

    .... The problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood and the pending world-wide shortages are the other driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes...

  4. Artificial Blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Umit Yasar; Pinar Yilgor Huri; Nurten Dikmen

    2012-01-01

    The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes...

  5. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iodine-125 metaraminol: A new platelet specific labeling agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Kawaii, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Saji, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the search for a platelet specific labeling agent, Metaraminol (MA), which is a sympatomimetic amine used for the treatment of hypotension, cardiogenic shock and well recognized as a drug actively incorporated and accumulated in platelet, attracted the authors' attention. Using the classical chloramine-T iodination method, a high labeling efficiency near 98%, reaching a specific activity up to about 1000 Ci/mmole was obtained. Upon the harvest of platelet, only as platelet rich plasma (PRP), the labeling with this radiopharmaceutical was easily performed by incubation at 37/sup 0/C for 10 min. Labeling efficiency as high as 63.0 +- 3.1% at 24 x 10/sup 8/ cells/ml was obtained. In in-vitro studies, the unaltered state of I-125 MA labeled platelet, with their cellular functions fully retained was demonstrated. Pharmacological study indicated a specific incorporation of I-125 MA by active transport system similar to that of 5-HT, along with passive diffusion. Then the in-vivo study carried out in rabbits with induced thrombi on the femoral artery, showed rather rapid disappearance of the I-125 MA labeled autologous platelet radioactivity, from circulating blood reaching as high thrombus-to-blood activity ratio as 19.8+-4.3 within 30 min post-administration. This new platelet labeling agent, I-125 MA, has many advantages over the use of IN-111 oxine and holds considerable promise for thrombus imaging with single photon emission CT upon the availability of I-123 MA.

  7. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...

  8. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  9. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  10. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  11. Patient identification and tube labelling - a call for harmonisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Ibarz, Mercedes;

    2016-01-01

    Venous blood sampling (phlebotomy) is the most common invasive procedure performed in patient care. Guidelines on the correct practice of phlebotomy are available, including the H3-A6 guideline issued by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). As the quality of practices and procedures...... of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...

  12. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels...

  13. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  14. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a...

  15. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  16. Application of product life cycle concept to private label management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have recorded significant growth rates worldwide, becoming a serious threat to manufacturer brands. Development of private labels in many different product categories increased the complexity of their management. Therefore, this paper examines the possibility of using the product life cycle concept in private label management. Given that private labels are a specific brand type, it is necessary to adjust certain elements of the product life cycle concept, as it was developed on the basis of manufacturer brands. For instance, in the growth stage of the product life cycle, retailers expand private labels to a number of product categories and use the push strategy while manufacturers tend to expand their distribution network in the expansion of their brands and predominantly use the pull strategy in doing so. Furthermore, there is a focus shift from low-price strategy, predominantly used in the introduction phase, to increasing the quality and private label value in the later stages of the product life cycle.

  17. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  18. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  19. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  20. 癌症患者血中微量元素与氧化应激的相关分析%Correlation between oxidative stress and trace elements in blood of patients with cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俸家富; 李少林

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The occurrence and development of tumor may result from the reaction of a series of factors. Up to now, earlier detection, monitoring treatment, and prognosis assessment for tumor are very difficult. It can provide the theoretical foundation of rehabilitation and survival for cancer patients to study the mechanisms of occurrence and development of tumors, or investigate the changes of blood level and tissue distribution.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of levels of some trace elements and serous prooxidant-antioxidant system of cancer patients.DESIGN: A controlled observation trialSETTING: Department of Laboratory Medicine, Mianyang CentralHospital.PARTICIPANTS: From September 1999 to December 2000,111 cancer patients were selected from the Third People's Hospital of Zigong, Yibin First People's Hospital of Sichuan Province, and Longchang County people's Hospital of Neijiang City, Sichuan Province.Of them, 21 cases were of liver cancer, 16 of gastric carcinoma, 15 of colorectal cancer, 11 of breast cancer, 13 of lung cancer, 13 of esophageal cancer, 7 of brain cancer and 15 of other cancers. At the same time; 36 control subjects were recruited from those who came to the hospital for health examination.METHODS :Blood samples of subjects after overnight fasting were pre pared by collecting venous blood in 5-mL Vacutainer tubes (Becton Dickinson, American). After 2-3 hours, the blood samples were centrifuged at 3 000 r/min for 15 minutes. 2.0 to 3.0 mL of serum was separated. The sera were stored in the refrigerator until analysis. Serum glutathione(GSH)level was determined by dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid colorimetry. Xanthine oxidase (XOD) concentration was determined with xanthine-nitrotetrazole colorimetry. Glutahione oxidase (GSHPx) activity was determined with dinitrobenzoic acid colorimetry. Malondialdehyde(MDA) concentration in serum was measured with thiobarbituric acid reaction. Vitamin C (Vit C),vitamin E(Vit E) and total antioxidant power

  1. Resting cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  2. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For ...

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Contact ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For ...

  6. Labelling of benzocaine with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Sohail (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    A convenient method is described to label a local anesthetic, benzocaine, with tritium. The bromoester of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was prepared from para-nitrotoluene and was reduced with tritium. The generation of isotopic hydrogen and labelling of benzocaine was achieved in one-step. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaB[sup 3]H[sub 4]) with cobalt (II) chloride was used to generate tritium gas. 5% Pd/C was used as a catalyst. This constitutes the first report of tritium labelled benzocaine. (author).

  7. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  8. 儿童贫血与血铅及微量元素水平的关系%Relationship between anemia and blood lead level and trace elements levels in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家云; 王晓梅; 刘瑜; 艾洪武; 申志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究儿童贫血与血铅、铁、铜、钙、镁、锌水平之间的关系.方法:随机选择武汉市妇女儿童医疗保健中心就诊儿童90例,采集静脉血分别检测血常规及血铅的含量,采集末梢血检测铁、铜、钙、镁、锌的浓度.根据血常规的结果将研究对象分为贫血组和对照组,贫血组又进一步分为轻度、中度、重度3组.同时,根据血铅的检测结果将研究对象分为低铅组和高铅组.结果:血铅范围在100~200 μg/L范围与轻度贫血有明显的相关性.低铅组和对照组与高血铅组和贫血组相比较,铁和锌的水平明显偏低,但钙、镁、铜含量无统计学差异.血铅的水平与Hb、Hct、MCV、MCH呈现明显的负相关性,与RDW-CV呈现正相关性.结论:血铅水平>100μg/L明显与贫血相关,高血铅降低铁和锌的吸收,从负面影响血液学参数.%Objective: To research the relationship between anemia and blood lead, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and zinc levels in children. Methods-. 90 children were selected randomly from the hospital, then venous blood samples were obtained to detect blood routine examination and the content of blood lead; the concentrations of iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and zinc in peripheral blood were detected. The study objects were divided into anemia group and control group according to the results of blood routine examination, then the children in anemia group were divided into mild anemia group, moderate anemia group and severe anemia group further. At the same time, the study objects were divided into low lead group and high lead group according to the detection results of blood lead. Results; There was a significant correlation between blood lead level (within 100 -200 ug/L) and mild anemia Compared with anemia group and high lead group, the levels of iron and zinc in low lead group and control group were low, but there was no significant difference in calcium, magnesium and copper levels

  9. General Compact Labeling Schemes for Dynamic Trees

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Let $F$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An {\\em $F$- labeling scheme} is composed of a {\\em marker} algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a {\\em decoder} algorithm allowing one to compute $F(u,v)$ of any two vertices $u$ and $v$ directly from their labels. As applications for labeling schemes concern mainly large and dynamically changing networks, it is of interest to study {\\em distributed dynamic} labeling schemes. This paper investigates labelin...

  10. Stable isotope labeling of oligosaccharide cell surface antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, C.J.; Silks, L.A. III; Martinez, R.A. [and others

    1998-12-31

    The overall goal of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to develop new methods for synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled oligosaccharides that are required for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of their solution conformation. Oligosaccharides are components of the cell`s outer surface and are involved in important processes such as cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Recently, Danishefsky and coworkers at Slone-Kettering Cancer Center developed a method for the solid-phase chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides. The specific goal of this LDRD project was to prepare uniform {sup 13}C-labeled aldohexose precursors required for the solid-phase synthesis of the Lewis blood-group antigenic determinants. We report the synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled D-glucal, D-galactal and Fucosyl precursors. We have been collaborating with the Danishefsky group on the synthesis of the Lewis oligosaccharides and the NMR analysis of their solution conformation.

  11. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  12. Elements of critical incident debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J M

    1995-08-01

    The present paper lists a number of specific therapeutic steps involved in critical incident debriefing. These therapeutic suggestions, while by no means exhaustive, include (a) identification, (b) labeling, (c) articulation, (d) expression, (e) externalization, (f) ventilation, (g) validation, and (h) acceptance. More careful attention to these specific elements--regardless of debriefers' training and backgrounds--might improve therapeutic consistency for trauma victims afflicted with stress-related symptoms. Further applications of these therapeutic steps were also suggested for other types of behavioral problems.

  13. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related......With ever increasing size of graphs, many distributed graph systems emerged to store, preprocess and analyze them. While such systems ease up congestion on servers, they incur certain penalties compared to centralized data structure. First, the total storage required to store a graph...... in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...

  14. Off-Label Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it’s not legal for drug companies to market (advertise or promote) their drugs for off-label uses. ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  15. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK...... types of information available on food labels or as use inferred from the results of a choice-based conjoint analysis. Hierarchical regression indicated that use is related to both motivation and understanding, and that both motivation, understanding and use are affected by demographic characteristics...

  16. Feasibility of voluntary menu labeling among locally owned restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, John W; Frandsen, Kirsten; Leng, Kirsten; Evans, Diane; Pulos, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department launched a restaurant menu labeling project called SmartMenu. The objective was to recruit locally owned restaurants to voluntarily post basic nutrition information on their menus or menu boards. Participating restaurants submitted recipes to an independent contractor for nutritional analysis and agreed to post calorie, fat, carbohydrate, and sodium values on new menus within 90 days of receiving results. Vigorous recruitment efforts by the Health Department between June 2007 and September 2008 included free advertising, consultation with a Registered Dietitian, and free nutritional analysis. By the end of 2008, a total of 24 restaurants participated in the program. Significant barriers to participation included infrequent use of standardized recipes, perceived business risk of labeling, and low perceived customer demand for nutrition information. Key program elements, recruitment strategies, and costs are discussed. Results have important implications for future efforts to increase the adoption of menu labeling by locally owned and operated restaurants.

  17. 磁共振动脉自旋标记成像在阿尔茨海默病脑血流灌注的研究%Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow Using Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Alzheimer‘s Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 樊东升

    2013-01-01

    目的:应用全脑3D 伪连续动脉自旋标记(pcASL)磁共振成像技术对阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者的脑血流灌注特点进行初步研究.方法:16例AD患者(AD组)和16例年龄匹配的认知功能正常老年人(对照组)进行核磁共振形态学和ASL 灌注成像检查.利用SPM8 软件对获得的脑血流图像进行预处理并统计分析,比较2组的脑血流灌注差异,并探讨AD患者的脑血流特点.结果:与对照组相比,AD组内侧颞叶萎缩明显,双侧额颞顶枕血流灌注普遍减低(P<0.001),主要累及左侧额叶、右侧眶额下部、右侧海马旁回、双侧顶叶下部、右侧顶叶上部、右侧缘上回、右侧楔前叶、右侧中扣带回、左侧中央后回、右侧颞叶中部(P=0.000).经部分容积校正后,AD组双侧颞叶及顶枕交界区脑血流灌注明显减低(P<0.001).结论:3DpcASL通过测定脑血流可以监测AD 患者脑功能变化.%Objective: To investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) characteristics in patients with Alzheimer' s disease by using a whole-brain 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling technique. Methods: Sixteen AD patients and 16 age-matched cognitively normal control subjects were studied at 3.0T MR system. CBF maps were preprocessed by SPM8 software and compared by two-sample t test between the AD and control groups. Results: Patients with AD showed lower CBF values compared with that in control group throughout the brain (P<0.001), most prominently in the following regions: frontal lobe (L), inferior orbitofrontal (R), parahippocampal (R), inferior parietal (R and L), anterior parietal (R), supermarginal (R), precunei (R), middle cingulated (R), postcentral (R) and middle temporal (R) (P=0.000). Regarding partial volume effects, corrected CBF in patients with AD decreased obviously in bilateral temporal gyris and parieto-occipital border zones (P<0.001). Conlusion: 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging technique can monitor brain function by

  18. New selenium-75 labeled radiopharmaceuticals: selenonium analogues of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, S.A.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Hsu, P.M.; Rieger, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    Selenium-75 labeled selenonium analogues of dopamine, (2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl)dimethylselenonium iodide and its dihydroxy analogue, were prepared by reducing (/sup 75/Se)selenious acid with sodium borohydride at pH 6.0 and reacting the NaSeH produced with 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(p-toluenesulfonyloxy)ethane. Tissue distribution studies in rats given the /sup 75/Se-labeled selenonium agents intravenously demonstrated high initial heart uptake. Prolonged adrenal retention and high adrenal to blood ratio of compound 4 were observed. The high uptake and adrenal to blood ratio suggest the potential use of compound 4 as a radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal gland.

  19. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  20. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  1. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  2. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  3. Blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which ...

  4. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  6. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  7. Labeling polypeptide with 99mTc and bioactivity get back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A method for labeling polypeptide(insulin) with technetium-99(99mTc) was established without marked loss of biological activity. Following reduction of intrinsic disulfide bonds by mercaptoethanol and purification on a Sephadex G50 column,the polypeptide was labeled with 99mTc by transchelation from methylene diphosphonate (MDP). 99mTc labeled insulin was identified by thin layer chromatograph (TLC)and the change of blood sugar of mice injected, their hypoglycemic shock symptom was also observed. Six hours after labeling, the dissociation of labeled insulin was only 3%,From then on to 24h, there was no more dissociation. The blood sugar concentration of mice injected with the mercaptoethanol-reduced insulin was (5.0±3.2)μmol·L-1, while those injected with the original insulin was (l.4±l.2)μmol·L-1, the difference was significant(Q test, p<0.01). Blood sugar concentration of the mice was 0.3±0.2μmol·L-1for the labeled insulin, and was about the same with that for the original insulin.The labeling efficiency was 74.31% for the labeled insulin, whereas the original insuin cannot be labeled with 99mTc. The result suggests that while disulfide bonds of polypeptide were reduced by mercaptoethanol, it became free sulfhydryl group, and its bioactivity descended. Then free sulfhydryl group was chelated with 99mTc under mild condition, restablishing the disulfide bond, therefore, the bioactivity came back.The 99mTc-labeled insulin was stable during 24 h.

  8. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  9. Making sense of a generic label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Making sense of a generic label through linguistic context analysis: A study of genre (re)cognition among novices’ Considerable work has been done on written and spoken genres characterized by a high degree of ritualization with “predictable elements occurring in a predictable order” (Fairclough...... (Bhatia 2008) assist the analytical process? Inspired by Sommers and Saltz (2004), Bhatia (2008) and Tardy (2009), these research questions will be addressed on the basis of 55 exam papers written in January 2014 by 3rd year undergraduate students. The exam tested students’ competences in genre......) that the students had studied during the course leading up to the exam. Given the lack of situated cognition (Bawarshi and Reiff, 2010: 79) of one of these genres, the students were requested to produce arguments and justification for assigning the genres presented to them to two different genre colonies...

  10. Label-free high-throughput imaging flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Chen, C.; Niazi, K. R.; Rabizadeh, S.; Jalali, B.

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is an optical method for studying cells based on their individual physical and chemical characteristics. It is widely used in clinical diagnosis, medical research, and biotechnology for analysis of blood cells and other cells in suspension. Conventional flow cytometers aim a laser beam at a stream of cells and measure the elastic scattering of light at forward and side angles. They also perform single-point measurements of fluorescent emissions from labeled cells. However, many reagents used in cell labeling reduce cellular viability or change the behavior of the target cells through the activation of undesired cellular processes or inhibition of normal cellular activity. Therefore, labeled cells are not completely representative of their unaltered form nor are they fully reliable for downstream studies. To remove the requirement of cell labeling in flow cytometry, while still meeting the classification sensitivity and specificity goals, measurement of additional biophysical parameters is essential. Here, we introduce an interferometric imaging flow cytometer based on the world's fastest continuous-time camera. Our system simultaneously measures cellular size, scattering, and protein concentration as supplementary biophysical parameters for label-free cell classification. It exploits the wide bandwidth of ultrafast laser pulses to perform blur-free quantitative phase and intensity imaging at flow speeds as high as 10 meters per second and achieves nanometer-scale optical path length resolution for precise measurements of cellular protein concentration.

  11. Twig Pattern Matching Based on Compressed Path Labeling Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Bo; WANG Guoren; DONG Ke

    2007-01-01

    Holistic twig query processing techniques based on region encoding have been developed to minimize the intermediate results, namely, those root-to-leaf path matches that are not in the final twig results. These algorithms have to scan all the streams of tags in query patterns. However, useless path matches cannot be completely avoided. TJFast which is based on the labeling scheme of Extended Dewey has been proposed to avoid useless intermediate results, and it only needs to access the labels of the leaf query nodes. However, it don't concern about the characteristics of elements with the same parent, and it has to merge join all the intermediate results which are evaluated during the first phrase. We propose a new labeling scheme to compress the XML elements which have the same characteristic. Based on the compressed path-labeled streams, a new novel holistic twig query algorithm named CPJoin is designed. Finally, implementation results are provided to show that CPJoin has good performance on both real and synthetic data.

  12. Differences in tumour and normal tissue concentrations of iodine- and indium-labelled monoclonal antibody. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimm, M.V.; Baldwin, R.W.; Perkins, A.C.

    1985-12-01

    The blood, tumour and whole-body levels and survivals of /sup 131/I- and /sup 111/In-labelled monoclonal antibody (791T/36) have been compared in mice with human tumour xenografts. The blood levels and survivals of /sup 131/I- and /sup 111/In-labelled antibody were similar when expressed as proportions of the injected doses. However, the whole-body survival of /sup 111/In following administration of /sup 111/In-labelled antibody was over twice as long as that of /sup 131/I after administration of /sup 131/I-labelled antibody, principally because free /sup 131/I was rapidly excreted but free /sup 111/In was retained, primarily in liver, spleen and kidneys. Consequently, when expressed in relation to the whole body, blood levels of /sup 111/In became progressively lower than those of /sup 131/I following administration of labelled antibodies. In mice with human tumour xenografts the proportion of the injected dose of /sup 111/In from /sup 111/In-labelled antibody deposited in tumour tissue was 4-5 times higher than that of /sup 131/I from /sup 131/I-labelled antibody. When compared with the whole-body levels of radiolabel the difference was less marked, although /sup 111/In accumulation in tumour was more rapid. The higher levels and longer retention of /sup 111/In in tumour produced tumour-to-blood ratios that were 7-8 times those achieved with /sup 131/I-labelled antibody.

  13. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail: chenhv@utar.edu.my; Hui, Liew How, E-mail: liewhh@utar.edu.my; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: tidusyimhome@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-06-02

    Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  14. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smart About Social Media How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Games, and the Internet How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  17. DSm Vector Spaces of Refined Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces of refined labels. They also realize the refined labels as a plane and a n-dimensional space. Further, using these refined labels, several algebraic structures are defined. Finally DSm semivector space or refined labels is described. Authors also propose some research problems.

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the Internet How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español ... video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  20. 252 Cases of Trace Elements in Peripheral Blood of Children and Correlation Analysis Results%252例儿童末梢血微量元素的检测结果及相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玥

    2012-01-01

      Objective In order to understand our city children aged 0 to 7,trace elements intake, clinical guidance, selective reasonable to add trace elements for children. Methods The children randomly selected pediatric patient health cards and children aged 0 to 7 252 cases, using Beijing Optoelectronic Technology Co,Ltd. Bo Hui innovative products BH5100T type five-channel atomic absorption spectrometry for zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, copper 5 Detection of trace elements, and do statistical analysis. Results The children in our city there are different levels of trace element deficiency, including zinc, iron, calcium deficiency is the most serious, rates were 48.4%,50.8% and 47.6%, lack of magnesium and lack of copper lower incidences of 7.1 per cent, respectively with 9.5%;the results show that various micronutrient deficiencies in the gender difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05). Conclusion The results show that the intake of trace elements in our city children can not be optimistic,reasonable to add trace elements, can effectively prevent children from lack of trace elements, trace elements to prevent the abuse of excessive complement blindness.%  目的为了解我市0~7岁儿童微量元素摄入情况,指导临床,有选择性的给儿童合理补充微量元素.方法随机抽查儿保健卡和儿科门诊的0~7岁儿童252例,利用北京博晖创新光电技术股份有限公司生产的 BH5100T 型五通道原子吸收光谱仪进行锌、铁、钙、镁、铜五种微量元素的检测,并做统计学分析.结果我市儿童存在不同程度的微量元素缺乏情况,其中锌、铁、钙缺乏情况最为严重,发生率分别为48.4%、50.8%和47.6%,缺镁和缺铜的发生率较低,分别为7.1%和9.5%;分析发现各种微量元素缺乏在性别上差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论分析结果表明我市儿童的微量元素摄入不均衡,合理补充微量元素,可以有效的防止儿童微量元

  1. A brief history of cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. [Royal Sussex Country Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling.

  2. An Optimal Labeling Scheme for Ancestry Queries

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    An ancestry labeling scheme assigns labels (bit strings) to the nodes of rooted trees such that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered merely by looking at their corresponding labels. The quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is measured by its label size, that is the maximal number of bits in a label of a tree node. In addition to its theoretical appeal, the design of efficient ancestry labeling schemes is motivated by applications in web search engines. For this p...

  3. Photoaffinity Labeling of Plasma Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Otagiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique for identifying a target protein. A high degree of labeling specificity can be achieved with this method in comparison to chemical labeling. Human serum albumin (HSA and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP are two plasma proteins that bind a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances. The ligand binding mechanism of these two proteins is complex. Fatty acids, which are known to be transported in plasma by HSA, cause conformational changes and participate in allosteric ligand binding to HSA. HSA undergoes an N-B transition, a conformational change at alkaline pH, that has been reported to result in increased ligand binding. Attempts have been made to investigate the impact of fatty acids and the N-B transition on ligand binding in HSA using ketoprofen and flunitrazepam as photolabeling agents. Meanwhile, plasma AGP is a mixture of genetic variants of the protein. The photolabeling of AGP with flunitrazepam has been utilized to shed light on the topology of the protein ligand binding site. Furthermore, a review of photoaffinity labeling performed on other major plasma proteins will also be discussed. Using a photoreactive natural ligand as a photolabeling agent to identify target protein in the plasma would reduce non-specific labeling.

  4. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  5. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia Bleeding during or after surgery Injury or trauma Excessive blood loss Cancer and the effects of chemotherapy Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia Testing is ordered when ...

  6. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  7. Detection results of trace elements in finger blood of 662 children in kindergartens of Baotou Steel Corp%包钢托幼园所662例儿童指血微量元素检测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏

    2012-01-01

    目的 为了解包钢所属托幼园所2~6岁儿童微量元素缺乏情况,指导选择最佳时段给儿童合理补充微量元素.方法 随机抽查入园健康检查的2~6岁集居儿童662例进行微量元素检测并做统计学分析.结果 所抽查儿童存在不同程度的微量元素缺乏情况,其中铁、锌、钙缺乏情况最为严重,缺乏率分别为25.53%、22.51%、10.42%,不同年龄及不同性别儿童微量元素缺乏差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 幼儿即学龄前期为生长发育最快时期,易缺乏铁、锌、钙元素,各托幼园所应加大健康知识宣传力度,按照营养比例合理制作食谱;妇幼保健机构应加强管理,早期干预.%[Objective]To know the status of trace element deficiency among children aged 2-6 years old in kindergartens of Baotou Steel Corp, provide the guidance for choosing the right period of trace element supplement in children. [Methods]662 kindergarten children aged 2- 6 years old were randomly sampled, the levels of trace element were detected, and the data were analyzed statistically. [Results]There were trace element deficiencies in children at different degrees. The iron, zinc and calcium deficiencies were serious, which the lack rate was 25.53% , 22.51% and 10.42% respectively. There was no significant difference in trace element deficiency among children of different ages and sexes (P > 0.05). [ Conclusion ] The preschool age is the period of the fastest growing, and the incidences of iron, zinc and calcium deficiencies are high. The kindergartens should strengthen the health education, and make the recipes according to the nutritive proportion. The maternal and child health institutes should improve the management, and implement the early intervention.

  8. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  9. Artifical Blood

    OpenAIRE

    GOORHA, YK; Deb, Prabal; Chatterjee, T; Dhot, PS; Prasad, RS

    2003-01-01

    Elimination of unwanted side-effects, especially transfusion-transmitted diseases (HIV and hepatitis) and leucocyte-mediated allosensitisation, is an important goal of modern transfusion medicine. The problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood and the pending world-wide shortages are the other driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes. Two major areas of research in this endeavour are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) an...

  10. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  11. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  12. Fibrinogen labelling with I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seminario, C.; Capillo, T.; Montanez, J. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    Of the different techniques of labelling liophylized human fibrinogen, the technique of mono-chloride with modified iodine was selected. The labelling of the molecule was performed in alkali media of buffalo glycine in which the solution of stable iodine will react as well as on a later stage will the radioactive isotope. The labelling processes which were undertaken with different activities had an efficiency of over 40%; when purification with resins amberlite was carried through, in none of the cases were the impurities over 5%. Daily controls till the seventh day showed that the average values of radiochemical purity decrease were lower than 1%. The specific activity as well as the concentration of I/sup 131/, the fibrinogen and other characteristics come up to the norms of the pharmacopoeia which are applied.

  13. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  14. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... product as ``organic'' or containing organic ingredients; (3) claims that are undefined in FSIS... labeling errors resulted from production mistakes, such as packaging the product in the wrong box. More... poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically...

  15. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  16. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood > Blood Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  19. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  20. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  1. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  2. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Clots and Travel Blood Clotting and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  4. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Rakhmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  5. Kinetics of indium-III-labeled eosinophils in two patients with eosinophilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yutaka

    1989-05-01

    The kinetics of /sup III/In-labeled eosinophils was evaluated in two cases of eosinophilia by means of external and blood cell counting. In both cases, the labeled blood eosinophils decreased rapidly for a few h after injection and then increased progressively up to the 20th and the 12th h, respectively. The changes of radioactivity with time in the liver, spleen and lungs correlated with that in the blood eosinophils. However, in both cases radioactivity of the thoracic spine increased rapidly for a few h after injection of the labeled eosinophils and subsequently decreased. This result suggests that some of the eosinophils recirculate between the marginal pool of marrow and the intravascular space.

  6. Milking technique of sup(99m)Tc generators and labeling efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, N.; Guignard, P.A. (Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1985-05-01

    Increased levels of /sup 99/Tc in generator produced sup(99m)Tc have an adverse effect on the labelling efficiency of red blood cells and human serum albumin. A two-step milking technique in which the first 1-2 ml of eluate is discarded has been found to produce higher and more constant labelling efficiency of lymphocytes and platelets than a one-step procedure. Binding efficiency of platelet-rich plasma and lymphocytes with sup(99m)Tc is greater in the two-step technique. High activity concentration in the eluate for critical labelling is between 1.5-3 ml.

  7. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) ...

  8. 三维动脉自旋标记脑血流灌注加权成像在交叉性小脑神经机能联系不能的应用价值%Application of three-dimensional arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow perfusion imaging in crossed cerebellar diaschisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽春; 汪文胜; 成丽娜; 谢甜甜; 李松涛; 欧阳兵; 颜刘清; 陈楷哲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of three-dimensional arterial spin labeling perfusion weighted imaging (3D ASL) in the diagnosis of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) role by observing the whole brain perfusion of cerebral blood flow,. and to investigate the relationship between the primary brain lesions with CCD. Methods Tha data of 58 cases with supratentorial lesions associated with unilateral middle cerebral artery blood supply combined with contralateral cerebellar hemisphere hypoperfusion were collected..The cerebral blood flow of bilateral cerebellar hemisphere cerebellar was measured using 3D ASL and the asymmetry index (AI) was calculated. CCD was diagnosed if the AI was greater than 10%..The correlations between supratentorial lesion and CCD was analyzed..Results In 58 cases with unilateral supratentorial lesions supplied by middle cerebral artery resulted in contralateral hypoperfusion in infratentorial cerebellar hemisphere, especially in the lower part of cerebellar hemisphere. 55 of the unilateral supratentorial lesions were cerebral infarction, 3 were brain injury. All the supratentorial lesions involved the white matter along the cortex-pons-cerebellar tract..The lower CBF valued in the supratentorial brain tissue and the lower CBF valued in the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere,.which showed a positive correlation..There was no correlation between the occurrence of CCD and the size of low perfusion in supratentorial brain tissue..ASL was done twice in 4 patients and 3 times in 2 patients,.and there was no obvious changes of the CBF in the cerebellum CCD lesion hemisphere..CCD occurred during 1 day and 1 years 2 months after the disease..The occurrence of CCD was related to the location of supratentorial cerebral lesions and not related to the time of onset and duration..Conclusion As a new perfusion method,.3D ASL,.is capable of noninvasive evaluating the occurrence of CCD,.which has a good diagnostic value and can quantitatively assess the degree

  9. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1 all products in 2013; (2 products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3 products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%–32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%–23% lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001. For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%–3% mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73. New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02. Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  10. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Haskelberg, Hila; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-08-21

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011-2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%-32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%-23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%-3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  11. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  12. Comparison of Two Kinds of 64Cu Labelled Octreotide Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Zhen-yi1;LIANG Ji-xin1;HU Ji2;LUO Hong-yi1;QING Jing2;CHEN Yu-qing2;LI Guang2;LI Hong-yu1,2

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Octreotide analogues DOTA-TOC and DOTA-TATE were labeled with 64Cu. The influences of the ratio of peptide mass to 64Cu activity, pH value, temperature and reaction time on labeling yield were investigated. The optimum labeling was determined. In vitro stability tests in saline and 10% bovine serum had been carried out. Biodistribution of the two radiolabelled compounds in normal mice and Micro PET imaging in nude mice bearing U87MG tumor had been evaluated. The results showed that the labeling yields of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE were higher than 95%. Two kinds of octreotide analogues labeled with 64Cu were quite stable in saline and decomposed slowly in 10% bovine serum at 37 ℃. Biodistribution results in normal mice showed that two 64Cu labelled tracers had similar profiles. Both of the compounds washed out from the blood quickly. High uptake of radioactivity in liver and kidneys indicated the tracers were excreted via both hepatobiliary system and renal system. At the same time, compared to 64Cu-DOTA-TOC, higher radioactivity accumulation of 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in liver and kidneys was observed. Micro PET images of U87MG tumor-bearing nude mice with 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE showed the tumors very clearly. The radioactivity uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in tumor was higher than that of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC. This work has paved the way for further preclinical and clinical application of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE as PET tumor imaging agents.

  13. The QUASAR reproducibility study, Part II: Results from a multi-center Arterial Spin Labeling test-retest study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Esben Thade; Mouridsen, Kim; Golay, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative STAR labeling of Arterial Regions or QUASAR), a method providing user independent quantification of CBF in a large test-retest study across sites from around the world, dubbed "The QUASAR reproducibility study". Altogether, 28 sites located in Asia, Europe and North America participated......Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a method to measure perfusion using magnetically labeled blood water as an endogenous tracer. Being fully non-invasive, this technique is attractive for longitudinal studies of cerebral blood flow in healthy and diseased individuals, or as a surrogate marker...

  14. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  15. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  16. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  17. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  18. Optimization of labeling conditions of n-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine chloridate (IMP) with radioiodine. Biological distribution studies; Otimizacao das condicoes de marcacao do cloridrato de n-isopropil-p-iodoanfetamina (IMP) com radioiodo. Estudos de distribuicao biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza

    2000-07-01

    The development of this work was based on a great interest from the medical community in the utilization of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine chloridate (IMP) labeled with {sup 123}l, for brain perfusion evaluation. The IMP was initially characterized by: Melting Point (MP), Infrared Spectrophotometry (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry (NMR), Elemental Analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After having chosen the ideal method (nucleophilic substitution) to label IMP with that used Cu(I) as reducing agent and ascorbic acid as catalyzing of Cu(II), studies were performed to optimize the labeling parameters of {sup 123}l-IMP: temperature reaction, time reaction, ascorbic acid mass, pH and molar ratio, and stability of the final product. The quality control method (ascending paper chromatographic) used to determine the radiochemistry purity showed to be efficient, fast and of easily handling for routine production. Biological distribution studies were performed with laboratory animals (mice) to determine the percent administered dose in the blood, different organs and whole body after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Toxicological evaluation and in vitro study to determine the plasmatic protein binding were also done. The data of the biological distribution in mice have shown that the product crossed the intact blood brain barrier, for a enough time to obtain brain scintigraphic image, thus, allowing a follow up of further studies after the intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The {sup 123}l-IMP showed a blood clearance and then the principal elimination route was the urinary. The kinetic study of {sup 123}l-IMP, submitting blood samples data to BIEXP.BAS program, showed a biexponential pattern which allowed demonstrating that the compound presents a first phase of quick distribution and a second one slower corresponding to the equilibrium and elimination. Based on the results from radiochemical

  19. Early response to sibutramine in patients not meeting current label criteria: preliminary analysis of SCOUT lead-in period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, Ian; Coutinho, Walmir; Finer, Nick;

    2010-01-01

    The Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) trial protocol defines a patient population predominantly outside current European Union label criteria. This article explores responses to sibutramine during the 6-week, single-blind, lead-in period between patients who conformed to the label......-in period. Initial responses were assessed post hoc in label conformers and nonconformers. Of that 8.1% patients met label criteria; 91.9%, the majority with cardiovascular disease and/or blood pressure >145/90 mm Hg, were nonconformers. Conformers and nonconformers had similar reductions in body weight...

  20. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    . A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very....... The remaining consumers, about 55%, trust the institutions guaranteeing the labels and they use the labels as a signal without actually knowing the content of each label. Segment composition will probably change depending on the food group studied. It is therefore recommended that the different consumer types...